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Sample records for world tslp regulates

  1. TSLP and Immune Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabuchi, Shino; Watanabe, Norihiko; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    In an immune system, dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as well as powerful sensors of danger signals. When DCs receive signals from infection and tissue stress, they immediately activate and instruct the initiation of appropriate immune responses to T cells. However, it has remained unclear how the tissue microenvironment in a steady state shapes the function of DCs. Recent many works on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that has the strong ability to activate DCs, provide evidence that TSLP mediates crosstalk between epithelial cells and DCs, involving in DC-mediated immune homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress made on how TSLP expressed within the thymus and peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated T-cell development in the thymus and T-cell homeostasis in the periphery. PMID:22270070

  2. Down-Regulation of miR-146a Expression Induces Allergic Conjunctivitis in Mice by Increasing TSLP Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Sheng, Yan; Chen, Jie; Xu, Dong; Gu, Yangshun

    2015-07-11

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause conjunctivitis. In this study, we established a short ragweed (SRW)-induced mouse model of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and aimed to explore the potential role of miR-146a and its downstream molecules in the development of ocular allergic inflammation. The mouse model of challenge pollen was used for in vivo study. The culture model of primary human limbal epithelium (HLE) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was performed for in vitro research. The numbers of eosinophils and total inflammatory cells were examined using Giemsa staining. The expression of mRNA and miR-146a was determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and protein production was evaluated by Western blotting. In vivo of mice, pollen challenge induced conjunctiva inflammatory response indicated by increased number of eosinophils and total inflammatory cells. Interestingly, pollen significantly attenuated miR-146a expression while it enhanced expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and its downstream molecules, including TSLP receptor (TSLPR)/ OX40 ligand (OX40L) /CD11C. In vitro of HCE, downregulation effect of miR-146a expression induced by LPS was reversed by Bay treatment, an inhibitor for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and LPS-induced cell inflammation is mediated by miR-146a-TSLP/TSLPR/OX40L/CD11C signaling pathway. This was further demonstrated by overexpression of miR-146a in mouse abrogated pollen-triggered conjunctiva inflammatory reaction as well as pollen-induced activity of TSLP/TSLPR/OX40L/CD11C signaling. Down-regulation of miR-146a expression induces allergic conjunctivitis in mice by increasing TSLP level.

  3. Targeting Allergen to FcγRI Reveals a Novel Th2 Regulatory Pathway Linked to TSLP Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Kathryn E.; Reefer, Amanda J.; Engelhard, Victor H.; Patrie, James T.; Ziegler, Steven F.; Chapman, Martin D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The molecule H22-Fel d 1, which targets cat allergen to FcγRI on dendritic cells, has the potential to treat cat allergy owing to its T-cell modulatory properties. Objective To investigate whether the T-cell response induced by H22-Fel d 1 is altered in the presence of the Th2-promoting cytokine, TSLP. Methods Studies were performed in cat-allergic subjects with and without atopic dermatitis. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were primed with H22-Fel d 1 in the presence or absence of TSLP and the resulting T-cell cytokine repertoire was analyzed by flow cytometry. The capacity for H22-Fel d 1 to modulate TSLP receptor expression on dendritic cells was examined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of inhibitors of Fc receptor signaling molecules. Results Surprisingly, TSLP alone was a weak inducer of Th2 responses irrespective of atopic status; however, dendritic cells co-primed with TSLP and H22-Fel d 1 selectively and synergistically amplified Th2 responses in highly atopic subjects. This effect was OX40 ligand-independent pointing to an unconventional TSLP-mediated pathway. Expression of TSLP receptor was upregulated on atopic dendritic cells primed with H22-Fel d 1 through a pathway regulated by FcγRI-associated signaling components, including src related tyrosine kinases and Syk, as well as the downstream molecule, PI3-kinase. Inhibition of TSLP receptor upregulation triggered by H22-Fel d 1 blocked TSLP-mediated Th2 responses. Conclusion Discovery of a novel Th2 regulatory pathway linking FcγRI signaling to TSLP receptor upregulation and consequent TSLP-mediated effects questions the validity of receptor-targeted allergen vaccines. Clinical Implications This study establishes a pivotal role for Fc receptor ligation in promoting TSLP-mediated Th2 responses associated with allergic disease. Capsule Summary Atopic dendritic cells are equipped to efficiently upregulate TSLP receptor upon Fc receptor ligation by allergen. These findings suggest

  4. TSLP-activated dendritic cells induce human T follicular helper cell differentiation through OX40-ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattarini, Lucia; Trichot, Coline; Bogiatzi, Sofia; Grandclaudon, Maximilien; Meller, Stephan; Keuylian, Zela; Durand, Melanie; Volpe, Elisabetta; Madonna, Stefania; Cavani, Andrea; Chiricozzi, Andrea; Romanelli, Marco; Hori, Toshiyuki; Hovnanian, Alain; Homey, Bernhard; Soumelis, Vassili

    2017-05-01

    T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are important regulators of humoral responses. Human Tfh polarization pathways have been thus far associated with Th1 and Th17 polarization pathways. How human Tfh cells differentiate in Th2-skewed environments is unknown. We show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)-activated dendritic cells (DCs) promote human Tfh differentiation from naive CD4 T cells. We identified a novel population, distinct from Th2 cells, expressing IL-21 and TNF, suggestive of inflammatory cells. TSLP-induced T cells expressed CXCR5, CXCL13, ICOS, PD1, BCL6, BTLA, and SAP, among other Tfh markers. Functionally, TSLP-DC-polarized T cells induced IgE secretion by memory B cells, and this depended on IL-4Rα. TSLP-activated DCs stimulated circulating memory Tfh cells to produce IL-21 and CXCL13. Mechanistically, TSLP-induced Tfh differentiation depended on OX40-ligand, but not on ICOS-ligand. Our results delineate a pathway of human Tfh differentiation in Th2 environments. © 2017 Pattarini et al.

  5. Signal transduction around thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in atopic asthma

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    Kuepper Michael

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, a novel interleukin-7-like cytokine, triggers dendritic cell-mediated inflammatory responses ultimately executed by T helper cells of the Th2 subtype. TSLP emerged as a central player in the development of allergic symptoms, especially in the airways, and is a prime regulatory cytokine at the interface of virus- or antigen-exposed epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs. DCs activated by epithelium-derived TSLP can promote naïve CD4+ T cells to adopt a Th2 phenotype, which in turn recruite eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes as well as mast cells into the airway mucosa. These different cells secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines operative in inducing an allergic inflammation and atopic asthma. TSLP is, thus, involved in the control of both an innate and an adaptive immune response. Since TSLP links contact of allergen with the airway epithelium to the onset and maintainance of the asthmatic syndrome, defining the signal transduction underlying TSLP expression and function is of profound interest for a better understandimg of the disease and for the development of new therapeutics.

  6. Multiple Functions of the New Cytokine-Based Antimicrobial Peptide Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP

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    Louise Bjerkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP is a pleiotropic cytokine, hitherto mostly known to be involved in inflammatory responses and immunoregulation. The human tslp gene gives rise to two transcription and translation variants: a long form (lfTSLP that is induced by inflammation, and a short, constitutively-expressed form (sfTSLP, that appears to be downregulated by inflammation. The TSLP forms can be produced by a number of cell types, including epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs. lfTSLP can activate mast cells, DCs, and T cells through binding to the lfTSLP receptor (TSLPR and has a pro-inflammatory function. In contrast, sfTSLP inhibits cytokine secretion of DCs, but the receptor mediating this effect is unknown. Our recent studies have demonstrated that both forms of TSLP display potent antimicrobial activity, exceeding that of many other known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, with sfTSLP having the strongest effect. The AMP activity is primarily mediated by the C-terminal region of the protein and is localized within a 34-mer peptide (MKK34 that spans the C-terminal α-helical region in TSLP. Fluorescent studies of peptide-treated bacteria, electron microscopy, and liposome leakage models showed that MKK34 exerted membrane-disrupting effects comparable to those of LL-37. Expression of TSLP in skin, oral mucosa, salivary glands, and intestine is part of the defense barrier that aids in the control of both commensal and pathogenic microbes.

