WorldWideScience

Sample records for worldwide random bred

  1. Application of Bred Vectors To Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, M.; Kalnay, E.; Patil, Dj

    ,0,0]=1.8, less than 2 because one direction is more dominant than the other in representing the original data. The results (Patil et al, 2001) show that there are large regions where the bred vectors span a subspace of substantially lower dimension than that of the full space. These low dimensionality regions are dominant in the baroclinic extratropics, typically have a lifetime of 3-7 days, have a well-defined horizontal and vertical structure that spans 1 most of the atmosphere, and tend to move eastward. New results with a large number of ensemble members confirm these results and indicate that the low dimensionality regions are quite robust, and depend only on the verification time (i.e., the underlying flow). Corazza et al (2001) have performed experiments with a data assimilation system based on a quasi-geostrophic model and simulated observations (Morss, 1999, Hamill et al, 2000). A 3D-variational data assimilation scheme for a quasi-geostrophic chan- nel model is used to study the structure of the background error and its relationship to the corresponding bred vectors. The "true" evolution of the model atmosphere is defined by an integration of the model and "rawinsonde observations" are simulated by randomly perturbing the true state at fixed locations. It is found that after 3-5 days the bred vectors develop well organized structures which are very similar for the two different norms considered in this paper (potential vorticity norm and streamfunction norm). The results show that the bred vectors do indeed represent well the characteristics of the data assimilation forecast errors, and that the subspace of bred vectors contains most of the forecast error, except in areas where the forecast errors are small. For example, the angle between the 6hr forecast error and the subspace spanned by 10 bred vectors is less than 10o over 90% of the domain, indicating a pattern correlation of more than 98.5% between the forecast error and its projection onto the bred vector

  2. High-Specificity Targeted Functional Profiling in Microbial Communities with ShortBRED.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kaminski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Profiling microbial community function from metagenomic sequencing data remains a computationally challenging problem. Mapping millions of DNA reads from such samples to reference protein databases requires long run-times, and short read lengths can result in spurious hits to unrelated proteins (loss of specificity. We developed ShortBRED (Short, Better Representative Extract Dataset to address these challenges, facilitating fast, accurate functional profiling of metagenomic samples. ShortBRED consists of two components: (i a method that reduces reference proteins of interest to short, highly representative amino acid sequences ("markers" and (ii a search step that maps reads to these markers to quantify the relative abundance of their associated proteins. After evaluating ShortBRED on synthetic data, we applied it to profile antibiotic resistance protein families in the gut microbiomes of individuals from the United States, China, Malawi, and Venezuela. Our results support antibiotic resistance as a core function in the human gut microbiome, with tetracycline-resistant ribosomal protection proteins and Class A beta-lactamases being the most widely distributed resistance mechanisms worldwide. ShortBRED markers are applicable to other homology-based search tasks, which we demonstrate here by identifying phylogenetic signatures of antibiotic resistance across more than 3,000 microbial isolate genomes. ShortBRED can be applied to profile a wide variety of protein families of interest; the software, source code, and documentation are available for download at http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/shortbred.

  3. Plasma adiponectin is increased in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity, but not by wheel running per se

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, L. M.; Meerlo, P.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.

    2007-01-01

    Mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity (S) have decreased fat content compared to mice from randomly bred control (C) lines. We explored whether this difference was associated with alterations in levels of circulating hormones involved in regulation of food intake and energy balance,

  4. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  5. Logarithmic bred vectors in spatiotemporal chaos: structure and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallerberg, Sarah; Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M; Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2010-06-01

    Bred vectors are a type of finite perturbation used in prediction studies of atmospheric models that exhibit spatially extended chaos. We study the structure, spatial correlations, and the growth rates of logarithmic bred vectors (which are constructed by using a given norm). We find that, after a suitable transformation, logarithmic bred vectors are roughly piecewise copies of the leading Lyapunov vector. This fact allows us to deduce a scaling law for the bred vector growth rate as a function of its amplitude. In addition, we relate growth rates with the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents corresponding to the most expanding directions. We illustrate our results with simulations of the Lorenz 1996 model.

  6. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Severgnini, Paolo; Jaber, Samir; Canet, Jaume; Wrigge, Hermann; Hiesmayr, Michael; Tschernko, Edda M; Hollmann, Markus W; Binnekade, Jan M; Hedenstierna, Göran; Putensen, Christian; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2011-05-06

    Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery. The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO") trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH(2)O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy) or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH(2)O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy). The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication. The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications. ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574.

  7. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedenstierna Göran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery. Methods The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO" trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH2O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH2O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy. The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication. Discussion The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574

  8. Differences in nitrogen and urea metabolism between goats bred for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether selection for fleece weight is accompanied by changes in the efficiency of nitrogen utilization, using Angora and Boer goats as models of animals bred for fleece or meat production respectively. A diet, containing a protein: energy ratio of 12 g CP/ MJ ME, was fed at ...

  9. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically Engineered High... advising the public of our determination that a soybean line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International... engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred...

  10. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically Engineered... Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event DP-[Oslash][Oslash]4114-3, which has been... by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for a determination of nonregulated status...

  11. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment... has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES ADDED POLEN ON BRED AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    OLIMPIA COLIBAR; D. POPOVICI; E. CRAINICEANU; GABRIELA KORODI; P. ONITA

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics (oligosaccharides and acidifying agents) appeared in the place of the old antibiotics. Mannan -oligosaccharides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beer-yeast) are used with success in the nutrition of pigs, chickens and rabbits. The beer-yeast is used also in the bee family’s foraging with a major success. The bee-bred which is the protein source for the honey bees contains also many species of yeast. Our experiment of adding mannan -oligosaccharides in the energetic and...

  13. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  14. Blood Protein Polymorphism of Small Cattle Bred in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Marmaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biochemical and genetic markers have not yet been used in selection and breeding of agricultural animals in Armenia. The objective behind the experiments was to assess the small cattle bred in Armenia- the semi-coarse wool and semi-fine wool sheep, as well as goats of different genotypes characterized by different milk productivity, polymorphic blood proteins-transferrin, ceruloplasmin, aiming to use them in breeding. Another objective was to study the genetic distance between the researched breeds and crossbreeds aiming to reveal the genetic similarity. The findings of research studies come to show that goats with polymorphic transferrin locus and a big set of genotypes are characterized by higher milk productivity; therefore it is recommended that they be used in selection as a supplementary milk productivity marker. The genetic distance between the researched goats comprised 0,60 which comes to show that semi-fine wool sheep were also bred with the help of semi-coarse wool crossbreeds. The high coefficients of genetic distance of crossbreed goats compared to both the highly milk producing imported breeds and the locals are indicative of inherited high adaptability qualities of locals and high milk producing quality of pure breeds.

  15. Worldwide cloud cover model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O. E.; Sommerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Classifying worldwide cloudiness into homogeneous regions, using a satellite data set containing day IR, night IR, incoming, and absorbed solar radiation measurements on a 2.5-degree latitude-longitude grid is considered. Methods of analysis are presented.

  16. Worldwide Airfield Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Worldwide Airfield Summary contains a selection of climatological data produced by the U.S. Air Force, Air Weather Service. The reports were compiled from dozens...

  17. Mitochondrial haplotypes are not associated with mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won C; Schutz, Heidi; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-04

    Mitochondrial haplotypes have been associated with human and rodent phenotypes, including nonshivering thermogenesis capacity, learning capability, and disease risk. Although the mammalian mitochondrial D-loop is highly polymorphic, D-loops in laboratory mice are identical, and variation occurs elsewhere mainly between nucleotides 9820 and 9830. Part of this region codes for the tRNA Arg gene and is associated with mitochondrial densities and number of mtDNA copies. We hypothesized that the capacity for high levels of voluntary wheel-running behavior would be associated with mitochondrial haplotype. Here, we analyzed the mtDNA polymorphic region in mice from each of four replicate lines selectively bred for 54 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from four control lines (Control) randomly bred for 54 generations. Sequencing the polymorphic region revealed a variable number of adenine repeats. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) varied from 2 to 3 adenine insertions, resulting in three haplotypes. We found significant genetic differentiations between the HR and Control groups (F st  = 0.779, p ≤ 0.0001), as well as among the replicate lines of mice within groups (F sc  = 0.757, p ≤ 0.0001). Haplotypes, however, were not strongly associated with voluntary wheel running (revolutions run per day), nor with either body mass or litter size. This system provides a useful experimental model to dissect the physiological processes linking mitochondrial, genomic SNPs, epigenetics, or nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk to exercise activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Reintroduction of captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study represents the first attempt to determine post-release survival of a captive-bred owl in Africa. We released six captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis into suitable habitat and, using radio telemetry, determined their daytime roost sites. One bird left the study area soon after release and did not yield data.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES ADDED POLEN ON BRED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA COLIBAR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics (oligosaccharides and acidifying agents appeared in the place of the old antibiotics. Mannan -oligosaccharides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beer-yeast are used with success in the nutrition of pigs, chickens and rabbits. The beer-yeast is used also in the bee family’s foraging with a major success. The bee-bred which is the protein source for the honey bees contains also many species of yeast. Our experiment of adding mannan -oligosaccharides in the energetic and protein feed and of using the artificial bee-bread in the place of pollen shows that those methods didn’t lead an increased performance of the frozen pollen, honey energetic and protein feed.

  20. Nuclear energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this short paper the author provides a list of tables and charts concerning the nuclear energy worldwide, the clean air benefits of nuclear energy, the nuclear competitiveness and the public opinion. He shows that the nuclear energy has a vital role to play in satisfying global energy and environmental goals. (A.L.B)

  1. EOR increases 24% worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritis, G.

    1992-01-01

    Although the higher cost of enhanced oil recovery has taken its toll in projects, the Journal's worldwide EOR survey reveals that production from EOR is a significant and growing component of the world's oil production. This paper outlines hundreds of projects in 14 countries. Pilot, field wide, and planned projects are all included

  2. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  3. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear power (WNP) is a companion volume to UPDATE. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign Embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data

  4. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  5. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  6. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide Nuclear Power (WNP) is a companion volume to Update. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government. Facts about the status of nuclear activities abroad should be available to those who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. It consists of two types of information, tabular and narrative. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data. In general, complete U.S. information will be found in Update

  7. The worldwide obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M

    2001-11-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  8. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  9. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  10. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  11. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  12. Worldwide developments in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoellen, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    World uranium production will continue to change in most major producing nations. Canadian production will increase and will be increasingly dominated by western producers as eastern Canadian high-cost production declines. Australian production will increase as major projects come into operation before 2000. US production will stabilize through the end of the century. South African production will be dependent upon the worldwide support for economic sanctions. China's entry into the world market injects yet another variable into the already cloudy supply picture. Many risks and uncertainties will face uranium producers through the 1980s. Recognizing that the uranium industry is not a fast-growing market, many existing and potential producers are seeking alternate investment courses, causing a restructuring of the world uranium production industry in ways not anticipated even a few years ago. During the restructuring process, world uranium production will most likely continue to exceed uranium consumption, resulting in a further buildup of world uranium inventories. Inventory sales will continue to redistribute this material. As inventory selling runs its course, users will turn to normal sources of supply, stimulating additional production to meet needs. Stimulation in the form of higher prices will be determined by how fast producers are willing and able to return to the market. Production costs are expected to have an increasing impact as it has become apparent that uranium resources are large in comparison to projected consumption. Conversely, security-of-supply issues have seemed to be of decreasing magnitude as Canada, Australia, and other non-US producers continue to meet delivery commitments

  13. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline; Cariani, Alessia; Senn, Helen; Taylor, Martin I.; Helyar, Sarah; Bargelloni, Luca; Bonaldo, Alessio; Carvalho, Gary; Guarniero, Ilaria; Komen, Hans; Martinsohn, Jann Th; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Tinti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-bred and wild fish may affect the ecological and/or genetic integrity of wild fish populations. Unambiguous identification tools for captive-bred fish will be highly valuable to manage risks (fisheries ...

  14. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  15. 50 CFR 23.63 - What factors are considered in making a finding that an animal is bred in captivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... finding that an animal is bred in captivity? 23.63 Section 23.63 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... controlled environment; and has general characteristics that may include artificial housing, waste removal... means an ensemble of captive wildlife used for reproduction. (c) Bred-in-captivity criteria. For a...

  16. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  17. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted on 206 cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the prevalence and incidence rate of milk fever (MF) based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and to recognize the risk factors associated with the ...

  18. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  19. Rats selectively bred for low levels of play-induced 50 kHz vocalizations as a model for autism spectrum disorders: a role for NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Moskal, Joseph R; Brudzynski, Stefan M; Panksepp, Jaak

    2013-08-15

    Early childhood autism is characterized by deficits in social approach and play behaviors, socio-emotional relatedness, and communication/speech abnormalities, as well as repetitive behaviors. These core neuropsychological features of autism can be modeled in laboratory rats, and the results may be useful for drug discovery and therapeutic development. We review data that show that rats selectively bred for low rates of play-related pro-social ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used to model social deficit symptoms of autism. Low-line animals engage in less social contact time with conspecifics, show lower rates of play induced pro-social USVs, and show an increased proportion of non-frequency modulated (i.e. monotonous) ultrasonic vocalizations compared to non-selectively bred random-line animals. Gene expression patterns in the low-line animals show significant enrichment in autism-associated genes, and the NMDA receptor family was identified as a significant hub. Treatment of low-line animals with the NMDAR functional glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, rescued the deficits in play-induced pro-social 50-kHz USVs and reduced monotonous USVs. Since the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the genesis of autistic symptoms, it is possible that GLYX-13 may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of autism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of vinegar and oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng infusion for “Acriollados” bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiriboga Chuchuca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Farm Santa Inés, belonging to the Technical University of Machala, using 160 bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus , stayed the same as trying to meet the highest standards of management and health, however to cause challenges no vaccines or antibiotic treatment within the farm. The aim was to determine the efficacy of vinegar and infusion of oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus in acriollados bred broilers. The research lasted 42 days, 16 were randomized groups of 10 chickens each, considering 4 treatments (T1 = vinegar, T2 = vinegar + oreganón infusion, T3 = oreganón infusion, T4 = control with 4 replicates each. Balanced administered free of antibiotics, food consumption data and daily treated water were performed, the weights of the birds weekly; stool samples were collected at the start, middle and end of the assay. In conclusion, the field variables did not obtain statistically significant differences in treatment, but in the Microbiology, the T1, T2 and T3 showed efficiencies decrease when compared to T4, but T3 at the end of the research differed from the T1, T2, and T4. Assuming oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus infusion induces a reduction in the number of CFU in both Total Flora and coliforms.

  1. BRED: a simple and powerful tool for constructing mutant and recombinant bacteriophage genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Marinelli

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable markers such as drug resistance genes during viral lytic growth. Here we describe a method for simple and effective directed mutagenesis of bacteriophage genomes using Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED, in which a highly efficient recombineering system is utilized directly on electroporated phage DNA; no selection is required and mutants can be readily detected by PCR. We describe the use of BRED to construct unmarked gene deletions, in-frame internal deletions, base substitutions, precise gene replacements, and the addition of gene tags.

  2. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F1-hybrids, 18 F1-hybrids and then 40 F1-hybrids. In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use.Highlights:• Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones• Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions• Different ideotypes reflected

  3. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Susan; Gupta, S K; Vadez, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F 1 -hybrids, 18 F 1 -hybrids and then 40 F 1 -hybrids). In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use. Highlights : • Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones • Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions • Different ideotypes reflected

  4. Aging Education: A Worldwide Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the "longevity dividend" they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life's later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued…

  5. Tube problems: worldwide statistics reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    EPRI's Steam Generator Strategic Management Project issues an annual report on the progress being made in tackling steam generator problems worldwide, containing a wealth of detailed statistics on the status of operating units and degradation mechanisms encountered. A few highlights are presented from the latest report, issued in October 1993, which covers the period to 31 December 1992. (Author)

  6. Worldwide exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    All of mankind is exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources, from human practices that release natural and artificial radionuclides to the environment, and from medical radiation procedures. This paper reviews the assessment in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report of the exposures of human populations worldwide to the various sources of ionizing radiation

  7. Differences in exterior conformation between primitive, Half-bred, and Thoroughbred horses: anatomic-breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosa, M; Frackowiak, H; Purzyc, H; Wojnowska, M; Gramacki, A; Gramacki, J

    2013-04-01

    The study included 249 horses belonging to 3 horse breeds. Konik horses, comprising the first group, is an example of a breed similar to the extinct Tarpan. In our study, these horses were taken to be a primitive anatomical model of the horse body. The other groups comprised the Polish Half-bred horse and Thoroughbred horse. The biometric characteristics of the horses were compared based on 24 indices. The aim of the paper was to find a reduced set of indices that can be used to determine group membership of the horses. To do this, we used statistical methods to find the most important indices that best discriminate breeds from each other. Chi-squared statistics, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and 1-way ANOVA showed that the discrimination among groups of horses is connected with these 5 indices: scapula, smaller trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and coxal tuber), greater trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and ischial tuberosity), metacarpus circumference, and hind autopodium-smaller trunk. Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are clearly different in exterior conformation from Konik horses. The differences between Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are more subtle. The conformation of Thoroughbreds is jointly determined by relatively small differences in a range of features.

  8. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  9. Worldwide reprocessing supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to broadly examine the current situation in the LWR fuel reprocessing services market on a worldwide basis through 2010. The main factors influencing this market (nuclear programs, fuel discharges, reprocessing capacities, buyer philosophies, etc.) are identified in the paper and the most important are highlighted and discussed in more detail. Emphasis has been placed on the situation with respect to reprocessing in those countries having a significant influence on the reprocessing market

  10. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  11. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  12. Worldwide Warehouse: A Customer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Management Office (PMO) and the customers (returnees and buyers) 23 will be developed or adapted from existing software programs. The hardware could be... customer requirements and desires is the first aspect to be approached. Sections 4.7 to 4.11 were dedicated to inivestigate those relationships and...R x NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB WORLDWIDE WAREHOUSE: Ju’a-noj1c0[ed 0 A CUSTOMER PERSPECTIVE J-f-c-.tion .......... THESIS By D i s ib , tio

  13. Pace studying worldwide coke production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, has started a multiclient study of world-wide petroleum coke production, examining environmental initiatives and eventually forecasting prices of fuel grade coke. Pace expects coker expansions, increased operating severity, and reduced cycle times to boost coke supply to more than 50 million metric tons/year in 2000, compared with 39.7 million metric tons in 1992. Increased supply and tightened environmental rules in countries consuming large amounts of petroleum coke will be the main factors affecting coke markets. The paper discusses coke quality and the Japanese market

  14. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  15. Monoamines and sexual function in rats bred for increased catatonic reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, D V; Alekhina, T A; Kuznetsova, E G; Barykina, N N

    2009-07-01

    Body weight, ovary and uterus weight, the nature of estral cycles, and hypothalamus dopamine and noradrenaline levels and plasma testosterone levels were studied in female GC rats, bred for increased catatonic reactivity, at different stages of the estral cycle (estrus, proestrus). The outbred Wistar strain served as controls. On the background of decreased body weight, GC females showed impairments to the morphological cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus, with a reduction in ovary weight in diestrus (p rats showed higher levels of these monoamines in estrus and lower levels in diestrus. Plasma testosterone levels in female GC rats were higher in diestrus than in estrus and in Wistar rats.

  16. Worldwide Market For Scientific Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Sicco

    1989-06-01

    I'm going to talk about the worldwide market for scientific lasers. I felt we should start with a quote from our soon-to-be President and learn from him how he feels about the commitment that the government should make to R&D. "R&D is the economic Fountain of Youth, and we really should take good care of it because that is where our business is for the future." If you read through that quote, it is very clear that at least before the election, he made a very strong commitment to this. It will be interesting to see over the next four years whether he keeps to that commitment or not, but I happen to totally agree with what he is saying here. The R&D market, as I see it, is certainly, as far as lasers are concerned, the growth place for new technology and applications.

  17. Worldwide distribution of Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Chetan S; Isaacson, Glenn

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the multiracial occurrence of Waardenburg syndrome, we present a case series and literature review. A computerized review of the English-language literature was conducted to assess the distribution of reported occurrences of Waardenburg syndrome in populations around the world. We detail the clinical features of 2 family cohorts: one of Western European origin and the other from South Asia. A computerized literature review found sporadic cases of the syndrome in many ethnic groups, including Japanese, Taiwanese, and Middle Eastern families. The highest reported incidence is among Kenyan Africans. Waardenburg syndrome accounts for between 2% and 5% of cases of congenital deafness. It was first described in Northern European cohorts and is widely identified in fair-skinned populations. We hope to raise awareness of the worldwide distribution of this important cause of hearing loss.

  18. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  19. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  20. Linear and Poisson models for genetic evaluation of tick resistance in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Silva, F F; Schenkel, F S; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-12-01

    Cattle resistance to ticks is measured by the number of ticks infesting the animal. The model used for the genetic analysis of cattle resistance to ticks frequently requires logarithmic transformation of the observations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability and goodness of fit of different models for the analysis of this trait in cross-bred Hereford x Nellore cattle. Three models were tested: a linear model using logarithmic transformation of the observations (MLOG); a linear model without transformation of the observations (MLIN); and a generalized linear Poisson model with residual term (MPOI). All models included the classificatory effects of contemporary group and genetic group and the covariates age of animal at the time of recording and individual heterozygosis, as well as additive genetic effects as random effects. Heritability estimates were 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.10 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.04 for MLIN, MLOG and MPOI models, respectively. The model fit quality, verified by deviance information criterion (DIC) and residual mean square, indicated fit superiority of MPOI model. The predictive ability of the models was compared by validation test in independent sample. The MPOI model was slightly superior in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability, whereas the correlations between observed and predicted tick counts were practically the same for all models. A higher rank correlation between breeding values was observed between models MLOG and MPOI. Poisson model can be used for the selection of tick-resistant animals. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Low Impact of Avian Pox on Captive-Bred Houbara Bustard Breeding Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Souley, Mam-Noury Amadou; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Paul, Mathilde C

    2017-01-01

    Avian pox, a disease caused by avipoxviruses, is a major cause of decline of some endangered bird species. While its impact has been assessed in several species in the wild, effects of the disease in conservation breeding have never been studied. Houbara bustard species ( Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii ), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive bred for conservation purposes for more than 20 years. While mortality and morbidity induced by avipoxviruses can be controlled by appropriate management, the disease might still affect bird breeding performance and jeopardize the production objectives of conservation programs. Impacts of the disease was studied during two outbreaks in captive-bred juvenile Houbara bustards in Morocco in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, by modeling the effect of the disease on individual breeding performance (male display and female egg production) of 2,797 birds during their first breeding season. Results showed that the impact of avian pox on the ability of birds to reproduce and on the count of displays or eggs is low and mainly non-significant. The absence of strong impact compared to what could be observed in other species in the wild may be explained by the controlled conditions provided by captivity, especially the close veterinary monitoring of each bird. Those results emphasize the importance of individual management to prevent major disease emergence and their effects in captive breeding of endangered species.

  2. Responses to cholinergic agonists of rats selectively bred for differential sensitivity to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Romm, E; Collins, J T; Draski, L J; Deitrich, R A; Collins, A C

    1991-03-01

    Alcoholics are almost invariably heavy users of tobacco. Both alcoholism and smoking appear to be influenced by genetic factors but it is not known whether the same or different genes regulate the abuse of ethanol and nicotine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines, which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced anesthesia ("sleep-time"), also differ in several effects of nicotine and the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine. In order to determine whether or not these differences are due to chance, the relative sensitivities of rat lines which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced sleep-time were determined. The high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) rat line was more sensitive to the locomotor and body temperature depressant effects of nicotine than was the low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rat line. The control line (CAS) was intermediate in sensitivity. The rat lines did not differ in sensitivity to oxotremorine's hypothermia-producing effects. The numbers and affinities of two classes of brain nicotinic receptors were measured in eight brain regions. No differences among the rat lines were detected. These results suggest that ethanol elicits some of its depressant actions via an effect on brain nicotinic systems, but the differences in sensitivity to ethanol and nicotine are probably not due to differences in the number of brain nicotinic receptors. Perhaps this interaction explains the high correlation between alcoholism and smoking in humans.

  3. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardiasp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  4. First radioactive ions charge bred in REXEBIS at the REX-ISOLDE accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H; Fostner, O; Wenander, F; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Liljeby, L; Skeppstedt, Ö; Jonson, B; Nyman, G H

    2003-01-01

    REXEBIS is the charge breeder of the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. The radioactive 1$^{+}$ ions produced at ISOLDE are accumulated, phase-space cooled and bunched in the REXTRAP, and thereafter injected into the EBIS with an energy up to 60 keV. The REXEBIS produced the first charge bred ions in August 2001 and has been running nearly non-stop during September to December 2001. It has delivered stable $^{39}$K$^{10+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ beams generated in the ion source in front of REXTRAP with a Na$^{7+}$ current exceeding 70 pA (6x10$^{7}$ p/s). Stable $^{27}$Al$^{7+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ from ISOLDE and also the first radioactive $^{26}$Na$^{7+}$ and $^{24}$Na$^{7+}$ beams (just 5x10$^{5}$ p/s) have been charge bred and accelerated for tests of the experimental setup. Despite some problems with the electron gun, which had one breakdown after about 1500 hours of operation and displays slow changes of the emission conditions, the EBIS is working remarkably stable (24 hours / 7 days a week). We will report ...

  5. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  6. Hyperhidrosis in naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

    2011-05-01

    This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs.

  7. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  8. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2003-01-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  9. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  10. Euthanasia and related practices worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M J; Chambers, D; Corcoran, P; Keeley, H S; Williamson, E

    1998-01-01

    The present paper examines the occurrence of matters relating to the ending of life, including active euthanasia, which is, technically speaking, illegal worldwide. Interest in this most controversial area is drawn from many varied sources, from legal and medical practitioners to religious and moral ethicists. In some countries, public interest has been mobilized into organizations that attempt to influence legislation relating to euthanasia. Despite the obvious international importance of euthanasia, very little is known about the extent of its practice, whether passive or active, voluntary or involuntary. This examination is based on questionnaires completed by 49 national representatives of the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), dealing with legal and religious aspects of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, as well as suicide. A dichotomy between the law and medical practices relating to the end of life was uncovered by the results of the survey. In 12 of the 49 countries active euthanasia is said to occur while a general acceptance of passive euthanasia was reported to be widespread. Clearly, definition is crucial in making the distinction between active and passive euthanasia; otherwise, the entire concept may become distorted, and legal acceptance may become more widespread with the effect of broadening the category of individuals to whom euthanasia becomes an available option. The "slippery slope" argument is briefly considered.

  11. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  12. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  13. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilitza, D.

    1989-04-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory

  14. Worldwide status of HTR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical committee meeting on high temperature reactors (HTRs) from 12-14 Dec. 1977 at Agency Headquarters to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the status of HTR development programmes and to receive advice on the Agency programme in this field. The continuing high level of international interest in HTRs was evidenced by the participation from 11 countries and 2 organizations: Austria, Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United Kingdom of Great Britain, United States of America, Commission of the European Communities, and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. In order to promote the continuing exchange of technical information through the offices of the IAEA, a recommendation was made that the Agency establish a standing International Working Group on High Temperature Reactors (IWGHTR). This recommendation is being implemented in 1978. Considerable information on recent progress in HTR development was present at the technical committee meeting in technical reports and in progress reports on HTR development programmes. Since this material will not be published, this summary report on the worldwide status of HTR development at the beginning of 1978 has been prepared, based primarily on information presented at the December 1977 meeting

  15. Worldwide potential of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C

    1982-01-01

    A well-documented discussion is presented dealing with the worldwide potential of wind energy as a source of electrical and mechanical power. It is pointed out that 2% of the solar insolation is converted to wind kinetic energy; it is constantly renewed and nondepletable. Efficiency of windmills are discussed (20 to 40%) and payback periods of less than 5 years are cited. Effects of wind velocity and site location are described. Wind pumps are reviewed and the need for wind pumps, particularly in the developing countries is stressed. The generation of electricity by windmills using small turbines is reviewed and appears promising in areas with wind velocities greater than 12 mi/hr. The development of large windmills and groups of windmills (windfarms) for large scale electrical power is discussed, illustrated, and reviewed (offshore sites included). Environmental and safety problems are considered as well as the role of electrical utilities, government support and research activities. It is concluded that the potential contribution of wind energy is immense and that mechanical windmills may become one of the most important renewable technologies. Electrical generating potential is estimated at 20 to 30% of electrical needs. International programs are discussed briefly. 57 references. (MJJ)

  16. The cost of feeding bred dairy heifers on native warm-season grasses and harvested feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J K; Boyer, C N; Griffith, A P; Waller, J C; Bates, G E; Keyser, P D; Larson, J A; Holcomb, E

    2016-01-01

    Heifer rearing is one of the largest production expenses for dairy cattle operations, which is one reason milking operations outsource heifer rearing to custom developers. The cost of harvested feedstuffs is a major expense in heifer rearing. A possible way to lower feed costs is to graze dairy heifers, but little research exists on this topic in the mid-south United States. The objectives of this research were to determine the cost of feeding bred dairy heifers grazing native warm-season grasses (NWSG), with and without legumes, and compare the cost of grazing with the cost of rearing heifers using 3 traditional rations. The 3 rations were corn silage with soybean meal, corn silage with dry distillers grain, and a wet distillers grain-based ration. Bred Holstein heifers between 15- and 20-mo-old continuously grazed switchgrass (SG), SG with red clover (SG+RC), a big bluestem and Indiangrass mixture (BBIG), and BBIG with red clover (BBIG+RC) in Tennessee during the summer months. Total grazing days were calculated for each NWSG to determine the average cost/animal per grazing day. The average daily gain (ADG) was calculated for each NWSG to develop 3 harvested feed rations that would result in the same ADG over the same number of grazing day as each NWSG treatment. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lowest for SG ($0.48/animal/grazing d) and highest for BBIG+RC ($1.10/animal/grazing d). For both BBIG and SG, legumes increased the average cost/animal per grazing day because grazing days did not increase enough to account for the additional cost of the legumes. No difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing BBIG (0.85 kg/d) and BBIG+RC (0.94 kg/d), and no difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing SG (0.71 kg/d) and SG+RC (0.70 kg/d). However, the ADG for heifers grazing SG and SG+RC was lower than the ADG for heifers grazing either BBIG or BBIG+RC. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lower for all NWSG treatments than the average cost

  17. Characters of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation in glasshouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xiaobo; Gu Xiaojun; Chen Chunhong; Li Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    Plant growth and yield of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation and materials carried by aero-craft 'Shenzhou' No.4 and its parent variety as control were studied in glasshouse. The results show that all varieties grew vigorously in glasshouse and the average fruit weight was about 221 g for tomato variety 641 and 648 and material HT10-3-2 and HT10-2. Accumulated yield for variety 648 was 2847.5 g, which was 9.9% higher than variety 641, indicating that they are suitable for glasshouse cultivation. Average fruit weight for pepper variety 616 was about 76 g, potential with accumulated yield of 440.9 g, indicating that it can be used for glasshouse cultivation. There was no significant difference between the Aero-craft carried materials and but the yield range change of among and its the carried materials 7.5%-8.0%

  18. Crossfostering in mice selectively bred for high and low levels of open-field thigmotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M

    2005-02-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether the difference in open-field (OF) thigmotaxis between mice selectively bred for high and low levels of wall-seeking behavior originated from genetic or acquired sources. Unfostered, infostered, and crossfostered mice were compared in two experiments in which the effects of strain, sex, and fostering on ambulation, defecation, exploration, grooming, latency to move, radial latency, rearing, thigmotaxis, and urination were studied. These experiments revealed that OF thigmotaxis was unaffected by the foster condition and thus genetically determined. The selected strains of mice also diverged repeatedly with regard to exploration and rearing. The findings are in line with the previously described existence of an inverse relationship between emotionality and exploration.

  19. Mice selectively bred for open-field thigmotaxis: life span and stability of the selection trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Selander, Ritva-Kajsa

    2005-04-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors examined 69 mice selectively bred for high or low levels of open-field (OF) thigmotactic behavior (high open-field thigmotaxis [HOFT] and low open-field thigmotaxis [LOFT], respectively). They found that the strains differed in defecation during the 60-min exposure to the OF. Furthermore, the strains differed with regard to their life spans: The more thigmotactic HOFT mice lived longer than the LOFT mice. The strains were not differentiated by food intake or excretion. The strain difference in thigmotaxis was not age dependent, and it persisted in the home-cage condition as well. Neither the location (center or wall) of the starting point nor the shape (circular or square) of the OF arena affected the difference in wall-seeking behavior between the two strains. The authors concluded that the difference in thigmotaxis (or emotionality) between the HOFT and LOFT mice is a stable and robust feature of these animals.

  20. Mutation analysis of GLDC, AMT and GCSH in cataract captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Chesa G; Magwebu, Zandisiwe E; Sharma, Jyoti R; Arieff, Zainunisha; Seier, Jürgen V

    2016-08-01

    Non-ketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of glycine metabolism characterized by accumulation of glycine in body fluids and various neurological symptoms. This study describes the first screening of NKH in cataract captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC), aminomethyltransferase (AMT) and glycine cleavage system H protein (GCSH) were prioritized. Mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence of GLDC and AMT revealed six novel single-base substitutions, of which three were non-synonymous missense and three were silent nucleotide changes. Although deleterious effects of the three amino acid substitutions were not evaluated, one substitution of GLDC gene (S44R) could be disease-causing because of its drastic amino acid change, affecting amino acids conserved in different primate species. This study confirms the diagnosis of NKH for the first time in vervet monkeys with cataracts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B

    2014-09-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  2. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in

  3. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials and the influences of it on a bred tritium recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukubo, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Nishida, Y.; Kinjyo, T.; Tanifuji, Takaaki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The ratio of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 reactor in JAERI or KUR reactor in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the purge gas in the form of HTO form ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. The chemical composition is to be decided by the competitive reaction at the grain surface of a ceramic breeder material where desorption reaction, isotope exchange reaction 1, isotope exchange reaction 2 and water formation reaction are considered to take part. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system applicable for both HT and HTO form to recover whole bred tritium. The chemical composition also decides the amount of tritium transferable to the cooling water of the electricity generation system through the structural material in the blanket system. Permeation behavior of tritium through some structural materials at various conditions are also discussed. (author)

  4. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Growing demands for marine fish products is leading to increased pressure on already depleted wild populations and a rise in aquaculture production. Consequently, more captive-bred fish are released into the wild through accidental escape or deliberate releases. The increased mixing of captive-br...

  5. Gamma radiation-induced heritable mutations at repetitive DNA loci in out-bred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, C.M.; Sharma, R.; Quinn, J.S.; Boreham, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that expanded-simple-tandem-repeat (ESTR) DNA loci are efficient genetic markers for detecting radiation-induced germ line mutations in mice. Dose responses following irradiation, however, have only been characterized in a small number of inbred mouse strains, and no studies have applied Esters to examine potential modifiers of radiation risk, such as adaptive response. We gamma-irradiated groups of male out-bred Swiss-Webster mice with single acute doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, and compared germ line mutation rates at ESTR loci to a sham-irradiated control. To test for evidence of adaptive response we treated a third group with a total dose of 1.1 Gy that was fractionated into a 0.1 Gy adapting dose, followed by a challenge dose of 1.0 Gy 24 h later. Paternal mutation rates were significantly elevated above the control in the 0.5 Gy (2.8-fold) and 1.0 Gy (3.0-fold) groups, but were similar to each other despite the difference in radiation dose. The doubling dose for paternal mutation induction was 0.26 Gy (95% CI = 0.14-0.51 Gy). Males adapted with a 0.1 Gy dose prior to a 1.0 Gy challenge dose had mutation rates that were not significantly elevated above the control, and were 43% reduced compared to those receiving single doses. We conclude that pre-meiotic male germ cells in out-bred Swiss-Webster mice are sensitive to ESTR mutations induced by acute doses of ionizing radiation, but mutation induction may become saturated at a lower dose than in some strains of inbred mice. Reduced mutation rates in the adapted group provide intriguing evidence for suppression of ESTR mutations in the male germline through adaptive response. Repetitive DNA markers may be useful tools for exploration of biological factors affecting the probability of heritable mutations caused by low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The biological significance of ESTR mutations in terms of radiation risk assessment, however, is still undetermined

  6. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  7. Nucleus accumbens neuronal maturation differences in young rats bred for low versus high voluntary running behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Heese, Alexander J; Zhu, Conan; Rottinghaus, George E; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    We compared the nucleus accumbens (NAc) transcriptomes of generation 8 (G8), 34-day-old rats selectively bred for low (LVR) versus high voluntary running (HVR) behaviours in rats that never ran (LVRnon-run and HVRnon-run), as well as in rats after 6 days of voluntary wheel running (LVRrun and HVRrun). In addition, the NAc transcriptome of wild-type Wistar rats was compared. The purpose of this transcriptomics approach was to generate testable hypotheses as to possible NAc features that may be contributing to running motivation differences between lines. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology analyses suggested that ‘cell cycle’-related transcripts and the running-induced plasticity of dopamine-related transcripts were lower in LVR versus HVR rats. From these data, a hypothesis was generated that LVR rats might have less NAc neuron maturation than HVR rats. Follow-up immunohistochemistry in G9–10 LVRnon-run rats suggested that the LVR line inherently possessed fewer mature medium spiny (Darpp-32-positive) neurons (P running wheel access in our G9–10 LVRs uniquely increased their Darpp-32-positive and Dcx-positive neuron densities. In summary, NAc cellularity differences and/or the lack of running-induced plasticity in dopamine signalling-related transcripts may contribute to low voluntary running motivation in LVR rats. PMID:24665095

  8. MEAT PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH SPOTTED CATTLE BULLS BRED IN MOUNTAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chosen indicators of meat performance of 98 bulls of Czech Spotted cattle bred in elevation above 720 m above sea-level in the mountain region of Šumava are presented in the article. The fattening was realized in a barn with a deep litter. The feed ration consisted of haylage throughout the year. The bulls were divided into three groups according to their genotype - C100, C75-85R (CxR and C75-85A (CxA. The highest live weight at slaughter was achieved in the group C100 with 650 kg with the average age of 726 days and the weight of the carcasses of 363.8 kg. On the other hand, the worst results were achieved in the group CxA. For comparison a group of 14 bulls of the Holstein breed was created (H100, which was fattened in the same conditions. The bulls achieved their highest live weight before slaughter (664.6 kg, but at the highest age (743 days. Statistically significant differences were proven in the meat performance after individual fathers – the best results were documented with the offspring of the bull BO-837. After the separation of the set of bulls according to live weight at the end of fattening, the highest results were achieved by the group above 700 kg. The best class using the SEUROP method was achieved by the group with slaughtering live weight between 650 kg and 700 kg.