  7. A Distinct Sensitization Pattern Associated with Asthma and the Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP Genotype

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    Hiroaki Iijima

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Cluster analysis identified the presence of distinct sensitization patterns to common inhaled allergens. TSLP may cause asthma by promoting innate allergic responses to indoor allergens and this contribution is significantly modified by smoking.

  8. Flow Cytometry Imaging Identifies Rare Th2 Cells Expressing TSLP Receptor in a “Pro-Allergic” Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reefer, Amanda J.; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Lannigan, Josephine A.; Solga, Michael D.; Wright, Paul W.; Kelly, Libby A.; Patrie, James; Chapman, Martin D.; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Background TSLP is expressed at sites of allergic inflammation, including eczematous skin. This cytokine has been reported to exert its Th2-inducing properties through dendritic cells. Expression of TSLP receptor on the surface of activated Th2 cells could amplify Th2 responses at inflamed sites through the direct actions of TSLP. Objective To rigorously test whether Th2 cells induced by “pro-allergic” factors express TSLP receptor and characterize these cells using an experimental platform that combines flow cytometry with microscopic capabilities. Methods CD4+ T cells isolated from patients with atopic dermatitis or normal healthy controls were co-cultured with autologous dendritic cells in the presence of Th2-promoting stimuli (TSLP±allergen and staphylococcal enterotoxin B±TSLP). Surface expression of TSLP receptor was analyzed by image-based flow cytometry and responsiveness of purified T cells to TSLP was assessed by phosphorylation of STAT5 and cytokine secretion. Results Th2-promoting stimuli induced a robust population of activated Th2 cells (CD25+IL-4+). Regardless of the nature of the stimulus, flow cytometry imaging confirmed that T cells expressing TSLP receptor were rare, constituting a minor fraction of the IL-4+ T cell pool; however, TSLP-responsiveness was nonetheless detectable. Analysis of cell size and nuclear morphology revealed preferential expression of TSLP receptor on IL-4-expressing cells undergoing mitosis. Analysis of lesional skin in atopic dermatitis supported the view that rare IL-4+ T cells expressing TSLP receptor are present at inflamed sites. Conclusion In a “pro-allergic” milieu, TSLP receptor is preferentially expressed on rare actively dividing Th2 cells. The direct action of TSLP on T cells could amplify Th2 responses at sites of allergic inflammation. PMID:20888036

  9. World cultural and natural heritage and its legal regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pivcová, Darja

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY: World cultural and natural heritage and its legal regulation Diploma thesis deals with legal regulation of world cultural and natural heritage that is incorporated in Convention Concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage adopted on 16 November 1972. The thesis consists of six chapters. Fundamental chapter is titled International legal sources of cultural and natural heritage protection and is divided into three parts: the first is about World Heritage Conven...

  10. World experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bila Iryna S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tendencies of state regulation of entrepreneurship in EU countries, USA and Japan and identifies state regulation of entrepreneurship as a system, which consists of certain elements, unity and interaction of which determine its efficiency and functionality. Analysis, systematisation and generalisation of experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship in these countries allow making a conclusion that the existing differences in the role of the state in economy are not connected with the degree of state regulation, but are connected with the means used for its realisation. General tendencies of development of relations between the state and entrepreneurial sector allowed identification of main elements of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship, which include: forecasting, planning and programming socio-economic development; anti-monopoly competitive policy; tax and investment policy; innovation policy and stimulation of R and D (Research and Development. The prospect of further studies is identification of specific features of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship in the modern Ukrainian economy.

  11. TSLP elicits IL-33–independent innate lymphoid cell responses to promote skin inflammation

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    Kim, Brian S.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Saenz, Steven A.; Noti, Mario; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Hepworth, Matthew R.; Van Voorhees, Abby S.; Comeau, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified family of heterogeneous immune cells that can be divided into three groups based on their differential developmental requirements and expression of effector cytokines. Among these, group 2 ILCs produce the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 and promote type 2 inflammation in the lung and intestine. However, whether group 2 ILCs reside in the skin and contribute to skin inflammation has not been characterized. Here, we identify for the first time a population of skin-resident group 2 ILCs present in healthy human skin that are enriched in lesional human skin from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Group 2 ILCs were also found in normal murine skin and were critical for the development of inflammation in a murine model of AD-like disease. Remarkably, in contrast to group 2 ILC responses in the intestine and lung, which are critically regulated by IL-33 and IL-25, ILC responses in the skin and skin-draining lymph nodes were independent of these canonical cytokines but were critically dependent on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Collectively, these results demonstrate an essential role for IL-33– and IL-25–independent group 2 ILCs in promoting skin inflammation. PMID:23363980

  12. Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

    2015-02-01

    This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world.

  13. TSLP polymorphisms are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunninghake, G M; Soto-Quirós, M E; Avila, L; Kim, H P; Lasky-Su, J; Rafaels, N; Ruczinski, I; Beaty, T H; Mathias, R A; Barnes, K C; Wilk, J B; O'Connor, G T; Gauderman, W James; Vora, H; Baurley, J W; Gilliland, F; Liang, C; Sylvia, J S; Klanderman, B J; Sharma, S S; Himes, B E; Bossley, C J; Israel, E; Raby, B A; Bush, A; Choi, A M; Weiss, S T; Celedón, J C

    2010-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have been associated with IgE (in girls) and asthma (in general). We sought to determine whether TSLP SNPs are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion. We conducted regular and sex-stratified analyses of association between SNPs in TSLP and asthma in families of children with asthma in Costa Rica. Significant findings were replicated in whites and African-American participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program, in African-Americans in the Genomic Research on Asthma in the African Diaspora study, in whites and Hispanics in the Children's Health Study, and in whites in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Two SNPs in TSLP (rs1837253 and rs2289276) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in combined analyses of all cohorts (P values of 2 × 10(-5) and 1 × 10(-5) , respectively). In a sex-stratified analysis, the T allele of rs1837253 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in males only (P = 3 × 10(-6) ). Alternately, the T allele of rs2289276 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in females only (P = 2 × 10(-4) ). Findings for rs2289276 were consistent in all cohorts except the FHS. TSLP variants are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4−/−, and IL-13−/− mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease. PMID:25172162

  15. The effect of calprotectin on TSLP and IL-25 production from airway epithelial cells

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    Tomohisa Kato

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that calprotectin enhances the allergen-induced Th2-type inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells via the secretion of TSLP and IL-25, and that calprotectin secreted by the epithelial cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of ECRS.

  16. World health organization perspective on implementation of International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Maxwell Charles

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, the International Health Regulations were adopted at the 58th World Health Assembly; in June 2007, they were entered into force for most countries. In 2012, the world is approaching a major 5-year milestone in the global commitment to ensure national capacities to identify, investigate, assess, and respond to public health events. In the past 5 years, existing programs have been boosted and some new activities relating to International Health Regulations provisions have been successfully established. The lessons and experience of the past 5 years need to be drawn upon to provide improved direction for the future.

  17. Directional Secretory Response of Double Stranded RNA-Induced Thymic Stromal Lymphopoetin (TSLP) and CCL11/Eotaxin-1 in Human Asthmatic Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Nino; Shehlanoor Huseni; Perez, Geovanny F.; Krishna Pancham; Humaira Mubeen; Aleeza Abbasi; Justin Wang; Stephen Eng; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M.; Pillai, Dinesh K; Mary C. Rose

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP) is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral) and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state. METHODS: Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from c...