  9. The Genetic Variability of Floral and Agronomic Characteristics of Newly-Bred Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat El-Namaky

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility enabled commercialization of heterosis in rice but low seed set remains a constraint on hybrid dissemination. We evaluated 216 F6 maintainer lines for agronomic and floral characteristics in augmented design and selected 15 maintainer lines, which were testcrossed with IR58025A. Five backcrosses were conducted to transfer cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS to select maintainer lines. Newly-bred BC5:6 CMS lines were evaluated for outcrossing rates and agronomic characteristics. There were highly significant differences among 216 F6 maintainer lines for characteristics whose genotypic variance was higher than environmental variance. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was almost the same as the genotypic coefficient of variation, indicating that most phenotypic variation was due to genetics. There were highly significant differences among CMS lines for number of days to 50% flowering and maturity; stigma exertion; panicle exertion, length and weight; spikelet fertility; tillers per plant; plant height; grains per panicle; grain yield per plant; and 1000-grain weight, but not for pollen and panicle sterility during dry and wet seasons. Three CMS lines (CMS3, CMS12, and CMS14, exhibited high outcrossing rates (56.17%, 51.42% and 48.44%, respectively, which had a highly significant, positive correlation with stigma exertion (0.97, spikelet opening angle (0.82, and panicle exertion (0.95.

  10. Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Lonquich, Brian P; Hannon, Robert M; Garland, Theodore

    2009-09-15

    Mice from four lines bred for high voluntary wheel activity run approximately 3-fold more revolutions per day and have elevated maximal oxygen consumption during forced treadmill exercise, as compared with four unselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that these high runner (HR) lines would have greater treadmill endurance-running capacity. Ninety-six mice from generation 49 were familiarized with running on a motorized treadmill for 3 days. On days 4 and 5, mice were given an incremental speed test (starting at 20 m min(-1), increased 1.5 m min(-1) every 2 min) and endurance was measured as the total time or distance run to exhaustion. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and lactate concentrations at rest during the photophase, during peak nightly wheel running, and immediately following the second endurance test. Individual differences in endurance time were highly repeatable between days (r=0.79), and mice tended to run longer on the second day (paired t-test, Pwheel running and treadmill endurance differed between the sexes, reinforcing previous studies that indicate sex-specific responses to selective breeding. HR mice appear to have a higher endurance capacity than reported in the literature for inbred strains of mice or transgenics intended to enhance endurance.

  11. Imaging studies of the hindlimbs of pacas (Cuniculus paca) bred in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F A P; Rahal, S C; Doiche, D P; Machado, M R F; Vulcano, L C; Teixeira, C R; El-Warrak, A O

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the hindlimbs of pacas bred in captivity using radiographic and computed tomography (CT) studies. Nine mature pacas (Cuniculus paca) 5.9-8.2 kg in body weight. Radiographical aspects of the bones of the hindlimbs were evaluated, and the Norberg angle and inclination angle were measured for each hindlimb. Anteversion angle were measured in CT examination. The bone anatomy of the hindlimb of the paca was similar to that of the guinea pig, apart from two lunulae and a single fabella (lateral) which were observed. The Norberg angle had mean value of 130.56º ± 3.81 without any significant difference between testers. Inclination angles ranged from 142.44º ± 4.82 to 145.44º ± 4.09 by Hauptman's method, and from 144.94º ± 3.13 to 148.22º ± 3.25 by Montavon's method, for right and left hindlimbs respectively. Average values for the anteversion angles measured with CT ranged from 28.56º ± 5.56 to 32.91º ± 2.62. The data may be used in future studies comparing the paca to other rodent species. In addition, the paca could be used as an animal model in orthopaedic research.

  12. Environmental enrichment ameliorates depressive-like symptoms in young rats bred for learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S Helene; Zeuch, Benjamin; Riva, Marco A; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of major depression is known to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In the current study, we therefore set out to investigate depressive-like behavior and its modification by environmental enrichment using rats bred for 'learned helplessness'. 45 males of congenitally helpless (cLH, n=22) and non-helpless (cNLH, n=23) rats of two different generations were used to systematically investigate differential effects of environmental enrichment on learned helpless behavior, anhedonic-like behavior (sweetened condensed milk consumption) and spontaneous behavior in the home cage. While enrichment was found to reduce learned helpless behavior in 14 weeks old, but not 28 weeks old cLH rats, it did not affect the consumption of sweetened condensed milk. Regarding the home cage behavior, no consistent changes between rats of different strains, housing conditions, and ages were observed. We could thus demonstrate that a genetic predisposition for learned helplessness may interact with environmental conditions in mediating some, but not all depressive-like symptoms in congenitally learned helpless rats. However, future efforts are needed to isolate the differential benefits of environmental factors in mediating the different depression-related symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Azizuddin, K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Brown, Jacob D; Company, Joseph M; Oberle, Lauren P; Heese, Alexander J; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Wells, Kevin D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Knouse, John A; Ferreira, J Andries; Childs, Thomas E; Brown, Marybeth; Booth, Frank W

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8-10 (G8-G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9-G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9-G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9-G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated.

  15. Physiological and production response of dairy goats bred in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; Salles, Maria Gorete Flores; da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Carneiro, Hilton Alexandre Vidal; de Souza, Leonardo Peres; Rondina, Davide; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the adaptability of Saanen and ½Saanen × ½Anglo-Nubian (½S½AN) goats bred in tropical climates. The study included 30 goats, 15 Saanen and 15 ½S½AN. The data was collected during the rainy and dry seasons. During the whole experimental period, the environment variables were recorded, as well as rectal temperature (RT), superficial temperature (ST), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) and milk production (MP). The adaptability coefficient (AC) was calculated for both genotypes. The averages were evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability. There was a genotype and period of year effect, as well as the interaction genotype × period of year. Pearson's simple correlation analysis was then carried out between milk production and physiological and environment variables. There was a statistical difference ( p goats, regardless of the season. MP was greater in the dry season ( p goats. Under the conditions of the present study, it is concluded that the goats were influenced by climatic factors, where the rainy period was more likely to cause thermal stress in the animals.

  16. Autosomal recessive congenital cataract in captive-bred vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwebu, Zandisiwe E; Abdul-Rasool, Sahar; Seier, Jürgen V; Chauke, Chesa G

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic predisposition of congenital cataract in a colony of captive-bred vervet monkeys. Four congenital cataract genes: glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2 (GCNT2), heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4), crystallin alpha A (CRYAA) and lens intrinsic membrane protein-2 (LIM2) were screened, sequenced and analysed for possible genetic variants in 36 monkeys. Gene expression was also evaluated in these genes. Fifteen sequence variants were identified in the coding regions of three genes (GCNT2, HSF4 and CRYAA). Of these variations, only three were missense mutations (M258V, V16I and S24N) and identified in the GCNT2 transcripts A, B and C, respectively, which resulted in a downregulated gene expression. Although the three missense mutations in GCNT2 have a benign effect, a possibility exists that the candidate genes (GCNT2, HSF4 and CRYAA) might harbour mutations that are responsible for total congenital cataract. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Rats bred for high alcohol drinking are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H

    2008-10-01

    Alcoholics and heavy drinkers score higher on measures of impulsivity than nonalcoholics and light drinkers. This may be because of factors that predate drug exposure (e.g. genetics). This study examined the role of genetics by comparing impulsivity measures in ethanol-naive rats selectively bred based on their high [high alcohol drinking (HAD)] or low [low alcohol drinking (LAD)] consumption of ethanol. Replicates 1 and 2 of the HAD and LAD rats, developed by the University of Indiana Alcohol Research Center, completed two different discounting tasks. Delay discounting examines sensitivity to rewards that are delayed in time and is commonly used to assess 'choice' impulsivity. Probability discounting examines sensitivity to the uncertain delivery of rewards and has been used to assess risk taking and risk assessment. High alcohol drinking rats discounted delayed and probabilistic rewards more steeply than LAD rats. Discount rates associated with probabilistic and delayed rewards were weakly correlated, while bias was strongly correlated with discount rate in both delay and probability discounting. The results suggest that selective breeding for high alcohol consumption selects for animals that are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes. Sensitivity to delayed or probabilistic outcomes may be predictive of future drinking in genetically predisposed individuals.

  18. Born to be free? Assessing the viability of releasing captive-bred wobbegongs to restock depleted populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Asha Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Large predatory fishes, such as sharks, play an important functional role within marine ecosystems. Restocking of depleted populations has been extensively studied for commercially or recreationally important teleost fish species; however, it has, to the best of our knowledge, never been successfully attempted and assessed on sharks. We evaluated whether fifteen captive-bred wobbegongs (Orectolobus maculatus released into a small bay inhabited by wild sharks would survive and remain within a small ‘no-take’ marine reserve. The captive-bred sharks and twelve wild sharks were tagged with acoustic transmitters and their presence was monitored by an array of acoustic receivers. The detection rate of control tags was modelled against environmental variables to predict detection probabilities and account for days when environmental conditions hampered shark detections. The overall detection probability ranged from 28% to 38% and was most affected by wind direction. Wild wobbegongs showed clear seasonal patterns of attendance to the study site, with the highest probability of presence during the summer months. The captive-bred sharks did not display the same seasonal trend in occurrence. The age at which captive-bred sharks were released into the area affected residency periods. Four out of five adults remained in the area for up to three years post release, while all the juveniles permanently left the area within a year post-release. Three of the juveniles were detected on receivers up to 12 km from the study site. Therefore, if restocking of depleted populations of sharks is to be used as a conservation strategy, the age at which sharks are released must be considered.

  19. A cytogenetic study of Korean native goat bred in the nuclear power plant using the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Mo; Ji, Young-Hoon; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Se-Ra; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Cytogenetic and hematological analysis was performed on the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) obtained from Korean native goats bred in two nuclear power plants (Wolsong and Uljin) and a control area. The frequencies of gamma-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in the cytokinesis-blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three Korean native goats. The measurements performed after irradiation showed dose-related increases in the MN frequency in each of the donors. The results were analyzed using a linear-quadratic model with a line of best fit of y=0.1019D+0.0045D 2 +0.0093 (y=number of MN/GB cells and D=irradiation dose in Gy). The MN rates in the goats from the Wolsong and Uljin nuclear power plant, and the control area were 9.60±2.88, 6.83±1.47 and 9.88±4.32 per 1,000 CB lymphocytes, respectively. The apparent difference is not statistically significant. The MN frequencies of PBLs from goats bred in three areas means that the values are within the background variation in this experiment. The MN frequencies and hematological values were similar regardless of whether the goats were bred in the nuclear power plant or the control area. (author)

  20. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  1. Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Natsumi; Kuroki, Reimi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-10-01

    The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P cows had higher body condition scores at that time. Hair cortisol level at 60 to 90 days after parturition in H cows increased significantly compared with in the dry period, and it was higher than that of B cows during the same period. These results suggest that B cross-bred cows experience less metabolic stress during early lactation, which may result in earlier resumption of reproductive function. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Effects of leptin treatment and Western diet on wheel running in selectively bred high runner mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Vu, Kim T; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    The role of leptin in regulating physical activity is varied. The behavioral effects of leptin signaling depend on the type of activity and the animal's physiological state. We used mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running to further study how leptin regulates volitional exercise. Mice from four replicate high runner (HR) lines typically run ~3-fold more revolutions per day than those from four non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice have altered dopamine function and differences from C in brain regions known to be important in leptin-mediated behavior. Furthermore, male HR mice have been found to dramatically increase running when administered Western diet, an effect possibly mediated through leptin signaling. Male mice from generation 61 (representing three HR lines and one C line) were allowed wheel access at 24 days of age and given either Western diet (high in fat and with added sucrose) or standard chow. After four weeks, Western diet significantly increased circulating leptin, insulin, C-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and inflammatory hormone resistin concentrations in HR mice (C mice not measured). Western diet increased running in HR mice, but did not significantly affect running in C mice. During the fifth week, all mice received two days of intra-peritoneal sham injections (physiological saline) followed by three days of murine recombinant leptin injections, and then another six days of sham injections. Leptin treatment significantly decreased caloric intake (adjusted for body mass) and body mass in all groups. Wheel running significantly increased with leptin injections in HR mice (fed Western or standard diet), but was unaffected in C mice. Whether Western diet and leptin treatment stimulate wheel running in HR mice through the same physiological pathways awaits future study. These results have implications for understanding the neural and endocrine systems that control locomotor activity, food consumption, and body

  3. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular differences between rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high vs. low nightly distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D.; Brown, Jacob D.; Company, Joseph M.; Oberle, Lauren P.; Heese, Alexander J.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Wells, Kevin D.; Cruthirds, Clayton L.; Knouse, John A.; Ferreira, J. Andries; Childs, Thomas E.; Brown, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to partially phenotype male and female rats from generations 8–10 (G8–G10) that had been selectively bred to possess low (LVR) vs. high voluntary running (HVR) behavior. Over the first 6 days with wheels, 34-day-old G8 male and female LVRs ran shorter distances (P HVR counterparts, respectively. HVR and LVR lines consumed similar amounts of standard chow with or without wheels. No inherent difference existed in PGC-1α mRNA in the plantaris and soleus muscles of LVR and HVR nonrunners, although G8 LVR rats inherently possessed less NADH-positive superficial plantaris fibers compared with G8 HVR rats. While day 28 body mass tended to be greater in both sexes of G9–G10 LVR nonrunners vs. G9–G10 HVR nonrunners (P = 0.06), body fat percentage was similar between lines. G9–G10 HVRs had fat mass loss after 6 days of running compared with their prerunning values, while LVR did not lose or gain fat mass during the 6-day voluntary running period. RNA deep sequencing efforts in the nucleus accumbens showed only eight transcripts to be >1.5-fold differentially expressed between lines in HVR and LVR nonrunners. Interestingly, HVRs presented less Oprd1 mRNA, which ties in to potential differences in dopaminergic signaling between lines. This unique animal model provides further evidence as to how exercise may be mechanistically regulated. PMID:23552494

  5. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  6. Captive-bred neotropical birds diagnosed with Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Novaes, Ricardo; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Bergamo do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avium in addition to 12 genotypes of unknown species status. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank. A total of 85 fecal samples were collected from wild captive-bred birds: 48 of family Psittacidae and 37 of family Ramphastidae. Initially, a search for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was conducted using the centrifugal-flotation in saturated sugar solution technique, after that, the collected samples were analyzed microscopically. Cryptosporidium infections were only detected in 24.32% of samples belonging to the family Ramphastidae. DNA was extracted from positive samples and molecular diagnostics was applied targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III was diagnosed in this study more closely related to the gastric species. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III in order Piciformes and family Ramphastidae, where three host species (Ramphastus toco, Ramphastus tucanus, and Pteroglossus bailloni) were positive for the etiologic agent. Based on the molecular data obtained, these wild birds raised in captivity do not represent a source of human cryptosporidiosis, considering that Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III does not constitute a zoonosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  8. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  9. Discrimination of tomatoes bred by spaceflight mutagenesis using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yongni; Xie, Chuanqi; Jiang, Linjun; Shi, Jiahui; Zhu, Jiajin; He, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Visible/near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIR) based on sensitive wavelengths (SWs) and chemometrics was proposed to discriminate different tomatoes bred by spaceflight mutagenesis from their leafs or fruits (green or mature). The tomato breeds were mutant M1, M2 and their parent. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) were implemented for calibration models. PLS analysis was implemented for calibration models with different wavebands including the visible region (400-700 nm) and the near infrared region (700-1000 nm). The best PLS models were achieved in the visible region for the leaf and green fruit samples and in the near infrared region for the mature fruit samples. Furthermore, different latent variables (4-8 LVs for leafs, 5-9 LVs for green fruits, and 4-9 LVs for mature fruits) were used as inputs of LS-SVM to develop the LV-LS-SVM models with the grid search technique and radial basis function (RBF) kernel. The optimal LV-LS-SVM models were achieved with six LVs for the leaf samples, seven LVs for green fruits, and six LVs for mature fruits, respectively, and they outperformed the PLS models. Moreover, independent component analysis (ICA) was executed to select several SWs based on loading weights. The optimal LS-SVM model was achieved with SWs of 550-560 nm, 562-574 nm, 670-680 nm and 705-715 nm for the leaf samples; 548-556 nm, 559-564 nm, 678-685 nm and 962-974 nm for the green fruit samples; and 712-718 nm, 720-729 nm, 968-978 nm and 820-830 nm for the mature fruit samples. All of them had better performance than PLS and LV-LS-SVM, with the parameters of correlation coefficient (rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias of 0.9792, 0.2632 and 0.0901 based on leaf discrimination, 0.9837, 0.2783 and 0.1758 based on green fruit discrimination, 0.9804, 0.2215 and -0.0035 based on mature fruit discrimination, respectively. The overall results indicated that ICA was an effective way for the

  10. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  11. Microscopic morphology and testis morphometry of captivity-bred Adult bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the testicular morphometry of captivity-bred adult bullfrogs. Fifteen young adult male were studied, in the rainy season and a lengthy photoperiod. The GSI was established at 0.15%. The nuclear diameter of germinative and Leydig cells, the nucleolus diameter of Sertoli cells and the area of cysts and tubules were determined and the mean number of ISPC, IISPC and SPT per cyst and the mean number of cysts per tubule was estimated. The nucleoplasmatic proportion of the nucleus of the Leydig cell was 76.22%, indicating less cytoplasmic activity. Eight generations of spermatogonia were found. The spermatogenesis efficiency in meiosis and in mitosis was 63 and 49%, respectively. The spermatogenesis of bullfrog fited in the pattern of other captivity Anurans, with differences as the morphology of Sertoli and Leydig cells nuclei.A morfometria é uma importante ferramenta para a biologia estrutural, permitindo estudos estereológicos e análises quantitativas. Existem muitos pontos a serem esclarecidos sobre a morfometria testicular desta espécie, que objetivamos desvendar neste trabalho. Quinze machos adultos foram estudados, em período chuvoso e de fotoperíodo longo (dezembro, 2000. O IGS encontrado foi de 0.15%. O diâmetro nuclear das células germinativas e da célula de Leydig, o diâmetro nucleolar das células de Sertoli e a área dos cistos e túbulos foram determinados. O número médio de ISPC, IISPC e SPT por cisto e o número médio de cisto por túbulo foi estimado. A proporção nucleoplasmática do núcleo da célula de Leydig foi de 76.22%, indicando pouca atividade citoplasmática. Oito gerações de espermatogônia foram estimadas. A eficiência da espermatogênese na meiose e mitose foi de 63% e49%, respectivamente. A espermatogênese de rãtouro segue os padrões dos demais Anuros de cativeiro, apresentando diferenças nos núcleos das c��lulas de Sertoli e Leydig.

  12. Effects of a selectively bred novelty-seeking phenotype on the motivation to take cocaine in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Jennifer A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender and enhanced novelty reactivity can predispose certain individuals to drug abuse. Previous research in male and female rats selectively bred for high or low locomotor reactivity to novelty found that bred High Responders (bHRs acquire cocaine self-administration more rapidly than bred Low Responders (bLRs and that bHR females in particular self-administered more cocaine than the other groups. The experiments presented here aimed to determine whether an individual's sex and behavioral phenotype interact to affect motivation to take cocaine. Methods We examined motivation for taking cocaine in two experiments using a range of doses on a progressive ratio (PR schedule of responding in bHR or bLR males and females. Additionally, we included a measure of continuing to respond in the absence of reinforcement, a feature of addiction that has been recently incorporated into tests of animal models on the basis of the criteria for substance use disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Statistical analyses were performed using PASW Statistics 18.0 software. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by a Bonferroni correction post hoc test when applicable. Results We found sex differences as well as effects of novelty reactivity on the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Specifically, females demonstrated higher breaking points on the PR schedule compared with males, regardless of phenotype, and bHR males and females exhibited higher motivation than bLR animals at a number of the doses studied. Conclusions An individual's sex continues to be a predisposing factor with respect to drug abuse liability and can be compounded by additional individual differences such as reactivity to novelty.

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN YOUNG SOWS BRED IN FARMSTEADS ON CLUJ COUNTY INCIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. CORNOIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to offer some information concerning the morphological stateof Bazna Breed female suina biological material bred and kept in farmsteads onCluj County incidence, near to enter to reproduce for the first time.Practically, after a biometric synthetic check, 37 young sows were phenotypicallyanalyzed, considered as acceptable to reproduction by the breeders.The obtained results were statistically processed and the formulated conclusionswant to be modest recommendations for suina breeders in general, and for Baznabreed in special.

  14. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  15. Youth Purpose Worldwide: A Tapestry of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana

    2017-01-01

    Interest in youth purpose is growing among scholars around the world. With globalization, better understanding of life purposes in different countries becomes more important as this generation's youth are influenced by ideas and events anywhere. This special issue contributes to this inclusive, worldwide frame of mind by showcasing work done…

  16. Globalization of flora: inviting worldwide ecosystem disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the needs of expanding human populations has changed land use worldwide and presented a biodiversity crisis. Emerging related concerns are threats to native species from homogenization of world flora and the spread of exotic species by human activities (Soule 1990, United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment 1993, Wilcove and others 1998, Soule and...

  17. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  18. World-wide distribution automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems

  19. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  20. RoboEarth: connecting robots worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweigle, O.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; D'Andrea, R.; Häussermann, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the core concept and the benefits of an approach called RoboEarth which will be highly beneficial for future robotic applications in science and industry. RoboEarth is a world-wide platform which robots can use to exchange position and map information as well as

  1. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  2. Rats bred for helplessness exhibit positive reinforcement learning deficits which are not alleviated by an antidepressant dose of the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Henn, Fritz A; Petri, David; Huston, Joseph P

    2016-08-04

    Principles of negative reinforcement learning may play a critical role in the etiology and treatment of depression. We examined the integrity of positive reinforcement learning in congenitally helpless (cH) rats, an animal model of depression, using a random ratio schedule and a devaluation-extinction procedure. Furthermore, we tested whether an antidepressant dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl would reverse any deficits in positive reinforcement learning. We found that cH rats (n=9) were impaired in the acquisition of even simple operant contingencies, such as a fixed interval (FI) 20 schedule. cH rats exhibited no apparent deficits in appetite or reward sensitivity. They reacted to the devaluation of food in a manner consistent with a dose-response relationship. Reinforcer motivation as assessed by lever pressing across sessions with progressively decreasing reward probabilities was highest in congenitally non-helpless (cNH, n=10) rats as long as the reward probabilities remained relatively high. cNH compared to wild-type (n=10) rats were also more resistant to extinction across sessions. Compared to saline (n=5), deprenyl (n=5) reduced the duration of immobility of cH rats in the forced swimming test, indicative of antidepressant effects, but did not restore any deficits in the acquisition of a FI 20 schedule. We conclude that positive reinforcement learning was impaired in rats bred for helplessness, possibly due to motivational impairments but not deficits in reward sensitivity, and that deprenyl exerted antidepressant effects but did not reverse the deficits in positive reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Anderson, Marissa M; Nelson, Sarah E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2007-05-16

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consisted of two 6-h sessions. In the first 6 h, rats were given non-contingent cocaine infusions at random intervals 10 times per hour, and during the second 6-h session, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) lever-response contingency. Acquisition was defined as a total of at least 250 infusions over 5 consecutive days, and rats were given 30 days to meet the acquisition criterion. Subsequently, saccharin phenotype scores were determined by comparing 24-h saccharin and water consumption in two-bottle tests to verify HiS/LoS status. Adolescent LoS rats had a faster rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration than adult LoS rats; however, adolescent and adult HiS rats acquired at the same rate. Both HiS and LoS adolescents had significantly higher saccharin phenotype scores than HiS and LoS adults, respectively. Additionally, saccharin score was negatively correlated with the number of days to meet the acquisition criterion for cocaine self-administration, but this was mostly accounted for by the HiS adolescents. These results suggest that during adolescence, compared with adulthood, rats have both an increased avidity for sweets and vulnerability to initiate drug abuse.

  4. Use of milk progesterone for determining the reproductive status of cross-bred swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong Le Xuan; Tan Luu Van; Trieu Cao Van; Dung Chung Anh; Canh Tran Tich; Quynh Vuong Dac

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen cross-bred buffaloes (F 1 , local breed x Murrah) and 19 cross-bred cows (F 1 , local breed x Holstein Friesian), 4-6 years of age, were used in the study to determine the potential of milk progesterone measurement as an aid in characterizing the onset of postpartum ovarian activity and for early pregnancy diagnosis. The first oestrous cycle, based on milk progesterone, commenced between days 40-50 postpartum in 17% of the buffaloes but between days 25-35 postpartum in 21% of the cows. At days 61-100 postpartum, 33% of the buffaloes had cycling ovaries with progesterone concentrations of 3.23-4.02 ng/mL, while 53% of the cows had cycling ovaries during the same period with progesterone concentrations of 3.52-4.16 ng/mL. During the oestrous cycle, the progesterone level showed peak elevations on day 15 in buffaloes and on day 9 in cows. The milk progesterone profiles of the buffalo took longer to reach peak levels, but declined faster than those in the cow. The accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was 78% in buffaloes and 83.3% in cows, but the accuracy of diagnosing non-pregnancy was 100% in both species. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Worldwide review of nuclear power developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, Simon.

    1985-01-01

    In the Western world during 1984, some 26 new reactors with a total capacity of about 26 GWe were commissioned. This review discusses political and economic factors affecting nuclear power worldwide. Developments, or the lack of them, in the following areas are considered: U.S.A., Japan, Western Europe, Turkey, South East Asia, China, India, South and Central America and Eastern Europe. China is predicted to be the next big market

  6. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  7. Worldwide Report, Nuclear Development and Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-09

    ACTIVITIES AT KIEV VEGETABLE MARKET Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 16 May 86 p 6 PARTY COMMITrEE ACTIVITIES AT C(1ERNOBYL Moscow PRAVDA in...Agreement (Martin F. Yriart; Buenos Aires AMBITO FINANCIERO , 12 May 86) 22 NEAR EAST/SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH OBSERVER: Nuclear Technology Growth Playing...University physicists. Scanditronix began to market the product in earnest worldwide in the mid- seventies. At the same time, anxiety was growing within FOA

  8. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  9. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  10. 1996 Portfolio of leading powerplants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This report covers activity in the electric power industry worldwide. The report is divided into three sections: Asia; Europe, Middle East, and Africa; and the Americas. The topics of the articles include major expansion programs for the primary power generating options, selected plant profiles; effect of the availability of natural gas on plans for coal-fired plants; and the pioneering of technologies in North America

  11. The software development process in worldwide collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amako, K.

    1998-01-01

    High energy physics experiments in future colliders are inevitably large scale international collaborations. In these experiments, software development has to be done by a large number of physicists, software engineers and computer scientists, dispersed all over the world. The major subject of this paper is to discuss on various aspects of software development in the worldwide environment. These include software engineering and methodology, software development process and management. (orig.)

  12. Worldwide energy prospects and nuclear contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    With a growing up worldwide population and a better standard of living, the global energy consumption will rise. The CO 2 emissions will increase too because of todays share of fossil fuels in the energy sources. This paper analyzes the possible contribution of nuclear energy in this context: economical and environmental aspects, political aspects (distribution of energy resources, energy dependence), energy efficiency, reduction of CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  13. Neurocysticercosis as an infectious acquired epilepsy worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Volkmer, Randy

    2017-11-01

    Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide. NCC is caused by brain cysts from the T. solium and related tapeworms. Many people with NCC infection may develop epilepsy but the rates are highly variable. MRI imaging shows many changes including localization of cysts as well as the host response to treatment. Epilepsy, in a subset of NCC patients, appears to be due to hippocampal sclerosis. Serologic and brain imaging profiles are likely diagnostic biomarkers of NCC infection and are also used to monitor the course of treatments. Limited access to these tools is a key limitation to identify and treat NCC-related epilepsy in places with high prevalence of this parasite infestation. Overall, NCC is a common infection in many patients with epilepsy worldwide. Additional clinical and animal studies could confirm common pathology of NCC as a postinfectious epilepsy that is curable. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Worldwide electricity used in data centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    The direct electricity used by data centers has become an important issue in recent years as demands for new Internet services (such as search, music downloads, video-on-demand, social networking, and telephony) have become more widespread. This study estimates historical electricity used by data centers worldwide and regionally on the basis of more detailed data than were available for previous assessments, including electricity used by servers, data center communications, and storage equipment. Aggregate electricity use for data centers doubled worldwide from 2000 to 2005. Three quarters of this growth was the result of growth in the number of the least expensive (volume) servers. Data center communications and storage equipment each contributed about 10% of the growth. Total electricity use grew at an average annual rate of 16.7% per year, with the Asia Pacific region (without Japan) being the only major world region with growth significantly exceeding that average. Direct electricity used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0.5% of total world electricity consumption in 2005. When electricity for cooling and power distribution is included, that figure is about 1%. Worldwide data center power demand in 2005 was equivalent (in capacity terms) to about seventeen 1000 MW power plants.

  15. Worldwide electricity used in data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2008-07-01

    The direct electricity used by data centers has become an important issue in recent years as demands for new Internet services (such as search, music downloads, video-on-demand, social networking, and telephony) have become more widespread. This study estimates historical electricity used by data centers worldwide and regionally on the basis of more detailed data than were available for previous assessments, including electricity used by servers, data center communications, and storage equipment. Aggregate electricity use for data centers doubled worldwide from 2000 to 2005. Three quarters of this growth was the result of growth in the number of the least expensive (volume) servers. Data center communications and storage equipment each contributed about 10% of the growth. Total electricity use grew at an average annual rate of 16.7% per year, with the Asia Pacific region (without Japan) being the only major world region with growth significantly exceeding that average. Direct electricity used by information technology equipment in data centers represented about 0.5% of total world electricity consumption in 2005. When electricity for cooling and power distribution is included, that figure is about 1%. Worldwide data center power demand in 2005 was equivalent (in capacity terms) to about seventeen 1000 MW power plants.

  16. Traumatic Spinal Injury: Global Epidemiology and Worldwide Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Lim, Jaims; Mekary, Rania A; Rattani, Abbas; Dewan, Michael C; Sharif, Salman Y; Osorio-Fonseca, Enrique; Park, Kee B

    2018-05-01

    Traumatic spinal injury (TSI) results from injury to bony, ligamentous, and/or neurologic structures of the spinal column and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The global burden of TSI is poorly understood, so we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global volume of TSI. We performed a systematic review through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Databases on TSI studies reported from 2000 to 2016. Collected data were used to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the annual incidence of TSI across World Health Organization regions and World Bank income groups using random-effect models. Incorporating global population figures, the annual worldwide volume of TSI was estimated. A total of 102 studies were included in the systematic review and 19 studies in the meta-analysis. The overall global incidence of TSI was 10.5 cases per 100,000 persons, resulting in an estimated 768,473 [95% confidence interval, 597,213-939,732] new cases of TSI annually worldwide. The incidence of TSI was higher in low- and middle-income countries (8.72 per 100,000 persons) compared with high-income countries (13.69 per 100,000 persons). Road traffic accidents, followed by falls, were the most common mechanism of TSI worldwide. Overall, 48.8% of patients with TSI required surgery. TSI is a major source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Largely preventable mechanisms, including road traffic accidents and falls, are the main causes of TSI globally. Further investigation is needed to delineate local and regional TSI incidences and causes, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Worldwide perspectives of nuclear power use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the topic of nuclear power from the point of view of a representative of the World Nuclear Association (WNA). It is to address not only global trends, but also to provide an opportunity to describe his impressions to a German whose main job is with an international company in Paris, and whose WNA desk is set up in London. In retrospect, there had hardly been a time when nuclear power was held in the same high regard, internationally, as it is now. In the most recent World Climate Report, which is always the result of international consensus, nuclear power is referred to as one of the currently available, economically viable key technologies in the fight against climate change. Worldwide, roughly half the electricity generated practically without any CO 2 emissions is produced in nuclear power plants. Moreover, it is not only climate protection which gives a boost to nuclear power. Also the threats facing important sources of fossil fuel supply have greatly contributed to this development. As regards the use of nuclear power in Germany, the facts are known: Longer periods of operation of nuclear power plants could save a lot of money and even more CO 2 . This is good for the environment, the economy and, ultimately, for the population in Germany. Competence preservation is an important topic in our industry. We are on the right way, worldwide, in this respect. One example to be mentioned is the common initiative of international organizations, co-initiated especially also by WNA, to establish the World Nuclear University. This institution is in the process of becoming a wellspring of talent specializing in nuclear technology worldwide. (orig.)

  18. A worldwide perspective on actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide interest has been evident over the past few years in reexamining the merits of recovering the actinides from spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel and transmuting them in fast reactors to reduce hazards in geologic repositories. This paper will summarize some of the recent activities in this field. Several countries are embarked on programs of reprocessing and vitrification of present wastes, from which removal of the actinides is largely precluded. The United States is assessing the ideas related to the fast reactor program and the potential application to defense wastes. 18 refs., 2 figs

  19. Worldwide deposition of 90Sr through 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Juzdan, Z.R.

    1986-10-01

    The deposition of 90 Sr in the Northern Hemisphere during 1984 was 0.3 PBq (0.008 MCi), while that of the Southern Hemisphere was 0.1 PBq (0.003 MCi). This resulted in a total deposition on the surface of the earth during 1984 of 0.4 PBq (0.011 MCi). This is the lowest total yearly deposit since the initiation of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's global fallout program in the mid-1950's. The worldwide cumulative deposit decreased to 357 PBq (9.6 MCi)

  20. Reviss to market Russian isotopes worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The culmination of two years of detailed negotiations saw the formation of Reviss Services in April 1992. This joint venture company is a collaboration between Amersham International (Health Science Group), the Mayak Production Association (manufacturer of radioisotopes) and AO Techsnabexport (the Russian export agency). It is set up to enable a variety of Russian-manufactured radioisotopes to be marketed worldwide. Formation of the joint venture company was made possible by the recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, allowing the three parties to extend their long-standing commercial trading relationship into a full working partnership. (Author)

  1. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  2. Analytical modeling of worldwide medical radiation use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Davis, M.; Kelsey, C.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Williams, A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to estimate the availability and frequency of medical radiation use on a worldwide basis. This model includes medical and dental x-ray, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. The development of an analytical model is necessary as the first step in estimating the radiation dose to the world's population from this source. Since there is no data about the frequency of medical radiation use in more than half the countries in the world and only fragmentary data in an additional one-fourth of the world's countries, such a model can be used to predict the uses of medical radiation in these countries. The model indicates that there are approximately 400,000 medical x-ray machines worldwide and that approximately 1.2 billion diagnostic medical x-ray examinations are performed annually. Dental x-ray examinations are estimated at 315 million annually and approximately 22 million in-vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations. Approximately 4 million radiation therapy procedures or courses of treatment are undertaken annually

  3. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  4. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  5. A worldwide survey of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    While the completion of the SNR 300 was accompanied by manifold discussions on questions relevant to safety and energy policies in the Federal Republic of Germany and as a result considerable scheduling delays and exceeding of budgets were recorded, breeder reactor technology has been progressing worldwide. The transition from the development phase with small trial reactors to the construction and operation of large performance reactors was completed systematically, in particular in France and the Soviet Union. Even though the uranium supply situation does not make a short-term and comprehensive employment of fast breeder reactors essential, technology has meanwhile been advanced to such a level and extensive operating experience is on hand to enable the construction and safe operation of fast breeder reactors. A positive answer has long been found to the question of the realization of a breeding rate to guarantee the breeding effect. There remain now the endeavors to achieve a reduction in investment and fuel cycle costs. (orig.) [de

  6. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  7. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes...... in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. METHODS: We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes...... prevalence-defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7.0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs-in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes...

  8. World-Wide Web the information universe

    CERN Document Server

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Groff, Jean-Francois; Pollermann, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Purpose - The World-Wide Web (W-3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the "web" and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach - Since Vannevar Bush's article, men have dreamed of extending their intellect by making their collective knowledge available to each individual by using machines. Computers provide us two practical techniques for human-knowledge interface. One is hypertext, in which links between pieces of text (or other media) mimic human association of ideas. The other is text retrieval, which allows associations to be deduced from the content of text. The W-3 ideal world allows both operations and provides access from any browsing platform. Findings - Various server gateways to other information systems have been produced, and the total amount of information available on the web is...

  9. Cell therapy worldwide: an incipient revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy.

  10. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godar, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to∼ 50 degree N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  11. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  12. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  13. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC has established a network of more than fifty inter-connected 'CMS Centres' at CERN and in institutes in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. These facilities are used by people doing CMS detector and computing grid operations, remote shifts, data quality monitoring and analysis, as well as education and outreach. We present the computing, software, and collaborative tools and videoconferencing systems. These include permanently running 'telepresence' video links (hardware-based H.323, EVO and Vidyo), Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  15. Overview and forecast on forestry productions worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjun, Zhang

    2007-02-01

    Our world is largely dependent upon the forestry productions. Through the exploitation of forest reserves, we manufacture various industrial products, furniture, and obtain fuel and energy. Forestry productions should be conducted without large-scale deforestation and environmental degradation. In present study we perform a review and forecast analysis on forestry productions worldwide, with the objectives of providing an insight into the trend for several types of forestry productions in the future, and providing referential data for sustainable forestry productions and environmental management. Polynomial functions are used to fit trajectories of forestry productions since 1961 and forecasts during the coming 20 years are given in detail. If the past pattern continues, world fibreboard production would dramatically grow and reach 224,300,000 +/- 44,400,000 m(3) by the year 2020, an increase up to 240.7 to 408.9% as compared to the present level. Roundwood production of the world would change by -55.5 to 70.4% and reach 3,526,600,000 +/- 2,066,800,000 m(3) by 2020. In 2020 world production of sawlogs and veneer logs would change by -100 to 164.6% and reach 1,212,900,000 +/- 1,242,600,000 m(3). Global wood fuel production would change by -68.9 to 1.4% and reach 1,130,900,000 +/- 600,800,000 m(3) by 2020. Forestry productions in developed countries would largely surpass productions in developing countries in the near future. World forestry production grew since 1961 excluding wood fuel. Roundwood and wood fuel account for the critical proportions in the forestry productions. Wood fuel production has being declined and rapid growing of roundwood production has slowed in recent years. Widespread use of regenerative wood substitutes and worldwide afforestation against deforestation will be among the most effective ways to reduce deforestation and environment degradation associated with forestry productions.

  16. [Current tuberculosis mortality world-wide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, E; Rieder, H L

    1992-04-21

    The mortality rate still is an important index for assessment of tuberculosis. Statistical records are kept on the mortality rate on a worldwide basis--more than in the case of other tuberculosis parameters. They allow us to make valuable comparisons. They are also useful because the mortality is closely related to the morbidity. The present thesis is based on comparative figures from the 1989 volume of the WHO Health Statistics Annual. Various countries have been specially selected by the publisher--and subsequently also by us--for sake of clarity. The figures vary strongly within these countries, which was to be expected. The mortality rate varies in Europe (for each 100,000 residents) e.g. from 0.2 in the Netherlands to 8.15 in the Soviet Union. In the Americas the rates vary from 0.4 for Canada to 12.9 for Ecuador. In the Western Pacific region the mortality rates vary from 0.35 for Australia to 14.65 for China. On a worldwide basis, the share of deaths from tuberculosis among all causes of death varies from 0.02% in the Netherlands to 2.10% in the Republic of Korea. The relation of tuberculosis deaths with regard to sexes in Switzerland: 75.7% men, 24.3% women, which is more or less the European average. The lower the mortality rate for tuberculosis are, the lower the difference between the sexes appears to be. Similar facts are found with regard to the distribution of tuberculosis deaths according to age groups: the lower the tuberculosis rate, the more tuberculosis is found in older age groups. The tuberculosis deaths are percentage-wise similarly distributed to the respiratory organs and the other tuberculosis forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Child homicide perpetrators worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Dekel, Bianca; Morris-Gehring, Alison; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe child homicide perpetrators and estimate their global and regional proportion to inform prevention strategies to reduce child homicide mortality worldwide. A systematic review of 9431 studies derived from 18 databases led to the inclusion of 126 studies after double screening. All included studies reported a number or proportion of child homicides perpetrators. 169 countries and homicide experts were surveyed in addition. The median proportion for each perpetrator category was calculated by region and overall and by age groups and sex. Data were obtained for 44 countries. Overall, parents committed 56.5% (IQR 23.7-69.6) of child homicides, 58.4% (0.0-66.7) of female and 46.8% (14.1-63.8) of male child homicides. Acquaintances committed 12.6% (5.9-31.3) of child homicides. Almost a tenth (9.2% (IQR 0.0-21.9) of child homicides had missing information on the perpetrator. The largest proportion of parental homicides of children was found in high-income countries (64.2%; 44.7-71.8) and East Asia and Pacific Region (61.7%; 46.7-78.6). Parents committed the majority (77.8% (61.5-100.0)) of homicides of children under the age of 1 year. For adolescents, acquaintances were the main group of homicide perpetrators (36.9%, 6.6-51.8). There is a notable lack of studies from low-income and middle-income countries and children above the age of 1 year. Children face the highest risk of homicide by parents and someone they know. Increased investment into the compilation of routine data on child homicide, and the perpetrators of this homicide is imperative for understanding and ultimately reducing child homicide mortality worldwide. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015030125.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  19. WATER REALITY IN UKRAINE AND WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Dolina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper analyzes the state of water management in Ukraine and worldwide, as well as the best practices in this area. Methodology. The study was carried out based on the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on the state of water management in Ukraine, European countries, the USA (2010-2016. Findings. The water state analysis in the regions of Ukraine showed that the quality in most cases is close to or meets the requirements for drinking water. Drinking tap water requires post-treatment in all regions of the country. The main issue for today is the production of the necessary equipment for treatment plants. Unfortunately, not all equipment is produced in Ukraine. The condition of rural water pipelines is of particular concern. Among the tested pipelines 7.3% do not comply with the rules and regulations. At the same time, only 25% of villages in Ukraine are provided with centralized water supply. Originality. The authors presented the results of a comprehensive review of the world's issues on disinfection of drinking and waste water, where various methods are used, partly in combination with each other in Ukraine and the worldwide. The main unresolved issue today is the issue of the residual quantity of drugs in the drinking water. The main environmental threat of the world scale is the presence of medicines in drinking water. The treatment facilities are not suitable for the decomposition or trapping of medicinal products. Nowhere in the world there is protection from these substances. One of the key issues in the solution of drinking water production is seawater desalination. To reduce the cost of desalination of sea water the SWRO-membrane technology is used. Practical value. Water problems are number one problems all over the world and in Ukraine as well. It is necessary to provide for additional financing to solve problems in the preparation and purification of waters, not with whatever funds remain, taking into

  20. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  1. Phytophthora infestans population structure: A worldwide scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Martha; Danies, Giovanna; Tabima, Javier; Bernal, Adriana; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and other members of the Solanaceae family, is responsible for causing the Irish potato famine and, even today, it causes enormous economic losses all over the world. For the establishment of an adequate pest management strategy, the determination of the pathogen's population structure is required. To characterize P. infestans populations worldwide two allozymes, Gpi (Glucose-6-phospate isomerase) and Pep (Pep tidase), the RG57 DNA RFLP fingerprinting probe, as well as resistance to the fungicide metalaxyl and mating type, have been used as markers. P. infestans populations in Mexico have been one of the main focuses of research in the population biology of this pathogen because this country has been considered as one of the possible centers of origin of this oomycete. In this review we present the population structure of P. infestans in Mexico, Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and South America, expanding it on the present situation of P. infestans in Colombia. Finally, we will discuss different lines of research that are being carried out today with respect to P. infestans in Colombia, which have shown the importance of continuing the study of this devastating plant pathogen in our country.

  2. Phytophthora infestans population structure: a worldwide scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cárdenas Toquica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and other members of the Solanaceae family, is responsible for causing the Irish potato famine and, even today, it causes enormous economic losses all over the world. For the establishment of an adequate pest management strategy, the determination of population structure is required. To characterize P. infestans populations worldwide two allozymes, Gpi (Glucose-6-phospate isomerase and Pep (Peptidase, the RG57 DNA RFLP fingerprinting probe, as well as resistance to the fungicide metalaxyl and the mating type, have been used as markers. P. infestans populations in Mexico have been one of the main focuses of research in the population biology of this pathogen because this country has been considered as one of the possible centers of origin of this oomycete. In this review we present the population structure of P. infestans in Mexico, Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and South America expanding on the present situation of P. infestans in Colombia. Finally, we will discuss different lines of research that are being carried out today with respect to P. infestans in Colombia, which have shown the importance of continuing the study of this devastating plant pathogen in our country.

  3. Geophysical worldwide networks: basic concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzie, G.; Baubron, G.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of nuclear explosions around the globe requires the setting up of networks of sensors on a worldwide basis. Such equipment should be able to transmit on-line data in real-time or pseudo real-time to a center or processing centers. The high level of demanded reliability for the data (generally better than 99 %) also has an impact on the accuracy and precision of the sensors and the communications technology, as well as the systems used for on-line checking. In the light of these requirements, DAM has developed a data gathering network based on the principle of VSTA duplex links which ensures the on-line transmission of data and operational parameters towards the Processing Centre via a hub. In the other direction, the Centre can act on a number of parameters in order to correct them if necessary, or notify the local maintenance team. To optimize the reliability of the main components of this system, the detection stations as well as their associated beacons have low consumption and can be supplied by solar panels, thus facilitating the installation of the networks. The seismic network on the French national territory is composed of 40 stations built on the principles outlined above. In order to gather data from stations established outside France, DAM is planning to use an analogue system to transmit data in on-line as well as off-line mode. (authors)

  4. Worldwide Engagement for Sustainable Energy Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Almost 40 years after the Agency’s founding, the IEA responsibility for ensuring access to global oil supplies is still a core mandate. Yet over the course of its history, the IEA’s responsibilities have expanded along with both the international energy economy and conceptions of energy security itself. Our mission to promote secure and sustainable energy provision spans the energy mix. At the same time, a changing global energy map means that the industrialised nations of the world no longer dominate energy consumption. The IEA must work in close co-operation with partner countries and organisations worldwide to achieve its three core objectives: energy security, economic prosperity, and environmental sustainability. Working toward international commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause global climate change; facilitating energy technology exchange, innovation and deployment; improving modern energy access to the billions of people who are without it; bolstering both cleanliness and security through energy efficiency; and promoting flexible and functioning energy markets – these efforts complement our traditional core responsibilities of mitigating the effects of supply disruptions and improving statistical transparency.

  5. The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Kolluru, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM) is a standalone microcomputer-based state-of-the-art oil spill model system for use in oil spill response decision support, planning, research, training, and contingency planning. WOSM was developed under support provided by a consortium of oil companies and government agencies. WOSM represents the next generation of oil spill model beyond the OILMAP modelling system (Spaulding et al, 1992). WOSM is designed in a shell architecture in which the only parameters that change are those that describe the area in which the spill model is to be applied. A limited function geographic information system (GIS) is integrated within the model system, and the spill modelling shell has been extended to include interfaces to other GIS systems and digital data. WOSM contains all the databases, data manipulation and graphical display tools, and models to simulate any type of oil spill. The user has control over which weathering processes are to be modelled, and WOSM data input tools enable continual refinement of model predictions as more refined data is imported. Use of WOSM is described and illustrated, showing sample screens and applications. WOSM algorithms and file structure are also outlined. An example test case of a spill in the Juan de Fuca strait is included. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  7. Worldwide supply of Framatome ANP Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Framatome-ANP is organized according to a matrix structure with 4 business groups and 3 regional divisions. The fuel business group with a workforce of about 4600 people is active in all the trades needed to design and manufacture nuclear fuel. The activity ranges from the production of zirconium alloys to the production of finished fuel assemblies, facilities are located in France, Germany and Usa. Framatome-ANP is the foremost vendor of LWR fuel worldwide with 41 % of the PWR market share and 22 % of the BWR market share. The global operating experience built up is based on more than 150.000 fuel assemblies delivered to 169 reactors in 18 countries. This long history has allowed Framatome-ANP to develop an efficient quality-improvement program based on experience feedback, for instance fuel rod failures induced by debris have been almost completely eliminated with the introduction of anti-debris devices equipping bottom nozzles. Framatome-ANP has developed a large range of engineering services, for instance core design teams can provide the most cost-effective fuel management schemes for cycle lengths from 6 to 24 months. The first technology transfer between China entities and Framatome related to the AFA-2G technology started in 1991 and was completed successfully in 1994. Since this date the Chinese manufacturer has supplied fuel reload for the units of Daya-Bay. (A.C.)

  8. Insular threat associations within taxa worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Camille; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Céline

    2018-04-23

    The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions. Biological invasions, wildlife exploitation, and cultivation, either alone or in association, were found to be the three most important drivers of species extinction and decline on islands. Specifically, wildlife exploitation and cultivation are largely associated with the decline of threatened plants and terrestrial vertebrates, whereas biological invasions mostly threaten invertebrates and freshwater fish. Furthermore, biodiversity in the Indian Ocean and near the Asian coasts is mostly affected by wildlife exploitation and cultivation compared to biological invasions in the Pacific and Atlantic insular regions. We highlighted specific associations of threats at different scales, showing that the analysis of each threat in isolation might be inadequate for developing effective conservation policies and managements.

  9. Bitcoin – the World-Wide Currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba Olena А.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching bitcoin, the digital currency. It has been found that Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, that is, the virtual money, which has no material equivalent. The history of creation and development of cryptocurrency was reviewed. There is a reduction in volatility, which guarantees the security of currency, as well as the increase in currency volume and the inability to estimate the profitability of bitcoins. The dynamics of the value of digital currency in US dollars over recent years has been analyzed. Improvement of attitude of many countries to the considered cryptocurrency, in particular the USA, Germany, Spain, Canada, Australia, Israel and Scandinavian countries has been identified. The reasons of Ukraine’s interest in Bitcoin have been considered. Possibilities of creation of cryptocurrency on the territory of Ukraine have been analyzed, i.e. cost of electricity for mining, the legal status of mining firms, and the attitude of the National Bank of Ukraine to the digital currency. It has been concluded that the recognition of Bitcoin by the world countries in the future will allow it to be granted the status of world-wide currency.

  10. Economic impact of traditional medicine practice worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Pejcic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to summarize available findings from publications that reported expenditure on traditional/complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM within a representative general population sample of a nation or a defined geographical area. A total of 24 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The expenditure on TM/CAM varies worldwide, but direct comparison of the findings of publications included in this review is limited due to the differences in the definitions of TM/CAM, inclusion of various forms of TM/CAM, use of different names and categorization, as well as differences in reported currencies and time periods in which data were collected. Data about the expenditure on TM/CAM in most countries throughout the world are scarce. Further national studies should be conducted in order to provide up-to-date assessment of the TM/CAM related expenditure patterns and use. Uniform nomenclature, definition of TM/CAM and standardized instruments would provide basis for comparability of data of studies conducted in various regions and time periods.

  11. Evolution of Toilets Worldwide through the Millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios P. Antoniou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, various civilizations developed methodologies for the collection and disposal of human waste. The methodologies throughout the centuries have been characterized by technological peaks on the one hand, and by the disappearance of the technologies and their reappearance on the other. The purpose of this article is to trace the development of sewage collection and transport with an emphasis on toilets in ancient civilizations. Evolution of the major achievements in the scientific fields of sanitation with emphasis on the lavatory (or toilets technologies through the centuries up to the present are presented. Valuable insights into ancient wastewater technologies and management with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability are provided. Gradual steps improved the engineering results until the establishment of the contemporary toilet system, which provides a combined solution for flushing, odor control, and the sanitation of sewerage. Even though the lack of proper toilet facilities for a great percentage of the present day global population is an embarrassing fact, the worldwide efforts through millennia for the acquisition of a well-engineered toilet were connected to the cultural level of each period.

  12. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960–2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10–500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades. (letter)

  13. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in young heifers. The objectives of this study were to determine which transrectal ultrasound or pelvis measures taken at a single examination are independent predictors of reproductive failure and whether the RTS system can be optimized with this information. In this observational study, year-old beef heifers (n = 488) in 2 birth cohorts were followed from just before the first breeding until confirmation of pregnancy. A single pre-breeding examination included body condition score, RTS, ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract (length and diameter of the left and right ovaries, presence and diameter of a CL, largest follicle diameter and left uterus horn diameter) and transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvis. Additional farm records including dam parity, sire, birth weight and birth date, weaning weight, weaning date, prebreeding body weight, AI dates, and semen used were available. Breeding consisted of 50 days of AI, followed 5 to 7 days later by a 42-day bull breeding period. Pregnancy failure was defined as the failure to become pregnant after the AI and bull breeding periods, while anestrus was defined as the failure to be detected in estrus during the 50-day AI period. From the prebreeding data and farm records, independent predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus were identified using stepwise reduction in multiple logistic regression models. Age at the onset of breeding was the only consistent independent predictor of pregnancy failure and anestrus in both cohorts of this study (P score, uterus horn diameter, absence of a CL, largest follicle of less than 13 mm, and pelvis area (PA) were the prebreeding examination variables that remained in

  14. Dopamine D1 receptor modulation in nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred to run high distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Gilpin, Leigh; Parker, Kyle E; Childs, Thomas E; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been postulated to influence reward development towards drugs of abuse and exercise. Herein, we used generation 4-5 rats that were selectively bred to voluntary run high (HVR) versus low (LVR) distances in order to examine if dopamine-like 1 (D1) receptor modulation in the NAc differentially affects nightly voluntary wheel running between these lines. A subset of generation 5-6 HVR and LVR rats were also used to study the mRNA expression of key genes related to reward and addiction in the NAc (i.e., DRD1, DRD5, DRD2, Nr4a2, FosB, and BDNF). In a crossover fashion, a D1-like agonist SKF 82958 (2 μg per side) or D1-like full antagonist SCH 23390 (4 μg per side) was bilaterally injected into the NAc of HVR and LVR female Wistar rats prior to their high running nights. Notably, during hours 2-4 (between 2000 and 2300) of the dark cycle there was a significant decrement in running distances in the HVR rats treated with the D1 agonist (p=0.025) and antagonist (p=0.017) whereas the running distances in LVR rats were not affected. Interestingly, HVR and LVR rats possessed similar NAc concentrations of the studied mRNAs. These data suggest that: a) animals predisposed to run high distances on a nightly basis may quickly develop a rewarding response to exercise due to an optimal D1-like receptor signaling pathway in the NAc that can be perturbed by either activation or blocking, b) D1-like agonist or antagonist injections do not increase running distances in rats that are bred to run low nightly distances, and c) running differences between HVR and LVR animals are seemingly not due to the expression of the studied mRNAs. Given the societal prevalence of obesity and extraneous physical inactivity, future studies should be performed in order to further determine the culprit for the low running phenotype observed in LVR animals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Epidemiology of foodborne diseases: a worldwide review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, E C

    1997-01-01

    Acute foodborne disease infections and intoxications are much more of a concern to governments and the food industry today than a few decades ago. Some of the factors that have led to this include the identification of new agents that have caused life-threatening conditions; the finding that traditional agents are being associated with foods that were of no concern previously: an increasing number of large outbreaks being reported; the impact of foodborne disease on children, the aging population and the immunocompromised; migrant populations demanding their traditional foods in the countries of settlement; the ease of worldwide shipment of fresh and frozen food; and the development of new food industries, including aquaculture. However, to meaningfully monitor increases or decreases in foodborne disease requires an effective surveillance system at the local, national and international levels. To date, resources have been limited for most countries and regions to do this, and our current knowledge is based, for the most part, on passive reporting mechanisms. Laboratory isolation data and reports of notifiable diseases have some value in observing timely changes in case numbers of some enteric diseases, but they usually do not indicate the reasons for these trends. Special epidemiological studies are useful for the area covered, but it is often questionable whether they can be extrapolated to other areas or countries. Outbreak investigations tell us that a certain set of circumstances led to illness and that another outbreak may occur under similar but not necessarily identical conditions. Control programmes have often been triggered by the conclusions from investigations of specific outbreaks. Unfortunately, the agent/ food combination leading to illness in many of the reported incidents were not predicted from existing databases, and no doubt foodborne agents will continue to surprise food control agencies in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, data from around

  16. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  17. Worldwide marine radioactivity studies assessing the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.

    1998-01-01

    A growing number of sources of radioactivity from human activities are found in the marine environment. They are known to include global nuclear fallout following atmospheric weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, discharges of radionuclides from nuclear installations, past dumping of radioactive wastes, nuclear submarine accidents, contributions from nuclear testing sites, loss of radioactive sources, and the burn-up of satellites using radioisotopes as power sources. Overall, the world's marine environment contains radionuclides that differ from one region to another. Differences are due to dynamic marine environmental processes and the particular source of radionuclides in a region. Scientific assessments of marine radioactivity, therefore, require knowledge of both the source terms and oceanic processes. Radioactivity now is deposited unevenly over the world's oceans. Global fallout is known to be mainly due to nuclear weapon tests carried out in the 1960s. On the other hand, discharges from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants or past dumping of liquid and solid radioactive wastes generally are confined to more localized areas. Even so, soluble radionuclides have been transported over long distances by prevailing ocean currents. To estimate radionuclide inputs from local sources, scientists need to better understand the distribution of radionuclides throughout the world's oceans and seas. The understanding is important for analysing the results from scientific investigations of localized areas, such as part dumping sites, which then can be reviewed more thoroughly. As a contribution to fuller understanding of the marine environment, the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) started a five-year project in 1996 entitled ''Research on Worldwide Marine Radioactivity (MARS)''. The work is supported by Japan's Science and Technology Agency (STA). This article briefly review this project, and describes related research activities and scientific investigations of MEL

  18. Electricity of the future: a worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ladoucette, Ph.; Chevalier, J.M.; Barbaso, F.; Becache, P.; Belmans, P.; Brottes, F.; Chevet, P.F.; Chone, F.; David, A.; Delorme, Ph.; Hadjsaid, N.; Jalabert, M.; Julliard, Y.; Kott, B.; Lenoir, J.C.; Lewiner, C.; Maillard, D.; Moisan, F.; Pelletier, Ph.; Poniatowski, L.; Rozes, St.; Rytoft, C.; Sanchez Jimenez, M.; Seyrling, G.; Vu, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increase of power consumption, the development of renewable energy sources and the emergence of new usages like the electric-powered car are as many challenges that put the reliability and the reactivity of our power grids to the test. These grids have to change to become 'intelligent' thanks to the integration of new information and communication technologies over the overall supply chain, from the energy generation to its end use by consumers. For the first time in France, the actors of this change explain their opinion about this revolution and put it in perspective with its full extent and complexity. Changing power grids to make them intelligent is first of all a technical challenge but also a society challenge: the consumer will become an actor involved in the mastery of his energy demand and a renewable energy producer capable to interact with the grid in an increasing manner. This worldwide change that we are going to be the witnesses comes up against numerous obstacles. The aim of this book is to examine the determining factors of the success of this large scale change through its technical, economical and social dimensions. It shows that the emergence of such an advanced power system cannot be possible neither without the reconciliation between some contradictory goals, nor without a strong coordination between the actors. Content: Part 1 - intelligent power networks to answer the 21. century challenges: 1 - the European and French dimension of the electric power sector; 2 - towards a carbon-free economy; 3 - a power grid facing new challenges; 4 - the pre-figuration of intelligent power grids; 5 - the deployment of intelligent (smart) grids; Part 2 - perspectives of smart grids development: 1 - the future of power networks; 2 - a new industrial era; Part 3 - the consumer's position in the deployment of future grids: 1 - changing behaviours; 2 - making the consumer a 'consum'actor'. Synthesis and conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Slemr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  20. Mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running exhibit lower blood pressure during withdrawal from wheel access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Erik M; Kelly, Scott A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-03-15

    Exercise is known to be rewarding and have positive effects on mental and physical health. Excessive exercise, however, can be the result of an underlying behavioral/physiological addiction. Both humans who exercise regularly and rodent models of exercise addiction sometimes display behavioral withdrawal symptoms, including depression and anxiety, when exercise is denied. However, few studies have examined the physiological state that occurs during this withdrawal period. Alterations in blood pressure (BP) are common physiological indicators of withdrawal in a variety of addictions. In this study, we examined exercise withdrawal in four replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Mice from the HR lines run almost 3-fold greater distances on wheels than those from non-selected control lines, and have altered brain activity as well as increased behavioral despair when wheel access is removed. We tested the hypothesis that male HR mice have an altered cardiovascular response (heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) during exercise withdrawal. Measurements using an occlusion tail-cuff system were taken during 8 days of baseline, 6 days of wheel access, and 2 days of withdrawal (wheel access blocked). During withdrawal, HR mice had significantly lower systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MAP than controls, potentially indicating a differential dependence on voluntary wheel running in HR mice. This is the first characterization of a cardiovascular withdrawal response in an animal model of high voluntary exercise. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Lactation curve of cross-bred buffalo under two production systems in the Amazonian region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Ribeiro Neto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Center of EMBRAPA (CPAFRO, Rondônia, Brazil, to evaluate the lactation curve of crosss-bred buffalo [Murrah (M, Mediterranean (Me and Jafarabadi(J] under two production systems. Production system one (PS1 corresponded to the period of 1984 to 1998 where animals (4471 observation were milked once a day and received only pasture without supplementation. Production system two (PS2 corresponded to the period of 1999 to 2002 where animals (458 observations were milked twice daily with concentrate supplementation to pasture. Eight mathematical functions were used: Inverse Polynomial, Linear Hyperbolic, Incomplete Gamma, Logarithmic, Logarithmic Quadratic, Linear, Quadratic and Jenkins & Ferrel. Statistical analysis was conducted using PROC NLIN of SAS (2005. Results showed that for both production systems, Incomplete Gama was the best function to describe the lactation curve. Values of coefficient of determination, standard-deviation, coefficient of variation and standard-error were 95%, 0.068, 7.20, and 0.003, respectively. The corresponding values for PS2 were 96%, 0.200, 2.12, and 0.003. Values of the lactation curve parameters (a, b, and c for PS1 and PS2, respectively, were (a 7.0035923 and 10.9209, (b -0.1080043 and -0.1614882, (c 0.0434868 and 0.0679365.

  2. Cadmium and lead accumulations and agronomic quality of a newly bred pollution-safe cultivar (PSC) of water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Mu, Yang-Xiu; He, Chun-Tao; Fu, Hui-Ling; Wang, Xue-Song; Gong, Fei-Yue; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Breeding for pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) can reduce pollutant accumulation in crops. However, the PSC breeding would face the risk of nutritional quality reduction, which is usually ignored in conventional breeding programs targeting to increase crop yield or nutritional quality. Thus, the doubt whether the risk would exist has to be clarified for supporting the PSC breeding. In the present study, a newly bred Cd/Pb-PSC of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) and its parents (QLQ with low-Cd/Pb accumulation ability and T308 with high yield) of water spinach were employed to clarify the above-mentioned issue. Yields, and concentrations of Cd, Pb, nitrite, and organic and inorganic nutrients in shoots of the three experimental lines were determined. There were no significant differences in Cd/Pb concentration between the new PSC and QLQ, in nitrite content between the new PSC and its two parents and in yield between the new PSC and T308. It is decisively significant that shoot concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients in the Cd/Pb-PSC were as high as those in one of its parents. It is affirmed that the breeding operations (crossing and consequently continuous selfing) for lowering Cd/Pb accumulation capacity of water spinach would not lower the nutritional values of the obtained Cd/Pb-PSCs from the breeding, which should be a pillar that supports the feasibility to minimize Cd/Pb pollution in vegetables using PSC-breeding method.

  3. Cardiac protein expression patterns are associated with distinct inborn exercise capacity in non-selectively bred rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP and high running performance (HRP rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified. We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase, whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2. In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.

  4. A worldwide fuel strategy by AREVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Operating as a global company, inside AREVA the Fuel Sector implements a common strategy among three Business Units of fuel activities. These Business Units which are in Framatome ANP Zirconium, Manufacturing and Design and Sales Units, are operated in Germany (former Siemens activity), in USA (former BWFC Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Co,. and SPC Siemens Power Co. activities), in Belgium and in France (former Framatome activity). They have resources and facilities which are cooperatively working on R and D, engineering, project management, sales and services to achieve synergy on a cross-business basis. Based on its experience of worldwide activities and taking advantage of its diversified fuel design knowledge, Framatome ANP proposes a full range of fuel products and services on the BWR and PWR markets. With the ability to supply all fuel assembly arrays and fuel pellet types, supplemented by the range of stationary and movable core components, and completed by a full-range of on-site fuel services and performance of fuel packing and delivery, Framatome ANP is positioned as a major participant on the world fuel market. Today, Framatome ANP takes advantage of the cross-fertilization in the short term of existing products which include four original PWR fuel designs of HTP TM alloy as the reference material for cladding tubes, guide thimbles, and grids, -- Gradual incorporation of the valuable high-stiffiness MONOBLOC tM guide thimble, -- Progressive integressive integration of the High Mechanical Performance (HMP) Inconel end grid, -- Planned standardization of mechanical components such as nozzles, holddown systems and top and bottom connections. As a continuation of its existing technology, Framatome ANP is developing improved technical features within the scope of the Alliance fuel assembly qualification program. With an irradiation program ranging up to a burnup of 70 MWd/kgU expected to be reached in 2006, Alliance shows excellent behaviour with very low corrosion

  5. HOME-GROWN AND ABROAD-BRED ENTREPRENEURS IN CHINA: A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCES OF EXTERNAL CONTEXT ON ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS WING YAN MAN; THERESA LAU; K. F. CHAN

    2008-01-01

    As an attempt to explore the influence of external context on entrepreneurial competencies, we conducted a comparative analysis using a sample of 16 home-grown and abroad-bred entrepreneurs in China. Through a content analysis of the critical incidents during their business development, we found that both groups demonstrated a similar set of entrepreneurial competencies, with strategic, relationship, conceptual, organizing and opportunity competencies being the most predominant types. However...

  6. GABAB Receptor Stimulation Accentuates the Locomotor Effects of Morphine in Mice Bred for Extreme Sensitivity to the Stimulant Effects of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Sarah E.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Mice selectively bred for divergent sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol (FAST and SLOW) also differ in their locomotor response to morphine. The GABAB receptor has been implicated in the mediation of locomotor stimulation to both ethanol and morphine, and a reduction in ethanol-induced stimulation has been found with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in FAST mice. We hypothesized that GABAB receptor activation would also attenuate the locomotor stimulant responses to m...

  7. Residential surface soil guidance values applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention POP pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many regulatory jurisdictions attempt to control human exposures with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify a soil's maximum allowable concentration. Pesticides are important soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread surface soil application. Worldwide, at least 174 regulatory jurisdictions from 54 United Nations member states have published more than 19,400 pesticide RGVs for at least 739 chemically unique pesticides. This manuscript examines the variability of the guidance values that are applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POP) pesticides (Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Mirex, and Toxaphene) for which at least 1667 RGVs have been promulgated. Results indicate that the spans of the RGVs applied to each of these pesticides vary from 6.1 orders of magnitude for Toxaphene to 10.0 orders of magnitude for Mirex. The distribution of values across these value spans resembles the distribution of lognormal random variables, but also contain non-random value clusters. Approximately 40% of all the POP RGVs fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) RGV cancer risk model. Another 22% of the values fall within uncertainty bounds computed from the USEPA's non-cancer risk model, but the cancer risk calculations yield the binding (lowest) value for all POP pesticides except Endrin. The results presented emphasize the continued need to rationalize the RGVs applied worldwide to important soil contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gusberti, Michele; Schouten, Henk J; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2016-03-01

    The expression of the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors. All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple cultivars were bred to express the resistance gene Vf from the wild apple genotype Malus floribunda 821. Positional cloning of the Vf locus allowed the identification of the Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) scab resistance gene that was subsequently used to generate cisgenic apple lines. It is important to understand and compare how this resistance gene is transcribed and modulated during infection in conventionally bred cultivars and in cisgenic lines. The aim of this work was to study the transcription pattern of Rvi6 in three classically bred apple cultivars and six lines of 'Gala' genetically modified to express Rvi6. Rvi6 transcription was analyzed at two time points using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) following inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia or water. Rvi6 transcription was assessed in relation to five reference genes. β-Actin, RNAPol, and UBC were the most suited to performing RT-qPCR experiments on Malus × domestica. Inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia under conditions conducive to scab infection failed to produce any significant changes to the transcription level of Rvi6. Rvi6 expression levels were inconsistent in response to external treatments in the different apple cultivars, and transgenic, intragenic or cisgenic lines.

  9. Lyapunov, singular and bred vectors in a multi-scale system: an empirical exploration of vectors related to instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, Adrienne; Kalnay, Eugenia; Ide, Kayo; Yang, Shu-Chih; Wolfe, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We compute and compare the three types of vectors frequently used to explore the instability properties of dynamical models, namely Lyapunov vectors (LVs), singular vectors (SVs) and bred vectors (BVs) in two systems, using the Wolfe–Samelson (2007 Tellus A 59 355–66) algorithm to compute all of the Lyapunov vectors. The first system is the Lorenz (1963 J. Atmos. Sci. 20 130–41) three-variable model. Although the leading Lyapunov vector, LV1, grows fastest globally, the second Lyapunov vector, LV2, which has zero growth globally, often grows faster than LV1 locally. Whenever this happens, BVs grow closer to LV2, suggesting that in larger atmospheric or oceanic models where several instabilities can grow in different areas of the world, BVs will grow toward the fastest growing local unstable mode. A comparison of their growth rates at different times shows that all three types of dynamical vectors have the ability to predict regime changes and the duration of the new regime based on their growth rates in the last orbit of the old regime, as shown for BVs by Evans et al (2004 Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 520–4). LV1 and BVs have similar predictive skill, LV2 has a tendency to produce false alarms, and even LV3 shows that maximum decay is also associated with regime change. Initial and final SVs grow much faster and are the most accurate predictors of regime change, although the characteristics of the initial SVs are strongly dependent on the length of the optimization window. The second system is the toy ‘ocean-atmosphere’ model developed by Peña and Kalnay (2004 Nonlinear Process. Geophys. 11 319–27) coupling three Lorenz (1963 J. Atmos. Sci. 20 130–41) systems with different time scales, in order to test the effects of fast and slow modes of growth on the dynamical vectors. A fast ‘extratropical atmosphere’ is weakly coupled to a fast ‘tropical atmosphere’ which is, in turn, strongly coupled to a slow ‘ocean’ system, the latter coupling

  10. Cocaine self-administration and reinstatement in female rats selectively bred for high and low voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethells, J R; Zlebnik, N E; Miller, D K; Will, M J; Booth, F; Carroll, M E

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has found that rats behaviorally screened for high (vs. low) wheel running were more vulnerable to cocaine abuse. To assess the extent to which a genetic component is involved in this drug-abuse vulnerability, rats selectively bred for high or low voluntary running (HVR or LVR, respectively) were examined for differences in cocaine seeking in the present study. Female rats were trained to lever press for food and then were assessed for differences in acquisition of cocaine (0.4mg/kg; i.v.) self-administration across 10 sessions. Once acquired, rats self-administered cocaine for a 14-day maintenance phase, followed by a 14-day extinction phase when cocaine was no longer available. Subsequently, reinstatement of cocaine seeking was examined with priming injections of cocaine (5, 10 & 15mg/kg), caffeine (30mg/kg), yohimbine (2.5mg/kg) and cocaine-paired cues. A greater percentage of LVR rats met the acquisition criteria for cocaine self-administration and in fewer sessions than HVR rats. No differences in responding for cocaine were observed between phenotypes during maintenance. However, during extinction LVR rats initially responded at higher rates and persisted in cocaine seeking for a greater number of sessions. No phenotype differences were observed following drug and cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In general, LVR rats were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of cocaine than HVR rats during periods of transition into and out of cocaine self-administration. Thus, LVR rats sometimes showed a greater vulnerability cocaine seeking than HVR rats. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. The selectively bred high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats differ in sensitivity to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; Dawson, Ralph; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    Studies in rodents selectively bred to differ in alcohol sensitivity have suggested that nicotine and ethanol sensitivities may cosegregate during selective breeding. This suggests that ethanol and nicotine sensitivities may in part be genetically correlated. Male and female high alcohol sensitivity (HAS), control alcohol sensitivity, and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats were tested for nicotine-induced alterations in locomotor activity, body temperature, and seizure activity. Plasma and brain levels of nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, were measured in these animals, as was the binding of [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin in eight brain regions. Both replicate HAS lines were more sensitive to nicotine-induced locomotor activity depression than the replicate LAS lines. No consistent HAS/LAS differences were seen on other measures of nicotine sensitivity; however, females were more susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than males. No HAS/LAS differences in nicotine or cotinine levels were seen, nor were differences seen in the binding of nicotinic ligands. Females had higher levels of plasma cotinine and brain nicotine than males but had lower brain cotinine levels than males. Sensitivity to a specific action of nicotine cosegregates during selective breeding for differential sensitivity to a specific action of ethanol. The differential sensitivity of the HAS/LAS rats is due to differences in central nervous system sensitivity and not to pharmacokinetic differences. The differential central nervous system sensitivity cannot be explained by differences in the numbers of nicotinic receptors labeled in ligand-binding experiments. The apparent genetic correlation between ethanol and nicotine sensitivities suggests that common genes modulate, in part, the actions of both ethanol and nicotine and may explain the frequent coabuse of these agents.

  12. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun eYen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB. Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition, implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD

  13. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.

  14. Safety studies on intravenous administration of oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in purpose-bred beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Naik, Shruthi; Galyon, Gina D; Jenks, Nathan; Steele, Mike; Peng, Kah-Whye; Federspiel, Mark J; Donnell, Robert; Russell, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    VSV-IFNβ-NIS is a novel recombinant oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with documented efficacy and safety in preclinical murine models of cancer. To facilitate clinical translation of this promising oncolytic therapy in patients with disseminated cancer, we are utilizing a comparative oncology approach to gather data describing the safety and efficacy of systemic VSV-IFNβ-NIS administration in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. In support of this, we executed a dose-escalation study in purpose-bred dogs to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of systemic VSV-hIFNβ-NIS, characterize the adverse event profile, and describe routes and duration of viral shedding in healthy, immune-competent dogs. The data indicate that an intravenous dose of 10(10) TCID50 is well tolerated in dogs. Expected adverse events were mild to moderate fever, self-limiting nausea and vomiting, lymphopenia, and oral mucosal lesions. Unexpected adverse events included prolongation of partial thromboplastin time, development of bacterial urinary tract infection, and scrotal dermatitis, and in one dog receiving 10(11) TCID50 (10 × the MTD), the development of severe hepatotoxicity and symptoms of shock leading to euthanasia. Viral shedding data indicate that detectable viral genome in blood diminishes rapidly with anti-VSV neutralizing antibodies detectable in blood as early as day 5 postintravenous virus administration. While low levels of viral genome copies were detectable in plasma, urine, and buccal swabs of dogs treated at the MTD, no infectious virus was detectable in plasma, urine, or buccal swabs at any of the doses tested. These studies confirm that VSV can be safely administered systemically in dogs, justifying the use of oncolytic VSV as a novel therapy for the treatment of canine cancer.

  15. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms

  16. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (PWheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Jennifer L.; Anderson, Marissa M.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consis...

  19. Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.

  20. a worldwide assessment of medical journal editors' practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responding editors reported having access to the Internet, making participation in ... of improving the quality of medical science and practice.! A critical activity of ... undertook a worldwide survey of medical editors to determine their interest in a ...

  1. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne L. McLean; Remo G. Lobetti; Johan P. Schoeman

    2014-01-01

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are no...

  2. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression in adult and juvenile mini-muscle mice bred for high-voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, Robert J; Acosta, Wendy; Garland, Theodore

    2014-11-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition of locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice were assessed at the protein and mRNA levels in both adult and juvenile (21 day old) mice. Mini-muscle mice are one outcome of a replicated artificial selection experiment in which four lines of mice were bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines). Two of the lines responded with an increase in frequency of a single nucleotide polymorphism in an intron in the MyHC-2b gene (myh4) that when homozygous causes a dramatic reduction in triceps surae mass. We found that both locomotor and non-locomotor muscles of adult mini-muscle mice displayed robust reductions, but not elimination, of the MyHC-2b isoform at both the protein and mRNA levels, with commensurate increases in MyHC-2x and sometimes MyHC-2a, as compared with either a line of HR mice that does not display the mini-muscle phenotype or inbred C57Bl6 mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that locomotor muscles of mini-muscle mice contain fibers that express the MyHC-2b isoform, which migrates normally in SDS-PAGE gels. However, these MyHC-2b positive fibers are generally smaller than the surrounding fibers and smaller than the MyHC-2b positive fibers of non-mini-muscle mice, resulting in characteristically fast muscles that lack a substantial MyHC-2b positive (superficial) region. In contrast, the masseter, a non-locomotor muscle of mini-muscle mice contained MyHC-2b positive fibers that stained more lightly for MyHC-2b, but appeared normal in size and distribution. In adults, many of the MyHC-2b positive fibers in the mini-muscle mice also display central nuclei. Only a small proportion of small MyHC-2b fibers in mini-muscle mice stained positive for the neural cell adhesion molecule, suggesting that anatomical innervation was not compromised. In addition, weanling (21 day old), but not 5 day old mice, displayed alterations in MyHC isoform content at both the protein and mRNA levels, including

  3. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  4. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappold, K.