  18. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP) and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Gustavo; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Perez, Geovanny F; Pancham, Krishna; Mubeen, Humaira; Abbasi, Aleeza; Wang, Justin; Eng, Stephen; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M; Pillai, Dinesh K; Rose, Mary C

    2014-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP) is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral) and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) from control (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate) or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC) from normal (n = 3) and asthmatic (n = 3) donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20) vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20). Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay. Our data demonstrate that: 1) Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2) TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical) secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3) Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1. There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  19. Directional secretory response of double stranded RNA-induced thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1 in human asthmatic airways.

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    Gustavo Nino

    Full Text Available Thymic stromal lymphoproetin (TSLP is a cytokine secreted by the airway epithelium in response to respiratory viruses and it is known to promote allergic Th2 responses in asthma. This study investigated whether virally-induced secretion of TSLP is directional in nature (apical vs. basolateral and/or if there are TSLP-mediated effects occurring at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier in the asthmatic state.Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC from control (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors were differentiated into polarized respiratory tract epithelium under air-liquid interface (ALI conditions and treated apically with dsRNA (viral surrogate or TSLP. Sub-epithelial effects of TSLP were examined in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC from normal (n = 3 and asthmatic (n = 3 donors. Clinical experiments examined nasal airway secretions obtained from asthmatic children during naturally occurring rhinovirus-induced exacerbations (n = 20 vs. non-asthmatic uninfected controls (n = 20. Protein levels of TSLP, CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL17/TARC, CCL22/MDC, TNF-α and CXCL8 were determined with a multiplex magnetic bead assay.Our data demonstrate that: 1 Asthmatic HBEC exhibit an exaggerated apical, but not basal, secretion of TSLP after dsRNA exposure; 2 TSLP exposure induces unidirectional (apical secretion of CCL11/eotaxin-1 in asthmatic HBEC and enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic HASMC; 3 Rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in children are associated with in vivo airway secretion of TSLP and CCL11/eotaxin-1.There are virally-induced TSLP-driven secretory immune responses at both sides of the bronchial epithelial barrier characterized by enhanced CCL11/eotaxin-1 secretion in asthmatic airways. These results suggest a new model of TSLP-mediated eosinophilic responses in the asthmatic airway during viral-induced exacerbations.

  20. [Effects of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) genotypes on asthma phenotypes defined by the atopy cluster -influence of smoking habits-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hiroaki; Yamada, Hideyasu; Yatagai, Yohei; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Naito, Takashi; Sakamoto, Tohru; Masuko, Hironori; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Konno, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-02-01

    We have previously reported that a distinct sensitization pattern was associated with thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) genotype. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of asthma phenotypes determined by a cluster analysis of IgE responsiveness and the relationship between these phenotypes and TSLP genotypes. We studied 297 patients of adult asthma and 1571 non-asthmatic healthy adults from Ibaraki, a prefecture in central Japan and Kamishihoro, a cedar-free, birch-dominant town in northern Japan. Levels of total serum IgE and specific IgE antibodies towards 14 major inhaled allergens were measured. With the use of these measures, cluster analysis was applied to classify the phenotypes of adult asthma. We also examined the genetic effects of 2 TSLP functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) on the development of each asthma phenotype using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The cluster analysis identified four distinct clinical phenotypes of asthma, including "Dust mite dominant" (A, N=82), "Multiple pollen" (B, N=14), "Cedar dominant" (C, N=44), and "Low reactivity" (D, N=154). Asthma phenotype A consisted of younger patients with elevated IgE levels and decreased pulmonary function. Asthma phenotype B was characterized by sensitization by many pollen allergens. Asthma phenotype C was not formed in Kamishihoro. Asthma phenotype D was a group of older women who are less atopic. In current or past smokers, both TSLP SNPs (rs2289276 and rs3860933) were associated with the asthma phenotype D (odds ratio 2.11 [1.36-3.30] and 2.11 [1.34-3.33], respectively). In patients with adult asthma who are less atopic, the genetic polymorphisms of TSLP may have some important roles in the development of the disease in smokers.

  1. PENSION REFORMS AND WORLD BANK-REGULATED LAWS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humanitarian act aimed at improving the welfare of those who left service and therefore handicapped by age. Such act ..... (2.199m bb1/day) and has 53.0 per cent of her labour force in services. The World Bank ... Europeans insist that social security, particularly pension benefits, should aim at the general enrichment of the ...

  2. Regulating Television and the Case of Football World Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, Mathias; Neunzig, Alexander R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with EU-Directive 89/552/EEC "Television Without Frontiers", which enables each EU-country to set up a list of major events that are not allowed to be transmitted in Pay-TV. We analyze this kind of regulation using instruments of game-theory and monopoly-theory. We compare the market results of the EU-Regulation with two alternative arrangements, namely with a general ban of Pay-TV and with a 'laisser-faire'-solution. Our model shows that a selective ban may be welfare-superi...

  3. Food irradiation: Standards, regulations and world-wide trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2016-12-01

    There is an established framework of international standards for food irradiation covering human health, plant protection, labelling, dose delivery, quality assurance and facility management. Approximately 60 countries permit irradiation of one or more food or food classes. National regulations are briefly reviewed. Decontamination of spices, herbs and condiments remains the single largest application of irradiation. However, in recent years the market for irradiated fresh and processed meat has become firmly established in several countries including China and the USA. At least 10 countries have recently established bi-lateral agreements for trade in irradiated fresh fruits and vegetables using phytosanitary irradiation. Irradiated fresh produce volumes now exceed 20,000 t per year. Rationalization and greater consistency in labelling regulations would be advantageous to the future growth of applications of food irradiation.

  4. World experience regulation of mechanisms of housing and communal

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Demikhov; V. O. Lukianykhin; O. M. Telizhenko

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals peculiarities of state regulation of the housing and utilities sector (utilities) in developed countries to establish effective medium customers and performers of services. The study is based on the publications in the media and scientific articles. In particular, pay attention to the important role of the state and municipalities in Europe and the United States in promoting the creation of condominiums and attractive mechanisms for the owner to invest in your home to incr...

  5. The scarifications as regulation of the relationship to the world

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    David Le Breton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The adolescence  imposes physical changes raising the question of the others’ look on the young man or on the young woman becoming, of the opening to the desire and to the genital. His/her body escapes from his/her control, at the same time his/her status is now situated in the social link. By changing his/her appearance, the young makes the skin as a scene where he/she projects a temporary or permanent identity searching for his/her character. It is a tool of self-experimentation, of exploration of the characters. The skin is a scraped border if the symbolic boundaries, between the self and the others, between the inner world and the social reality, are struggling to establish, because it encloses into an unbearable identity which he/she wishes to escape, whose self-inflicted bodily wounds are testimony.

  6. World experience regulation of mechanisms of housing and communal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Demikhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals peculiarities of state regulation of the housing and utilities sector (utilities in developed countries to establish effective medium customers and performers of services. The study is based on the publications in the media and scientific articles. In particular, pay attention to the important role of the state and municipalities in Europe and the United States in promoting the creation of condominiums and attractive mechanisms for the owner to invest in your home to increase its market value. Given the importance for Ukraine of said issues, studied the experience of foreign government agencies for the development of market housing management companies in the infrastructure of the city, made a comparative analysis manager functions in different economic model. Also made practical results of the review of public administration in the countries of Scandinavia, the Baltics and Eastern Europe to solve the housing overhauls and modernization, which it is advisable to introduce a Ukrainian realities. The study, by the example of the positive experience of urban communities highly developed countries, clearly defined areas of state institutions in Ukraine for effective administration and optimization of market housing services.

  7. Genetically modified organisms in light of domestic and world regulations

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    Nikolić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others labeling of food origination from GMO is obligatory. Labeling is obligatory in European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Norway, Switzerland and some others. In our country the Law on GMO and sub-law acts were conceived according to EU regulative. The terms for limited use, production, trade of GMO and GMO products have been prescribed. Validation and standardization of GMO testing methods are now being implemented. It is expected that the analytical GMO methods will soon be harmonized at the international level. .

  8. Rhinovirus Infection Interferes with the Induction of Tolerance to Aeroantigens through OX40L, TSLP and IL-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit K.; Duan, Wei; Doerner, Astrid M.; Traves, Suzanne L.; Broide, David H.; Proud, David; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Croft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhinovirus (RV) infection during an early age has been associated with development of asthma, but how RV influences the immune response is not clear. Objective Tolerance to inhaled antigen is mediated via the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), and we asked whether RV infection of the respiratory tract might block airway tolerance by modulating Treg cells. Methods The immune response to intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) in mice was assessed with concomitant infection with RV1B, and the factors induced in vivo were compared to factors made by human lung epithelial cells infected in vitro with RV16. Results RV1B infection of mice abrogated tolerance induced by inhalation of soluble OVA, suppressing the normal generation of Foxp3+ Treg cells while promoting Th2 cells. Furthermore, RV1B infection led to susceptibility to develop asthmatic lung disease when mice subsequently reencountered aeroantigen. RV1B promoted early in vivo expression of the TNF family protein, OX40L, on lung dendritic cells that was dependent on the innate cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and also induced another innate cytokine IL-33. Inhibiting each of these pathways allowed the natural development of Treg cells while minimizing Th2 differentiation, and restored tolerance in the face of RV1B infection. In accordance, RV16 infection of human lung epithelial cells upregulated TSLP and IL-33 expression. Conclusions These results suggest that infection of the respiratory epithelium with RV can antagonize tolerance to inhaled antigen through a combined induction of TSLP, IL-33 and OX40L, and this may lead to susceptibility to developing asthmatic lung inflammation. PMID:26100084

  9. The Additive Inflammatory In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of IL-7 and TSLP in Arthritis Underscore the Therapeutic Rationale for Dual Blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten R Hillen

    Full Text Available The cytokines interleukin (IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP signal through the IL-7R subunit and play proinflammatory roles in experimental arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We evaluated the effect of inhibition of IL-7R- and TSLPR-signalling as well as simultaneous inhibition of IL-7R- and TSLPR-signalling in murine experimental arthritis. In addition, the effects of IL-7 and TSLP in human RA dendritic cell (DC/T-cell co-cultures were studied.Arthritis was induced with proteoglycan in wildtype mice (WT and in mice deficient for the TSLP receptor subunit (TSLPR-/-. Both mice genotypes were treated with anti-IL-7R or phosphate buffered saline. Arthritis severity was assessed and local and circulating cytokines were measured. Autologous CD1c-positive DCs and CD4 T-cells were isolated from peripheral blood of RA patients and were co-cultured in the presence of IL-7, TSLP or both and proliferation and cytokine production were assessed.Arthritis severity and immunopathology were decreased in WT mice treated with anti-IL-7R, in TSLPR-/- mice, and the most robustly in TSLPR-/- mice treated with anti-IL-7R. This was associated with strongly decreased levels of IL-17, IL-6 and CD40L. In human DC/T-cell co-cultures, TSLP and IL-7 additively increased T-cell proliferation and production of Th17-associated cytokines, chemokines and tissue destruction factors.TSLP and IL-7 have an additive effect on the production of Th17-cytokines in a human in vitro model, and enhance arthritis in mice linked with enhanced inflammation and immunopathology. As both cytokines signal via the IL-7R, these data urge for IL-7R-targeting to prevent the activity of both cytokines in RA.

  10. The Innate Cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP Cooperate in the Induction of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Expansion and Mucous Metaplasia in Rhinovirus-Infected Immature Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingyuan; Rajput, Charu; Hong, Jun Y; Lei, Jing; Hinde, Joanna L; Wu, Qian; Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2017-08-15

    Early-life respiratory viral infection is a risk factor for asthma development. Rhinovirus (RV) infection of 6-d-old mice, but not mature mice, causes mucous metaplasia and airway hyperresponsiveness that are associated with the expansion of lung type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and are dependent on IL-13 and the innate cytokine IL-25. However, contributions of the other innate cytokines, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), to the observed asthma-like phenotype have not been examined. We reasoned that IL-33 and TSLP expression are also induced by RV infection in immature mice and are required for maximum ILC2 expansion and mucous metaplasia. We inoculated 6-d-old BALB/c (wild-type) and TSLP receptor-knockout mice with sham HeLa cell lysate or RV. Selected mice were treated with neutralizing Abs to IL-33 or recombinant IL-33, IL-25, or TSLP. ILC2s were isolated from RV-infected immature mice and treated with innate cytokines ex vivo. RV infection of 6-d-old mice increased IL-33 and TSLP protein abundance. TSLP expression was localized to the airway epithelium, whereas IL-33 was expressed in epithelial and subepithelial cells. RV-induced mucous metaplasia, ILC2 expansion, airway hyperresponsiveness, and epithelial cell IL-25 expression were attenuated by anti-IL-33 treatment and in TSLP receptor-knockout mice. Administration of intranasal IL-33 and TSLP was sufficient for mucous metaplasia. Finally, TSLP was required for maximal ILC2 gene expression in response to IL-25 and IL-33. The generation of mucous metaplasia in immature RV-infected mice involves a complex interplay among the innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Do we live in a largely top-down regulated world?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    down. Abstract. Based on a review of mostly recent literature for a public lecture, the question is discussed whether we live in a largely ``top-down” regulated world rather than one formed ``bottom-up” by the resources for plant and animal growth.

  12. Expression of TSLP and Downstream Molecules IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 on the Eye Surface of Patients with Various Types of Allergic Conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaofen; Yao, Juan; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis has not been clearly established. Moreover, previous studies fail to consider human models of allergic conjunctivitis. This study investigated the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoiet in TSLP and its downstream molecules in conjunctival scrappings and tear. Methods. This cross-sectional study compares patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) with normal controls. There are 80 people recorded in Shanxi Eye Hospital. Increasingly, 20 are with VKC, 20 are with SAC, 20 are with PAC, and the remaining 20 are normal controls. Conjunctiva were harvested for total RNA extraction and gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells were collected to make pathological sections for immunohistochemical staining. Human tears were evaluated by Luminex microbead assay. A P value less than 0.05 from Dunnett's post hoc test in SPSS means a statistical significant distinction. Results. Positive expression in conjunctival cells of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. The expression of TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA shows a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 concentrations show a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study suggests that TSLP and downstream molecules are expressed in patients with various types of allergic conjunctivitis.

  13. Expression of TSLP and Downstream Molecules IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 on the Eye Surface of Patients with Various Types of Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofen Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis has not been clearly established. Moreover, previous studies fail to consider human models of allergic conjunctivitis. This study investigated the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoiet in TSLP and its downstream molecules in conjunctival scrappings and tear. Methods. This cross-sectional study compares patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC, and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC with normal controls. There are 80 people recorded in Shanxi Eye Hospital. Increasingly, 20 are with VKC, 20 are with SAC, 20 are with PAC, and the remaining 20 are normal controls. Conjunctiva were harvested for total RNA extraction and gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells were collected to make pathological sections for immunohistochemical staining. Human tears were evaluated by Luminex microbead assay. A P value less than 0.05 from Dunnett’s post hoc test in SPSS means a statistical significant distinction. Results. Positive expression in conjunctival cells of patients with allergic conjunctivitis. The expression of TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA shows a statistically significant difference (P<0.05. TSLP and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 concentrations show a statistically significant difference (P<0.01. Conclusions. This study suggests that TSLP and downstream molecules are expressed in patients with various types of allergic conjunctivitis.

  14. Challenges of the banking regulation systems in the climate of the world economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlarević Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, banking systems of the developed countries have undergone multiple changes, where the basic dimensions of those changes were integration, deregulation and globalisation of activities. The resultant of these factors' actions was the creation of highly risky banking environment, which acted as a catalyst of the world economic crisis effects. These effects brought to the forefront weaknesses of the banking sector and of the banking regulation system, while emphasizing the need for their redefining. Hence this work examines in detail concrete models of the banking regulation systems in the European Union area and in the United States of America. In addition, directions of redefining regulation system were highlighted, and also the relevant differences between banking business regulation in the European Union and in the United States of America.