    1995-01-01

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction

  5. IETS statement on worldwide ET statistics for 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroud, Brad; Callesen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    For the twentieth consecutive year, the Data Retrieval Committee of the international Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) can report global embryo transfer (ET) statistics. The number of bovine in vivoderived (IVD) embryos collected/flushed worldwide in 2010 increased to 732,000, a 4% increase from 2009...... the committee’s regional data collectors indicates that the embryo transfer industry is doing well. It is important to note that this report does not include every country’s statistics, and very few, if any, country has 100% of its activity represented; however, it is the best worldwide report available about...... the commercial embryo transfer business....

  6. Post irradiation examinations cooperation and worldwide utilization of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Status of post irradiation examinations in Studsvik's facilities, cooperation and worldwide utilization of facilities, was described. Studsvik cooperate with irradiation facilities, as Halden, CEA and JAEA, as well as other hot cell facilities (examples, PSI, ITU and NFD) universities (example, the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden) in order to be able to provide everything asked for by the nuclear community. Worldwide cooperation for effective use of expensive and highly specialized facilities is important, and the necessity of cooperation will be more and more recognized in the future. (author)

  7. Serum concentrations of creatine kinase and of triglycerides during lactation in gilts bred older and in multiparous sows fed ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira R.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the possible variation in blood concentrations of creatine kinase (CK and triglycerides in gilts bred older in comparison with multiparous sows. Ten primiparous and ten Camborough multiparous sows from the fourth to seventh parities were used. Breeding age and weight of gilts averaged respectively 231 days and 149.5kg. All females were moved into individual farrowing crates and were managed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected by puncturing the coccygeal artery on day 7 before expected farrowing, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 of lactation and 2 days after weaning. No difference in triglycerides and CK serum concentrations between groups were observed. The CK levels were low before farrowing, increased substantially on days 2 and 7 and decreased toward the end of lactation. The concentrations of triglycerides were slightly high before the parturition, diminished on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and increased after weaning.

  8. FINDbase: A worldwide database for genetic variation allele frequencies updated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Georgitsi (Marianthi); E. Viennas (Emmanouil); D.I. Antoniou (Dimitris I.); V. Gkantouna (Vassiliki); S. van Baal (Sjozef); E.F. Petricoin (Emanuel F.); K. Poulas (Konstantinos); G. Tzimas (Giannis); G.P. Patrinos (George)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFrequency of INherited Disorders database (FIND base; http://www.findbase. org) records frequencies of causative genetic variations worldwide. Database records include the population and ethnic group or geographical region, the disorder name and the related gene, accompanied by links to

  9. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... Fullscreen Fullscreen Off. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463.

  10. Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. ... African Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ... http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/AJMS.2008.30.1.13.463 · AJOL African Journals ...

  11. Development prospects of natural gas worldwide 2000-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.; Bouchard, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two differing models for the expansion of natural gas consumption worldwide are presented. Forecasting over the next five decades, gas consumption in various parts of the world are tabulated for a base case where gas consumption could increase by 75% by 2030 and an alternative case linked to relatively poor economic conditions with expansion at half that rate. (UK)

  12. Worldwide end-of-life practice for patients in ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tat; Phua, Jason; Joynt, Gavin M

    2018-04-01

    Published data and practice recommendations on end-of-life (EOL) generally reflect Western practice frameworks. Understanding worldwide practices is important because improving economic conditions are promoting rapid expansion of intensive care services in many previously disadvantaged regions, and increasing migration has promoted a new cultural diversity previously predominantly unicultural societies. This review explores current knowledge of similarities and differences in EOL practice between regions and possible causes and implications of these differences. Recent observational and survey data shows a marked variability in the practice of withholding and withdrawing life sustaining therapy worldwide. Some evidence supports the view that culture, religion, and socioeconomic factors influence EOL practice, and individually or together account for differences observed. There are also likely to be commonly desired values and expectations for EOL practice, and recent attempts at establishing where worldwide consensus may lie have improved our understanding of shared values and practices. Awareness of differences, understanding their likely complex causes, and using this knowledge to inform individualized care at EOL is likely to improve the quality of care for patients. Further research should clarify the causes of EOL practice variability, monitor trends, and objectively evaluate the quality of EOL practice worldwide.

  13. Downy mildew: a serious disease threat to rose health worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronospora sparsa is a downy mildew-causing oomycete that can infect roses, blackberries and other members of the rose family. During the last 20 years, this disease has become a serious problem for rose growers in the U.S. and worldwide. While much is known about the disease and its treatment, inc...

  14. IETS statement on worldwide ET statistics for 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroud, Brad; Callesen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of IVP embryos transferred worldwide in 2010 was 339,685, an 11% increase from 2009. Global equine ET activity also increased in 2010. The number of reported flushes (41,652) was up by 4,681 (+13%). The number of transfers (28,824) was also up (+4,354). Brazil and Argentina led the way in mares flushed...

  15. Expanding Worldwide Awareness of Gifted and Talented Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    1990-01-01

    This article documents the growing worldwide concern for identifying and serving gifted students, primarily via curriculum and instructional differentiation through special classes, enrichment, and acceleration. Programs in Brazil, Canada, Australia, the Middle East, Israel, the Philippines, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Poland, Indonesia, Taiwan,…

  16. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzati, Majid; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic

  17. Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-29

    the Industrial Control Systems (ICS) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) systems used in water management, oil and gas pipelines ...Statement for the Record Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community Senate Select Committee on Intelligence...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions

  18. Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.; Strachan, Jane; Lazaridou, Angeliki

    2012-01-01

    "Shaping Social Justice Leadership: Insights of Women Educators Worldwide" contains evocative portraits of twenty-three women educators and leaders from around the world whose actions are shaping social justice leadership. Woven from words of their own narratives, the women's voices lift off the page into readers' hearts and minds to inspire and…

  19. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  20. With the worldwide decline in conventional finfish stocks, fishers are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the worldwide decline in conventional finfish stocks, fishers are redirecting their attention to alter- native stocks, in particular invertebrates (Perry et al. 1999). Initiatives towards developing small-scale commercial fisheries, aimed at supporting previously disadvantaged fishers and targeting previously under- exploited ...

  1. Random walk on random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilário, M.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Sidoravicius, V.; Soares dos Santos, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a random walk in a one-dimensional dynamic random environment consisting of a collection of independent particles performing simple symmetric random walks in a Poisson equilibrium with density ¿¿(0,8). At each step the random walk performs a nearest-neighbour jump, moving to

  2. 77 FR 35060 - Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company, Pfizer Worldwide Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Research, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division... December 2, 2011, applicable to workers of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research... Worldwide Research & Development Division, Antibacterial Research Unit, Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and...

  3. 77 FR 65582 - Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Reasearch & Development Division, Formerly Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Research, Pfizer Worldwide Reasearch & Development Division, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company... workers of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, formerly known... follows: All workers of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division...

  4. 78 FR 28630 - Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, Formerly Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, Formerly Known as Warner Lambert Company... Groton, Connecticut location of Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development... Worldwide Research & Development Division, formerly known as Warner Lambert Company, Comparative Medicine...

  5. The performance trends of nuclear power plants worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glorian, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    Looking back to the worldwide operating experience feedback, which performance trends and conclusions could be drawn up? What is the specific situation of the French nuclear units, in comparison with the average worldwide performance? The performance of a unit or group of facilities is measured not only in technical terms (safety, availability, load control capability), but also from an economic and financial standpoint (operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, etc). Performance in terms of radiological protection and on-the-job safety, as well as environmental protection, is also monitored in order to give the broadest possible overview of nuclear power plant performance. The main technical results are presented on the basis of selected performance indicators. The results obtained by French units are benchmarked against those of other PWR facilities in operation around the world, in accordance with comparisons made by the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). (author)

  6. The performance trends of nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glorian, D.

    2001-01-01

    Looking back to the worldwide operating experience feedback, which performance trends and conclusions could be drawn up? What is the specific situation of the French nuclear units, in comparison with the average worldwide performance? The performance of a unit or group of facilities is measured not only in technical terms (safety, availability, load control capability), but also from an economic and financial standpoint (operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, etc). Performance in terms of radiological protection and on-the-job safety, as well as environmental protection, is also monitored in order to give the broadest possible overview of nuclear power plant performance. The main technical results are presented on the basis of selected performance indicators. The results obtained by French units are benchmarked against those of other PWR facilities in operation around the world, in accordance with comparisons made by the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). (author)

  7. Worldwide outlook clouded by market slump of late 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Excess production and production capacity reasserted their influence in worldwide petroleum markets last year, pushing crude oil prices to their lowest levels since before the Persian Gulf crisis. The development ended the relative price stability that has characterized the period since the crisis ended in January 1991. One of the major questions now being asked is whether there has been a downward shift in the seasonal range of crude prices. In the near future, OPEC's degree of success in balancing the market will be a key to prices. Another is politics in the Middle East. If it were not for a United Nations embargo, the market would have another 2--3 million b/d of oil supply--from Iraq. The paper discusses worldwide demand, economic trends, the supply in 1993, the supply outlook, prices, and international drilling activities

  8. The promises and prospects of worldwide wireless power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voorhies, K.L.; Smith, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The promise of worldwide wireless power transfer began with the pioneering work of Nikola Tesla about 100 years ago. His principal approach is summarized. The viability of such a system must still be demonstrated and many questions remain. Potentially, a wireless system can transfer power more efficiently and flexibly, especially to and from remote regions. This paper includes principle elements of worldwide wireless power transfer: the source: an oscillator/transmitter, the path: the cavity bounded by the earth and the ionosphere, and the receiver: a means of extracting power from the path. The system transfers and stores energy via the resonance modes of the cavity. The key challenges facing demonstration of technical feasibility are in finding an efficient means of coupling power into and out of the earth-ionosphere cavity, and in devising a feasible receiver that is both small and efficient. Along with demonstrating technical feasibility, new research must consider safety, environmental impact, susceptibility to weather, and effects on weather

  9. Facilities for radiotherapy with ion beams status and worldwide developments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five years after the first ion beam therapy in Berkeley around 25,000 cancer patients worldwide have been treated successfully. Ion accelerators, designed for nuclear research, delivered most of this treatment. The first hospital-based facility started operation in 1998 at Loma Linda California, the first for heavier ions at Chiba, Japan in 1994 and the first commercially delivered facilities started operation in 1998 at Kashiwa, Japan. In 2000, the Harvard Medical Centre, Boston, US, will commence operation and several new facilities are planned or under construction worldwide, although none in Australia. This paper will discuss the physical and biological advantages of ion beams over x-rays and electrons. In the treatment of cancer patients ion beam therapy is especially suited for localised tumours in radiation sensitive areas like skull or spine. Heavier ions are also effective in anoxic tumour cells (found around the normally oxygenated cell population). An additional advantage of the heavier carbo...

  10. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Radiology Department 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  11. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  12. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  13. Financial Worldwide Crisis: The Anti-Counter Cycle of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao NEGREIROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available If Australia has been subject to major influences by the United States and European countries, why is its economy healthier than their counter partners? What are the economic foundations that underline this anti-counter cycle of financial worldwide crisis from Australia? What are some of the lessons that countries from Europe that have not fared during the current financial worldwide crisis should learn from Australia? The purpose of this paper is to review the present Australian management system. Four changes are identified including embracement of corporate governance, a shift to adopt more R&D activities, a shift to adopt environmental sustainability practices and emerging corporate social responsibility. On the conclusions settings, a recap and recommendation on how Portugal, a member of the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain Southern European Countries club forgot to embrace directives that have been applied in Australia, to avoid the actual financial and identity crisis.

  14. Crude oil: worldwide inquiry on a destructive wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maass, P.

    2010-01-01

    More and more scarce, petroleum appears as much as an advantage as a malediction for the countries who owns some. Petroleum is very often synonymous of war, poverty, fundamentalism, pollution, or anarchy. Thanks to a large range of testimonies gathered in many oil producing countries, the author gives an overview of the worldwide fight in which oil industry actors are engaged and presents its deleterious influence on economies and populations. (J.S.)

  15. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  16. World-Wide Outreach through International Observe the Moon Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Jones, A. P.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Day, B. H.; Wenger, M.; Joseph, E.; Canipe, M.

    2016-12-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide public event that encourages observation, appreciation, and understanding of our Moon and its connection to NASA planetary science and exploration. Everyone on Earth is invited to join the celebration by hosting or attending an InOMN event - and uniting on one day each year to look at and learn about the Moon together. Events are hosted by a variety of institutions including astronomy clubs, observatories, schools, and universities, museums, planetaria, schools, universities, observatories, parks, private businesses and private homes. Events hosts are supported with event flyers, information sheets, Moon maps for observing, activities to use during events, presentations, certificates of participation, and evaluation materials to be used by hosts. 2016 is the seventh year of worldwide participation in InOMN which will be held on October 8th. In the last six years, over 3,000 events were registered worldwide from almost 100 different countries and almost all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States. Evaluation of InOMN is conducted by an external evaluation group and includes analysis of event registrations, facilitator surveys, and visitor surveys. Evaluation results demonstrate that InOMN events are successful in raising visitors' awareness of lunar science and exploration, providing audiences with information about lunar science and exploration, and inspiring visitors to want to learn more about the Moon. Additionally, preliminary analysis of social media has shown that there is a virtual network of individuals connecting about InOMN. A large fraction of events have been held by institutions for more than one year showing sustained interest in participation. During this presentation, we will present data for all seven years of InOMN including lessons learned through supporting and evaluating a worldwide event. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA

  17. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiknes, Kari Ann; Jarosh-von Schweder, Lindy; Høie, Bjørg

    2012-01-01

    To explore contemporary (from 1990) utilization and practice of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) worldwide. Systematic search (limited to studies published 1990 and after) was undertaken in the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, SveMed, and EBSCO/Cinahl. Primary data-based studies/surveys with reported ECT utilization and practice in psychiatric institutions internationally, nationally, and regionally; city were included. Two reviewers independently checked study titles and abstracts according to inclusion criteria, and extracted ECT utilization and practice data from those retrieved in full text. Seventy studies were included, seven from Australia and New Zealand, three Africa, 12 North and Latin America, 33 Europe, and 15 Asia. Worldwide ECT differences and trends were evident, average number ECTs administered per patient were eight; unmodified (without anesthesia) was used in Asia (over 90%), Africa, Latin America, Russia, Turkey, Spain. Worldwide preferred electrode placement was bilateral, except unilateral at some places (Europe and Australia/New Zealand). Although mainstream was brief-pulse wave, sine-wave devices were still used. Majority ECT treated were older women with depression in Western countries, versus younger men with schizophrenia in Asian countries. ECT under involuntary conditions (admissions), use of ambulatory-ECT, acute first line of treatment, as well as administered by other professions (geriatricians, nurses) were noted by some sites. General trends were only some institutions within the same country providing ECT, training inadequate, and guidelines not followed. Mandatory reporting and overall country ECT register data were sparse. Many patients are still treated with unmodified ECT today. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences. PMID:22741102

  18. Searching for the corner seismic moment in worldwide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felgueiras, Miguel; Santos, Rui; Martins, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the existence of the corner frequency value for the seismic moment distribution is investigated, analysing worldwide data. Pareto based distributions, usually considered as the most suitable to this type of data, are fitted to the most recent data, available in a global earthquake catalog. Despite the undeniable finite nature of the seismic moment data, we conclude that no corner frequency can be established considering the available data set

  19. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991?2008 have been examined using the ?title?abstract? keyword search on esp@cenet ?worldwide? database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People?s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the larges...

  20. PubData: search engine for bioinformatics databases worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Vand, Kasra; Wahlestedt, Thor; Khomtchouk, Kelly; Sayed, Mohammed; Wahlestedt, Claes; Khomtchouk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a search engine and file retrieval system for all bioinformatics databases worldwide. PubData searches biomedical data in a user-friendly fashion similar to how PubMed searches biomedical literature. PubData is built on novel network programming, natural language processing, and artificial intelligence algorithms that can patch into the file transfer protocol servers of any user-specified bioinformatics database, query its contents, retrieve files for download, and adapt to the use...

  1. Effects of Worldwide Population Subdivision on ALDH2 Linkage Disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Raymond J.; Goldman, David; Long, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of human population subdivision on linkage disequilibrium has previously been studied for unlinked genes. However, no study has focused on closely linked polymorphisms or formally partitioned linkage disequilibrium within and among worldwide populations. With an emphasis on population subdivision, the goal of this paper is to investigate the causes of linkage disequilibrium in ALDH2, the gene that encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. Haplotypes for 756 people from 17 populations acros...

  2. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors: A Year 3 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Udomprasert, Patricia S; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Wong, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    We give a brief overview of some key features of WorldWide Telescope and its Ambassadors Program, and we describe two goals for expanding the program in the coming year: scaling up training efforts; and developing “plug and play” Visualization Lab modules that teach key Earth and Space Science concepts to students while emphasizing important scientific processes and skills. We discuss several different ways that members of the astronomy education and outreach community can incorporate WWT-bas...

  3. THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY ON WHEAT TRADE WORLDWIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Changyou; Kim, Mina; Koo, Won W.; Cho, Guedae; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2002-01-01

    A modified gravity-type model was employed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate volatility on wheat exports worldwide. Special attention was given to the econometric properties of the gravity model within panel framework. Short and long-term measures of exchange rate volatility were constructed and compared. Both measures of exchange rate volatility have exhibited a negative effect on world wheat trade and the long-term effect was even larger. This result implies that exchange rate volatil...

  4. Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide to 2017: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Samantha L; Amaya, Anais K; Alexander, Ian E; Edelstein, Michael; Abedi, Mohammad R

    2018-03-25

    To date, almost 2600 gene therapy clinical trials have been completed, are ongoing or have been approved worldwide. Our database brings together global information on gene therapy clinical activity from trial databases, official agency sources, published literature, conference presentations and posters kindly provided to us by individual investigators or trial sponsors. This review presents our analysis of clinical trials that, to the best of our knowledge, have been or are being performed worldwide. As of our November 2017 update, we have entries on 2597 trials undertaken in 38 countries. We have analysed the geographical distribution of trials, the disease indications (or other reasons) for trials, the proportions to which different vector types are used, and the genes that have been transferred. Details of the analyses presented, and our searchable database are available via The Journal of Gene Medicine Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website at: http://www.wiley.co.uk/genmed/clinical. We also provide an overview of the progress being made in gene therapy clinical trials around the world, and discuss key trends since the previous review, namely the use of chimeric antigen receptor T cells for the treatment of cancer and advancements in genome editing technologies, which have the potential to transform the field moving forward. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Joanne L; Lobetti, Remo G; Schoeman, Johan P

    2014-11-14

    Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  6. Actual growth and probable future of the worldwide nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear-power-reactor manufacturing capacity will exceed worldwide demand by a factor of two or more during the 1980s. Only in France and the Soviet bloc countries is it likely that the ambitious nuclear-power programs formulated in the mid-1970s will be implemented. In all other developed countries and in most developing countries, further delays and cancellations of previously announced programs are all but certain. The stalemate over the future of nuclear power is particularly deep in America. Administrative and personnel problems in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, slow progress on radioactive waste disposal by the Department of Energy, severe financial problems for most electric utilities, and drastic reductions in the rate of electricity demand growth combine to make continuation of the five-year-old moratorium on reactor orders inevitable. Many of the ninety plants under construction may never operate, and some of the seventy in operation may shut down before the end of their economic life. Contrary to widespread belief, further oil price increases may not speed up world-wide reactor sales. It is possible that the world is heading for a worst of all possible outcomes: a large number of small nuclear power programs that do little to meet real energy needs but substantially complicate the problem of nuclear weapons proliferation. 24 references, 4 tables

  7. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  8. Pepino Mosaic Virus: a serious threat to tomato plants worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane BIBI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available omato (Solanum lycopersicum is one of the widely grown crops worldwide. It is consumed in various forms and has excellent nutritional values. Presently, this crop is facing a serious threat to its yield and survival because of a potexvirus infection. One of the potexvirus species hampering tomato productions worldwide is Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. This emerging virus is one of the most destructive plant diseases destroying tomato crops globally. It has spread to many countries worldwide including France, Italy, the UK, Poland, Belgium, the USA, Canada and China. PepMV genome consists of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule, approximately 6.4 kb in length. The genomic RNA contains five open reading frames (ORFs encoding for the coat protein (CP, the putative viral polymerase (RdRp and the triple gene block (TGB proteins. PepMV is efficiently transmitted mechanically. In other studies, seed transmission has been demonstrated. This article provides an overview of PepMV symptoms, transmission, different strains of PepMV, its genome organization and strategies employed for controlling it. The knowledge about the recent progress in the study of PepMV would help develop novel strategies for its control in agriculture.

  9. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir-Kheli, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A few simple problems relating to random magnetic systems are presented. Translational symmetry, only on the macroscopic scale, is assumed for these systems. A random set of parameters, on the microscopic scale, for the various regions of these systems is also assumed. A probability distribution for randomness is obeyed. Knowledge of the form of these probability distributions, is assumed in all cases [pt

  10. YIELD CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GREEN BEANS IN CULTIVARS OF KIDNEY BEAN BRED AT OMSK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kazydub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In  2014-2016  the  assessment of  kidney bean  cultivars bred at Omsk State Agrarian University on yield capacity, quality, and biochemical  chemical compounds  in green beans, such as proteins, zinc, iodine, iron and sucrose was carried  out  in  the  south  forest-steppe  of  Western Siberia. The technological  parameters of  green  beans: the  shape  of  cross-section  area; pulpiness,  fibrous  or non-fibrous,  and bean thickness were estimated. Threeyear study showed that all tested cultivars bred at Omsk State  Agrarian  University  surpassed  control  cultivar  in yield capacity,  chemical composition  and technological parameters of green beans. The cultivar ‘Pamiyaty Rizhovoy’ gave a highest yield: 563.4 g/m2  in 2014; 622.8 g/m2 in 2015; and 620.4 g/m2  in 2016. It is worth noticing that this cultivar is also distinguished by contents of micro and macroelements: 21.20-28.68  mg/kg  of zinc; 0.012-0.018 mg/kg of iodine; and 1.8-3.2 mg/kg of iron. In the course of the study, it was noticed the dependence of  yield  capacity  on  hydrothermal  coefficient  (HC. In 2014-2015 the yield capacity was a lowest when the moisturization was insufficient at 0.7 HC. With increase of HC the yield was higher. With sufficient moisturization at 1.0 HC the highest yield of green beans was observed in 2016.  The estimation  of  kidney  bean  cultivars  bred  at Omsk State  Agrarian University showed  that  all beans were  distinguished  by  high  quality  parameters  in  the phase  of  technical  maturity,  such  as  pulpiness,  nonfibrous, thickness 0.5 to  1.0 cm, and green and yellow colors.  The  highest  protein  content  comparing  to  the control  cultivar  ‘Zolushka’  was  detected  in  ‘Marusya’ 23.60%  in  2014,  20.94%  in  2015;  and  ‘Zoloto  Sibiry’ 19.79%  in  2016.  The  observed  results  confirmed  that contents  change of

  11. Variation in worldwide incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Boumédiene, Farid; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Couratier, Philippe; Babron, Marie-Claude; Leutenegger, Anne Louise; Copetti, Massimilano; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2017-02-01

    To assess the worldwide variation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based data published to date. We reviewed Medline and Embase up to June 2015 and included all population-based studies of newly diagnosed ALS cases, using multiple sources for case ascertainment. ALS crude and standardized incidence (on age and sex using the US 2010 population) were calculated. Random effect meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using the subcontinent as the main study level covariate. Sources of heterogeneity related to the characteristics of the study population and the study methodology were investigated. Among 3216 records, 44 studies were selected, covering 45 geographical areas in 11 sub-continents. A total of 13 146 ALS cases and 825 million person-years of follow-up (PYFU) were co-nsidered. The overall pooled worldwide crude ALS incidence was at 1.75 (1.55-1.96)/100 000 PYFU; 1.68 (1.50-1.85)/100 000 PYFU after standardization. Heterogeneity was identified in ALS standardized incidence between North Europe [1.89 (1.46-2.32)/100 000 PYFU] and East Asia [0.83 (0.42-1.24)/100 000 PYFU, China and Japan P = 0.001] or South Asia [0.73 (0.58-0.89)/100 000/PYFU Iran, P = 0.02]. Conversely, homogeneous rates have been reported in populations from Europe, North America and New Zealand [pooled ALS standardized incidence of 1.81 (1.66-1.97)/100 000 PYFU for those areas]. This review confirms a heterogeneous distribution worldwide of ALS, and sets the scene to sustain a collaborative study involving a wide international consortium to investigate the link between ancestry, environment and ALS incidence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Worldwide variation in hip fracture incidence weakly aligns with genetic divergence between populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, I J; Botigué, L R; Lin, M; Smaers, J B; Henn, B M; Grine, F E

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of genetic differentiation in determining worldwide heterogeneity in osteoporosis-related hip fracture rates. The results indicate that global variation in fracture incidence exceeds that expected on the basis of random genetic variance. Worldwide, the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures varies considerably. This variability is believed to relate mainly to non-genetic factors. It is conceivable, however, that genetic susceptibility indeed differs across populations. Here, we present the first quantitative assessment of the effects of genetic differentiation on global variability in hip fracture rates. We investigate the observed variance in publically reported age-standardized rates of hip fracture among 28 populations from around the world relative to the expected variance given the phylogenetic relatedness of these populations. The extent to which these variances are similar constitutes a "phylogenetic signal," which was measured using the K statistic. Population genetic divergence was calculated using a robust array of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. While phylogenetic signal is maximized when K > 1, a K value of only 0.103 was detected in the combined-sex fracture rate pattern across the 28 populations, indicating that fracture rates vary more than expected based on phylogenetic relationships. When fracture rates for the sexes were analyzed separately, the degree of phylogenetic signal was also found to be small (females: K = 0.102; males: K = 0.081). The lack of a strong phylogenetic signal underscores the importance of factors other than stochastic genetic diversity in shaping worldwide heterogeneity in hip fracture incidence.

  13. Reassessment of MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. typing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The worldwide market will not be short of LPG fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of an internal note of the French Butane and Propane Committee (CFBP) about the perspectives of the worldwide market of LPG fuels. The conclusion of this study is that the market will not be short of LPG, in particular the French market and the automotive fuels. The consumption of LPG fuels for vehicles in France is growing up rapidly (about 100% in 1997 with respect to 1996: 90000 t consumed in 1997 by 70000 vehicles) and the resource remains important and can reach 3 millions of tons per year. (J.S.)

  15. Data deposition and annotation at the worldwide protein data bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shuchismita; Burkhardt, Kyle; Young, Jasmine; Swaminathan, Ganesh J; Matsuura, Takanori; Henrick, Kim; Nakamura, Haruki; Berman, Helen M

    2009-05-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the repository for three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules, determined by experimental methods. The data in the archive is free and easily available via the Internet from any of the worldwide centers managing this global archive. These data are used by scientists, researchers, bioinformatics specialists, educators, students, and general audiences to understand biological phenomenon at a molecular level. Analysis of this structural data also inspires and facilitates new discoveries in science. This chapter describes the tools and methods currently used for deposition, processing, and release of data in the PDB. References to future enhancements are also included.

  16. Interoperation of World-Wide Production e-Science Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M; Soddemann, T; Field, L; Navarro, JP; Casey, J; Litmaath, M; Baud, J; Koblitz, B; Catlett, C; Skow, D; Wang, S; Saeki, Y; Sato, H; Matsuoka, S; Geddes, N

    Many production Grid and e-Science infrastructures have begun to offer services to end-users during the past several years with an increasing number of scientific applications that require access to a wide variety of resources and services in multiple Grids. Therefore, the Grid Interoperation Now—Community Group of the Open Grid Forum—organizes and manages interoperation efforts among those production Grid infrastructures to reach the goal of a world-wide Grid vision on a technical level in the near future. This contribution highlights fundamental approaches of the group and discusses open standards in the context of production e-Science infrastructures.

  17. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING – AN ANALYSIS OF THE WORLDWIDE DIFFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Dan TURCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of sustainability issues expressed by different types of stakeholders has placed them among the leading topics inside the accounting literature. The paper aims to extend the current knowledge through the analysis of the relation between the number of sustainability reports issued by companies inside one country and its social, environmental and economic performances from a worldwide perspective, with a particular focus on the European Union. Our results indicate a positive correlation between the analyzed variables, denoting a higher involvement of companies from more developed countries for the improvement of sustainability reporting concept and practice.

  19. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  20. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  1. Computer data exchanges spur need for worldwide well numbering standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the American Association of Petroleum Geologists database standards subcommittee has voted to pursue development of a worldwide well numbering standard. Aim of such a standard would be to facilitate the exchange of well data between operators, service companies, and governments. The need for such a standard is heightened by the explosive growth of electronic data interchange (EDI), which uses industry standards to exchange data computer to computer. The subcommittee has reviewed various well numbering methods, identified advantages and disadvantages of each approach for publication to obtain industrywide comments

  2. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  3. AREVA’s Containment Venting Technologies and Experience Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, M.

    2015-07-01

    The AREVA Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS) is a product family that minimizes the environmental impact in case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP). Our experience is based on a large-scale test and qualification program as well as on the design, licensing and installation of more than 80 projects worldwide. The product family provides flexibility regarding the adaptation to respective accident scenarios, applicable codes and standards, seismic design, supply chain, implementation and localization. AREVA has broad experience of managing fleet supplies, successful support of licensing and cooperating with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of pressurized and boiling water reactors (PWR and BWR). (Author)

  4. Randomized random walk on a random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.A.

    1983-06-01

    This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)

  5. Global patterns and predictions of seafloor biomass using random forests

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, G.T.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Boetius, A; Soltwedel, T.; Caley, M.J.; Soliman, Y.; Huettmann, F.; Qu, F.; Yu, Z.; Pitcher, C.R.; Haedrich, R.L.; Wicksten, M.K.; Rex, M.A; Baguley, J.G.; Sharma, J.; Danovaro, R.; MacDonald, I.R.; Nunnally, C.C.; Deming, J.W.; Montagna, P.; Levesque, M.; Weslawsk, J.M.; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M.; Ingole, B.S.; Bett, B.J.; Billett, D.S.M.; Yool, A; Bluhm, B.A; Iken, K.; Narayanaswamy, B.E.

    A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model...

  6. Prospective Observational Study on acute Appendicitis Worldwide (POSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelli, Massimo; Baiocchi, Gian L; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ferrara, Francesco; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Vijayan, Deepak; Abbas, Ashraf; Abongwa, Hariscine K; Agboola, John; Ahmed, Adamu; Akhmeteli, Lali; Akkapulu, Nezih; Akkucuk, Seckin; Altintoprak, Fatih; Andreiev, Aurelia L; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Atanasov, Boiko; Bala, Miklosh; Balalis, Dimitrios; Baraket, Oussama; Bellanova, Giovanni; Beltran, Marcelo; Melo, Renato Bessa; Bini, Roberto; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Brunelli, Daniele; Castillo, Adrian; Catani, Marco; Che Jusoh, Asri; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Coimbra, Raul; Colak, Elif; Costa, Silvia; Das, Koray; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Kiseleva, Nadezda; El Zalabany, Tamer; Faro, Mario; Ferreira, Margarida; Fraga, Gustavo P; Gachabayov, Mahir; Ghnnam, Wagih M; Giménez Maurel, Teresa; Gkiokas, Georgios; Gomes, Carlos A; Griffiths, Ewen; Guner, Ali; Gupta, Sanjay; Hecker, Andreas; Hirano, Elcio S; Hodonou, Adrien; Hutan, Martin; Ioannidis, Orestis; Isik, Arda; Ivakhov, Georgy; Jain, Sumita; Jokubauskas, Mantas; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kauhanen, Saila; Kaushik, Robin; Kavalakat, Alfie; Kenig, Jakub; Khokha, Vladimir; Khor, Desmond; Kim, Dennis; Kim, Jae I; Kong, Victor; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Leão, Pedro; Leon, Miguel; Litvin, Andrey; Lohsiriwat, Varut; López-Tomassetti Fernandez, Eudaldo; Lostoridis, Eftychios; Maciel, James; Major, Piotr; Dimova, Ana; Manatakis, Dimitrios; Marinis, Athanasio; Martinez-Perez, Aleix; Marwah, Sanjay; McFarlane, Michael; Mesina, Cristian; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Michalopoulos, Nickos; Misiakos, Evangelos; Mohamedahmed, Ali; Moldovanu, Radu; Montori, Giulia; Mysore Narayana, Raghuveer; Negoi, Ionut; Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Novelli, Giuseppe; Novikovs, Viktors; Olaoye, Iyiade; Omari, Abdelkarim; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Ozkan, Zeynep; Pal, Ajay; Palini, Gian M; Partecke, Lars I; Pata, Francesco; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Pereira Júnior, Gerson A; Pintar, Tadeja; Pisarska, Magdalena; Ploneda-Valencia, Cesar F; Pouggouras, Konstantinos; Prabhu, Vinod; Ramakrishnapillai, Padmakumar; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Reitz, Marianne; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Saar, Sten; Sakakushev, Boris; Seretis, Charalampos; Sazhin, Alexander; Shelat, Vishal; Skrovina, Matej; Smirnov, Dmitry; Spyropoulos, Charalampos; Strzałka, Marcin; Talving, Peep; Teixeira Gonsaga, Ricardo A; Theobald, George; Tomadze, Gia; Torba, Myftar; Tranà, Cristian; Ulrych, Jan; Uzunoğlu, Mustafa Y; Vasilescu, Alin; Occhionorelli, Savino; Venara, Aurélien; Vereczkei, Andras; Vettoretto, Nereo; Vlad, Nutu; Walędziak, Maciej; Yilmaz, Tonguç U; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Yunfeng, Cui; Zilinskas, Justas; Grelpois, Gérard; Catena, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common surgical disease, and appendectomy is the treatment of choice in the majority of cases. A correct diagnosis is key for decreasing the negative appendectomy rate. The management can become difficult in case of complicated appendicitis. The aim of this study is to describe the worldwide clinical and diagnostic work-up and management of AA in surgical departments. This prospective multicenter observational study was performed in 116 worldwide surgical departments from 44 countries over a 6-month period (April 1, 2016-September 30, 2016). All consecutive patients admitted to surgical departments with a clinical diagnosis of AA were included in the study. A total of 4282 patients were enrolled in the POSAW study, 1928 (45%) women and 2354 (55%) men, with a median age of 29 years. Nine hundred and seven (21.2%) patients underwent an abdominal CT scan, 1856 (43.3%) patients an US, and 285 (6.7%) patients both CT scan and US. A total of 4097 (95.7%) patients underwent surgery; 1809 (42.2%) underwent open appendectomy and 2215 (51.7%) had laparoscopic appendectomy. One hundred eighty-five (4.3%) patients were managed conservatively. Major complications occurred in 199 patients (4.6%). The overall mortality rate was 0.28%. The results of the present study confirm the clinical value of imaging techniques and prognostic scores. Appendectomy remains the most effective treatment of acute appendicitis. Mortality rate is low.

  7. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  8. Worldwide variance in the potential utilization of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Travis; Dade Lunsford, L

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has expanded worldwide during the past 3 decades. The authors sought to evaluate whether experienced users vary in their estimate of its potential use. METHODS Sixty-six current Gamma Knife users from 24 countries responded to an electronic survey. They estimated the potential role of GKRS for benign and malignant tumors, vascular malformations, and functional disorders. These estimates were compared with published disease epidemiological statistics and the 2014 use reports provided by the Leksell Gamma Knife Society (16,750 cases). RESULTS Respondents reported no significant variation in the estimated use in many conditions for which GKRS is performed: meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and arteriovenous malformations. Significant variance in the estimated use of GKRS was noted for pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, and cavernous malformations. For many current indications, the authors found significant variance in GKRS users based in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Experts estimated that GKRS was used in only 8.5% of the 196,000 eligible cases in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Although there was a general worldwide consensus regarding many major indications for GKRS, significant variability was noted for several more controversial roles. This expert opinion survey also suggested that GKRS is significantly underutilized for many current diagnoses, especially in the Americas. Future studies should be conducted to investigate health care barriers to GKRS for many patients.

  9. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L

    2015-01-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180

  10. The major contributions of the worldwide gas congress CMG 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    2000-01-01

    The six major contributions which took place all along the 2000 issue of the worldwide gas congress have permitted to draw out a precise status of the international opportunities and challenges that natural gas industry will have to face in order to make natural gas the first energy source of the 21 century. Despite the different national contexts, all intervening parties agreed with the undeniable stakes of natural gas which will have a promising development provided that deregulation effects are mastered and investments are maintained in new technologies R and D and in the settlement of reliable international infrastructures. This article summarizes the main content of these contributions: Gaz de France group in the new European context: opportunities and strategies of a big operator; gas industry in the US: perspectives for the millennium; leading elements of the gas industry in Europe: liberalization, regulation and technology; structural transformations of the international gas industry and its strategies: towards a worldwide gas market; the future of gas industry in Russia in the 21 century; perspectives for natural gas in Asia. (J.S.)