  15. Contributions of Interleukin-33 and TSLP in a papain-soaked contact lens-induced mouse conjunctival inflammation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Jobu; Asada, Yosuke; Ishida, Waka; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Sudo, Katsuko; Suto, Hajime; Matsunaga, Toru; Fukuda, Ken; Fukushima, Atsuki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Azuma, Miyuki; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Saito, Hirohisa; Kubo, Masato; Nakae, Susumu; Matsuda, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Pathological changes of severe chronic allergic conjunctivitis are driven not only via acquired immunity but also via innate immunity. Type 2 immune response-initiating cytokines may play some roles as innate immunity-dependent components of the ocular surface inflammation. To investigate the involvement of type 2 immune response-initiating cytokines in innate immunity-dependent, papain-induced conjunctival inflammation model using IL-25-, IL-33-, and TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-knockout (KO) mice with reference to basophils and ILC2. Papain-soaked contact lenses (papain-CLs) were installed in the conjunctival sacs of C57BL/6-IL-25 KO, IL-33 KO, TSLPR KO, Rag2 KO, Bas-TRECK, and wild-type mice and their eyes were sampled at day 5. The eosinophil and basophil infiltration in papain-CL model was evaluated histologically and cytokine expression was examined. To clarify the roles of basophils and ILC2, basophil/ILC2-depletion experiments were carried out. Papain-induced conjunctival inflammation exhibited eosinophil infiltration and upregulation of Th2 cytokine expression. Reduction of eosinophil and basophil infiltration and attenuated Th2 cytokine expression were observed in the papain-CL model using IL-33 KO and TSLPR KO mice. Depletion of basophils or ILC2s in the conjunctivae of the papain-CL model reduced eosinophil infiltration. Innate immunity-driven type 2 immune responses of the ocular surface are dependent on IL-33, TSLP, basophils, and ILC2. These components may be possible therapeutic targets for refractory allergic keratoconjunctivitis. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World... Register. Basis and Purpose Red Bull Air Race GmbH is sponsoring the Red Bull Air Race World Championship...

  17. Priorities of institutional regulation of e-commerce: Russia and world trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    E-commerce is gradually transformed from a version of trading activity to independent branch of global network economy which cannot be ignored. The Russian Federation is in the lead in the CIS on development of e-commerce, but lags behind world leaders in institutionalization of e-commerce. Problems of state regulation of e-commerce in Russia are analyzed in article, ways of their decision are offered.

  18. World integrated medicine forum on the regulation of homoeopathic medicinal products: National and global strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first World Integrated Medicine Forum on the regulation of homoeopathic medicinal products included 50 delegates from 25 countries to discuss the current state of regulation of homoeopathic medicinal products (HMPs. The stakeholders in attendance included government officials, manufacturers, pharmacopoeia organisations, pharmacists, and healthcare providers worldwide. The Minister of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy from India, who is likely the only high ranking national official in the world specifically dedicated to oversight of traditional medicines including Homoeopathy, was the keynote speaker for the meeting. The core presentations delivered information on the country-to-country variance in regulatory requirements for homoeopathic medicine manufacture and marketing. Different speakers addressed the current pharmacopeia structures in various countries, variance in premarket approval process, regulatory frameworks for homoeopathic medicines, labelling requirements, safety requirements, marketing approaches and good manufacturing practices. Debates focused on quality control testing, stability of intermediate stocks, shelf life of finished products, pre-market approval process and labelling and they shed light on regional differences in regulation. A lengthy discussion was held on the potential value of harmonisation of pharmacopoeias, manufacturing standards, safety evaluation and labelling. The group consensus was to meet again to pursue specific topics. Daily summaries of take-away points are provided at the end of each day's talk summaries. Much acclaim was won by the organisers for materialising this unique forum which proved to be an apt platform for rigorous discussions on lesser discussed, but very vital points such as regulations of HMPs, harmonisation of pharmacopeias and linking industry and regulators' sectors for unified efforts for global development of Homoeopathy.

  19. TSLP, IL-31, IL-33 and sST2 are new biomarkers in endophenotypic profiling of adult and childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, U; Hvid, M; Johansen, C; Buchner, M; Fölster-Holst, R; Deleuran, M; Vestergaard, C

    2016-11-01

    Recent years have seen growing interest in identifying new biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD) that could serve as indicators of disease severity and predictors of treatment response. We compared serum levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin(IL)-31, IL-33 and soluble(s)ST2 in AD patients and healthy controls, investigated the possible correlation with disease severity, investigated if other atopic comorbidities could play a role, and assessed their potential as biomarkers in AD. Using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, we measured target serum levels in 71 adults and 61 children with AD, and 31 adult controls. We characterized our cohort by disease severity, radioallergosorbent test status concerning both dietary and inhalant allergens, and anamnestic reports of food allergy, concomitant allergic asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. Serum levels of TSLP, IL-31 and IL-33, but not sST2, were significantly elevated in AD patients compared with controls. In AD patients, both IL-31 and IL-33 serum levels were higher in children than in adults, while the opposite was the case for sST2. We observed no correlation between disease severity and any of the investigated targets. While serum TSLP levels were unaffected by concomitant allergies and atopic comorbidities, serum levels of IL-31, IL-33 and sST2 were affected to a small extent. We found a positive correlation between TSLP, IL-31 and IL-33, and an inverse relationship between IL-33 and sST2. The studied targets hold little potential as indicators of disease severity. The serum values of our targets show robustness against atopic comorbidities, allergies and changes in disease severity. This robustness strengthens their potential use in biomarker-based stratification and could be instrumental in identifying subgroups and predicting the possible benefit of therapeutic and prevention approaches. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Do We Need to Impose More Regulation Upon the World Wide Web? -A Metasystem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. van Gigch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day a new problem attributable to the World Wide Web's lack of formal structure and/or organization is made public. What arguably could be represented as one of its main strengths is rapidly turning out to be one of its most flagrant weaknesses. The intent of this article is to show the need to establish a more formal organization than presently exists over the World Wide Web. (This article will use the terms the Internet and Cyberspace interchangeably. It is proposed that this formal organization take the form of a metacontrol system--to be explained-- and rely, at least in part, for this control to self-regulate. The so-called metasystem system would be responsible for preventing some of the unanticipated situations that take place in cyberspace and that, due to the web's lack of maturity, have not been encountered heretofore. Some activities, such as the denial-of-service (DoS attacks, may well be illicit. Others, like the question of establishing a world-wide democratic board to administer the Internet's address system, are so new that there are no technical, legal or political precedents to ensure its design will succeed. What is needed is a formal, over-arching control system, i.e. a "metasystem," to arbitrate over controversies, decide on the legality of new policies and, in general, act as a metalevel controller over the activities of the virtual community called Cyberspace. The World Wide Web Consortium has emerged as a possible candidate for this role.This paper uses control theory to define both the problem and the proposed solution. Cyberspace lacks a metacontroller that can be used to resolve the many problems that arise when a new organizational configuration, such as the Internet, is created and when questions surface about the extent to which new activities interfere with individual or corporate freedoms.

  1. Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Shaun D; Caulfield, Timothy

    2004-12-13

    No two countries have adopted identical regulatory measures on cloning. Understanding the complexity of these regulatory variations is essential. It highlights the challenges associated with the regulation of a controversial and rapidly evolving area of science and sheds light on a regulatory framework that can accommodate this reality. Using the most reliable information available, we have performed a survey of the regulatory position of thirty countries around the world regarding the creation and use of cloned embryos (see Table 1). We have relied on original and translated legislation, as well as published sources and personal communications. We have examined the regulation of both reproductive cloning (RC) and non-reproductive cloning (NRC). While most of the countries studied have enacted national legislation, the absence of legislation in seven of these countries should not be equated with the absence of regulation. Senator Morin was not correct in stating that the majority of recent legislation bans both RC and NRC. Recent regulatory moves are united only with regard to the banning of RC. While NRC is not permitted in seventeen of the countries examined, it could be permitted in up to thirteen countries. There is little consensus on the various approaches to cloning laws and policies, and the regulatory position in many countries remains uncertain.

  2. Variations and voids: the regulation of human cloning around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No two countries have adopted identical regulatory measures on cloning. Understanding the complexity of these regulatory variations is essential. It highlights the challenges associated with the regulation of a controversial and rapidly evolving area of science and sheds light on a regulatory framework that can accommodate this reality. Methods Using the most reliable information available, we have performed a survey of the regulatory position of thirty countries around the world regarding the creation and use of cloned embryos (see Table 1. We have relied on original and translated legislation, as well as published sources and personal communications. We have examined the regulation of both reproductive cloning (RC and non-reproductive cloning (NRC. Results While most of the countries studied have enacted national legislation, the absence of legislation in seven of these countries should not be equated with the absence of regulation. Senator Morin was not correct in stating that the majority of recent legislation bans both RC and NRC. Recent regulatory moves are united only with regard to the banning of RC. While NRC is not permitted in seventeen of the countries examined, it could be permitted in up to thirteen countries. Conclusions There is little consensus on the various approaches to cloning laws and policies, and the regulatory position in many countries remains uncertain.

  3. The world merger and acquisition market: economic dimensions and specifics of regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Davydovych

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive analysis of the world mergers and acquisitions (M&A market, describing its stages of evolution and examining the trends and specific features of development at different stages. The author identifies the motives of mergers and acquisitions, determines their impact on the economy, makes an attempt at revealing the main reasons for failed M&A deals, analyzes the specifics of regulating mergers in the European Union countries, and describes their main requirements. The article also evaluates the development of the M&A processes in Central and Eastern Europe, in particular Ukraine. In conclusion, the author offers recommendations for the successful operation of companies after their merger or acquisition and considers the factors of the M&A market’s positive dynamics at the current stage.

  4. Glyphosate–rich air samples induce IL–33, TSLP and generate IL–13 dependent airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M.; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-01-01

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4−/−, and IL-13−/− mice i...

  5. Evaluation of US rear underride guard regulation for large trucks using real-world crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Blanar, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Current requirements for rear underride guards on large trucks are set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 223 and 224. The standards have been in place since 1998, but their adequacy has not been evaluated apart from two series of controlled crash tests. The current study used detailed reviews of real-world crashes from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study to assess the ability of guards that comply with certain aspects of the regulation to mitigate passenger vehicle underride. It also evaluated the dangers posed by underride of large trucks that are exempt from guard requirements. For the 115 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, coded data, case narratives, photographs, and measurements were used to examine the interaction between study vehicles. The presence and type of underride guard was determined, and its performance in mitigating underride was categorized. Overall, almost one-half of the passenger vehicles had underride damage classified as severe or catastrophic. These vehicles accounted for 23 of the 28 in which occupants were killed. For the cases involving trailers with underride guards compliant with one or both FMVSS, guard deformation or complete failure was frequent and most commonly due to weak attachments, buckling of the trailer chassis, or bending of the lateral end of the guard under narrow overlap loading. Most of the truck units studied qualified for at least one of the FMVSS exemptions. The two largest groups were trailers with small wheel setbacks and single-unit straight trucks. Dump trucks represented a particularly hazardous category of straight truck. The current study suggests several weaknesses in the rear underride guard regulation. The standard allows too much ground clearance, the quasi-static test conditions allow guard designs that fail in narrow overlap crashes, and certifying guards independent of trailers leads to systems with inadequate attachment and

  6. Atopic dermatitis prevention in children following maternal probiotic supplementation does not appear to be mediated by breast milk TSLP or TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Melanie Rae; Rø, Anne Dorthea Bjerkenes; Grimstad, Øystein; Johnsen, Roar; Storrø, Ola; Øien, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    The Probiotics in Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT) study, a randomised, placebo controlled trial, demonstrated that maternal supplementation with probiotic milk reduced the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy. The mechanisms behind this effect are incompletely understood and breast milk cytokines have been postulated as possible mediating factors. In this study we aimed to assess whether breast milk TLSP and TGF-β are affected by a maternal probiotic supplementation regime, and their contribution to the preventive effect of this regime on AD in the offspring. TSLP and TGF-β isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3) were measured using ELISA and multiplex assays, respectively, in breast milk samples collected at 10 days and 3 months postpartum from women participating in the ProPACT trial (n = 259). The natural indirect and direct effects of maternal probiotics on AD, due to changes in breast milk cytokines, were estimated using causal mediation techniques. Probiotic supplementation tend to lead to high levels of breast milk TSLP at 10 days postpartum (p = 0.062), but this change did not contribute to the prevention of AD according to the mediation analysis. Probiotics had no apparent effect on TSLP at 3 months or TGF-βs at either time points. Thus, these are unlikely to be mediators of the effect of maternal probiotics on AD in offspring. Whilst maternal probiotic supplementation resulted in higher breast milk concentrations of TLSP at 10 days postpartum, this does not appear to be a mechanism for prevention of AD by maternal probiotics. Trial registration The original trial protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT00159523).

  7. Distribución de tres polimorfismos del gen TSLP en población afrodescendiente de San Basilio de Palenque, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La linfopoyetina tímica del estroma (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin, TSLP se ha vinculado como un gen de propensión al desarrollo de enfermedades alérgicas. Se sabe que la población de Cartagena es una mezcla triétnica, en la cual el componente de herencia africana se asoció con el riesgo de asma y altos niveles séricos de IgE total. Este componente provino de esclavos africanos que lograron organizarse en “palenques”, uno de ellos es San Basilio de Palenque, en la Costa Caribe colombiana. Objetivo. Determinar la distribución de los polimorfismos de nucleótido simple (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, SNP rs1837253, rs17551370 y rs2289276 del gen TSLP en individuos afrodescendientes de San Basilio de Palenque. Materiales y métodos. Mediante PCR en tiempo real y sondas TaqMan SNP Genotyping™ segenotipificaron estos SNP en 80 individuos afrodescendientes entre los 5 y 18 años de edad. Resultados. El alelo de menor frecuencia para el polimorfismo rs1837253 fue el alelo T (41,9 %, para el rs17551370, el alelo A (14,3 %, y para el rs2289276, el alelo T (22,5 %. La distribución de los polimorfismos rs17551370 y rs2289276 se mantuvo en equilibrio genético de Hardy-Weinberg. Las frecuencias alélicas de cada SNP no mostraron diferencias significativas con las reportadas para poblaciones africanas. Conclusiones. Los tres polimorfismos analizados en el gen TSLP estuvieron presentes en la muestra de población de San Basilio de Palenque y su distribución es similar a la reportada para poblaciones africanas y para poblaciones americanas de ancestro africano. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.655

  8. Including the Other: Regulation of the Human Rights of Mobile Students in a Nation-Bound World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The world's three million cross-border international students are located in a "gray zone" of regulation with incomplete human rights, security and capabilities. Like other mobile persons such as short-term business and labour entrants, and refugees, students located on foreign soil do not enjoy the same protections and entitlements as…

  9. Assessment, Problems and Ways of Improvement of Technical Regulation of Foreign Economic Activity (FEA in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steblyanko Maryna D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state of technical regulation of FEA in the world and Ukraine and identifies main problems and ways of increase of efficiency of certification. It considers the system of technical regulation of EU and provides examples of application of technical barriers by some countries for ensuring security of goods in the domestic market. The article offers to develop a strategy of development of the national system of information provision of technical regulation and suspend transition from the system of mandatory certification to the system of assessment of correspondence with requirements of technical orders of business.