  11. Poaceae pollen as the leading aeroallergen worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mozo, H

    2017-12-01

    The Poaceae family comprises over 12 000 wind-pollinated species, which release large amounts of pollen into the atmosphere. Poaceae pollen is currently regarded as the leading airborne biological pollutant and the chief cause of pollen allergy worldwide. Sensitization rates vary by country, and those variations are reviewed here. Grass pollen allergens are grouped according to their protein structure and function. In Poaceae, although species belonging to different subfamilies are characterized by distinct allergen subsets, there is a considerable degree of cross-reactivity between many species. Cross-reactivity between grass pollen protein and fresh fruit pan-allergens is associated with the appearance of food allergies. The additional influence of urban pollution may prompt a more severe immunological response. The timing and the intensity of the pollen season are governed by species genetics, but plant phenology is also influenced by climate; as a result, climate changes may affect airborne pollen concentrations. This article reviews the findings of worldwide research which has highlighted the major impact of climate change on plant phenology and also on the prevalence and severity of allergic disease. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  12. Smoking in Correctional Settings Worldwide: Prevalence, Bans, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Anne C; Eldridge, Gloria D; Chico, Cynthia E; Morisseau, Nancy; Drobeniuc, Ana; Fils-Aime, Rebecca; Day, Carolyn; Hopkins, Robyn; Jin, Xingzhong; Chen, Junyu; Dolan, Kate A

    2018-06-01

    Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines; we also examined whether prisons banned smoking or treated smokers. We searched databases for articles published between 2012 and 2016 and located 85 relevant articles with data representing 73.5% of all incarcerated persons from 50 countries. In 35 of 36 nations (97%) with published prevalence data, smoking for the incarcerated exceeded community rates 1.04- to 62.6-fold. Taking a conservative estimate of a 2-fold increase, we estimated that, globally, 14.5 million male and 26,000 female smokers pass through prisons annually. Prison authorities' responses include permitting, prohibiting, or treating tobacco use. Bans may temporarily improve health and reduce in-prison health care costs but have negligible effect after prison release. Evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation effective outside prisons are effective inside; effects persist after release. Because smoking prevalence is heightened in prisons, offering evidence-based interventions to nearly 15 million smokers passing through yearly would improve global health.

  13. MIMAS, setting the world-wide standard for plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergheynst Alain; Yvon Vanderborck

    2005-01-01

    Deployment of MIMAS MOX fuel irradiation started in 1985 with loading and irradiation in French 900 MWe PWR of EDF. A 20-year comprehensive R and D programme preceded it. This success was greatly facilitated by some early strategy advantages: 1) Development and licensing of a 'UO 2 -like' MOX fuel rod fully interchangeable with UO 2 rods; 2) Joint SCK/BN operation of the BR2 (MTR) and BR3 (PWR) reactors, pilot and industrial MOX fuel plants, PIE hot laboratories in the Mol/Dessel site. The period since 1985 saw the occurrence of some concurrent facts, that have incontestably led MIMAS to the world-wide leader position (99 % of actual MOX fuel is MIMAS): 1) BN-MIMAS has been selected by Cogema for its plants MELOX and Cadarache and has demonstrated to be a flexible, scalable, and industrial process. 2) MIMAS has been further selected by JNFL for its Japanese domestic MOX plant (Rokkasho-mura) and by US-DOE for its domestic MOX plant (Savannah-NC) for the disposition of 34-ton weapon-Pu. 3) Satisfactory fabrication and irradiation over 1840 metric tons of MIMAS MOX fuel. In order to face the worldwide on-going electricity market liberalisation, MIMAS makers and vendors must definitely improve the MOX performances to compete with continuously improving UO 2 fuel. The facing of this continuous challenge is also reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  14. Worldwide Overview of Lessons Learned from Decommissioning Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, Michele

    2008-01-01

    With an increasing number of radioactive facilities and reactors now reaching the end of their useful life and being taken out of service, there is a growing emphasis worldwide on the safe and efficient decommissioning of such plants. There is a wealth of experience already gained in decommissioning projects for all kinds of nuclear facilities. It is now possible to compare and discuss progress and accomplishments worldwide. In particular, rather than on the factual descriptions of projects, technologies and case histories, it is important to focus on lessons learned: in this way, the return of experience is felt to effectively contribute to progress. Key issues - inevitably based on a subjective ranking - are presented in this paper. Through the exchange of lessons learned, it is possible to achieve full awareness of the need for resources for and constraints of safe and cost-effective decommissioning. What remains now is the identification of specific, remaining issues that may hinder or delay the smooth progress of decommissioning. To this end, lessons learned provide the necessary background information; this paper tries to make extensive use of practical experience gained by the international community

  15. Global Immunizations: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Luthy, Karlen E; Schouten, Aimee E

    Immunizations are one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, yet people in many areas of the world do not receive adequate immunizations. Approximately 3 million people worldwide die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases; about half of these deaths are young children and infants. Global travel is more common; diseases that were once localized now can be found in communities around the world. Multiple barriers to immunizations have been identified. Healthcare access, cost, and perceptions of safety and trust in healthcare are factors that have depressed global immunization rates. Several global organizations have focused on addressing these barriers as part of their efforts to increase immunization rates. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund each have a part of their organization that is concentrated on immunizations. Maternal child nurses worldwide can assist in increasing immunization rates. Nurses can participate in outreach programs to ease the burden of patients and families in accessing immunizations. Nurses can work with local and global organizations to make immunizations more affordable. Nurses can improve trust and knowledge about immunizations in their local communities. Nurses are a powerful influence in the struggle to increase immunization rates, which is a vital aspect of global health promotion and disease prevention.

  16. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  17. Prevalence of Endoparasites in Faecal Samples of Cracids Bred in Captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. B. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many problems arising from poor sanitation that can affect wild birds maintained in captivity, parasitic afflictions are among the most frequent, and their effects can range from subclinical infections to death. Some of the most common cases involve endoparasites, principally if the species under consideration exists at a high population density. This being so, the aim of the current work was to report on the prevalence of endoparasites in faecal samples from cracids (curassows and allies bred in captivity at the Parque Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco state in Brazil. To do this, faecal and sand samples were collected from the enclosures of birds of the family Cracidae belonging to the collection from the Parque Dois Irmãos, which originated from private collections from the Metropolitan Region and Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco. Four lots of faecal and sand samples were collected over a 60-day period, giving a total of 84 faecal samples from 58 individuals of 21 species of cracids. The material collected was submitted for coproparasitological tests using the right method and spontaneous sedimentation. The results obtained were positive for Strongyloides sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillaria sp. and cysts of Entamoeba coli, as well as eggs belonging to the superfamily Strongyloidea.

  18. Captive breeding of the barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis) at the Montreal Biodome, with comparison notes on two other captive-bred skate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Serge; Pépin, Serge; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Misserey, Laurent; Rojas, Salvador

    2008-03-01

    In 1997, the Montreal Biodome obtained five barndoor skates (Dipturus laevis) from the waters off Boston, Massachusetts. Six years later, those specimens began reproducing, and the first egg case was collected in November 2003. Since then, 73 hatchlings have been born and raised. Egg cases were observed year round, and annual fecundity was measured for the first time: one female laid 69 eggs in 2005, 85 in 2006 and 115 in 2007. Egg incubation was longer than believed previously, ranging from 342 to 494 days. Hatching occurred throughout the year. Hatchlings averaged 193 mm total length and 128 mm disk width and weighed 32 g. They were fed krill and diced fish. All but one survived the first month. A photo identification system was useful in recognizing two groups of 10 specimens during their first year, and transponders could be inserted in the wing muscles of 1-year-old skates. Total lengths at birth and at age 2 were similar to the data reported from the wild, suggesting a similar growth pattern in captivity. The reproduction characteristics of the barndoor skate were compared with those of two other skate species currently bred at the Montreal Biodome, the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata) and the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata). Zoo Biol 27:145-153, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION PARAMETERS BETWEEN THE FIRST GENERATION OF A-LINE IMPORTED AND BRED GILTS ON THE NUCLEUS FARM VELIKA BRANJEVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Dubravac

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of productive parameters of two analyzed groups (the first generation of imported gilts and the gilts born on the domestic farm was conducted on a nucleus farm that imported the gilt lines from the TOPIGS breeding program. For the purposes of the nucleus pig farm, TOPIGS gilts were imported from Netherlands. The nucleus farm where the analysis of the two groups’ productive parameters was conducted imported the ancestral and grandfather lines to produce the parenting generation TOPIGS 40 sows which are bred with a Pietrain line of boars. The TOPIGS 40 sow is an animal based on A-line and B-line characterized by high fertility rate, excellent maternal characteristics, good capacity for growth, and quality meaty body. The analysis of productive parameters of the two observed groups of gilts (the first generation of 105 imported gilts and 88 gilts born on the domestic farm resulted in significantly higher number of total born, born alive and weaned piglets after the first farrowing (P<0.001 as well as significantly higher number of total born and born alive piglets at third farrowing (P<0.05. The results of the observed qualities confirm the fact that, apart from the unquestionable genetic potential, other factors such as adaptation, accommodation conditions, microclimate, nutrition, and management have a significant effect on the increase of production results.

  20. Reference intervals for hematological parameters of animals bred and kept at the vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine of the State University of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Osti Spinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of specific hematological parameters of laboratory animals used in experiments is highly relevant to evaluate functional alterations of their vital organs. Hematological reference rates for rats, mice, rabbits and hamsters, bred in conventional healthy conditions and derived from the Vivarium of the FMUSP’s Vivarium Center are established. One hundred and twenty mice of the strains BALB/c, C57BL / 6 and Swiss, 80 Wistar rats, 80 Golden hamsters and 80 New Zealand rabbits, males and females, apparently normal and healthy, over 10-weeks-old, were employed in current experiment. The analysis was determined by flow cytometry process (CELM CC510 involving the separation of erythrocytes and leukocytes, and cell identification by the suspension method and quantification. Hematological derivatives such as hematometric indexes (application of equations and morphological quantification of leukocytes and erythrocytes were determined by scanning/differential (Panótico-commercial, whereas hemoglobin dosage was determined by spectrophotometry (CELM E210D. Results are given as means and standard deviants of hematological profiles in the blood of the animals grouped by species, strain and sex. Data are an important asset for researchers in their analysis of experimental results. CEAU Certificate n.° 251/11 HCFMUSP.

  1. Low copulatory activity in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) relative to alcohol-preferring (sP) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that similar neural mechanisms are involved in the reinforcing properties of natural rewards, like food and sex, and drugs of abuse. Rat lines selectively bred for high and low oral alcohol intake and preference have been useful for understanding factors contributing to excessive alcohol intake and may constitute proper animal models for investigating the neurobiological basis of natural rewarding stimuli. Methods The present study evaluated copulatory behavior in alcohol and sexually naïve Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -nonpreferring (sNP) male rats in three consecutive copulatory behavior tests. Results The main finding was that, under the conditions used in this study, sNP rats were sexually inactive relative to sP rats. To gain more information about the sexual behavior in sP rats, Wistar rats were included as an external reference strain. Only minor differences between sP and Wistar rats were revealed. Conclusions The reason behind the low copulatory activity of sNP rats remains to be elucidated, but may in part be mediated by innate differences in brain transmitter systems. The comparison between sP and Wistar rats may also suggest that the inherent proclivity to excessive alcohol drinking in sP rats may mainly be dependent on its anxiolytic properties, as previously proposed, and not changes in the reward system. PMID:25728453

  2. SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO Anaplasma phagocytophilum IN HORSES FROM THE RIO DE JANEIRO STATE MOUNTED POLICE BRED IN THE URBAN ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Farias Rolim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emergent hemoparasite in regions where ticks are regularly found. In order to investigate the rate of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibody in horses of the Mounted Police of Rio de Janeiro state and therefore the presence of this agent, 41 horses from the Cavalry Squadron (CS and 50 from the Regiment of Mounted Police (RMP were selected. For the serologic diagnosis the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody test was performed. In the present work, among 91 equine sera samples anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies, with titer ≥ 1:80, were detected in 11 animals (12%, being five (5% from males and six (7% females, with no statistical difference. The adult animals with ages varying between five and 14 years presented the highest rate of positive reaction, although antibodies were detected in animals of all ages. We did not observe statistic differences in relation to the presence of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies among the animals bred in the CS and RMP. The presence of anti-A.phagocytophilim antibodies in horses of the Mounted Police with no clinical signs is indicative that the parasite is present in the enzootic form among the horses of the urban area. The circulation of the parasite among the animals is not dependent of the presence of tick infestations.

  3. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  4. A worldwide review of the cost of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.; Mario, N.; Vignon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The 'true cost' of nuclear energy is a subject of great controversy, especially when considering capital costs of recent projects which opponents to this technology claim to be out of control. In order to provide an objective assessment of nuclear competitiveness, a systematic review of nuclear costs as estimated by stakeholders on a worldwide basis (parliamentary commissions, general accounting offices, academics from universities, non-governmental organizations [either promoting nuclear, or nonnuclear energy], utilities and vendors) was done. Based on these data, levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) were calculated, for different technologies and different regional areas. A breakdown between the key factors (pre-construction and owner costs, Capex, Opex, spent fuel management, dismantling and decommissioning) was provided. The study generally concludes that nuclear energy remains competitive, although costs of advanced technologies soared compared to Gen II. It also demonstrates the benefit of steady and ongoing nuclear programs compared to construction of single projects from time to time. (authors)

  5. 1991 worldwide petroleum phone/fax/telex directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book puts more than 34,000 worldwide locations just a phone call or fax or telex message away. The directory lists companies and their subsidiaries in locations from Alaska to Zaire, whether their operations are in exploration, production, refining, transportation, petrochemicals, etc., offshore or on land. The listings are organized by country, with the companies listed in alphabetical order. So if you happen to know the country you wish to reach, you simply choose the company listed under it. And if you happen to know only the company name, two company indices will help you find the specific location you want. The Company Index Hierarchical lists all subsidiaries, branches, divisions, etc., under their corporate names. The Company Index - Alphabetical lists all entries alphabetically. Country codes for telephone, fax or telex are provided

  6. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; McCotter, Orion; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2018-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm. More than one third of outbreaks occurred in areas where the fungus was not previously known to be endemic, and more than half of outbreaks involved occupational exposures. Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks can be difficult to detect and challenging to prevent given the unknown effectiveness of environmental control methods and personal protective equipment; therefore, increased awareness of coccidioidomycosis outbreaks is needed among public health professionals, healthcare providers, and the public.

  7. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  8. Beacons of discovery the worldwide science of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA)

    2011-01-01

    To discover what our world is made of and how it works at the most fundamental level is the challenge of particle physics. The tools of particle physics—experiments at particle accelerators and underground laboratories, together with observations of space—bring opportunities for discovery never before within reach. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate to design, build and use unique detectors and accelerators to explore the fundamental physics of matter, energy, space and time. Together, in a common world-wide program of discovery, they provide a deep understanding of the world around us and countless benefits to society. Beacons of Discovery presents a vision of the global science of particle physics at the dawn of a new light on the mystery and beauty of the universe.

  9. Prospects for high-power radioactive beam facilities worldwide

    CERN Document Server

    Nolen, Jerry A

    2003-01-01

    Advances in accelerators, targets, ion sources, and experimental instrumentation are making possible ever more powerful facilities for basic and applied research with short-lived radioactive isotopes. There are several current generation facilities, based on a variety of technologies, operating worldwide. These include, for example, those based on the in-flight method such as the recently upgraded National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, the facility at RIKEN in Japan, GANIL in Caen, France, and GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Present facilities based on the Isotope-Separator On-Line method include, for example, the ISOLDE laboratory at CERN, HRIBF at Oak Ridge, and the new high-power facility ISAC at TRIUMF in Vancouver. Next-generation facilities include the Radioactive-Ion Factory upgrade of RIKEN to higher energy and intensity and the upgrade of ISAC to a higher energy secondary beam; both of these projects are in progress. A new project, LINAG, to upgrade the capabilities at...

  10. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood...... pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends...... from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS...

  11. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice. Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines. PMID:24679064

  12. Drinking water purification in the Czech Republic and worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmela, Jan; Beckova, Vera; Vlcek, Jaroslav; Marhol, Milan

    2012-06-01

    The report is structured as follows: (i) Legislative (hygienic) requirements for technologies applied to drinking water purification with focus on uranium elimination; (ii) Technological drinking water treatment processes (settling, filtration, precipitation, acidification, iron and manganese removal) ; (iii) State Office for Nuclear Safety requirements for the operation of facilities to separate uranium from drinking water and for the handling of saturated ionexes from such facilities; (iv) Material requirements for the operation of ionex filters serving to separate uranium from drinking water; (v) Effect of enhanced uranium concentrations in drinking waters on human body; (vi) Uranium speciation in ground waters; (vii) Brief description of technologies which are used worldwide for uranium removal; (viii) Technologies which are usable and are used in the Czech Republic for drinking water purification from uranium; (ix) Inorganic and organic ion exchangers and sorbents. (P.A.)

  13. Evolution of Water Lifting Devices (Pumps over the Centuries Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Yannopoulos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the major achievements in water lifting devices with emphasis on the major technologies over the centuries is presented and discussed. Valuable insights into ancient water lifting technologies with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability, and sustainability are provided. A comparison of the relevant technological developments in several early civilizations is carried out. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water engineering. They represent the best paradigm of probing the past and facing the future. A timeline of the historical development of water pumps worldwide through the last 5500 years of the history of mankind is presented. A chronological order is followed with emphasis on the major civilizations.

  14. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  15. Is Balamuthia mandrillaris a public health concern worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-10-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic, free-living amoeba that can cause skin lesions and the typically fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Available data for BAE cases indicate that this disease is difficult to detect because knowledge of predisposing factors is lacking, causing a challenge for diagnosing BAE. The number of reported BAE cases is increasing worldwide, and this is a major concern because little is known about the pathogen, no standardized detection tools are available, and most of the treatments are almost empirical. The recently reported cases, novel diagnostics tools, and successful therapeutic approaches against BAE infections are reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  18. World-wide online monitoring interface of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Mineev, M; Hauser, R; Salnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration accounts for more than 3000 members located all over the world. The efficiency of the experiment can be improved allowing system experts not present on site to follow the ATLAS operations in real-time, spotting potential problems which otherwise may remain unattended for a non-negligible time. Taking into account the wide geographical spread of the ATLAS collaboration, the solution of this problem is to have all monitoring information with minimal access latency available world-wide. We have implemented a framework which defines a standard approach for retrieving arbitrary monitoring information from the ATLAS private network via HTTP. An information request is made by specifying one of the predefined URLs with some optional parameters refining data which has to be shipped back in XML format. The framework takes care of receiving, parsing and forwarding such requests to the appropriate plugins. The plugins retrieve the requested data and convert it to XML (or optionally to JSON) format...

  19. Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: A Worldwide Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Menendez, Olga; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of an azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain in 1997, there has been an increasing number of papers describing the emergence of azole resistance. Firstly reported in the USA and soon after in Europe, it has now been described worldwide, challenging the management of human aspergillosis. The main mechanism of resistance is the modification of the azole target enzyme: 14-α sterol demethylase, encoded by the cyp51A gene; although recently, other resistance mechanisms have also been implicated. In addition, a shift in the epidemiology has been noted with other Aspergillus species (mostly azole resistant) increasingly being reported as causative agents of human disease. This paper reviews the current situation of Aspergillus azole resistance and its implications in the clinical setting. PMID:29376938

  20. Could viruses contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children increased rapidly starting about 1980 in both developed and developing countries. Studies of changes in diet and physical activity, television watching, and food advertisements on television suggest that these are not sufficient to explain the epidemic. The pattern of rapid spread is suggestive of an infectious origin. The concept of virus-induced obesity is not new. Eight viruses have been shown to cause obesity in animals and there is evidence for virus-induced obesity in humans. Recent evidence on animal and human adenoviruses suggests that these adenoviruses may infect adipocytes to alter enzymes and transcription factors resulting in accumulation of triglycerides and differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The E4orf1 gene of Ad-36 has been shown to be responsible for the adipogenic effect. It appears that a portion of the worldwide epidemic of obesity since 1980 could be due to infections with human adenoviruses.

  1. Ethical pharmaceutical promotion and communications worldwide: codes and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francer, Jeffrey; Izquierdo, Jose Zamarriego; Music, Tamara; Narsai, Kirti; Nikidis, Chrisoula; Simmonds, Heather; Woods, Paul

    2014-03-29

    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice.Developments in international controls, largely built upon long-established rules relating to the quality of advertising material, have contributed to clarifying the scope of acceptable company interactions with healthcare professionals. This article aims to provide policy makers, particularly in developing countries, with an overview of the evolution of mechanisms governing the communication practices, such as the distribution of promotional or scientific material and interactions with healthcare stakeholders, relating to prescription-only medicines.

  2. Taeniasis/cysticercosis trend worldwide and rationale for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montresor, Antonio; Palmer, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Pig production has increased significantly worldwide in recent years. Small-scale pig husbandry has become a popular source of income in rural and resource-poor communities in most of developing countries. A parallel increase of human Taenia carrier and human cysticercosis is expected but detailed data are not available. However, Taenia solium is considered responsible for over 10% of acute case admission to the neurological ward of countries where it is endemic. The control strategy that seems at the moment more promising is a combination of the different tools available and includes the identification of areas at high risk and the presumptive treatment of the suspected cases and their families. This active finding and treatment of probable tapeworm carriers should be accompanied by health education and control swine cysticercosis. WHO invites all endemic countries to recognize the importance of taeniasis/cysticercosis control and to collect epidemiological data and to adopt policies and strategies for its control.

  3. TRENDS IN THE EVOLUTION OF WORLDWIDE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ramona Sarbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The flows of foreign direct investments constitutes a major component of the phenomena that manifest themselves in the world economy, these representing financial resources geared toward a particular investment area that allow those who invest to develop operations over which they have the control and the decision-making power. Given the fact that the world economy is characterized by the increasing interconnectedness of national states as a result of spreading the links in the spheres of economic, political, social and cultural life, following starting with 2008 a period of unusual developments, the purpose of the paper is to analyze the evolution of worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI inflows, before and after the onset of the global economic crisis.

  4. Worldwide research productivity on tramadol: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Shraim, Naser Y; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2016-01-01

    Pain management and safe use of analgesics is an important medical issue. Tramadol is an old analgesic with controversial properties. Evaluation of worldwide scientific output on tramadol has not been explored. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to give a bibliometric overview of global research productivity on tramadol. SciVerse Scopus was used to retrieve and quantitatively and qualitatively analyze worldwide publications on tramadol. A total of 2059 original and review research articles on tramadol were retrieved from Scopus. Forty-six documents (2.23 %) were published in Anesthesia and Analgesia Journal whereas 30 (1.46 %) were published in Arzneimittel Forschung Drug Research Journal. Retrieved tramadol documents were published from 71 countries and appeared in 160 peer reviewed journals. Although the United States of America (259; 12.86 %) had the largest contribution to tramadol publications; the contribution by other countries like Turkey (232; 11.27) India (189; 8.09 %) and Germany (176; 8.56 % was not far away from that of USA. The most productive institution was Grunenthal, Germany (47; 2.28 %) followed by Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran (29; 1.41 %), and, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Incorporated, USA (25; 1.21 %). Of the 2059 documents, there were 370 documents about dependence. The leading institution in documents pertaining to tramadol dependence was Grunenthal GmbH (18; 4.86 %) followed by Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical Incorporated (17; 4.59 %). The current study showed that there is an obvious interest in tramadol research. More efforts are needed to clarify the abuse potential and safety profile of tramadol to help in determining the legal status of tramadol. Collaboration among pharmaceutical industry, clinical researchers and academic institutions can improve research quantity and quality on tramadol.

  5. Worldwide Experience with Erosion of the Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicuben, Evan T; Bell, Reginald C W; Jobe, Blair A; Buckley, F P; Daniel Smith, C; Graybeal, Casey J; Lipham, John C

    2018-04-17

    The magnetic sphincter augmentation device continues to become a more common antireflux surgical option with low complication rates. Erosion into the esophagus is an important complication to recognize and is reported to occur at very low incidences (0.1-0.15%). Characterization of this complication remains limited. We aim to describe the worldwide experience with erosion of the magnetic sphincter augmentation device including presentation, techniques for removal, and possible risk factors. We reviewed data obtained from the device manufacturer Torax Medical, Inc., as well as the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. The study period was from February 2007 through July 2017 and included all devices placed worldwide. In total, 9453 devices were placed and there were 29 reported cases of erosions. The median time to presentation of an erosion was 26 months with most occurring between 1 and 4 years after placement. The risk of erosion was 0.3% at 4 years after device implantation. Most patients experienced new-onset dysphagia prompting evaluation. Devices were successfully removed in all patients most commonly via an endoscopic removal of the eroded portion followed by a delayed laparoscopic removal of the remaining beads. At a median follow-up of 58 days post-removal, there were no complications and 24 patients have returned to baseline. Four patients reported ongoing mild dysphagia. Erosion of the LINX device is an important but rare complication to recognize that has been safely managed via minimally invasive approaches without long-term consequences.

  6. DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Estela; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2017-10-30

    Living organisms are usually exposed to various DNA damaging agents so the mechanisms to detect and repair diverse DNA lesions have developed in all organisms with the result of maintaining genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair machinery contribute to cancer, certain diseases, and aging. Therefore, conserving the genomic sequence in organisms is key for the perpetuation of life. The machinery of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar. Plants also share mechanisms for DNA repair with animals, although they differ in other important details. Plants have, surprisingly, been less investigated than other living organisms in this context, despite the fact that numerous lethal mutations in animals are viable in plants. In this manuscript, a worldwide bibliometric analysis of DDR systems and DDR research in plants was made. A comparison between both subjects was accomplished. The bibliometric analyses prove that the first study about DDR systems in plants (1987) was published thirteen years later than that for other living organisms (1975). Despite the increase in the number of papers about DDR mechanisms in plants in recent decades, nowadays the number of articles published each year about DDR systems in plants only represents 10% of the total number of articles about DDR. The DDR research field was done by 74 countries while the number of countries involved in the DDR & Plant field is 44. This indicates the great influence that DDR research in the plant field currently has, worldwide. As expected, the percentage of studies published about DDR systems in plants has increased in the subject area of agricultural and biological sciences and has diminished in medicine with respect to DDR studies in other living organisms. In short, bibliometric results highlight the current interest in DDR research in plants among DDR studies and can open new perspectives in the research field of DNA damage repair.

  7. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  8. Worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, Juan José; Martín-González, Jenifer; Jiménez-Sánchez, María Del Carmen; Crespo-Gallardo, Isabel; Saúco-Márquez, Juan José; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio

    2017-08-01

    Odontogenic infections, and especially endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, involving a combination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative facultative anaerobes and strictly anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics can be used as an adjunct to endodontic treatment. However, most chronic and even acute endodontic infections can be successfully managed by disinfection of the root-canal system, which eliminates the source of infection, followed by abscess drainage or tooth extraction, without the need for antibiotics. The literature provides evidence of inadequate prescribing practices by dentists. The aim of this concise review was to analyse the worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections. Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Wiley Online Database, Web of Science and Scopus. The databases were searched up to 13 March 2016 for studies in which dentists used systemic antibiotics to treat endodontic lesions and which reported data on the type of antibiotic prescribed and on the diagnosis of the endodontic disease treated. The electronic and hand searches identified 69 titles, of which 25 were included in the final analysis. Amoxicillin was reported as the drug of choice for endodontic infections in most countries, and clindamycin and erythromycin were the choice for patients allergic to penicillin. Dentists worldwide prescribe antibiotics for non-indicated conditions, such as pulpitis. Antibiotics are overprescribed for the management of endodontic infections. It is necessary to improve antibiotic-prescribing habits in the treatment of endodontic infections, as well as to introduce educational initiatives to encourage the coherent and proper use of antibiotics in such conditions. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Markus A; Seppelt, Ralf; Priess, Joerg A; Witing, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  10. Radiation safety and vascular access: attitudes among cardiologists worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to

  11. Summary of worldwide pediatric malignancies reported after exposure to etanercept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyukhin Nataliya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised about a potential link between the use of TNF inhibitors and development of malignancy in the pediatric population. We examined the worldwide experience of etanercept use in pediatric patients and the occurrence of malignancies as reported from clinical trials, registry studies, post-marketing surveillance, and published scientific literature. Methods All reports of "malignancy" in pediatric patients (including subjects who received etanercept before age 18 and developed a malignancy before age 22 were collected from the etanercept clinical trials database and global safety database using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v12.0 standardized MedDRA query "Malignancies" from 1998 to August 2009. Cases were collected irrespective of treatment indication. All cases were included regardless of exposure to other TNF blockers or other biologics and whether the other exposure was before or after etanercept. Results A total of 18 potential malignancies were identified: 4 leukemias, 7 lymphomas, and 7 solid tumors. Three of the 18 malignancies remain unconfirmed. No malignancies were reported from clinical trials or the open-label extension studies in any indication in children. Conclusion The data suggest that there does not appear to be an increased risk of malignancy overall with the use of etanercept. Among etanercept-exposed patients aged 4 to 17 years, the estimated worldwide and US reporting rates for lymphoma were approximately 0.01 per 100 patient-years (1 in 10,000 pt-yrs. While the reported rate of lymphoma is higher in pediatric patients treated with etanercept than in normal children, the expected rate of lymphoma in biologic naïve JIA patients is currently unknown. The risk of TNF inhibitors in the development of malignancies in children and adolescents is difficult to assess because of the rarity of malignant events, the absence of knowledge of underlying frequency of

  12. Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Erik

    1983-03-01

    Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

  13. Effect of reproductive tract scoring on reproductive efficiency in beef heifers bred by timed insemination and natural service versus only natural service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, K; Kasimanickam, R; Tibary, A; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-04-15

    The objective was to determine the effects of reproductive tract score (RTS) on reproductive performance in beef heifers bred by timed artificial insemination followed by natural service (AI-NS) or by natural service only (NSO). Angus cross beef heifers (n = 2660) in the AI-NS group were artificially inseminated at a fixed time (5- or 7-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release protocol) once, then exposed to bulls 2 weeks later (bull-to-heifer ratio = 1:40-1:50) for the reminder of the 85-day breeding season. Angus cross beef heifers (n = 1381) in NSO group were submitted to bulls (bull-to-heifer ratio = 1:20-1:25) for the entire 85-day breeding season. Heifers were reproductive tract scored from 1 (prepubertal) to 5 (cyclic) 4 weeks before, and were body condition scored (BCS) from 1 (emaciated) to 9 (obese) at the beginning of breeding season. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 70 days after AI for AI-NS group and 2 months after the end of breeding season for both groups. Heifers in both groups were well managed and of similar age (14.9 ± 0.4 [AI-NS] and 14.7 ± 0.8 [NSO] months). Pregnancy rates (PRs) and number of days to become pregnant were calculated using PROC GLIMMIX and PROC LIFETEST procedures of SAS. Adjusting for BCS (P = 0.07), expressed estrus (P < 0.05), year (P < 0.05), and BCS by year interaction (P < 0.05), the AI-PR was greater for heifers in AI-NS group with higher RTS (P < 0.0001; 40.7%, 48.3%, 57.6%, and 64.6% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Controlling for BCS (P < 0.05), year (P < 0.05) and the breeding season pregnancy rates (BS-PRs) were greater for heifers in the AI-NS group with higher RTS (P < 0.01; 81.2%, 86.5%, 90.4%, and 95.2% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Similarly, adjusting for BCS, year (P < 0.05), the BS-PR was greater for heifers in NSO group with higher RTS (P < 0.01; 79.7%, 84.3%, 88.4%, and 90.2% for RTS of 2 or less, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Heifers with higher RTS

  14. Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L; Keesing, Felicia; Virani, Munir Z

    2012-02-01

    Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, and they provide an array of ecological, economic, and cultural services. As the only known obligate scavengers, vultures are uniquely adapted to a scavenging lifestyle. Vultures' unique adaptations include soaring flight, keen eyesight, and extremely low pH levels in their stomachs. Presently, 14 of 23 (61%) vulture species worldwide are threatened with extinction, and the most rapid declines have occurred in the vulture-rich regions of Asia and Africa. The reasons for the population declines are varied, but poisoning or human persecution, or both, feature in the list of nearly every declining species. Deliberate poisoning of carnivores is likely the most widespread cause of vulture poisoning. In Asia, Gyps vultures have declined by >95% due to poisoning by the veterinary drug diclofenac, which was banned by regional governments in 2006. Human persecution of vultures has occurred for centuries, and shooting and deliberate poisoning are the most widely practiced activities. Ecological consequences of vulture declines include changes in community composition of scavengers at carcasses and an increased potential for disease transmission between mammalian scavengers at carcasses. There have been cultural and economic costs of vulture declines as well, particularly in Asia. In the wake of catastrophic vulture declines in Asia, regional governments, the international scientific and donor communities, and the media have given the crisis substantial attention. Even though the Asian vulture crisis focused attention on the plight of vultures worldwide, the situation for African vultures has received relatively little attention especially given the similar levels of population decline. While the Asian crisis has been largely linked to poisoning by diclofenac, vulture population declines in Africa have numerous causes, which have made conserving existing populations more difficult. And in Africa there has been little

  15. A look at worldwide usage of residual wood for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrom, H.; Hall, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wood Resources International was established in 1987, offering on-site evaluation services of forest resources and forest industry developments in over 20 countries worldwide. This presentation reviewed residual wood markets in North America and Europe. Wood chip trade and wood pellet markets were also reviewed. It is estimated that more than 50 per cent of the wood harvested worldwide is used for heating and cooking. Although sawmill wood residue has been typically used for particle board manufacturing, the energy sector in North America and Europe is now competing for low cost residuals, including sawdust, shavings and wood chips. With demand for renewable resources increasing, district heating plants have revived an interest in collecting the nearly 35 per cent of biomass left behind after traditional clear cutting. This biomass represents branches, tops and stumps left behind after the roundwood has been removed. In Canada, demand for mill residuals has grown and wood pellet manufacturers have the opportunity to invest in capacity while continuing to produce competitively priced pellets for the European market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, large volumes of beetle-killed wood are going to be available in British Columbia for energy consumption, including wood pellet production. Prices for sawdust have doubled over the past 3 years as a result of increased competition. The biomass supply potential in the United States is 7 times the current consumption. There is an increased interest in bioenergy in California due to the declining lumber sector. As such, the use of forest and agricultural waste is on the rise, along with prices for wood residues. There has also been a large increase in demand for wood biomass in Europe over the past 5 years, resulting in higher costs of all wood fiber sources used for energy. By 2020, Europe has set a target that all energy should come from renewable energy sources, with a minimum of 10 per cent being biofuel for

  16. Worldwide seismicity in view of non-extensive statistical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochlaki, Kaliopi; Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, George

    2014-05-01

    In the present work we study the distribution of worldwide shallow seismic events occurred from 1981 to 2011 extracted from the CMT catalog, with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.0. Our analysis based on the subdivision of the Earth surface into seismic zones that are homogeneous with regards to seismic activity and orientation of the predominant stress field. To this direction we use the Flinn-Engdahl regionalization (Flinn and Engdahl, 1965), which consists of 50 seismic zones as modified by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), where grouped the 50 FE zones into larger tectonically homogeneous ones, utilizing the cumulative moment tensor method. As a result Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007), limit the initial 50 regions to 39 ones, in which we apply the non- extensive statistical physics approach. The non-extensive statistical physics seems to be the most adequate and promising methodological tool for analyzing complex systems, such as the Earth's interior. In this frame, we introduce the q-exponential formulation as the expression of probability distribution function that maximizes the Sq entropy as defined by Tsallis, (1988). In the present work we analyze the interevent time distribution between successive earthquakes by a q-exponential function in each of the seismic zones defined by Lombardi and Marzocchi (2007).confirming the importance of long-range interactions and the existence of a power-law approximation in the distribution of the interevent times. Our findings supports the ideas of universality within the Tsallis approach to describe Earth's seismicity and present strong evidence on temporal clustering of seismic activity in each of the tectonic zones analyzed. Our analysis as applied in worldwide seismicity with magnitude equal or greater than Mw 5.5 and 6.) is presented and the dependence of our result on the cut-off magnitude is discussed. This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the

  17. One-month comparative efficacy of three topical ectoparasiticides against adult brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on mixed-bred dogs in controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varloud, Marie; Fourie, Josephus J

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic and residual efficacy for 1 month of three topical ectoparasiticides on mixed-bred dogs against the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adult dogs (n = 32, 10.8-18.4 kg BW) were allocated to 4 groups (n = 8) and infested with 50 adult ticks on days -8, -2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Within each group, dogs were treated topically on day 0 with a control solution (CS), Vectra 3D (DPP), Frontline Plus (FM), or K9 Advantix (IP). Ticks were enumerated on dogs 24 h after treatment and each subsequent tick infestation by in situ thumb count assessment without removal and at 48 h by combing and removal. Acaricidal efficacy was calculated using arithmetic means for all 24 and 48 h tick count assessments. From 42 to 56% of the total, infested ticks were found on dogs 48 h post-challenge in the CS group. Therapeutic efficacy for all treatments ranged from 45.5 to 64.6% after 48 h of infestation. Residual efficacy after FM treatment was consistently lower compared to DPP or IP treatments at the 24 h assessments on days 8, 22, 23, and 29. Residual efficacy measured at this last time point was 94.8% for DPP, 83.1% for IP, and 46.9% for FM. This study demonstrates that permethrin-based formulations (DPP and IP) provided a quicker onset of residual protection against brown dog ticks compared to FM. Although DPP and IP are both permethrin-based formulations, DPP exhibited consistently higher residual acaricidal efficacies and was the only treatment that provided >90% protection for 1 month at 24 h post challenge.