  10. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing world. Volume I: Advanced fundamentals sustainable chemical engineering technology management and transfer international regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Volume 1 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas: Advanced Fundamentals, Sustainable Chemical Engineering, Technology Management and Transfer, and International Regulations. Pertinent subtopics include: Instrumentation, Automation, and Process Control; Thermodynamics of Multiphase Solutions; Catalysis, Kinetics, and Reaction Engineering; Separations; Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena; Fluid Mixing Technology; Global Environmental Problems; Super Efficient and Clean Production of Chemicals; Managing Research and Development; Information Technology; and Approaches for Solving the Environmental Challenge. 59 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  11. [Game rules. Representing the characteristics of regulation in child and adolescent anorexia nervosa with World-Playing Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csenki, Laura; Margit, K Németh; Pászthy, Bea

    2009-01-01

    One of the most crucial problems concerning the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa is the deficit of regulation. This problem appears in the symptoms, in the cognitive infexibility, in the levels of self organizations, in mother-child and familial relationships. The present paper tries to search for paralells addressing deficits of regulation by overviewing the theories of anorexia nervosa. Moreover, the World-Playing Test is presented as a projective method for the detection of these deficits. The test was used in 50 adolescent anorexia nervosa cases in the last years. The idiosyncratic traits of psychopathology are noticeable in the characteristics of buildups. The deficits of regulation appeared in signs as perceptual rigidity, perfectionism, compulsions, overwhelming and unregulated emotions, and in connection with these traits, the need of permanent control. The World-Playing Test proved to be an effective and rich psychodiagnostic method, which helps us not only to verify general theoretical conclusions, but also to understand the individual psychodynamic organization.

  12. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Mueller, Claudius [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Roberts, Brian [Leidos Health Life Sciences, 5202 Presidents Court, Suite 110, Frederick, MD (United States); Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Petricoin, Emanuel [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Narayanan, Aarthi, E-mail: anaraya1@gmu.edu [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.

  13. Will it be a better world? The proposed EU Data Protection Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    2012-01-01

    •This article concerns the proposal by the European Commission to govern data protection on the basis of a regulation. It considers arguments in favour and against using a regulation with respect to general data protection law. •A regulation sustains harmonization primarily in respect...... to transational data processing but cannot achieve the goal of full harmonization within the EU. •A regulation has several negative conseqwuensces for datta protection at the national level. It is furthermore assumed that the proposed Regulation will improve the position of datat subjects but it is disappointing...

  14. [Regulation of behavior in the period between the world wars: Robert Musil and Kurt Lewin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerhofer, Roland; Rothe, Katja

    2010-12-01

    The paper attempts to reconstruct the proto-cybernetic concept of regulation which emerged in early 20th century both in biology and psychology, and was critically reflected in literature. The basic premise is that Kurt Lewin's field-theoretical psychology played a crucial role in the development of behavioral self-regulation concepts. The goal is to show (1) that Lewin's early experiments and theories were based on the idea of a dynamic process of self-regulation determined by the actors and their personal motivation and interaction, (2) that this concept of self-regulation functioned as a camouflage for power-strategies that aimed to regulate and optimize the economic production and social reproduction processes, (3) that in Robert Musil's fragmentary, 'fringing' novel The Man without Qualities the attempt to optimize the social and economic behavior and to establish a homeostatic state proved to be a complete failure. As a notable result, this 'literary test' of behavioral self-regulation revealed the violence and imbalance of power inherent in this concept of self-regulation and its practical implementation.

  15. Knowledge Aid as Instrument of Regulation: World Bank's Non-Lending Higher Education Support for Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    In the context of low-income countries, the role of donors in public policymaking is of great importance. Donors use a combination of lending and non-lending instruments as pathways of influence to shape policy directions in aid-recipient countries. This paper reports some findings from a doctoral study on the role of the World Bank in the recent…

  16. Pension reforms and world bank-regulated laws of the jungle: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peripheral societies (or better still, non-industrialized, raw materialsexporting states) are originally (and still remain) designed as raw resources supply zone not only in World Bank lexicon but also in global planning and programming of industrialized societies in general. Worker welfare of those both retired and in service ...

  17. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Indiantown Road and Donald Ross Road, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World... will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high speed...

  18. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  19. Audit Market Regulation and Supplier Concentration around the World : Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Heß, Benjamin; Stefani, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing discussions on audit regulation, the key issues of auditor independence and a high level of audit market concentration have become apparent. However, there is the concern that regulations intended to improve auditor independence (i.e., restrictions regarding the joint supply of audit and non-audit services, audit firm rotation, joint audits, etc.) might further increase audit market concentration. We address this issue with an empirical analysis. Based on a cross-country study ...

  20. War of the worlds? : Pluralism vs. market liberalisation: the European regulation of the television broadcasting sector

    OpenAIRE

    Komorek, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    This thesis makes the case for the European regulation of media concentration in the television broadcasting sector. Television broadcasting is currently undergoing substantial and rapid changes. The phenomena of digitalisation and the resulting technological convergence stimulate the minds of regulators in Europe and underlie the new Audiovisual Services Directive which is to replace the Television Without Frontiers Directive. There is even a trend to proclaim the death of television broadca...

  1. Nurse migration in an increasingly interconnected world: the case for internationalization of regulation of nurses and nursing regulatory bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John R; Bajkay, Renay; Forster, Stu; Small, Rudy; Travale, Rodger

    2011-10-01

    Psychiatric/Mental Health nursing has a long history of professional self-regulation; nevertheless, interest in how governments protect consumers of health care from poor or dangerous practice(s) is on the increase. Correspondingly, there have been calls, in several parts of the world, for greater watchfulness and due diligence from regulatory bodies. Mindful of the concept of "globalization" and the unequivocal data regarding the significant increase in the migration of nurses, it is difficult to ignore/deny the reality of an increasingly mobile and connected international nursing workforce. However, the extant literature also indicates the existence of significant disparities between countries and even states/provinces within countries as to the enforcement of professional regulation. What this means is that decisions made by one regulatory body can have a direct impact on the standard(s) of nursing quality and practice in a country on the opposite side of the world. As a result, the authors attempt to advance the debate that there is a clear need to reconcile these positions, and they introduce the argument for the creation of an international oversight body. Using case study material, the relevant theoretical and policy literature in this area (such as it is), and by drawing on examples of analogous oversight bodies from other areas, we draw attention to the need to create a genuinely international body for the oversight of nurse regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  3. PECULIARITIES OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS AND STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR ANTI-CRISIS REGULATIONS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr VLASIUK

    2009-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the analysis and systematization of the key transformations in international economic relations that have changed because of the world financial crisis and to the assessment of the depth of their influence on social-economic development of Ukraine. It is defined that the peculiarities of the modern financial crisis are: unprecedented spread of neoprotectionism in advanced countries and the accumulation of the symmetrical measure potential among the countries with e...

  4. The apomediated world: regulating research when social media has changed research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Social Media, like Facebook and Twitter, are having a profound effect on the way that human subjects research is being conducted. In light of the changes proposed in ANPRM, in this article I argue that traditional research ethics and regulations may not easily translate to the use of social media in human subjects research. Using the conceptual model of apomediation, which describes the peer-to-peer way in which health information is shared via social media, I suggest that we may need to think again about the suitability of current regulations to deal with social media research. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  5. Systems Chronobiology: Global Analysis of Gene Regulation in a 24-Hour Periodic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermet, Jérôme; Yeung, Jake; Naef, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Mammals have evolved an internal timing system, the circadian clock, which synchronizes physiology and behavior to the daily light and dark cycles of the Earth. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, takes fluctuating light input from the retina and synchronizes other tissues to the same internal rhythm. The molecular clocks that drive these circadian rhythms are ticking in nearly all cells in the body. Efforts in systems chronobiology are now being directed at understanding, on a comprehensive scale, how the circadian clock controls different layers of gene regulation to provide robust timing cues at the cellular and tissue level. In this review, we introduce some basic concepts underlying periodicity of gene regulation, and then highlight recent genome-wide investigations on the propagation of rhythms across multiple regulatory layers in mammals, all the way from chromatin conformation to protein accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Is Critical for Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Response and Resistance to Experimental Trypanosoma congolense Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonso Onyilagha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness poses serious threat to human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. Because there is currently no vaccine for preventing this disease and available drugs are not safe, understanding the mechanisms that regulate resistance and/or susceptibility to the disease could reveal novel targets for effective disease therapy and prevention. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP plays a critical role in driving Th2 immune response. Although susceptibility to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice is associated with excessive proinflammatory responses due in part to impaired Th2 response, the role of TSLP in resistance to African trypanosomiasis has not been well studied. Here, we investigated whether TSLP is critical for maintaining Th2 environment necessary for survival of T. congolense-infected mice. We observed an increased TSLP level in mice after infection with T. congolense, suggesting a role for this cytokine in resistance to the infection. Indeed, TSLPR−/− mice were more susceptible to T. congolense infection and died significantly earlier than their wild-type (WT controls. Interestingly, serum levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α and the frequency of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-producing CD4+ T cells in the spleens and liver were significantly higher in infected TSLPR−/− mice than in the WT control mice. Susceptibility was also associated with excessive M1 macrophage activation. Treatment of TSLPR−/− mice with anti-IFN-γ mAb during infection abolished their enhanced susceptibility to T. congolense infection. Collectively, our study shows that TSLP plays a critical role in resistance to T. congolense infection by dampening the production of proinflammatory cytokines and its associated M1 macrophage activation.