  18. Effects of early-life exposure to Western diet and wheel access on metabolic syndrome profiles in mice bred for high voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Keeney, B K; Hannon, R M; Dlugosz, E M; Garland, T

    2014-03-01

    Experimental studies manipulating diet and exercise have shown varying effects on metabolic syndrome components in both humans and rodents. To examine the potential interactive effects of diet, exercise and genetic background, we studied mice from four replicate lines bred (52 generations) for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) and four unselected control lines (C). At weaning, animals were housed for 60 days with or without wheels and fed either a standard chow or Western diet (WD, 42% kcal from fat). Four serial (three juvenile and one adult) blood samples were taken to measure fasting total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and glucose. Western diet was obesogenic for all mice, even after accounting for the amount of wheel running and kilojoules consumed. Western diet significantly raised glucose as well as TC and HDL-C concentrations. At the level of individual variation (repeatability), there was a modest correlation (r = 0.3-0.5) of blood lipids over time, which was reduced with wheel access and/or WD. Neither genetic selection history nor wheel access had a statistically significant effect on blood lipids. However, HR and C mice had divergent ontogenetic trajectories for body mass and caloric intake. HR mice also had lower adiposity, an effect that was dependent on wheel access. The environmental factors of diet and wheel access had pronounced effects on body mass, food consumption and fasting glucose concentrations, interacting with each other and/or with genetic strain. These data underscore the importance (and often unpredictable nature) of genotype-by-environment and environment-by-environment interactions when studying body weight regulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring

  20. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mu-opioid receptor inhibition decreases voluntary wheel running in a dopamine-dependent manner in rats bred for high voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Brown, Jacob D; Kovarik, M Cathleen; Miller, Dennis K; Booth, Frank W

    2016-12-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  3. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High motivation for exercise is associated with altered chromatin regulators of monoamine receptor gene expression in the striatum of selectively bred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, M C; Majdak, P; Perez, S; Reilly, M; Garland, T; Rhodes, J S

    2017-03-01

    Although exercise is critical for health, many lack the motivation to exercise, and it is unclear how motivation might be increased. To uncover the molecular underpinnings of increased motivation for exercise, we analyzed the transcriptome of the striatum in four mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and four non-selected control lines. The striatum was dissected and RNA was extracted and sequenced from four individuals of each line. We found multiple genes and gene systems with strong relationships to both selection and running history over the previous 6 days. Among these genes were Htr1b, a serotonin receptor subunit and Slc38a2, a marker for both glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signaling. System analysis of the raw results found enrichment of transcriptional regulation and kinase genes. Further, we identified a splice variant affecting the Wnt-related Golgi signaling gene Tmed5. Using coexpression network analysis, we found a cluster of interrelated coexpression modules with relationships to running behavior. From these modules, we built a network correlated with running that predicts a mechanistic relationship between transcriptional regulation by nucleosome structure and Htr1b expression. The Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures identified the protein kinase C δ inhibitor, rottlerin, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Linifanib and the delta-opioid receptor antagonist 7-benzylidenenaltrexone as potential compounds for increasing the motivation to run. Taken together, our findings support a neurobiological framework of exercise motivation where chromatin state leads to differences in dopamine signaling through modulation of both the primary neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, and by neuromodulators such as serotonin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  6. A worldwide comparison of the management of surgical treatment of advanced oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansy, Katinka; Mueller, Andreas Albert; Mücke, Thomas; Koersgen, Friederike; Wolff, Klaus Dietrich; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Hölzle, Frank; Pradel, Winnie; Schneider, Matthias; Kolk, Andreas; Smeets, Ralf; Acero, Julio; Haers, Piet; Ghali, G E; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Microvascular surgery following tumor resection has become an important field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Following the results from management of T1/T2 floor-of-mouth and tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in German-speaking countries, Europe, and worldwide, this paper presents specific concepts for the management of resection and reconstruction of T3/T4 SCC of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar process and tongue. The DÖSAK questionnaire was distributed in three different phases to a growing number of maxillofacial units worldwide. Within this survey, clinical patient settings were presented to participants and center-specific treatment strategies were evaluated. A total of 188 OMFS units from 36 different countries documented their treatment strategies for T3/T4 maxillary and mandibular alveolar process and tongue SCC. The extent of surgical resections and subsequent reconstructions is more consistent than with T1/T2 tumors, although the controversy surrounding continuity resections and mandible-sparing procedures remains. For continuity resection of the mandible the fibula free flap is the most frequently used bone replacement, whereas maxilla reconstruction concepts are less consistent, ranging from locoregional coverage concepts and different microvascular reconstruction options to treatment via obturator prosthesis. Results from treatment strategies for T3/T4 tumors underline the limited evidence for the appropriate amount of resection and subsequent reconstruction process, especially in cases involving the mandible. Prospective randomized trials will be necessary in the long term to establish valid treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Worldwide Protein Data Bank validation information: usage and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Oliver S; Horský, Vladimír; Gore, Swanand; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Bendová, Veronika; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Velankar, Sameer

    2018-03-01

    Realising the importance of assessing the quality of the biomolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) partners established Validation Task Forces to obtain advice on the methods and standards to be used to validate structures determined by X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and three-dimensional electron cryo-microscopy. The resulting wwPDB validation pipeline is an integral part of the wwPDB OneDep deposition, biocuration and validation system. The wwPDB Validation Service webserver (https://validate.wwpdb.org) can be used to perform checks prior to deposition. Here, it is shown how validation metrics can be combined to produce an overall score that allows the ranking of macromolecular structures and domains in search results. The ValTrends DB database provides users with a convenient way to access and analyse validation information and other properties of X-ray crystal structures in the PDB, including investigating trends in and correlations between different structure properties and validation metrics.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND WORLDWIDE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ANGLO NUBIAN GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Stemmer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the formation of the Anglo Nubian breed in Britain and follows up the original transfer of the founder breeds to Britain in the 19th century. An overview on the worldwide spread of the Anglo Nubian from Britain to the USA and Canada, later to Africa and Asia as well as Latin America is given. Information was compiled through project reports, literature, statistical records where available and accessible and interviews with experts. It is concluded that the Anglo Nubian is an example of a breed developed by combining genetic resources from different parts of the world joining performance and adaptation to tropical conditions. The breed spread to all continents. Apart from being kept as purebreds, it is more often used in crossbreeding programmes in different regions of the world. The value of this genetic resource has been recognized a long time ago, but there seem to be no efforts to counteract the danger of loosing it by excessive use in uncontrolled crossbreeding.

  9. Evolution of reproductive life histories in island birds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, Rita

    2012-04-22

    Island environments typically share characteristics such as impoverished biotas and less-seasonal climates, which should be conducive to specific adaptations by organisms. However, with the exception of morphological studies, broad-scale tests of patterns of adaptation on islands are rare. Here, I examine reproductive patterns in island birds worldwide. Reproductive life histories are influenced by latitude, which could affect the response to insularity; therefore, I additionally test this hypothesis. Island colonizers showed mostly bi-parental care, but there was a significant increase in cooperative breeding on islands. Additionally, I found support for previous suggestions of reduced fecundity, longer developmental periods and increased investment in young on islands. However, clutch size increased with latitude at a rate nearly five times faster on the mainland than on the islands revealing a substantially stronger effect of insularity at higher latitudes. Latitude and insularity may also interact to determine egg volume and incubation periods, but these effects were less clear. Analyses of reproductive success did not support an effect of reduced nest predation as a driver of reproductive change, but this requires further study. The effect of latitude detected here suggests that the evolutionary changes associated with insularity relate to environmental stability and improved adult survival.

  10. A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

  11. Worldwide dispersion and deposition of radionuclides produced in atmospheric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    Radionuclides produced in atmospheric nuclear tests were widely dispersed in the global environment. From the many measurements of the concentrations in air and the deposition amounts, much was learned of atmospheric circulation and environmental processes. Based on these results and the reported fission and total yields of individual tests, it has been possible to devise an empirical model of the movement and residence times of particles in the various atmospheric regions. This model, applied to all atmospheric weapons tests, allows extensive calculations of air concentrations and deposition amounts for the entire range of radionuclides produced throughout the testing period. Especially for the shorter-lived fission radionuclides, for which measurement results at the time of the tests are less extensive, a more complete picture of levels and isotope ratios can be obtained, forming a basis for improved dose estimations. The contributions to worldwide fallout can be inferred from individual tests, from tests at specific sites, or by specific countries. Progress was also made in understanding the global hydrological and carbon cycles from the tritium and 14C measurements. A review of the global measurements and modeling results is presented in this paper. In the future, if injections of materials into the atmosphere occur, their anticipated motions and fates can be predicted from the knowledge gained from the fallout experience.

  12. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  13. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  14. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yan; Zhang Yulei; Fan Li; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  15. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the "title-abstract" keyword search on esp@cenet "worldwide" database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant "home advantage." The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  16. Migration: an opportunity for the improved management of tuberculosis worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Falzon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Migration, both within and between countries, has increased worldwide in recent years. While migration in itself need not present a risk to health, it is often characterized by increased stress and individual vulnerability to disease and inequalities in access to care.

    Migrants from high tuberculosis (TB prevalence countries may be at risk of TB before leaving their country, during travel and after resettlement. In many high-income countries, more than half of the TB cases emerging today occur in patients born in another country. In less affluent countries, shifts in TB epidemiology associated with population movements are also being reported. Foreign-born persons often face several barriers to care in a new country as a result of inadequate knowledge of, or coverage by, the health care services, differences in culture and language, lack of money, comorbidity, concern about discrimination and fear of expulsion. National authorities apply different policies to screen migrants for TB and to provide preventive or curative treatment, with varying coverage, yield and effectiveness.

    If screening is to be of use, it needs to fit into a broader national strategy for TB care and management. Appropriate treatment needs to be provided in a manner conducive to its full completion. This is critical both for the individual patient and for public health. We discuss the main associations between TB and migration based on data from recent publications on surveillance, policy and practice.

  17. Canine parvovirus: the worldwide occurrence of antigenic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-09-01

    The most important enteric virus infecting canids is canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). CPV is the aetiologic agent of a contagious disease, mainly characterized by clinical gastroenteritis signs in younger dogs. CPV-2 emerged as a new virus in the late 1970s, which could infect domestic dogs, and became distributed in the global dog population within 2 years. A few years later, the virus's original type was replaced by a new genetic and antigenic variant, called CPV-2a. Around 1984 and 2000, virus variants with the single change to Asp or Glu in the VP2 residue 426 were detected (sometimes termed CPV-2b and -2c). The genetic and antigenic changes in the variants have also been correlated with changes in their host range; in particular, in the ability to replicate in cats and also host range differences in canine and other tissue culture cells. CPV-2 variants have been circulating among wild carnivores and have been well-documented in several countries around the world. Here, we have reviewed and summarized the current information about the worldwide distribution and evolution of CPV-2 variants since they emerged, as well as the host ranges they are associated with.

  18. Therapeutic patient education in atopic dermatitis: worldwide experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Jean-Francois; Bernier, Claire; Ball, Alan; De Raeve, Linda; Gieler, Uwe; Deleuran, Mette; Marcoux, Danielle; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Lio, Peter; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Gelmetti, Carlo; Takaoka, Roberto; Chiaverini, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Barbarot, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has proven effective in increasing treatment adherence and improving quality of life (QoL) for patients with numerous chronic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis (AD). This study was undertaken to identify worldwide TPE experiences in AD treatment. Experts from 23 hospitals, located in 11 countries, responded to a questionnaire on 10 major items. Patients in TPE programs were mainly children and adolescents with moderate to severe AD or markedly affected QoL. Individual and collective approaches were used. Depending on the center, the number of sessions varied from one to six (corresponding to 2 to 12 hours of education), and 20 to 200 patients were followed each year. Each center's education team comprised multidisciplinary professionals (e.g., doctors, nurses, psychologists). Evaluations were based on clinical assessment, QoL, a satisfaction index, or some combination of the three. When funding was obtained, it came from regional health authorities (France), insurance companies (Germany), donations (United States), or pharmaceutical firms (Japan, Italy). The role of patient associations was always highlighted, but their involvement in the TPE process varied from one country to another. Despite the nonexhaustive approach, our findings demonstrate the increasing interest in TPE for managing individuals with AD. In spite of the cultural and financial differences between countries, there is a consensus among experts to integrate education into the treatment of eczema. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Guerre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  20. Worldwide Mycotoxins Exposure in Pig and Poultry Feed Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, Philippe

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available. Raw materials used in feed formulation vary considerably depending on the species of animal, and the stage of production. Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites whose frequency and levels also vary considerably depending on the raw materials used and on the geographic location where they were produced. Although several reviews of existing data and of the literature on worldwide mycotoxin contamination of food and feed are available, the impact of the different raw materials used on feed formulation has not been widely studied.

  1. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  3. Internal audit practices and trends in Romania and worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela-Corina CHERSAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, internal audit has been seen mainly as an activity of providing assistance to external auditors, especially by checking up accounting procedures as part of the internal control evaluation process. At present, while this role of the internal auditor has not disappeared, the role of consultant manager has gained primary importance. In this context, it is increasingly obvious that the professional profile of the internal auditor will undergo changes generated not only by the changes in the role that he or she fulfils, but also by the challenges that the business world needs to deal with: risk management, increasingly sophisticated information technology, data mining etc. This study relies on the information provided by The Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation – IIARF which includes data extracted from The Global Internal Audit Common Body of Knowledge – CBOK database, and it aims to point out the practices and trends regarding internal audit in Romania and worldwide, and, respectively, the competencies traditionally required from internal auditors, their views on the skills they master and on the scope of their further skill development.

  4. Engelhard and IFP/Procatalyse set up worldwide catalysts venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    The new joint venture between Engelhard (Iselin, N) and Procatalyse (Paris), jointly owned by process licenser Institut Francais de Petrole (IFP; Rueil Malmaison, France) and Rhone-Poulenc (RP; Paris), marks the latest episode in the worldwide catalyst industry's restructuring. The operation will combine Engelhard's catalyst line, apart from its fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and emission catalysts, with Procatalyse's offering. To be launched at the beginning of 1993, the venture will have annual sales of about $75 million. Reforming catalysts will be the biggest part of the venture's lineup at the outset, making it number three in the US, behind UOP - which dominates the sector - and Criterion. IFP is starting to establish a presence in North America with its reforming technology. But flat gasoline demand and reductions on aromatics in gasoline limit requirements for new reforming units, comments one competitor. Although lower sulfur specifications are putting some new demand into the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst market, both partners play down their prospects. The sector, whose leaders are Akzo and Crtierion, is continuing to suffer from severe overcapacity. Procatalyse's HDS business is mainly linked to IFP licensees, while Engelhard is due to mothball its Salt Lake City HDS catalyst plant by year-end, transferring output to Elyria

  5. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996

  6. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  7. Seismic reevaluation of nuclear facilities worldwide: Overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.D.; Hardy, G.S.; Ravindra, M.K.; Johnson, J.J.; Hoy, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Existing nuclear facilities throughout the world are being subjected to severe scrutiny of their safety in tile event of an earthquake. In the United States, there have been several licensing and safety review issues for which industry and regulatory agencies have cooperated to develop rational and economically feasible criteria for resolving the issues. Currently, all operating nuclear power plants in the United States are conducting an Individual Plant Examination of External Events, including earthquakes beyond tile design basis. About two-thirds of tile operating plants are conducting parallel programs for verifying, tile seismic adequacy of equipment for the design basis earthquake. The U.S. Department of Energy is also beginning to perform detailed evaluations of their facilities, many of which had little or no seismic design. Western European countries also have been reevaluating their older nuclear power plants for seismic events often adapting the criteria developed in the United States. With the change in tile political systems in Eastern Europe, there is a strong emphasis from their Western European neighbors to evaluate and Upgrade tile safely of their operating nuclear power plants. Finally, nuclear facilities in Asia are, also, being evaluated for seismic vulnerabilities. This paper focuses oil tile methodologies that have been developed for reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants and presents examples of the application of these methodologies to nuclear facilities worldwide. (author)

  8. Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@email.arizona.edu; Zhang Yulei, E-mail: ylzhang@email.arizona.edu; Fan Li, E-mail: fanli@email.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  10. Seismic reevaluation of nuclear facilities worldwide: Overview and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R D; Hardy, G S; Ravindra, M K [EQE International, Irvine, CA (United States); Johnson, J J [EQE International, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hoy, A J [EQE International Ltd., Birchwood, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    Existing nuclear facilities throughout the world are being subjected to severe scrutiny of their safety in tile event of an earthquake. In the United States, there have been several licensing and safety review issues for which industry and regulatory agencies have cooperated to develop rational and economically feasible criteria for resolving the issues. Currently, all operating nuclear power plants in the United States are conducting an Individual Plant Examination of External Events, including earthquakes beyond tile design basis. About two-thirds of tile operating plants are conducting parallel programs for verifying, tile seismic adequacy of equipment for the design basis earthquake. The U.S. Department of Energy is also beginning to perform detailed evaluations of their facilities, many of which had little or no seismic design. Western European countries also have been reevaluating their older nuclear power plants for seismic events often adapting the criteria developed in the United States. With the change in tile political systems in Eastern Europe, there is a strong emphasis from their Western European neighbors to evaluate and Upgrade tile safely of their operating nuclear power plants. Finally, nuclear facilities in Asia are, also, being evaluated for seismic vulnerabilities. This paper focuses oil tile methodologies that have been developed for reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants and presents examples of the application of these methodologies to nuclear facilities worldwide. (author)

  11. The Worldwide Marine Radiocarbon Reservoir Effect: Definitions, Mechanisms, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eduardo Q.; Macario, Kita; Ascough, Philippa; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    When a carbon reservoir has a lower radiocarbon content than the atmosphere, this is referred to as a reservoir effect. This is expressed as an offset between the radiocarbon ages of samples from the two reservoirs at a single point in time. The marine reservoir effect (MRE) has been a major concern in the radiocarbon community, as it introduces an additional source of error that is often difficult to accurately quantify. For this reason, researchers are often reluctant to date marine material where they have another option. The influence of this phenomenon makes the study of the MRE important for a broad range of applications. The advent of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) has reduced sample size requirements and increased measurement precision, in turn increasing the number of studies seeking to measure marine samples. These studies rely on overcoming the influence of the MRE on marine radiocarbon dates through the worldwide quantification of the local parameter ΔR, that is, the local variation from the global average MRE. Furthermore, the strong dependence on ocean dynamics makes the MRE a useful indicator for changes in oceanic circulation, carbon exchange between reservoirs, and the fate of atmospheric CO2, all of which impact Earth's climate. This article explores data from the Marine Reservoir Database and reviews the place of natural radiocarbon in oceanic records, focusing on key questions (e.g., changes in ocean dynamics) that have been answered by MRE studies and on their application to different subjects.

  12. A Space-Based Learning Service for Schools Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Norman A.; Gibson, Alan

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines a scheme for international collaboration to enrich the use of space in school education, to improve students' learning about science and related subjects and to enhance the continuity of science-related studies after the age of 16. Guidelines are presented for the design of an on-line learning service to provide schools worldwide with:- interactive curriculum-related learning resources for teaching about space and through - access to a purpose-designed education satellite or satellites; - opportunities for hands-on work by students in out-of-school hours; - news about space developments to attract, widen and deepen initial interest among teachers - support services to enable teachers to make effective use of the learning service. The Learning Service is the product of almost twenty years of experience by a significant number of UK schools in experimenting with, and in using, satellites and space to aid learning; and over four years of study and development by the SpaceLink Learning Foundation - a private-sector, not- for-profit UK registered charity, which is dedicated to help in increasing both the supply of scientists and engineers and the public understanding of science. This initiative provides scope for, and could benefit from, the involvement of relevant/interested organisations drawn from different countries. The Foundation would be ready, from its UK base, to be among such a group of initiating organisations.

  13. Assessment of the worldwide burden of critical illness: the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, J.L.; Marshall, J.C.; Namendys-Silva, S.A.; Francois, B.; Martin-Loeches, I.; Lipman, J.; Reinhart, K.; Antonelli, M.; Pickkers, P.; Njimi, H.; Jimenez, E.; Sakr, Y.; investigators, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global epidemiological data regarding outcomes for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are scarce, but are important in understanding the worldwide burden of critical illness. We, therefore, did an international audit of ICU patients worldwide and assessed variations between

  14. 75 FR 28298 - Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, Including On-Site Leased Workers From..., Highlands Ranch, CO; Including Employees in Support of Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support... workers of Avaya Inc., Worldwide Services Group, Global Support Services (GSS) Organization, including on...

  15. Worldwide complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2011-12-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface "free air", Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The free air and Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, submitted). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) (Pavlis

  16. Nursing Informatics Certification Worldwide: History, Pathway, Roles, and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, M. R.; Gundlapalli, A. V.; Murray, P.; Park, H.-A.; Lehmann, C. U.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Official recognition and certification for informatics professionals are essential aspects of workforce development. Objective: To describe the history, pathways, and nuances of certification in nursing informatics across the globe; compare and contrast those with board certification in clinical informatics for physicians. Methods (1) A review of the representative literature on informatics certification and related competencies for nurses and physicians, and relevant websites for nursing informatics associations and societies worldwide; (2) similarities and differences between certification processes for nurses and physicians, and (3) perspectives on roles for nursing informatics professionals in healthcare Results The literature search for ‘nursing informatics certification’ yielded few results in PubMed; Google Scholar yielded a large number of citations that extended to magazines and other non-peer reviewed sources. Worldwide, there are several nursing informatics associations, societies, and workgroups dedicated to nursing informatics associated with medical/health informatics societies. A formal certification program for nursing informatics appears to be available only in the United States. This certification was established in 1992, in concert with the formation and definition of nursing informatics as a specialty practice of nursing by the American Nurses Association. Although informatics is inherently interprofessional, certification pathways for nurses and physicians have developed separately, following long-standing professional structures, training, and pathways aligned with clinical licensure and direct patient care. There is substantial similarity with regard to the skills and competencies required for nurses and physicians to obtain informatics certification in their respective fields. Nurses may apply for and complete a certification examination if they have experience in the field, regardless of formal training. Increasing

  17. Publication status of contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Liu, Xu; Lv, Jia-Wei; Li, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Ma, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the extent of selective publication in contemporary oncology randomised controlled trials (RCTs) worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the rates of publication and timely publication (within 24 months) for contemporary oncology RCTs from all over the world. We also investigated the trial characteristics associated with publication and timely publication. We identified all phase III oncology RCTs registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with a primary completion date between January 2008 and December 2012. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify publications. The final search date was 31 December 2015. Our primary outcome measure was the time to publication from the primary completion date to the date of primary publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We identified 598 completed oncology RCTs; overall, 398 (66.6%) had been published. For published trials, the median time to publication was 25 months (interquartile range, 16-37 months). Only 192 trials (32.1%) were published within 24 months. Timely publication was independently associated with trials completed late in 2012. Trials conducted in Asia and other regions were less likely to have timely publication, but trials conducted in different locations were all equally likely to be published. Industry- and NIH-funded trials were equally likely to be published timely or at any time after trial completion. Among 391 published trials with clear primary outcomes, there was a trend for timely publication of positive trials compared with negative trials. Despite the ethical obligations and societal expectations of disclosing findings promptly, oncology RCTs performed poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bariatric Surgery and Endoluminal Procedures: IFSO Worldwide Survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, L; Santonicola, A; Iovino, P; Vitiello, A; Zundel, N; Buchwald, H; Scopinaro, N

    2017-09-01

    Several bariatric surgery worldwide surveys have been previously published to illustrate the evolution of bariatric surgery in the last decades. The aim of this survey is to report an updated overview of all bariatric procedures performed in 2014.For the first time, a special section on endoluminal techniques was added. The 2014 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO) survey form evaluating the number and the type of surgical and endoluminal bariatric procedures was emailed to all IFSO societies. Trend analyses from 2011 to 2014 were also performed. There were 56/60 (93.3%) responders. The total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures performed in 2014 consisted of 579,517 (97.6%) surgical operations and 14,725 (2.4%) endoluminal procedures. The most commonly performed procedure in the world was sleeve gastrectomy (SG) that reached 45.9%, followed by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (39.6%), and adjustable gastric banding (AGB) (7.4%). The annual percentage changes from 2013 revealed the increase of SG and decrease of RYGB in all the IFSO regions (USA/Canada, Europe, and Asia/Pacific) with the exception of Latin/South America, where SG decreased and RYGB represented the most frequent procedure. There was a further increase in the total number of bariatric/metabolic procedures in 2014 and SG is currently the most frequent surgical procedure in the world. This is the first survey that describes the endoluminal procedures, but the accuracy of provided data should be hopefully improved in the next future. We encourage the creation of further national registries and their continuous updates taking into account all new bariatric procedures including the endoscopic procedures that will obtain increasing importance in the near future.

  19. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  20. Key Figures on Climate France and Worldwide 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Each year, CDC Climate Research publishes in partnership with the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing (MEDDTL) the Key Figures on Climate - France and Worldwide, in the Highlights Series. This publication aims at gathering all the relevant data relating the scientific analysis of climate change, greenhouses gas emissions, in particular CO 2 emissions linked to energy use, and the emissions reduction-targeted economic policies. Contents: Part 1 - Climate Change: The Greenhouse Effect - Humans and the Greenhouse Effect - Stocks and Flows of GHGs: The Example of CO 2 - Increase in Atmospheric GHG Levels - Concentrations and Temperatures - Global Warming - Warming Differentiated by Latitude - Consequences of Global Warming. Part 2 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Snapshot of Global GHG Emissions - European Panorama of GHGs - French Panorama of GHGs. Part 3 - Energy-related CO 2 Emissions in the World: Energy-related CO 2 emissions - CO 2 Emissions due to Electricity Production including CHP Plants - CO 2 Emission Factors. Part 4 - CO 2 Emissions by Sector in Europe and in France: Fuel Combustion: the Largest Emitter of CO 2 - CO 2 Emissions due to Energy Production and Conversion - Transportation-related CO 2 Emissions - Industry-related CO 2 Emissions - CO 2 Emissions in the Other Sectors - CO 2 Emissions excluding Fuel Combustion. Part 5 - Climate Policies: The Kyoto Protocol - The Tradable Permit Market - Project Mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol - Other Initiatives to Reduce Emissions - The European Union's Commitment - The European CO 2 Market (EU ETS) - The Carbon Price in the EU ETS - States Climate Policy: The Case of France. Practical information: CO 2 Key Figures - Glossary of Terms - Useful Links

  1. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Crick, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO-as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS-the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as record keeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR. (authors)

  2. WANO Actions to Reinforce the Operators’ Safety Culture Worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regaldo, J., E-mail: jacques.regaldo@edf.fr [WANO, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: WANO’s mission is to maximize the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants worldwide by working together to assess, to benchmark and improve performance through mutual support, exchange of information and emulation of best practices. Fukushima accident strongly impacted the nuclear community and it also brought WANO to question its positioning and scope of activities. Five strategic actions have hence been decided to strengthen WANO’s role, aiming to bring a more consistent, transparent and integrated response to the nuclear operators. WANO peer review process, which constitutes its core-business, has been intensified including corporate and pre start up peer reviews and, for Japanese plants, restart reviews. WANO also decided to expand its scope of activity to include elements of design, based on the principle that the role of a nuclear operator is not only to operate safely, but also to be sure that the plant he is operating is safe. WANO aims to cooperate strongly at both regional and international levels with all international safety organizations, being convinced that trust can be recovered with a strong safety commitment and credibility of both regulators and operators. All operators, without exception, are WANO members; if membership is voluntary, members have to fulfil strict obligations. Safety supposes that no operator feels isolated, or refuses openness and permanent self-questioning; it requests as well for WANO to ensure that cultural and sometimes political barriers do not hinder safety culture – the accident of Fukushima is from this perspective rich in teachings. In WANO, we believe that management system and practices are at the centre of safety culture, and a full involvement of top management (CEOs) of our members is absolutely requested. Through its commitments and rules, WANO pressures its members and help them reaching the highest possible standard of safety. We consider that we rely on each other to improve safety

  3. Evidence for a complex of emergent poleroviruses affecting pepper worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Hermosilla, Elisa; Ferro, Camila G; Zerbini, F Murilo; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, symptoms of vein yellowing and leaf roll in pepper crops associated with the presence of poleroviruses (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) have been emerging in many countries worldwide. Spain was the first country in Europe where the yellowing disease of pepper was observed. In this work, a polerovirus isolate from Spain that infects pepper and has been shown to be transmitted by the aphid Aphis gossyppii (Spain-Almería 2-2013) was sequenced and compared with isolates from Japan, Israel, China and Australia. The genome (6125 nt in length, GenBank accession number KY523072) of the isolate from Spain has the typical organization of poleroviruses and contains seven open reading frames (ORF0 to ORF5 and ORF3a), putatively encoding proteins P0 to P5 and P3a. A comparison of the sequence from Spain with the four complete sequences available for poleroviruses infecting pepper showed a closer relationship to the isolate from Israel and supports the existence of a complex of at least five polerovirus species. Given that the symptoms caused by all pepper poleroviruses described to date are similar, if not identical, we propose to name them "pepper vein yellows virus 1" to "pepper vein yellows virus 5" (PeVYV-1 to PeVYV-5), with PeVYV-5 corresponding to the polerovirus from Spain described in this work. Our results and those published over the last few years have shown that the emergent poleroviruses threatening pepper crops around the world are highly complex due to recombination events.

  4. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1980-03-01

    The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined system as well as in random ones (e.g. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' we find the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author) [pt

  5. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1981-01-01

    The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined systems as well as in random ones (e.q. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system are found. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author) [pt

  6. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera: A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Jeong Ahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state. Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the

  7. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    stakeholders fully informed of project plans and hold periodic meetings to brief the public, especially in the vicinity of the selected site. This procedure has now been widely adopted and represents one of the most important developments in the Third Worldwide Review

  8. Worldwide increase in diabetes: implications for tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher-Hoch SP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Susan P Fisher-HochDivision of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Science, University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Campus, Brownsville, TX, USAAbstract: Diabetes presents a greater threat to global tuberculosis (TB control than previously appreciated, with risk of reversing the achievements of several decades. An estimated 382 million people worldwide currently have diabetes, half of whom are undiagnosed. Most live in low- and middle-income countries alongside many of the two billion individuals infected with TB. Though the frequency of TB in type 1 diabetes was known for centuries, only recently have we observed the tripling of TB in type 2 diabetes, most significantly in high-burden TB populations such as in Peru, Russia, and the People's Republic of China. In India diabetes is estimated to have increased TB cases by 46% between 1998 and 2008. Diabetes is a greater long-term threat to TB control than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS since ten-fold more people are affected by diabetes than HIV/AIDS in larger geographic areas. Diabetes in TB increases drug resistance, treatment failure, and mortality, and may increase the spread of drug-resistant strains. Delayed or missed diagnosis fuels transmission of TB and hinders control of diabetes. Tailored treatment for diabetes patients requires well-designed clinical trials. The World Health Organization (WHO framework for care and control of diabetes and TB needs improved screening strategies. Determination of how best to establish bi-directional screening is hampered by lack of affordable and reliable methods. Recommendations include education of health care providers, patients, and communities. Structured diabetes programs with registries and effective follow-up could be modeled on and communicate with existing TB programs. Vital research should address new diagnostic tools, lowering cost and evaluation of intervention

  9. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, W; Nakayama, H; Lindberg, M; Fischer, T; Elsner, P; Burrows, D; Jordan, W; Shaw, S; Wilkinson, J; Marks, J; Sugawara, M; Nethercott, J

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of responses to selected fragrance materials in patients with suspect fragrance allergy and to evaluate risk factors and associations with such responses. The validity of using specific fragrance ingredients versus a mixture of fragrances was evaluated in terms of predicting allergy to different fragrance ingredients. One hundred sixty-seven subjects were evaluated in seven centers worldwide with a fragrance mix, the eight ingredients in the fragrance mixture, six other well-known fragrance allergens, balsam of Peru, and 15 lesser studied fragrance materials. The age of the patients was 44.9 +/- 17.5 years (mean +/- SD). More than 85% were women. A relatively high proportion gave a past history of atopic disease. Facial eruptions (40%) and hand involvement (26.7%) were the most common topographic sites. All but 4 of the 35 fragrance materials produced a positive response in > 1%. A reaction to fragrance mix occurred in 47.3%. Seven of the 34 ingredients tested produced an allergic response in more than 10% of those tested. Men were more likely than women to exhibit a positive response to five fragrance ingredients. White persons were more likely to react to perfume mix (52.8% versus 25.3%) and certain ingredients in the mix than Asian persons. Allergy to benzyl salicylate was more common in Japan than in Europe or the United States. The age at which patients with perfume allergy present for evaluation is similar to that of other contactants. Atopic individuals may be overrepresented in this group of patients. Face involvement is likely. White persons are more likely to react to fragrance mix, whereas in Asian patients benzyl salicylate was a more frequent allergen. Fragrance mix corrected with 85.6% of positive responses to fragrance ingredients. The addition of ylang ylang oil, narcissus oil, and sandalwood oil to fragrance mix would be expected to pick up 94.2% with positive responses to fragrance materials

  10. Retention performance of green roofs in representative climates worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, F.; Hellies, M.; Deidda, R.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing process of global urbanization contributes to an increase in stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces, threatening also water quality. Green roofs have been proved to be innovative stormwater management measures to partially restore natural states, enhancing interception, infiltration and evapotranspiration fluxes. The amount of water that is retained within green roofs depends not only on their depth, but also on the climate, which drives the stochastic soil moisture dynamic. In this context, a simple tool for assessing performance of green roofs worldwide in terms of retained water is still missing and highly desirable for practical assessments. The aim of this work is to explore retention performance of green roofs as a function of their depth and in different climate regimes. Two soil depths are investigated, one representing the intensive configuration and another representing the extensive one. The role of the climate in driving water retention has been represented by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration dynamics. A simple conceptual weather generator has been implemented and used for stochastic simulation of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Stochastic forcing is used as an input of a simple conceptual hydrological model for estimating long-term water partitioning between rainfall, runoff and actual evapotranspiration. Coupling the stochastic weather generator with the conceptual hydrological model, we assessed the amount of rainfall diverted into evapotranspiration for different combinations of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in five representative climatic regimes. Results quantified the capabilities of green roofs in retaining rainfall and consequently in reducing discharges into sewer systems at an annual time scale. The role of substrate depth has been recognized to be crucial in determining green roofs retention performance, which in general increase from extensive to intensive settings. Looking at the

  11. Genomic Diversity Using Copy Number Variations in Worldwide Chicken Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Gorla

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies in livestock have focused on the identification of Copy Number Variants (CNVs using high-density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP arrays, but few have focused on studying chicken ecotypes coming from many locations. CNVs are polymorphisms, which may influence phenotype and are an important source of genetic variation in populations. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic difference and structure, using a high density SNP chip in 936 individuals from seven different countries (Brazil, Italy, Egypt, Mexico, Rwanda, Sri Lanka and Uganda. The DNA was genotyped with the Affymetrix Axiom®600k Chicken Genotyping Array and processed with stringent quality controls to obtain 559,201 SNPs in 915 individuals. The Log R Ratio (LRR and the B Allele Frequency of SNPs were used to perform the CNV calling with PennCNV software based on a Hidden Markov Model analysis and the LRR was used to perform CNV detection with SVS Golden Helix software.After filtering, a total of 19,027 CNVs were detected with the SVS software, while 9,065 CNVs were identified with the Penn CNV software. The CNVs were summarized in 7,001 Copy Number Variant Regions (CNVRs and 4,414 CNVRs, using the software BedTool.The consensus analysis across the CNVRs allowed the identification of 2,820 consensus CNVR, of which 1,721 were gain, 637 loss and 462 complex, for a total length of 53 Mb corresponding to the 5 % of the GalGal5 chicken autosomes. Only the consensus CNV regions obtained from both detections were considered for further analysis.The intersection analysis performed between the chicken gene database (Gallus_gallus-5.0 and the 1,927 consensus CNVRs allowed the identification (within or partial overlap of a total of 2,354 unique genes with an official gene ID.  The CNVRs identified here represent the first comprehensive mapping in several worldwide populations, using a high-density SNP chip.

  12. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  13. Epidemiology of worldwide spinal cord injury: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Kang,1,2,* Han Ding,1,2,* Hengxing Zhou,1,2 Zhijian Wei,1,2 Lu Liu,1,2 Dayu Pan,1,2 Shiqing Feng1,2 1Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 2Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Study design: A literature review of worldwide epidemiology of spinal cord injury (SCI. Objectives: To review the epidemiological indicators of SCI, such as incidence, prevalence, demographic characteristics, etiology, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality. Setting: The Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ­Heping District, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Methods: We searched articles published in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and the Web of ­Science between January 1993 and June 2017 using the key words “spinal cord injury”, “­traumatic spinal cord injury”, “non-traumatic spinal cord injury” and “epidemiology”. The incidence, etiology, prevalence, patient demographics, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality were reviewed from the articles. Results: The epidemiology of SCI has changed. Motor vehicle accidents and falls have become the most common reasons of injury gradually. Incidence of SCI varies by regions or countries, and it has gradually increased with the expansion of human activities. The number of male patients were significantly more than female, the average age of patients with SCI had a tendency to increase gradually. The cervical level of spine was the most common part of injury; there were more number of patients with tetraplegia than patients with paraplegia. Electrolyte disturbances, pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections and bedsores were the four most common complications. Conclusion: We must have a greater

  14. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  15. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-12-01

    stakeholders fully informed of project plans and hold periodic meetings to brief the public, especially in the vicinity of the selected site. This procedure has now been widely adopted and represents one of the most important developments in the Third Worldwide Review.

  16. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  17. Associations among methane emission traits measured in the feedlot and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, R M; Velazco, J I; Arthur, P F; Hegarty, R F

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate associations among animal performance and methane emission traits under feedlot conditions and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in residual feed intake (RFI), which is a measure of feed efficiency. Fifty-nine cattle were tested for feedlot RFI, of which 41 had methane production recorded on an ad libitum grain-based ration in the feedlot, 59 on a restricted grain-based ration in respiration chambers, and 57 on a restricted roughage ration in respiration chambers. The cattle became older and heavier as they went through the different phases of the experiment, but their feed intake (expressed as DMI) and daily emission of enteric methane (methane production rate; MPR) did not increase proportionally, as feed offered was restricted in the respiration chamber tests. Methane emissions by individual animals relative to their DMI were calculated as methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI) and as 2 measures of residual methane production (RMP and RMP), which were calculated as the difference between measured MPR and that predicted from feed intake by 2 different equations. Within each test regime, MPR was positively correlated ( = 0.28 to 0.61) with DMI. Phenotypic correlations for MY, RMP, and RMP between the feedlot test and the restricted grain test ( = 0.40 to 0.43) and between the restricted grain test and the restricted roughage test were moderate ( = 0.36 to 0.41) and moderate to strong between the feedlot test and the restricted roughage test ( = 0.54 to 0.58). These results indicate that the rankings of animals for methane production relative to feed consumed are relatively stable over the 3 test phases. Feedlot feed conversion ratio and RFI were not correlated with MPR in the feedlot test and grain-based chamber test but were negatively correlated with MPR in the chamber roughage test ( = -0.31 and -0.37). Both were negatively correlated with MY and RMP in the feedlot test ( = -0.42 to -0.54) and subsequent

  18. Investigation of the Behavioral Characteristics of Dogs Purpose-Bred and Prepared to Perform Vapor Wake® Detection of Person-Borne Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Lazarowski

    2018-03-01

    significantly lower in the Washouts. Furthermore, differences between groups emerged as early as 3 and 6 months for select measures. We describe the behavioral characteristics targeted for selection in developing the VW phenotype and discuss the relative merit and degree of expression of those characteristics in the success of dogs bred and trained for the VW application.

  19. Investigation of the Behavioral Characteristics of Dogs Purpose-Bred and Prepared to Perform Vapor Wake® Detection of Person-Borne Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Haney, Pamela Sue; Brock, Jeanne; Fischer, Terry; Rogers, Bart; Angle, Craig; Katz, Jeffrey S; Waggoner, L Paul

    2018-01-01

    lower in the Washouts. Furthermore, differences between groups emerged as early as 3 and 6 months for select measures. We describe the behavioral characteristics targeted for selection in developing the VW phenotype and discuss the relative merit and degree of expression of those characteristics in the success of dogs bred and trained for the VW application.

  20. Selectively bred crossed high-alcohol-preferring mice drink to intoxication and develop functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization during free-choice ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines and demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. In this report, we investigated the relationship between free-choice drinking, intoxication, tolerance, and sensitization in cHAP mice. We hypothesized that initially mice would become ataxic after drinking alcohol, but that increased drinking over days would be accompanied by increasing tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol (EtOH). Male and female cHAP mice had free-choice access to 10% EtOH and water (E), while Water mice (W) had access to water alone. In experiment 1, the first drinking experience was monitored during the dark portion of the cycle. Once E mice reached an average intake rate of ≥1.5 g/kg/h, they, along with W mice, were tested for footslips on a balance beam, and BECs were assessed. In experiments 2, 3, and 4, after varying durations of free-choice 10% EtOH access (0, 3, 14, or 21 days), mice were challenged with 20% EtOH and tested for number of footslips on a balance beam or locomotor stimulant response. Blood was sampled for BEC determination. We found that cHAP mice rapidly acquire alcohol intakes that lead to ataxia. Over time, cHAP mice developed behavioral tolerance to the ataxic effects of alcohol, paralleled by escalating alcohol consumption. However, locomotor sensitization did not develop following 14 days of free-choice EtOH access. Overall, we observed increases in free-choice drinking with extended alcohol access paralleled by increases in functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization. These data support our hypothesis that escalating free-choice drinking over days in cHAP mice is driven by tolerance to alcohol's behavioral effects. These data are the first to demonstrate that escalating free-choice consumption is accompanied by increasing alcohol tolerance. In

  1. Worldwide patterns of ischemic heart disease mortality from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvinhas, Cláudia; Severo, Milton; Azevedo, Ana; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The trends in the IHD mortality rates vary widely across countries, reflecting the heterogeneity in the variation of the exposure to the main risk factors and in the access to different management strategies among settings. We aimed to identify model-based patterns in the time trends in IHD mortality in 50 countries from the five continents, between 1980 and 2010. Mixed models were used to identify time trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) (age group 35+years; world standard population), all including random terms for intercept, slope, quadratic and cubic. Model-based clustering was used to identify the patterns. We identified five main patterns of IHD mortality trends in the last three decades, similar for men and women. Pattern 1 had the highest ASMR and pattern 2 exhibited the most pronounced decrease in ASMR during the entire study period. Pattern 3 was characterized by an initial increase in ASMR, followed by a sharp decline. Countries in pattern 4 had the lowest ASMR throughout the study period. It was further divided into patterns 4a (consistent decrease in ASMR throughout the period of analysis) and 4b (less pronounced declines and highest rates observed mostly between 1996 and 2004). There was no correspondence between the geographic or economical grouping of the analyzed countries and the patterns found in this study. Our study yielded a new framework for the description, interpretation and prediction of IHD mortality trends worldwide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Which Are the “Best” Cities for Psychology Research Worldwide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present scientometric results about worldwide centers of excellence in psychology. Based on Web of Science data, scientific excellence can be identified for cities from where highly-cited papers originate. Data refer to all psychology articles published in 2007 which are documented in the Social Science Citation Index and to their citation frequencies from 2007 to May 2011. 218 cities are visualized with an article output of at least 50 in 2007. Statistical z tests are used for the evaluation of the degree to which an observed number of top-cited papers (top-10% for a city differs from the number expected on the basis of randomness in the selection of papers. The map points at excellence centers in cities at the East and West Coast of the USA as well as in Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and Taiwan. These results indicate that highly-cited psychological research articles come from the Anglo-American countries and some of the non-English European countries in which the number of English-language publications has increased during the last decades. Implications of the results for the publication strategies of psychologists in non-English speaking countries are discussed as well as the neccessity to care for qualitative criteria in evaluations in addition to quantitative, scientometric criteria.

  3. Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J.C.; Ibrahim, S.R.; Brincker, Rune

    Abstraet Thispaper demansirates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification o flinear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing...

  4. Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    This paper demonstrates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification of linear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing a new...

  5. Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, R.; Brincker, Rune

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification of linear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing a new...

  6. Random dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1986-06-01

    The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)

  7. Random dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: Gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)

  8. Random Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H. B.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model.

  9. Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 through 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    This Circular updates and supersedes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 03–083, "Worldwide Asbestos Supply and Consumption Trends from 1900 to 2000," with the addition of supply and consumption estimates and analysis from 2001 through 2003 and revisions to the consumption estimates for 1998 through 2000. The text from Open-File Report 03–083 also has been updated in this Circular to include revisions to and expansion of the time-series coverage. The use of asbestos is one of the most controversial issues surrounding the industrial minerals industry. Its carcinogenic nature, an overall lack of knowledge of minimum safe exposure levels, its widespread use for more than 100 years, and the long latency for the development of lung cancer and mesothelioma are the main contributing factors to these controversies. Another factor is that, despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for its carcinogenic properties are still largely unknown. The United States produced about 3.29 million metric tons (Mt) of asbestos and used approximately 31.5 Mt between 1900 and 2003. About half of this amount was used after 1960. In 2002, the last asbestos mine in the United States closed, marking the end of more than 110 years of U.S. asbestos production. Cumulative world production from 1900 through 2003 was about 181 Mt. If one assumes that unusually large stocks were not maintained and that world consumption roughly equaled production, then about half of the world production and consumption occurred between the end of 1976 and the end of 2003. The United States and Western European nations were the largest consumers of asbestos during the first two-thirds of the 20th century. They were surpassed by the collective production and consumption of Kazakhstan and Russia by the 1970s. After the onset of the health issues concerning asbestos in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the decline in world production and consumption began to be evident in the late 1970s and

  10. Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupp James M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP. These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates. Results The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asia; A.Br.Aust 94, a sub-lineage that is present in Europe and India, and A.Br.Vollum, a lineage that is also present in Europe. The remaining two canSNP genotypes are spread across the whole of China and belong to sub-group A.Br.001/002 and the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, two closely related genotypes. MLVA typing adds resolution to the isolates in each canSNP genotype and diversity indices for the A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 sub-groups suggest that these represent older and established clades in China. Conclusion B. anthracis isolates were recovered from three canSNP sub-groups (A.Br.008/009, A.Br.Aust94, and A.Br.Vollum in the western most portion of the large Chinese province of Xinjiang. The city of Kashi in this province appears to have served as a crossroads

  11. Studying genetic diversity of whitefly B. tabaci Egyptian isolates in relation to some worldwide isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Farouk Fahmy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae is considered to be one of the most damaging pests in agriculture, causing severe losses in crops worldwide, affecting the tropical and subtropical regions. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR was used to assess the genetic diversity between different isolates collected from different regions in Egypt compared with some other worldwide isolates of this insect pest. Out of 12 primers 8 primers from Operon technology have shown to differentiate between 13 collected B. tabaci samples from all over Egypt and some other samples collected from different countries with two other populations representing biotypes A and B collected from the US used for biotype demarcation. Using 13 insect samples, RAPD analysis has produced a total number of 72 markers; about 68 polymorphic markers were revealed. The total number of bands obtained for each primer ranged from 4 to 14 within an average of 9 bands per primer. Of the pair wise combination among fifteen populations Ismailia population showed the highest similarity index (0.947, while US biotype A scored the lowest similarity index (0.326. Two major clusters were formed from the UPGMA dendrogram, which was constructed based on Dice similarity coefficient. RAPD-PCR screening demarcated the whitefly population based on the host species and genetic biotypes. Two major clusters have been revealed as A and B with two other minor clusters A1, A2, and B1, B2. Most of the samples collected from Egypt were clustered together in a minor cluster named A1. A1 group is divided into two sub-groups. A1a comprises the populations from Beni-Sweif in Upper Egypt, Ismailia, Kalyobia, El-Fayoum, Tanta, Kafr El-Sheikh, Alexandria, and A1b comprises Spain and Sudan. Group A1a is clustered together based on their host which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family while Alexandria was separated individually based on its host which is cauliflower. Through

  12. Targeted anticytokine therapy in patients with chronic heart failure: results of the Randomized Etanercept Worldwide Evaluation (RENEWAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Douglas L; McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton

    2004-01-01

    to chronic heart failure from the 2 studies was also planned (RENEWAL). On the basis of prespecified stopping rules, both trials were terminated prematurely owing to lack of benefit. Etanercept had no effect on clinical status in RENAISSANCE (P=0.17) or RECOVER (P=0.34) and had no effect on the death...... or chronic heart failure hospitalization end point in RENEWAL (etanercept to placebo relative risk=1.1, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.33, P=0.33). CONCLUSIONS: The results of RENEWAL rule out a clinically relevant benefit of etanercept on the rate of death or hospitalization due to chronic heart failure....

  13. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  14. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  15. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  16. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M; Ebrahimtabar, F; Zamani, V; Miller, W H; Alizadeh-Navaei, R; Shokri-Shirvani, J; Derakhshan, M H

    2018-04-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection is poorly understood. To establish the reported regional and national prevalence of H. pylori infection, stratified by age and gender. All relevant English publications from 2000 to 2017 cited by PubMed and Scopus were retrieved using comprehensive combinations of keywords. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was estimated using both random effect and fixed effect meta-analyses, and presented as prevalence rate (% and 95% CI). The analyses were extended by separation into gender and age groups. A total of 14 056 records were obtained initially. After applying exclusion criteria in several steps, 183 studies were selected. Analysis of 410 879 participants from 73 countries in six continents revealed an overall prevalence of 44.3% (95% CI: 40.9-47.7) worldwide. This rate ranged from 50.8% (95% CI: 46.8-54.7) in developing countries compared with 34.7% (95% CI: 30.2-39.3) in developed countries. The global H. pylori infection rate was 42.7% (95% CI: 39-46.5) in females compared to 46.3% (95% CI: 42.1-50.5) in males. The prevalence in adults (≥18 years) was significantly higher than in children (48.6% [95% CI: 43.8-53.5] vs 32.6% [95% CI: 28.4-36.8], respectively). There was a statistically nonsignificant decrease in the prevalence in 2009-2016 compared with the 2000-2009 period. The observed differences between countries appear to be due to economic and social conditions. H. pylori infection can be a benchmark for the socioeconomic and health status of a country. Further studies are suggested to investigate the natural history of the acquisition of H. pylori infection from childhood into adult life. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D.; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls, short message service (SMS) or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). IVR and SMS interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. IVR and SMS-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multi-modal interventions including web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in more than 30 LMICs, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients’ unique and changing needs. PMID:26596977

  18. Weight change from 3-year observational data: findings from the worldwide schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushe, Chris J; Slooff, Cees J; Haddad, Peter M; Karagianis, Jamie L

    2012-06-01

    Weight change data from randomized clinical trials are often of limited duration and trials do not always report a full range of clinically relevant categorical end points. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the observational Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes database (2000-2005) on weight change in 4,626 patients completing 3 years of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and oral and depot first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Reported outcomes included mean and categorical weight changes and the trajectories of different measures of weight change. Mean weight gain was lowest with amisulpride (1.8 kg; 95% CI, 0.2-3.3) and highest with olanzapine (4.2 kg; 95% CI, 3.9-4.5). Weight change for all antipsychotics was most rapid during the first 6 months; subsequent weight change was slower but did not plateau. All drugs showed considerable individual variation in weight change. The proportion losing ≥7% of their baseline bodyweight was highest with quetiapine (10%; 95% CI, 7%-16%) and lowest with depot FGAs (5%; 95% CI, 3%-10%). Between 7% and 15% of patients moved into an overweight or obese body mass index (kg/m2)category (≥25). The degree of weight gain varied between antipsychotics. All antipsychotics were associated with significant (≥7%) weight loss and gain from baseline. The mean rate of weight gain was maximal during the first 6 months but continued over 3 years without a plateau in this specific cohort. Patients should receive regular monitoring of weight throughout treatment. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-11-24

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs

  20. Examination of worldwide hardwood lumber production, trade, and apparent consumption: 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide hardwood lumber production fluctuated between 1995 and 2013 and changed considerably with respect to regional market shares. Similarly, worldwide hardwood lumber imports and exports have been constantly changing. Understanding these changes is important because collectively, they define the hardwood lumber consumption of a region or country. In 1995, North...

  1. GeoCENS: a geospatial cyberinfrastructure for the world-wide sensor web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-10-02

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  2. 76 FR 18761 - Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd.; Possible Violations of Sections 10(a)(1) and 10(b)(2) of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-04] Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd.; Possible Violations... Worldwide Logistics Co., Ltd. (Worldwide) is a company based in the People's Republic of China, providing.... 228 Ning Guo Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, PRC 200090. It is a part of the Worldwide Logistics...

  3. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  4. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  5. Random matrices and random difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical models leading to products of random matrices and random difference equations are discussed. A one-compartment model with random behavior is introduced, and it is shown how the average concentration in the discrete time model converges to the exponential function. This is of relevance to understanding how radioactivity gets trapped in bone structure in blood--bone systems. The ideas are then generalized to two-compartment models and mammillary systems, where products of random matrices appear in a natural way. The appearance of products of random matrices in applications in demography and control theory is considered. Then random sequences motivated from the following problems are studied: constant pulsing and random decay models, random pulsing and constant decay models, and random pulsing and random decay models

  6. Origem e distribuição dos nervos femorais em fetos suínos (SUS Scrofa Domesticus – Linneaus, 1758) do cruzamento das linhagens Dan Bred e AGPIC337

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Gustavo Cavinato

    2016-01-01

    Estudou-se em 30 fetos suínos oriundos do cruzamento das linhagens Dan Bred e AGPIC337, natimortos, a origem e distribuição do nervo femoral, os quais foram fixados em solução de formaldeído a 10%. Em 96,67% dos animais o número de vértebras lombares foram seis e em 3,33% sete. O nervo femoral originou-se de L4 e L5 (66,67%), L5 e L6 (26,67%) e L3 e L4 (6,66%). Em relação a sua distribuição emitiu ramos para os músculos psoas maior, psoas menor, ilíaco, pectíneo, quadríceps femoral em 100% do...

  7. The impact of the worldwide Millennium Development Goals campaign on maternal and under-five child mortality reduction: 'Where did the worldwide campaign work most effectively?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman

    2017-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990-2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend. The low accomplishment of sub-Saharan Africa toward the MDG target mainly resulted from the debilitated progress of mortality reduction during 1990-2000, which was not related to the worldwide MDG campaign. In contrast, the other regions had already achieved substantial progress before the Millennium Declaration was proclaimed. Sub-Saharan African countries have seen the most remarkable impact of the worldwide MDG campaign on maternal and child mortality reduction across all different measurements. In sub-Saharan Africa, the MDG campaign has advanced the progress of the declining maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate, respectively, by 4.29 and 4.37 years. Sub-Saharan African countries were frequently labeled as 'off-track', 'insufficient progress', or 'no progress' even though the greatest progress was achieved here during the worldwide MDG campaign period and the impact of the worldwide MDG campaign was most pronounced in this region in all respects. It is time to learn from the success stories of the sub-Saharan African countries. Erroneous and biased measurement should be avoided for the sustainable development goals to progress.

  8. Biofuels worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His, St.

    2004-01-01

    After over 20 years of industrial development, the outlook for biofuels now looks bright. Recent developments indicate that the use of biofuels, previously confined to a handful of countries including Brazil and the United States, is 'going global' and a world market may emerge. However, these prospects could eventually be limited by constraints relative to resources and costs. The future of biofuels probably depends on the development of new technologies to valorize lignocellulosic substances such as wood and straw. (author)

  9. A 2015 comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides an update to the 2010 report A Comparison of Operational Performance: : Washington State Ferries to Ferry Operators Worldwide, observing changes in Washington State : Ferries, 23 other ferry systems, and the ferry industry ...

  10. Statistical summary of commercial jet aircraft accidents : worldwide operations, 1959-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The accident statistics presented in this summary are confined to worldwide commercial jet airplanes that are heavier than 60,000 pounds maximum gross weight. Within that set of airplanes, there are two groups excluded: : 1) Airplanes manufactured in...

  11. Mapping the performance of wood-burning stoves by installations worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    2016-01-01

    environmental health risk. Research stressed the need to increase the performance of conventional interplays between users, stoves and buildings. This scientific review aims to characterize the performance and environmental effects of 9 wood-burning stove categories by installations worldwide...

  12. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains documented field measurements of NPP components for 39 old-growth tropical forests distributed worldwide between latitudes 23.58 N and 23.58...

  13. Information exchange of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan with nuclear societies worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao; Tomita, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) exchanges information with nuclear societies worldwide by intersocietal communication through international councils of nuclear societies and through bilateral agreements between foreign societies and by such media as international meetings, publications, and Internet applications

  14. CTFS-ForestGEO: A worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K.J.; Davies, S.J.; Bennett, A.C.; Gonzalez-Akre, E.B.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Wright, S.J.; Abu Salim, K.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Ouden, den J.

    2015-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics

  15. PETROS - Worldwide Databank of Major Element Chemical Analyses of Igneous Rocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PETROS is a worldwide data bank of major element chemical analyses of igneous rocks compiled for research and teaching purposes by Dr. Felix Mutschler and Staff at...

  16. Advanced use of World-Wide Web in the online system of DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenszelmann, M.; Carvalho, D.; Du, S.; Tennebo, F.

    1996-01-01

    The World-Wide Web technologies used by the DELPHI experiment at CERN to provide easy access to information of the On-line System. WWW technology on both client and server side is used in five different projects. The World-Wide Web has its advantages concerning the network technology, the practical user interface and its scalability. It however also demands a stateless protocol and format negotiation. (author)

  17. Topics in random walks in random environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sznitman, A.-S.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last twenty-five years random motions in random media have been intensively investigated and some new general methods and paradigms have by now emerged. Random walks in random environment constitute one of the canonical models of the field. However in dimension bigger than one they are still poorly understood and many of the basic issues remain to this day unresolved. The present series of lectures attempt to give an account of the progresses which have been made over the last few years, especially in the study of multi-dimensional random walks in random environment with ballistic behavior. (author)

  18. GeoCENS: A Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for the World-Wide Sensor Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H.L. Liang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web’s full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  19. Rationale and design of the worldwide prospective multicenter registry on radiation dose estimates of cardiac CT angiography in daily practice in 2017 (PROTECTION VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Thomas J; Deseive, Simon; Chen, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    -randomized and randomized studies have been performed to reduce the associated radiation exposure. Currently, it is unclear if the advances in technology and knowledge about radiation reduction translated into reduced levels of cardiac CTA radiation dose in daily clinical practice as well as a wide utilization of dose......-saving strategies. METHODS: The PROTECTION VI study is a multicenter, prospective, worldwide registry designed to evaluate radiation dose exposure, utilization of dose-saving strategies and diagnostic image quality during cardiac CTA in current daily practice. Assessment of image quality will be addressed...... median radiation dose levels, image quality, frequency of use and efficacy of algorithms for dose reduction, and patient and study-related predictors associated with radiation dose. CONCLUSIONS: The PROTECTION VI study is designed to provide a reliable estimate of current radiation dose for cardiac CTA...

  20. Distinctiveness of the Roma population within CYP2B6 worldwide variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Željka; Kuhanec, Antonija; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Janićijević, Branka; Salihović, Marijana Peričić

    2017-11-01

    To determine variation of CYP2B6 gene within the genetically specific Croatian Roma (Gypsy) population originating from India and to examine it in the worldwide perspective. Seven SNP loci (rs12721655, rs2279343, rs28399499, rs34097093, rs3745274, rs7260329 and rs8192709) were genotyped in 439 subjects using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) method. The Croatian Roma took an outlying position in CYP2B6 variation from the worldwide perspective mainly due to their exceptionally high minor allele frequency (MAF) for rs8192709 (12.8%), and lower for rs2279343 (21.1%) compared with south Asian populations. This study provides the first data of several CYP2B6 polymorphisms in Roma population and indicates the need for systematic investigation of the most important pharmacogenes' variants in this large, transnationally isolated population worldwide.

  1. Extending the capabilities of the DIII-D Plasma Control System for worldwide fusion research collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Xiao, B.J.; Hahn, S.H.; Gates, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recent enhancements which have been made to the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) in order to further extend its usefulness as a shared tool for worldwide fusion research. The PCS developed at General Atomics is currently being used in a number of fusion research experiments worldwide, including the DIII-D Tokamak Facility in San Diego, and most recently the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. A number of enhancements have been made to support the ongoing needs of the DIII-D Tokamak in addition to meeting the needs of other PCS users worldwide. Details of the present PCS hardware and software architecture along with descriptions of the latest enhancements will be given.

  2. Can the future, world-wide energy supply be achieved without nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the future the world-wide energy demand is going to increase considerably. The use of nuclear energy will continuously grow if the demand of climate researchers for a reduction of the world-wide CO 2 emission is fulfilled and if the possible contribution of regenerative energy sources is assessed realistically. In the future a world-wide use of nuclear energy will be realised according to even higher safety standards. The modification of the German Atom Law, which determines the limitation of damage caused to the reactor plant for future reactors fulfils this demand. The efforts in the field of nuclear technical development will concentrate on the proof of the required safety properties. (orig.) [de

  3. Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: IUR initiates the 'FORUM' - Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: an initiative of the International Union of Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F. [International Union of Radioecology (IUR) and Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Direction General, Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 229, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Bollhoefer, A. [South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) and Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Department of the Environment, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia); Frogg, K.E.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Higley, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5902 (United States); Hinton, T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Kapustka, L. [LK Consultancy, P.O. Box 373, Turner Valley, Alberta (Canada); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leonard, K.S. [Cefas, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Masson, O. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 153, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Nanba, K. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima, Fukushima 960- 1296 (Japan); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute of Environment Health and Safety, Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment, Boeretang, 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Yankovich, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Yoshida, S. [Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba-shi (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Many specialized networks have been designed in the past years to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories, such as waste problems, environmental modelling, prevention of impacts, regulation, etc- In Europe, a network of excellence in radioecology has been set up in order to design a strategic research agenda. It is currently being expected to become part of a European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue like waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, etc. Other kind of sectorial networks result from international agreements for wide environment surveillance. IUR, founded on its large and long-existing international representation, with a current membership spread in nearly 60 countries worldwide, has now identified the need to bridge all such regional and/or sectorial networks together in order to promote the emergence of a worldwide coordinated development process for radioecology. This is especially warranted at a breakeven period where nuclear industry is starting, or expected, to spread beyond the small historical club of nuclearized countries in response to growing energetic demands throughout the world. Furthermore, with more than 30 years of existence, IUR with its dedicated task groups has a long tradition of promoting recommendations on the scientific needs to advance radioecology. In consequence, the construction of a process for worldwide international harmonization of R and D programmes and efforts is becoming highly desirable. This harmonization process would have the objectives to optimize efficiency, avoid duplications, optimize efficient exploitation of existing infrastructures, support harmonised and coherent regulatory developments, help the development of well informed

  4. Enerdata statistical yearbook. ''the key-data of energy worldwide''. 1999 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The new edition of the Enerdata statistical yearbook provides the most recent statistical data on energy (oil, gas, coal and power production) and CO 2 emissions worldwide for the 1994-1999 period of time. These data cover 52 countries and 12 geographic areas and are presented in the form of tables and graphs (production, foreign exchanges, consumptions, market shares, sectoral consumption, 1999 energy status, long-term tendencies). More data for a longer period (1970-1999) and for all countries worldwide are available on the CD-Rom version of the yearbook. (J.S.)

  5. Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Alessandra Pereira; Macedo, Tânia Fagundes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Ventura, Paula Rui

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder

  6. Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy related treatments for victims of natural disasters: a worldwide problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pereira Lopes

    Full Text Available Natural disasters can have devastating consequences. Each year, about 225 million people are victims of natural disasters worldwide, and up to 13,5 million of these people can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in the first or second year following the disaster. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT is the first-choice treatment for this disorder. In order to evaluate the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment based on cognitive-behavior therapy for people who developed post traumatic stress disorder after natural disasters we conducted a systematic search of published studies. We used the terms reported below in the electronic databases ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, PILOTS and Scopus with no restrictions of language or publication date. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non controlled studies on the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy for individuals diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder after exposure to a natural disaster were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to use a standardized measure of effectiveness before and after the intervention and have a group of patients who had used cognitive-behavior therapy as the only intervention. Our search identified 820 studies, and 11 were selected for this review. These 11 studies involved 742 subjects, 10 related to earthquakes and 1 to a hurricane. The cognitive-behavior therapy techniques used were various: 7 studies used exposure therapy, 2 studies used problem solving, and the only 2 studies with adolescents used techniques including reconstructions and reprocessing of the traumatic experience. As limitations, the search involved only five electronic databases, no experts in the field were consulted, and the heterogeneity of the findings made it impossible to perform a meta-analysis. The results suggest the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy, particularly exposure techniques, for the treatment of post

  7. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  8. Quantumness, Randomness and Computability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, Aldo; Hirsch, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    Randomness plays a central role in the quantum mechanical description of our interactions. We review the relationship between the violation of Bell inequalities, non signaling and randomness. We discuss the challenge in defining a random string, and show that algorithmic information theory provides a necessary condition for randomness using Borel normality. We close with a view on incomputablity and its implications in physics. (paper)

  9. How random is a random vector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-12-01

    Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the "generalized variance" of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the "Wilks standard deviation" -the square root of the generalized variance-is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the "uncorrelation index" -a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation-is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: "randomness measures" and "independence indices" of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to "randomness diagrams"-tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of "independence indices" yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.

  10. How random is a random vector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-01-01

    Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the “generalized variance” of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the “Wilks standard deviation” –the square root of the generalized variance–is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the “uncorrelation index” –a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation–is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: “randomness measures” and “independence indices” of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to “randomness diagrams”—tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of “independence indices” yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.

  11. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  12. 76 FR 4726 - Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,411] Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Diamondware, Ltd and Nortel Networks, Inc., Including Workers Working at...

  13. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butin, Marine; Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone.

  14. Latitude gradient influences the age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis: a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The age of onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an important outcome predictor. Northern countries report an age of RA onset of around 50 years, but apparently, variability exists across different geographical regions. The objective of the present study is to assess whether the age of onset of RA varies across latitudes worldwide. In a proof-of-concept cross-sectional worldwide survey, rheumatologists from preselected cities interviewed 20 consecutive RA patients regarding the date of RA onset (RAO, when the patient first noted a swollen joint). Other studied variables included location of each city, rheumatologist settings, latitudes (10° increments, south to north), longitudes (three regions), intracountry consistency, and countries' Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). Data from 2481 patients (82% females) were obtained from 126 rheumatologists in 77 cities of 41 countries. Worldwide mean age of RAO was 44 ± 14 years (95% CI 44-45). In 28% of patients, RA began before age 36 years and before age 46 years in 50% of patients. RAO was 8 years earlier around the Tropic of Cancer when compared with northern latitudes (p worldwide. We postulate that countries' developmental status and their geographical and geomagnetic location influence the age of RAO.

  15. Burden of high fracture probability worldwide: secular increases 2010-2040.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odén, A; McCloskey, E V; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Johansson, H

    2015-09-01

    The number of individuals aged 50 years or more at high risk of osteoporotic fracture worldwide in 2010 was estimated at 158 million and is set to double by 2040. The aim of this study was to quantify the number of individuals worldwide aged 50 years or more at high risk of osteoporotic fracture in 2010 and 2040. A threshold of high fracture probability was set at the age-specific 10-year probability of a major fracture (clinical vertebral, forearm, humeral or hip fracture) which was equivalent to that of a woman with a BMI of 24 kg/m(2) and a prior fragility fracture but no other clinical risk factors. The prevalence of high risk was determined worldwide and by continent using all available country-specific FRAX models and applied the population demography for each country. Twenty-one million men and 137 million women had a fracture probability at or above the threshold in the world for the year 2010. The greatest number of men and women at high risk were from Asia (55 %). Worldwide, the number of high-risk individuals is expected to double over the next 40 years. We conclude that individuals with high probability of osteoporotic fractures comprise a very significant disease burden to society, particularly in Asia, and that this burden is set to increase markedly in the future. These analyses provide a platform for the evaluation of risk assessment and intervention strategies.

  16. Worldwide Test Reviewing at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets the stage for the description of a variety of approaches to test reviewing worldwide. It describes the importance of test reviewing as a protection of the public and of society and also the benefits of this activity for test users, who must choose measures to use in particular situations with particular clients at a particular…

  17. High genetic diversity and absence of founder effects in a worldwide aquatic invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeusne, Christophe; Saunier, Alice; Petit, Nicolas; Béguer, Mélanie; Otani, Michio; Carlton, James T; Rico, Ciro; Green, Andy J

    2014-07-24

    The introduced oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus has recently become widespread in temperate estuaries worldwide. However, this recent worldwide spread outside of its native range arises after a previous introduction to the US Pacific coast, where it was restricted for more than 30 years. Using a phylogeographic approach, the present work investigates the genetic history of the invasion of this decapod worldwide. Japan acted as the main native source area for worldwide introduced populations, but other native areas (likely South Korea and China) may act as source populations as well. The recently introduced European and NW Atlantic populations result from colonization from both Japan and an unknown area of the native range, although colonization from the NE Pacific could not be ruled out. Most introduced populations had higher haplotypic diversity than most native populations. P. macrodactylus has a strong potential to become one of the most widespread introduced species and may become the dominant estuarine shrimp in Europe. The ecological and economic consequences of this invasion remain to be thoroughly evaluated.

  18. Database specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, B.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Database Specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) describes the database organization and storage allocation, provides the detailed data model of the logical and physical designs, and provides information for the construction of parts of the database such as tables, data elements, and associated dictionaries and diagrams.

  19. Blended Learning Citation Patterns and Publication Networks across Seven Worldwide Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Kristian J.; Graham, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    The field of international blended learning (BL) is primed to benefit from stronger communication and collaboration. Collaboration is currently limited, and regions vary greatly in terms of citations. However, BL is growing worldwide and each region is an important part of the community. The goal of this research is to explore where the most…

  20. 77 FR 20445 - eMax Worldwide, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Trading April 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that the public interest and... shareholders of record. eMax Worldwide, Inc. is quoted on OTC Markets Group Inc. under the ticker EMXC. The Commission is of the opinion that the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of...

  1. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; Stuart J. Davies; Amy C. Bennett; Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre; Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Kamariah Abu Salim; Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano; Alfonso Alonso; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Yves Basset; Norman A. Bourg; Eben N. Broadbent; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; David F. R. P. Burslem; Nathalie Butt; Min Cao; Dairon Cardenas; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Susan Cordell; Handanakere S. Dattaraja; Xiaobao Deng; Matteo Detto; Xiaojun Du; Alvaro Duque; David L. Erikson; Corneille E.N. Ewango; Gunter A. Fischer; Christine Fletcher; Robin B. Foster; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory S. Gilbert; Nimal Gunatilleke; Savitri Gunatilleke; Zhanqing Hao; William W. Hargrove; Terese B. Hart; Billy C.H. Hau; Fangliang He; Forrest M. Hoffman; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; Patrick A. Jansen; Mingxi Jiang; Daniel J. Johnson; Mamoru Kanzaki; Abdul Rahman Kassim; David Kenfack; Staline Kibet; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Lisa Korte; Kamil Kral; Jitendra Kumar; Andrew J. Larson; Yide Li; Xiankun Li; Shirong Liu; Shawn K.Y. Lum; James A. Lutz; Keping Ma; Damian M. Maddalena; Jean-Remy Makana; Yadvinder Malhi; Toby Marthews; Rafizah Mat Serudin; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Xiangcheng Mi; Takashi Mizuno; Michael Morecroft; Jonathan A. Myers; Vojtech Novotny; Alexandre A. de Oliveira; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Jan den Ouden; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; Moses N. Sainge; Weiguo Sang; Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang; Raman Sukumar; I-Fang Sun; Witchaphart Sungpalee; Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana Suresh; Sylvester Tan; Sean C. Thomas; Duncan W. Thomas; Jill Thompson; Benjamin L. Turner; Maria Uriarte; Renato Valencia; Marta I. Vallejo; Alberto Vicentini; Tomáš Vrška; Xihua Wang; Xugao Wang; George Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Han Xu; Sandra Yap; Jess Zimmerman

    2014-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses...

  2. The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckeler, Michael D; Hoke, Tracey R

    2011-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD. PMID:21386976

  3. Explaining diversity in the worldwide diffusion of codes of good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, Ilir; van Ees, Hans

    Extending earlier literature on diffusion of codes of good governance (CGGs) by integrating the effect of national culture, this study offers a novel perspective on cross-national diversity in the worldwide diffusion of corporate governance best practices. We argue that particular cultural

  4. An efficient multiplex genotyping approach for detecting the major worldwide human Y-chromosome haplogroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Oven (Mannis); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); A. Ralf (Arwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The Y chromosome is paternally inherited and therefore serves as an evolutionary marker of patrilineal descent. Worldwide DNA variation within the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome can be represented as a monophyletic phylogenetic tree in which the branches

  5. Intended and unintended consequences of a publish-or-perish culture: a worldwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  6. Intended and Unintended Consequences of a Publish-or-Perish Culture : A Worldwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, we show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  7. Intended and unintended consequences of a publish-or-perish culture : A world-wide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    How does publication pressure in modern-day universities affect the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in science? By using a worldwide survey among demographers in developed and developing countries, the authors show that the large majority perceive the publication pressure as high, but more so in

  8. Text mining to detect indications of fraud in annual reports worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fissette, Marcia Valentine Maria

    2017-01-01

    The research described in this thesis examined the contribution of text analysis to detecting indications of fraud in the annual reports of companies worldwide. A total of 1,727 annual reports have been collected, of which 402 are of the years and companies in which fraudulent activities took place,

  9. Explaining diversity in the worldwide diffusion of codes of good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; van Ees, H.

    2010-01-01

    Extending earlier literature on diffusion of codes of good governance (CGGs) by integrating the effect of national culture, this study offers a novel perspective on cross-national diversity in the worldwide diffusion of corporate governance best practices. We argue that particular cultural

  10. ET Worldwide: A Periodic Compendium of Environmental Education and Training Opportunities. No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This document represents an extensively revised and updated United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Directory for Environmental Training Worldwide. It presents a listing of environmental education and training (EE&T) opportunities around the world as well as information on financial assistance for environmental studies abroad. This version…

  11. RECONSTRUCTING THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THE FOREST FUNGAL PATHOGEN, ARMILLARIA MELLEA, IN A TEMPERATE WORLDWIDE POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The forest pathogen Armillaria mellea s.s. (Basidiomycota, Physalacriaceae) is among the most significant forest pathogens causing root rot in northern temperate forest trees worldwide. Phylogenetic reconstructions for A. mellea show distinct European, Asian and North American lineages. The North Am...

  12. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  13. Global pension systems and their reform: Worldwide drivers, trends, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Across the world, pension systems and their reforms are in a constant state of flux driven by shifting objectives, moving reform needs, and a changing enabling environment. The ongoing worldwide financial crisis and the adjustment to an uncertain 'new normal' will make future pension systems different from past ones. The objectives of this policy review paper are threefold: (i) to briefly ...

  14. 78 FR 66097 - In the Matter of Heritage Worldwide, Inc., Impala Mineral Exploration Corp., Klondike Star...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Heritage Worldwide, Inc., Impala Mineral Exploration Corp., Klondike Star Mineral Corporation, MIV Therapeutics Inc., Most Home... concerning the securities of Klondike Star Mineral Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  15. Worldwide trends in surgical techniques in the treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, L.; Seesing, M. F J; Ruurda, J. P.; Boone, J.; van Hillegersberg, R.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide trends in surgical techniques for esophageal cancer surgery by comparing it to our survey from 2007. In addition, new questions were added for gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. An international survey on surgery of esophageal and GEJ cancer

  16. Long the fixation of physicists worldwide, a tiny particle is found

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "After decades of intensive effort by both experimental and theoretical physicists worldwide, a tiny particle with no charge, a very low mass and a lifetime much shorter than a nanosecond, dubbed the "axion", has now been detected by the University at Buffalo physicist who first suggested its existence in a little-read paper as early as 194." (2 pages)

  17. Comparisons of radiosensitivity and damage repair potential between mutants from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain of yeast and laboratory-bred wild yeasts with particular attention being given to giant cell formation after X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Yeast cells were exposed to X-rays at dose levels up to 10 kGy to induce damage to the DNA and investigate its effects on cellular growth patterns. For this purpose, comparisons were carried out between one diploid strain and six haploid strains of the Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species, which permitted the individual recovery and damage repair pathways to be described in more detail. The laboratory-bred wild strains ATCC 9080, 211 and 706 were judged to have unimpaired repair mechanisms as compared to the auxotrophs, which fact was evident from the higher radiosensitivity of the latter. A further parameter in this evaluation of growth behaviours was giant cell formation. The results here provided evidence in confirmation of deviations between wild strains and mutants. Even though the ceiling values for the formation of giant cells were similarly high in all strains, impairments of cell division and initial development were observed for the mutants already at considerably lower dose levels. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Development of a near-infrared spectroscopy method (NIRS) for fast analysis of total, indolic, aliphatic and individual glucosinolates in new bred open pollinating genotypes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahamishirazi, Samira; Zikeli, Sabine; Fleck, Michael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Graeff-Hoenninger, Simone

    2017-10-01

    This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibration to determine individual and total glucosinolates (GSLs) content of 12 new-bred open-pollinating genotypes of broccoli (Brassica oleracea convar. botrytis var. italica). Six individual GSLs were identified using high-performance-liquid chromatography (HPLC). The NIRS calibration was established based on modified partial least squares regression with reference values of HPLC. The calibration was analyzed using coefficient of determination in prediction (R 2 ) and ratio of preference of determination (RPD). Large variation occurred in the calibrations, R 2 and RPD due to the variability of the samples. Derived calibrations for total-GSLs, aliphatic-GSLs, glucoraphanin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were quantitative with a high accuracy (RPD=1.36, 1.65, 1.63, 1.11) while, for indole-GSLs, glucosinigrin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin and 1-methoxyglucobrassicin were more qualitative (RPD=0.95, 0.62, 0.67, 0.81, 0.56). Overall, the results indicated NIRS has a good potential to determine different GSLs in a large sample pool of broccoli quantitatively and qualitatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Worldwide withdrawal of medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically identified medicinal products withdrawn worldwide because of adverse drug reactions, assessed the level of evidence used for making the withdrawal decisions, and explored the patterns of withdrawals over time. We searched PubMed, the WHO database of withdrawn products, and selected texts. We included products that were withdrawn after launch from 1950 onwards, excluding non-human and over-the-counter medicines. We assessed the levels of evidence on which withdrawals were based using the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Of 353 medicinal products withdrawn from any country, only 40 were withdrawn worldwide. Anecdotal reports were cited as evidence for withdrawal in 30 (75%) and deaths occurred in 27 (68%). Hepatic, cardiac, and nervous system toxicity accounted for over 60% of withdrawals. In 28 cases, the first withdrawal was initiated by the manufacturer. The median interval between the first report of an adverse drug reaction that led to withdrawal and the first withdrawal was 1 year (range 0-43 years). Worldwide withdrawals occurred within 1 year after the first withdrawal in any country. In conclusion, the time it takes for drugs to be withdrawn worldwide after reports of adverse drug reactions has shortened over time. However, there are inconsistencies in current withdrawal procedures when adverse drug reactions are suspected. A uniform method for establishing worldwide withdrawal of approved medicinal products when adverse drug reactions are suspected should be developed, to facilitate global withdrawals. Rapid synthesis of the evidence on harms should be a priority when serious adverse reactions are suspected.

  20. Maternal Colonization With Group B Streptococcus and Serotype Distribution Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Neal J; Seale, Anna C; O'Driscoll, Megan; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Gonzalez-Guarin, Juan; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Saha, Samir K; Ip, Margaret

    2017-11-06

    Maternal rectovaginal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common pathway for GBS disease in mother, fetus, and newborn. This article, the second in a series estimating the burden of GBS, aims to determine the prevalence and serotype distribution of GBS colonizing pregnant women worldwide. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus), organized Chinese language searches, and sought unpublished data from investigator groups. We applied broad inclusion criteria to maximize data inputs, particularly from low- and middle-income contexts, and then applied new meta-analyses to adjust for studies with less-sensitive sampling and laboratory techniques. We undertook meta-analyses to derive pooled estimates of maternal GBS colonization prevalence at national and regional levels. The dataset regarding colonization included 390 articles, 85 countries, and a total of 299924 pregnant women. Our adjusted estimate for maternal GBS colonization worldwide was 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-19%), with regional variation (11%-35%), and lower prevalence in Southern Asia (12.5% [95% CI, 10%-15%]) and Eastern Asia (11% [95% CI, 10%-12%]). Bacterial serotypes I-V account for 98% of identified colonizing GBS isolates worldwide. Serotype III, associated with invasive disease, accounts for 25% (95% CI, 23%-28%), but is less frequent in some South American and Asian countries. Serotypes VI-IX are more common in Asia. GBS colonizes pregnant women worldwide, but prevalence and serotype distribution vary, even after adjusting for laboratory methods. Lower GBS maternal colonization prevalence, with less serotype III, may help to explain lower GBS disease incidence in regions such as Asia. High prevalence worldwide, and more serotype data, are relevant to prevention efforts. © The Author 2017. Published by

  1. Review article: liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - a critical appraisal of the current worldwide listing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, K V; Hakeem, A R; Heaton, N D

    2014-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) plays an important role in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although early results following LT for HCC were poor, since the introduction of the Milan criteria in 1996 morphological criteria have since been well established. Thereafter, various expansions of the Milan criteria were introduced worldwide. Listing criteria for LT for HCC in the United Kingdom (UK) initially conformed to the Milan criteria but were re-defined in 2009 by expansion of the Milan criteria. To look at the evidence in literature on listing criteria and management of HCC worldwide in comparison with the UK. Secondly, we aim to review worldwide vs. UK literature on prioritisation models, loco-regional therapy protocols and role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in LT for HCC. An electronic literature search with Medline was carried out to identify articles related to LT for HCC. Although various expansions of the Milan criteria have been described, they remain the gold standard against which other criteria are measured. The UK criteria are an expansion of the Milan criteria that go beyond Milan and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria. The current UK listing criteria for LT for HCC when compared to the worldwide criteria have a worse survival benefit (projected 5-year survival between 35-50%) when plotted on the metroticket calculator. In keeping with most transplant centres worldwide, the UK have adopted expansions to Milan to allow more patients to benefit from LT. However, currently, as it stands the UK criteria when plotted in the modification of the Metroticket model project worse survival that would seem unjustified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Genotype-environment interaction of maternal influence characteristics in Nellore cattle bred in the Brazilian humid tropical regions by reaction norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction Norm (RN is the study of genotype-environment interaction (GxE that complies with alternative ways of genotypes within different environments. This study was carried out to verify GxE by a reaction norm model of weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days of age in Nellore cattle raised in the Humid Tropical Regions of Brazil. Environmental gradients were obtained by solutions of contemporary groups which were fitted as co-variables in the random regression model via reaction norms. Mean weight at 120 days of age was 127.97 kg, and environmental gradients ranged between -27 and +26 kg. Average was 185.60 kg at 210 days of age and gradients ranged from -54 to +55 kg. Scale changes in the breeding values and heritability estimates occurred along the gradients for the two weights; the genetic correlations between breeding value breeding values were also similar for both weights. These correlations were high between the close gradients, and low to even negative between extreme environments. Slopes representing the environmental sensitivity were high, with changes of scale and changes in classification of ten bulls with a great numbers of calves for the two traits. When regression slopes of the ten bulls with the highest breeding value breeding values were evaluated, these values were different in W120 from those in W210, perhaps due to the greater influence of maternal effect on W120. These results characterize the influence of GxE on the pre-weaning weights of animals in the humid tropical regions of Brazil. Due to this, it is possible to get greater precision on the predictions of the animals breeding values breeding value. A less biased selection and a greater genetic progress occurred.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii in wild ruminants bred in game preserves and farms with production destined for human consumption in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lorencova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of the most common parasitic infection in humans. Almost all warm-blooded animals, as well as humans, can act as intermediate hosts that harbour infective cysts in their tissues. Felids act as definitive hosts excreting oocysts in faeces. In humans, T. gondii can cause subclinical infection but also severe clinical disease with a wide range of symptoms, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The infection is usually asymptomatic in animals and is not recognized at either ante- or post-mortem inspection. The consumption of undercooked meat from infected animals is one of the most important routes by which the infection can be transmitted to humans. Handling of the organs and other tissues of game animals and eating their undercooked meat have been described as a risk of T. gondii infection. For diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, the combination of serological and molecular methods has been described as a suitable approach. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 20.8%, 50.0%, 23.1%, and 24.4% of red deer, sika deer, fallow deer and mouflons, respectively, coming from game preserves and farms in the Czech Republic. T. gondii DNA was found in the muscle tissue of red deer (8.3% and mouflons (14.6%. The lower prevalence rates based on molecular screening could be due to the random distribution and low density of cysts in tissues of infected animals. Bearing in mind the increase in the number of hunted animals and the growing trend in game consumption, it is important to educate hunters and game meat consumers about the risk of exposure to this zoonotic infection during handling and consumption of the meat.

  4. Inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia in the cavalier King Charles spaniel: experiences in setting up a worldwide DNA collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Knowler, Penny; Rouleau, Guy A; Minassian, Berge A; Rothuizen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inherited diseases commonly emerge within pedigree dog populations, often due to use of repeatedly bred carrier sire(s) within a small gene pool. Accurate family records are usually available making linkage analysis possible. However, there are many factors that are intrinsically difficult about collecting DNA and collating pedigree information from a large canine population. The keys to a successful DNA collection program include (1) the need to establish and maintain support from the pedigree breed clubs and pet owners; (2) committed individual(s) who can devote the considerable amount of time and energy to coordinating sample collection and communicating with breeders and clubs; and (3) providing means by which genotypic and phenotypic information can be easily collected and stored. In this article we described the clinical characteristics of inherited occipital hypoplasia/syringomyelia (Chiari type I malformation) in the cavalier King Charles spaniel and our experiences in establishing a pedigree and DNA database to study the disease.

  5. The World-Wide Web: An Interface between Research and Teaching in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Aiton

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion occurring in World-Wide Web activity is beginning to make the concepts of ‘global hypermedia’ and ‘universal document readership’ realistic objectives of the new revolution in information technology. One consequence of this increase in usage is that educators and students are becoming more aware of the diversity of the knowledge base which can be accessed via the Internet. Although computerised databases and information services have long played a key role in bioinformatics these same resources can also be used to provide core materials for teaching and learning. The large datasets and arch ives th at have been compiled for biomedical research can be enhanced with the addition of a variety of multimedia elements (images. digital videos. animation etc.. The use of this digitally stored information in structured and self-directed learning environments is likely to increase as activity across World-Wide Web increases.

  6. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  7. New species of Auritella (Inocybaceae) from Cameroon, with a worldwide key to the known species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, P Brandon; Henkel, Terry W; Séné, Olivier; Korotkin, Hailee B; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Aime, M Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Two new species in the genus Auritella ( Inocybaceae ) are described as new from tropical rainforest in Cameroon. Descriptions, photographs, line drawings, and a worldwide taxonomic key to the described species of Auritella are presented. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA and rpb2 nucleotide sequence data suggests at least five phylogenetic species that can be ascribed to Auritella occur in the region comprising Cameroon and Gabon and constitute a strongly supported monophyletic subgroup within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data supports the conspecificity of numerous collections attributed to the two new species as well as the monophyly of Australian species of Auritella . This work raises the known number of described species of Auritella to thirteen worldwide, four of which occur in tropical Africa, one in tropical India, and eight in temperate and tropical regions of Australia. This is the first study to confirm an ectomycorrhizal status of Auritella using molecular data.

  8. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 subtypes worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Avendaño V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite very important in animal health as well as in public health. It is because this is one of the main causes of diarrhea in children, calves, lambs and other variety of youth mammalians in a lot of countries. The globalization has enabled the exchange of biological material in different regions worldwide, encouraging the spread of diseases and exposure to these biological agents to different environmental conditions, inducing adaptation through genetic changes. Based in the polymorphism of the gene for GP60, this review intended to present the distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in humans and calves worldwide. The subtype that affects cattle more frequently corresponds to IIaA15G2R; while the subtype most frequently isolated from human samples is IaA19G2.

  9. Worldwide transportation/energy demand, 1975-2000. Revised Variflex model projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1980-03-01

    The salient features of the transportation-energy relationships that characterize the world of 1975 are reviewed, and worldwide (34 countries) long-range transportation demand by mode to the year 2000 is reviewed. A worldwide model is used to estimate future energy demand for transportation. Projections made by the forecasting model indicate that in the year 2000, every region will be more dependent on petroleum for the transportation sector than it was in 1975. This report is intended to highlight certain trends and to suggest areas for further investigation. Forecast methodology and model output are described in detail in the appendices. The report is one of a series addressing transportation energy consumption; it supplants and replaces an earlier version published in October 1978 (ORNL/Sub-78/13536/1).

  10. High Sequence Variations in Mitochondrial DNA Control Region among Worldwide Populations of Flathead Mullet Mugil cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence and structure of the complete mtDNA control region (CR of M. cephalus from African, Pacific, and Atlantic populations are presented in this study to assess its usefulness in phylogeographic studies of this species. The mtDNA CR sequence variations among M. cephalus populations largely exceeded intraspecific polymorphisms that are generally observed in other vertebrates. The length of CR sequence varied among M. cephalus populations due to the presence of indels and variable number of tandem repeats at the 3′ hypervariable domain. The high evolutionary rate of the CR in this species probably originated from these mutations. However, no excessive homoplasic mutations were noticed. Finally, the star shaped tree inferred from the CR polymorphism stresses a rapid radiation worldwide, in this species. The CR still appears as a good marker for phylogeographic investigations and additional worldwide samples are warranted to further investigate the genetic structure and evolution in M. cephalus.

  11. The World-Wide Web past present and future, and its application to medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sendall, D M

    1997-01-01

    The World-Wide Web was first developed as a tool for collaboration in the high energy physics community. From there it spread rapidly to other fields, and grew to its present impressive size. As an easy way to access information, it has been a great success, and a huge number of medical applications have taken advantage of it. But there is another side to the Web, its potential as a tool for collaboration between people. Medical examples include telemedicine and teaching. New technical developments offer still greater potential in medical and other fields. This paper gives some background to the early development of the World-Wide Web, a brief overview of its present state with some examples relevant to medicine, and a look at the future.

  12. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Davies, Stuart J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Bennett, Amy C. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Muller-Landau, Helene C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Joseph Wright, S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Abu Salim, Kamariah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Alonso, Alfonso [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Baltzer, Jennifer L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Basset, Yves [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Broadbent, Eben N. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Brockelman, Warren Y. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Biology; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh [Dept. of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand). Research Office; Burslem, David F. R. P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Butt, Nathalie [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Cao, Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Cardenas, Dairon [Sinchi Amazonic Inst. of Scientific Research, Bogota (Colombia); Chuyong, George B. [Univ. of Buea (Cameroon). Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology; Clay, Keith [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Cordell, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deng, Xiaobao [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Detto, Matteo [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Du, Xiaojun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Duque, Alvaro [Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Forestales; Erikson, David L. [National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Ewango, Corneille E. N. [Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Epulu (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Conservation Forestiere (CEFRECOF); Fischer, Gunter A. [Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Tai Po, Hong Kong (China); Fletcher, Christine [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Foster, Robin B. [The Field Museum, Chicago, IL (United States). Botany Dept.; Giardina, Christian P. [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Gilbert, Gregory S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Environmental Studies Dept.; Gunatilleke, Nimal [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Gunatilleke, Savitri [Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Botany; Hao, Zhanqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shenyang (China). State Key Lab. of Forest and Soil Ecology. Inst. of Applied Ecology; Hargrove, William W. [USDA-Forest Service Station Headquarters, Asheville, NC (United States). Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center; Hart, Terese B. [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Hau, Billy C. H. [Univ. of Hong Kong (China). School of Biological Sciences. Kadoorie Inst.; He, Fangliang [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Howe, Robert W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Hubbell, Stephen P. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources; Jansen, Patrick A. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Resource Ecology Group; Jiang, Mingxi [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Wuhan (China). Wuhan Botanical Garden; Johnson, Daniel J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Kanzaki, Mamoru [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Kassim, Abdul Rahman [Forest Research Inst. Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor (Malaysia); Kenfack, David [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Kibet, Staline [National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya); Univ. of Nairobi (Kenya). Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology Dept.; Kinnaird, Margaret F. [Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki (Kenya); Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States). Global Conservation Programs; Korte, Lisa [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Kral, Kamil [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Kumar, Jitendra [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Larson, Andrew J. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States). College of Forestry and Conservation. Dept. of Forest Management; Li, Yide [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Li, Xiankun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Guilin (China). Guangxi Inst. of Botany; Liu, Shirong [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection; Lum, Shawn K. Y. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). National Inst. of Education. Natural Sciences and Science Education Academic Group; Lutz, James A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Wildland Resources Dept.; Ma, Keping [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Maddalena, Damian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Earth Sciences Group; Makana, Jean-Remy [Wildlife Conservation Society, Brazzaville (Democratic Republic of the Congo); Malhi, Yadvinder [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Marthews, Toby [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Mat Serudin, Rafizah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; McMahon, Sean M. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; McShea, William J. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Memiaghe, Hervé R. [Inst. de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale, Libreville (Gabon). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique; Mi, Xiangcheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Mizuno, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture; Morecroft, Michael [Natural England, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Myers, Jonathan A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology; Novotny, Vojtech [New Guinea Binatang Research Centre, Madang (Papua New Guinea); Univ. of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Faculty of Science. Biology Centre; de Oliveira, Alexandre A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Biosciences. Ecology Dept.; Ong, Perry S. [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Orwig, David A. [Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (United States). Harvard Forest; Ostertag, Rebecca [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Dept. of Biology; den Ouden, Jan [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group; Parker, Geoffrey G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States). Forest Ecology Group; Phillips, Richard P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Sack, Lawren [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Sainge, Moses N. [Tropical Plant Exploration Group (TroPEG), Mundemba (Cameroon); Sang, Weiguo [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Sri-ngernyuang, Kriangsak [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Sukumar, Raman [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Sun, I-Fang [National Dong Hwa Univ., Hualian (Taiwan). Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies; Sungpalee, Witchaphart [Maejo Univ., Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design; Suresh, Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Tan, Sylvester [Sarawak Forest Dept., Kuching (Malaysia); Thomas, Sean C. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Thomas, Duncan W. [Washington State Univ., Vancouver, WA (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Thompson, Jill [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, Scotland (United Kingdom); Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Pedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies; Turner, Benjamin L. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Uriarte, Maria [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology; Valencia, Renato [Pontifical Catholic Univ. of Ecuador, Quito (Ecuador). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Vallejo, Marta I. [Inst. Alexander von Humboldt, Bogota (Colombia); Vicentini, Alberto [National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil); Vrška, Tomáš [Silva Tarouca Research Inst., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Wang, Xihua [East China Normal Univ. (ECNU), Shanghai (China). School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences; Wang, Xugao [Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project; Weiblen, George [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology; Wolf, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Dept. of Biology. Dept. of Natural and Applied Sciences; Xu, Han [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Guangzhou (China). Research Inst. of Tropical Forestry; Yap, Sandra [Univ. of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines). Inst. of Biology; Zimmerman, Jess [Univ. of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Environmental Science. Inst. for Tropical Ecosystem Studies

    2014-09-25

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services, including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamic research sites useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. The broad suite of measurements made at the CTFS-ForestGEO sites make it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. ongoing research across the network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in a era of global change

  13. Thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    The results on the concentrations of thorium, uranium and plutonium in human tissues of world-wide general populations are summarized. The majority of thorium and uranium are accumulated in the skeleton, whereas, plutonium is divided between two major organs: the liver and skeleton. However, there is a wide variation in the fractions of plutonium in the liver and the skeleton of the different populations. (author) 44 refs.; 15 figs

  14. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of Araceae at a worldwide scale and in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nauheimer, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the biogeographic history of the Araceae family and of one of its largest genera, Alocasia. With >3300 species, Araceae are among the largest families of flowering plants. It is the monocot lineage with the deepest fossil record, reaching back to the Early Cretaceous. Araceae are distributed worldwide, but >3100 species occur in the tropical regions of the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia; most fossils from the Late Cretaceous and many younger ones come from th...

  15. Worldwide Lineages of Clinical Pneumococci in a Japanese Teaching Hospital Identified by DiversiLab System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Kiyoshi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Sakata, Ryuji; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Chang, Bin; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones are representatives of worldwide-spreading pathogens. DiversiLab system, a repetitive PCR system, has been proposed as a less labor-and time-intensive genotyping platform alternative to conventional methods. However, the utility and analysis parameters of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineages was not established. To evaluate and optimize the performance of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide pneumococcal lineages, we examined 245 consecutive isolates of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae from all age-group patients at a teaching hospital in Japan. The capsular swelling reaction of all isolates yielded 24 different serotypes. Intensive visual observation (VO) of DiversiLab band pattern difference divided all isolates into 73 clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of representative 73 isolates from each VO cluster yielded 51 different STs. Among them, PMEN-related lineages accounted for 63% (46/73). Although the serotype of PMEN-related isolates was identical to that of the original PMEN clone in 70% (32/46), CC156-related PMEN lineages, namely Greece(6B)-22 and Colombia(23F)-26, harbored various capsular types discordant to the original PMEN clones. Regarding automated analysis, genotyping by extended Jaccard (XJ) with a 75% similarity index cutoff (SIC) showed the highest correlation with serotyping (adjusted Rand's coefficient, 0.528). Elevating the SIC for XJ to 85% increased the discriminatory power sufficient for distinguishing two major PMEN-related isolates of Taiwan(19F)-14 and Netherlands(3)-31. These results demonstrated a potential utility of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineage of pneumococcus. An optimized parameters of automated analysis should be useful especially for comparison for reference strains by "identification" function of DiversiLab. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  16. Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses - worldwide, July 2012-December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G; Kew, Olen M

    2014-03-21

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide. One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but then it provides long-term protection against paralytic disease through durable humoral immunity. Rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis can occur among immunologically normal OPV recipients, their contacts, and persons who are immunodeficient. In addition, vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) can emerge in areas with low OPV coverage to cause polio outbreaks and can replicate for years in persons who have primary, B-cell immunodeficiencies. This report updates previous surveillance summaries and describes VDPVs detected worldwide during July 2012-December 2013. Those include a new circulating VDPV (cVDPV) outbreak identified in Pakistan in 2012, with spread to Afghanistan; an outbreak in Afghanistan previously identified in 2009 that continued into 2013; a new outbreak in Chad that spread to Cameroon, Niger, and northeastern Nigeria; and an outbreak that began in Somalia in 2008 that continued and spread to Kenya in 2013. A large outbreak in Nigeria that was identified in 2005 was nearly stopped by the end of 2013. Additionally, 10 newly identified persons in eight countries were found to excrete immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs), and VDPVs were found among immunocompetent persons and environmental samples in 13 countries. Because the majority of VDPV isolates are type 2, the World Health Organization has developed a plan for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV (tOPV) with bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3) by 2016, preceded by introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) containing all three poliovirus serotypes into routine immunization schedules worldwide to ensure high population

  17. Worldwide access to treatment for end-stage kidney disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Thaminda; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Jha, Vivekanand; Neal, Bruce; Patrice, Halle Marie; Okpechi, Ikechi; Zhao, Ming-hui; Lv, Jicheng; Garg, Amit X; Knight, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Gallagher, Martin; Kotwal, Sradha; Cass, Alan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2015-05-16

    End-stage kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of the disease and worldwide use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are expected to rise sharply in the next decade. We aimed to quantify estimates of this burden. We systematically searched Medline for observational studies and renal registries, and contacted national experts to obtain RRT prevalence data. We used Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence of RRT for countries without reported data. We estimated the gap between needed and actual RRT, and projected needs to 2030. In 2010, 2·618 million people received RRT worldwide. We estimated the number of patients needing RRT to be between 4·902 million (95% CI 4·438-5·431 million) in our conservative model and 9·701 million (8·544-11·021 million) in our high-estimate model, suggesting that at least 2·284 million people might have died prematurely because RRT could not be accessed. We noted the largest treatment gaps in low-income countries, particularly Asia (1·907 million people needing but not receiving RRT; conservative model) and Africa (432,000 people; conservative model). Worldwide use of RRT is projected to more than double to 5·439 million (3·899-7·640 million) people by 2030, with the most growth in Asia (0·968 million to a projected 2·162 million [1·571-3·014 million]). The large number of people receiving RRT and the substantial number without access to it show the need to both develop low-cost treatments and implement effective population-based prevention strategies. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  19. Worldwide use of natural gas to climb 8% in next 3 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides historical information on worldwide natural gas productions from 1984 to present and makes predictions on future demand and refinery capacities. It provides information on natural gas reserves on a world scale and the pricing of these commodities. It breaks reserves, production and capacities down into developed and developing countries. It then provides general narratives on the consumption patterns, international gas trade, and gas reserves

  20. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  1. Worldwide Analysis of Sedimentary DNA Reveals Major Gaps in Taxonomic Knowledge of Deep-Sea Benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinniger, Frédéric; Pawlowski, Jan; Harii, Saki

    2016-01-01

    in 39 deep-sea sediment samples from bathyal and abyssal depths worldwide. The eDNA dataset was dominated by meiobenthic taxa and we identified all animal phyla commonly found in the deep-sea benthos; yet, the diversity within these phyla remains largely unknown. The large numbers of taxonomically...... for pure and applied deep-sea environmental research but also emphasizes the necessity to integrate such new approaches with traditional morphology-based examination of deep-sea organisms....

  2. The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) : Cooperative governance for network innovation, standards, and community

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Suzan V; Zachariadis, Markos

    2014-01-01

    This book traces the history and development of a mutual organization in the financial sector called SWIFT, the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. Over the last 40 years, SWIFT has served the financial services sector as proprietary communications platform, provider of products and services, standards developer, and conference organizer (Sibos). Founded to create efficiencies by replacing telegram and telex (or “wires”) for international payments, SWIF...

  3. Consécration pour les Inventeurs du World-Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Nearly seven years after it was invented at CERN, the World-Wide Web has woven its way into every corner of the Internet. On Saturday, 17 February, the inventors of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, now at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Robert Cailliau of CERN's Electronics and Computing for Physics (ECP) Division, will be honoured with one of computing's highest distinctions: the Association for Computing (ACM) Software System Award 1995.

  4. Modelling the potential consequences of future worldwide biomass energy demand for the french forests and timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Joseph; Raunikar, Ronald; Zhu, Shushuai

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an investigation conducted, using a world model for the forestry and forest-based industries, on the effects of the current unpredictable changes in worldwide demand for biomass energy on this sector in France. Two contrasting scenarios are tested. The results are commented and the potential conflict between various would uses - workable timber, industrial timber and dendro-energy - is underscored. (authors)

  5. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Hallal, Pedro Rodrigues Curi; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Kohl, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Methods. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of ...

  6. Worldwide OMEGA and Very Low Frequency (VLF) Transmitter Outages, January to December 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    WORLDWIDE OMEGA AND VERY LOW FREQUENCY IVLF) TRANSMITTER OUTAGE--ETC, MAY 81 L RZONCA ,’,L.ASSI LED FAA-CT-81-26 FAA-RD- B1 -29 UL7 A-I’ l15FDRL AIO...computer for the time period GBR - Rugby , England (16.00 kHz) January to December 1980. (For the purposes of this report, any downtime NA - Cutler, Maine

  7. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F; Miller, J David; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Battilani, Paola; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; De Saeger, Sarah; Li, Peiwu; Perrone, Giancarlo; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S; Shephard, Gordon S; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao; Leslie, John F

    2018-04-04

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  8. What influences the worldwide genetic structure of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Alana; Steel, Debbie; Hoekzema, Kendra; Mesnick, Sarah L; Engelhaupt, Daniel; Kerr, Iain; Payne, Roger; Baker, C Scott

    2016-06-01

    The interplay of natural selection and genetic drift, influenced by geographic isolation, mating systems and population size, determines patterns of genetic diversity within species. The sperm whale provides an interesting example of a long-lived species with few geographic barriers to dispersal. Worldwide mtDNA diversity is relatively low, but highly structured among geographic regions and social groups, attributed to female philopatry. However, it is unclear whether this female philopatry is due to geographic regions or social groups, or how this might vary on a worldwide scale. To answer these questions, we combined mtDNA information for 1091 previously published samples with 542 newly obtained DNA profiles (394-bp mtDNA, sex, 13 microsatellites) including the previously unsampled Indian Ocean, and social group information for 541 individuals. We found low mtDNA diversity (π = 0.430%) reflecting an expansion event worldwide population expansion followed by rapid assortment due to female social organization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Microsurgical reconstruction of the head and neck region: Current concepts of maxillofacial surgery units worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansy, Katinka; Mueller, Andreas Albert; Mücke, Thomas; Koersgen, Friederike; Wolff, Klaus Dietrich; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Hölzle, Frank; Pradel, Winnie; Schneider, Matthias; Kolk, Andreas; Smeets, Ralf; Acero, Julio; Haers, Piet; Ghali, G E; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Microvascular surgery following tumor resection has become an important field of oral maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Following the surveys on current reconstructive practice in German-speaking countries and Europe, this paper presents the third phase of the project when the survey was conducted globally. The DOESAK questionnaire has been developed via a multicenter approach with maxillofacial surgeons from 19 different hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. It was distributed in three different phases to a growing number of maxillofacial units in German-speaking clinics, over Europe and then worldwide. Thirty-eight units from Germany, Austria and Switzerland, 65 remaining European OMFS-departments and 226 units worldwide responded to the survey. There is wide agreement on the most commonly used flaps, intraoperative rapid sections and a trend towards primary bony reconstruction. No uniform concepts can be identified concerning osteosynthesis of bone transplants, microsurgical techniques, administration of supportive medication and postoperative monitoring protocols. Microsurgical reconstruction is the gold standard for the majority of oncologic cases in Europe, but worldwide, only every second unit has access to this technique. The DOESAK questionnaire has proven to be a valid and well accepted tool for gathering information about current practice in reconstructive OMFS surgery. The questionnaire has been able to demonstrate similarities, differences and global inequalities. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emerging Changes in the Worldwide Power Sector: The Assets of Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliere, Michel; Girardot, Amelie; Jones, Robert M.

    2007-07-01

    In forthcoming decades we will see major changes in the landscape of the worldwide power sector as CO2 management and incipient hydrocarbon scarcity exert their increasing influence. The power generation community must be prepared to satisfy a particularly complex and challenging set of requirements. These issues include curbing CO2 emissions, coping with surging primary energy prices, and compliance with regional and local emissions requirements such as SOx and NOx-while maintaining maximum efficiency. In this context, as confirmed by International Energy Agency forecasts, thermal power will maintain a prominent position in overall power generation since it enables the large capacity additions required in emerging countries. Thanks to their reliable assets (such as energy efficiency and environment) gas turbine-based power systems, including Gas Turbine Combined Cycles (GTCC) and Combined Heat & Power (CHP), will continue to be major contributors to worldwide power generation. However, evolving changes in the spectrum of fuels will create an additional challenge for power generation equipment manufacturers-requiring innovative technologies in fuel processing, combustion, and emission controls to address these needs. This paper reviews the factors underlining the changing power generation environment worldwide, including the increasing scarcity of conventional fuels and the growing interest in biofuels and hydrogen. Insights will be offered into various technologies needed to support the growing need for increased fuel flexibility.

  11. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Logrieco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  12. Comprehensive taxonomy and worldwide trends in pharmaceutical policies in relation to country income status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadakis, N; Kourlaba, G; Shen, J; Holtorf, A

    2017-05-25

    Rapidly evolving socioeconomic and technological trends make it challenging to improve access, effectiveness and efficiency in the use of pharmaceuticals. This paper identifies and systematically classifies the prevailing pharmaceutical policies worldwide in relation to a country's income status. A literature search was undertaken to identify and taxonomize prevailing policies worldwide. Countries that apply those policies and those that do not were then grouped by income status. Pharmaceutical policies are linked to a country's socioeconomics. Developed countries have universal coverage and control pharmaceuticals with external and internal price referencing systems, and indirect price-cost controls; they carry out health technology assessments and demand utilization controls. Price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also evolving. Developing countries are underperforming in terms of coverage and they rely mostly on restrictive state controls to regulate prices and expenditure. There are significant disparities worldwide in the access to pharmaceuticals, their use, and the reimbursement of costs. The challenge in high-income countries is to maintain access to care whilst dealing with trends in technology and aging. Essential drugs should be available to all; however, many low- and middle-income countries still provide most of their population with only poor access to medicines. As economies grow, there should be greater investment in pharmaceutical care, looking to the policies of high-income countries to increase efficiency. Pharmaceutical companies could also develop special access schemes with low prices to facilitate coverage in low-income countries.

  13. Meteorite Fall Detection and Analysis via Weather Radar: Worldwide Potential for Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Bresky, C.; Laird, C.; Reddy, V.; Hankey, M.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorite falls can be detected using weather radars, facilitating rapid recovery of meteorites to minimize terrestrial alteration. Imagery from the US NEXRAD radar network reveals over two dozen meteorite falls where meteorites have been recovered, and about another dozen that remain unrecovered. Discovery of new meteorite falls is well suited to "citizen science" and similar outreach activities, as well as automation of computational components into internet-based search tools. Also, there are many more weather radars employed worldwide than those in the US NEXRAD system. Utilization of weather radars worldwide for meteorite recovery can not only expand citizen science opportunities but can also lead to significant improvement in the number of freshly-fallen meteorites available for research. We will discuss the methodologies behind locating and analyzing meteorite falls using weather radar, and how to make them available for citizen science efforts. An important example is the Aquarius Project, a Chicago-area consortium recently formed with the goal of recovering meteorites from Lake Michigan. This project has extensive student involvement geared toward development of actual hardware for recovering meteorites from the lake floor. Those meteorites were identified in weather radar imagery as they fell into the lake from a large meteor on 06 Feb 2017. Another example of public interaction is the meteor detection systems operated by the American Meteor Society (AMS). The AMS website has been developed to allow public reporting of meteors, effectively enabling citizen science to locate and describe significant meteor events worldwide.

  14. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F.; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; Li, Peiwu; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative. PMID:29617309

  15. InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors: Welcoming, Including, and Supporting All in STEM Careers Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.

    2016-12-01

    Definitions of genders and, races, ethnicities, abilities and sexualities tend to exist on a binary scale (e.g. male/female, black/white) both for inclusiveness and evaluation of programs. This has the potential to be a schism for individuals who are choosing to enter STEM fields when if their self-identity does not fit this these predefined multi-polar templates. At InsightSTEM, in our Campus Ambassadors program (which has over 290 grassroots members in over 25 countries) we have been striving to nullify this effect... For example, on our application, we choose to not ask for any demographic data, in any spectrum, because those data make no sense on a global stage. We question that if race, gender, sexuality and ethnicity are all on a spectrum: is any program devoted to a particular group appropriate? Instead we deliver professional development to students worldwide to train them to become aware and inclusive STEM educators, involving everyone in their programs no matter what their background. We will present the ways we work with our Campus Ambassadors to create programs that, rather than focusing on particular groups, are truly inclusive, in developing their skills and empowering them to create inclusive programs worldwide for all. InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors: Welcoming, Including, and & Supporting All in STEM Careers Worldwide

  16. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  17. The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stacy; Wojdyla, Daniel; Say, Lale; Betran, Ana Pilar; Merialdi, Mario; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Rubens, Craig; Menon, Ramkumar; Van Look, Paul F A

    2010-01-01

    To analyse preterm birth rates worldwide to assess the incidence of this public health problem, map the regional distribution of preterm births and gain insight into existing assessment strategies. Data on preterm birth rates worldwide were extracted during a previous systematic review of published and unpublished data on maternal mortality and morbidity reported between 1997 and 2002. Those data were supplemented through a complementary search covering the period 2003-2007. Region-specific multiple regression models were used to estimate the preterm birth rates for countries with no data. We estimated that in 2005, 12.9 million births, or 9.6% of all births worldwide, were preterm. Approximately 11 million (85%) of these preterm births were concentrated in Africa and Asia, while about 0.5 million occurred in each of Europe and North America (excluding Mexico) and 0.9 million in Latin America and the Caribbean. The highest rates of preterm birth were in Africa and North America (11.9% and 10.6% of all births, respectively), and the lowest were in Europe (6.2%). Preterm birth is an important perinatal health problem across the globe. Developing countries, especially those in Africa and southern Asia, incur the highest burden in terms of absolute numbers, although a high rate is also observed in North America. A better understanding of the causes of preterm birth and improved estimates of the incidence of preterm birth at the country level are needed to improve access to effective obstetric and neonatal care.

  18. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md-Sajedul; Glynn, Jonathan M; Bai, Yang; Duan, Yong-Ping; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; Kuruba, Gopal; Civerolo, Edwin L; Lin, Hong

    2012-03-20

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited α- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L

  19. The Use of Medical Expulsive Therapy During Pregnancy: A Worldwide Perspective Among Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Granville L; Lim, Amy; Hamoui, Nabeel; Nakada, Stephen Y; Kielb, Stephanie J

    2016-03-01

    Medical expulsive therapy (MET) is a pharmacologic approach thought to augment the spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi. The usage of MET pharmacologics for presumed ureteral calculi during pregnancy has not been studied and their safety and utility are unknown. We sought to characterize the worldwide usage of MET in the setting of pregnancy with presumed ureteral calculus (P-MET), as well as factors associated with physician use. Experts in stone management were specifically sought. A nine-question survey was delivered through society-administered e-mail. Questions gathered physician's worldwide region, degree of specialization in stone disease, practice type, interval since training, and willingness to use both MET and P-MET. We assessed drugs of choice in those using P-MET and reasons for avoidance in non-P-MET users. Finally, we assessed the impact of physician-perceived medicolegal risk on usage of P-MET. Five hundred sixty-five responses were recorded. Sixty-three percent were US-based practitioners and the remaining represented a worldwide distribution. Worldwide usage of MET was 97.6%, and tamsulosin was globally preferred by over 90% of urologists. P-MET was endorsed by only 44.3%. 23.6% of European practitioners used this strategy compared with 51.1% of US physicians. Time from training and practice type did not significantly interact with adoption of P-MET; experts were less likely to use P-MET. Physician nonuse of MET during pregnancy was adverse outcome related: 76.7% reported either the fear of legal risk (52.8%) or concerns about safety (23.9%). Respondents report impressive worldwide adoption of MET. P-MET is less trusted, and fears of legal risk and safety far outweigh questions about effectiveness. The effectiveness of drugs during pregnancy-induced ureteral dilation is unknown. Still, 44% of global respondents embrace usage of this drug strategy despite a paucity of evidence supporting either safety or effectiveness during pregnancy.

  20. Fathers' views and experiences of their own mental health during pregnancy and the first postnatal year: a qualitative interview study of men participating in the UK Born and Bred in Yorkshire (BaBY) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Z; Galdas, P; Hinchliff, S; Littlewood, E; McMillan, D; McGowan, L; Gilbody, S

    2017-01-26

    The prevalence of fathers' depression and anxiety in the perinatal period (i.e. from conception to 1 year after birth) is approximately 5-10%, and 5-15%, respectively; their children face increased risk of adverse emotional and behavioural outcomes, independent of maternal mental health. Critically, fathers can be protective against the development of maternal perinatal mental health problems and their effects on child outcomes. Preventing and treating paternal mental health problems and promoting paternal psychological wellbeing may therefore benefit the family as a whole. This study examined fathers' views and direct experiences of paternal perinatal mental health. Men in the Born and Bred in Yorkshire (BaBY) epidemiological prospective cohort who met eligibility criteria (baby born questioned their entitlement to support, noting that services are pressured and 'should' be focused on mothers. Men emphasised the need to support their partner and protect their partnership as central to the successfully navigation of fatherhood; they used existing support networks where available but noted the paucity of tailored support for fathers. Fathers experience psychological distress in the perinatal period but question the legitimacy of their experiences. Men may thus be reluctant to express their support needs or seek help amid concerns that to do so would detract from their partner's needs. Resources are needed that are tailored to men, framed around fatherhood, rather than mental health or mental illness, and align men's self-care with their role as supporter and protector. Further research is needed to inform how best to identify and manage both parents' mental health needs and promote their psychological wellbeing, in the context of achievable models of service delivery.