  7. Australia's private health insurance industry: structure, competition, regulation and role in a less than 'ideal world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsullah, Ardel

    2011-02-01

    Australia's private health insurance funds have been prominent participants in the nation's health system for 60 years. Yet there is relatively little public awareness of the distinctive origins of the health funds, the uncharacteristic organisational nature of these commercial enterprises and the peculiarly regulated nature of their industry. The conventional corporate responsibility to shareholders was, until recently, completely irrelevant, and remains marginal to the sector. However, their purported answerability to contributors, styled as 'members', was always doubtful for most health funds. After a long period of remarkable stability in the sector, despite significant shifts in health funding policy, recent years have brought notable changes, with mergers, acquisitions and exits from the industry. The research is based on the detailed study of the private health funds, covering their history, organisational character and industry structure. It argues that the funds have always been divorced from the disciplines of the competitive market and generally have operated complacently within a system of comprehensive regulation and generous subsidy. The prospect of the private health funds enjoying an expanded role under a form of 'social insurance', as suggested by the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission, is not supported.

  8. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  9. Benzidine-based dyes: effects of industrial practices, regulations, and world trade on the biological stains market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, R W

    2009-06-01

    One of the most sweeping changes in the dye industry since the advent of synthetic dyes grew out of the health risks associated with benzidine. Dyes made from benzidine and its derivatives were used around the world until adverse health effects become incontrovertible. Workers and family members of workers involved in production and use of benzidine-based dyes had a high incidence of bladder cancer. Following publication of several reports documenting this health hazard, dye makers in the USA, Europe, and Japan phased these dyes out of production in the 1970s. Government regulations lent legal support for these voluntary initiatives. Two strategies subsequently evolved to compensate: developed nations brought alternative substances to market while emerging countries increased production of carcinogenic dyes and sold them at discount prices around the world. Nearly all dye manufacturing now has moved away from nations whose costs of production and compliance rendered them unable to compete. The purpose of this brief review is to publicize the health risks associated with dyes made from benzidine and its congeners, and to alert all companies and end users handling these dyes for biomedical applications that composition of the product and lot-to-lot variability may be problematic because of the manufacturing and distribution practices of the countries where they are produced.

  10. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  11. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) regulates midline-1, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, inflammation, and remodeling in experimental eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Adam M; Sokulsky, Leon A; Sherrill, Joseph D; Nightingale, Scott; Hatchwell, Luke; Talley, Nicholas J; Walker, Marjorie M; Rothenberg, Marc E; Mattes, Joerg

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disorder of the esophagus defined by eosinophil infiltration and tissue remodeling with resulting symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) promotes inflammation through upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase midline-1 (MID1), which binds to and deactivates the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2Ac, resulting in increased nuclear factor κB activation. We sought to elucidate the role of TRAIL in EoE. We used Aspergillus fumigatus to induce EoE in TRAIL-sufficient (wild-type) and TRAIL-deficient (TRAIL(-/-)) mice and targeted MID1 in the esophagus with small interfering RNA. We also treated mice with recombinant thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and TRAIL. TRAIL deficiency and MID1 silencing with small interfering RNA reduced esophageal eosinophil and mast cell numbers and protected against esophageal circumference enlargement, muscularis externa thickening, and collagen deposition. MID1 expression and nuclear factor κB activation were reduced in TRAIL(-/-) mice, whereas protein phosphatase 2Ac levels were increased compared with those seen in wild-type control mice. This was associated with reduced expression of CCL24, CCL11, CCL20, IL-5, IL-13, IL-25, TGFB, and TSLP. Treatment with TSLP reconstituted hallmark features of EoE in TRAIL(-/-) mice and recombinant TRAIL induced esophageal TSLP expression in vivo in the absence of allergen. Post hoc analysis of gene array data demonstrated significant upregulation of TRAIL and MID1 in a cohort of children with EoE compared with that seen in controls. TRAIL regulates MID1 and TSLP, inflammation, fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and expression of inflammatory effector chemokines and cytokines in experimental EoE. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  13. FEATURES OF THE STATE REGULATION OF THE PRODUCTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED PRODUCTS IN THE WORLD AND IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Bashuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the regulation of the use, consumption, and trade of genetically modified organisms in different countries of the world, as well as in Ukraine. The definition of international approaches to risk assessment of genetically modified products is of particular importance for international trade. Methodology. The study is based on data from different sources, beginning with the first mention of genetically modified organisms, ending with the latest received data from different countries. Purpose. Show how different countries refer differently to the production of genetically modified products, differently perceive it and are guided by different principles. Find ways to solve the problems associated with the introduction of GMOs in Ukraine and compare them with other countries. Results. The study showed that developed countries have developed clear rules for the production, labelling, consumption, and trade of products containing GMOs. Also, the bodies and structures responsible for compliance with all these rules are defined and a large number of legislative acts has been adopted, which cannot be said of Ukraine. In Ukraine, this is a large gap because “on paper” also seems that there are some rules according to GMOs but they are not clear, consistent, and they are not followed due to their observance, as these powers are entrusted to a large number of structures. Due to imperfect legislation and lack of funds, products that are imported are not tested for GMOs content, there are no studies on the safety of their consumption and cultivation, the reliability of information on labels is not followed. Practical implications. In Ukraine, in order to ensure the proper level of state regulation, protection, and use of genetically modified products obtained with the help of modern biotechnologies, it is necessary to adhere strictly to the fulfilment of the main criteria: 1 adoption and further improvement of

  14. International regulations and standards for avian influenza, including the vaccine standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschke, C J M; Pittman, M; Laddomada, A

    2009-04-01

    For avian influenza the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has laid down international standards on notification, trade, diagnosis, surveillance and the production and use of vaccine. These standards are science- and risk-based to ensure safe trade in poultry and poultry products without unjustified barriers. The European Union, with its 27 Member States, has in place harmonised legislation in line with OIE standards. Early detection, rapid diagnosis, notification and high quality Veterinary Services are crucial for ensuring a rapid response to avian influenza outbreaks and for swiftly reducing the risk of virus spread via trade. Depending on the situation, vaccination may also be a very important tool for disease control. The use of high quality vaccines and postvaccination monitoring are essential for the successful implementation of vaccination. Compliance with international standards is of paramount importance for protecting animal and human health in the global crisis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 subtype.

  15. Cytokines and microbicidal molecules regulated by IL-32 in THP-1-derived human macrophages infected with New World Leishmania species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Jéssica Cristina; Heinhuis, Bas; Gomes, Rodrigo Saar; Damen, Michelle S M A; Real, Fernando; Mortara, Renato A; Keating, Samuel T; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

    2017-02-01

    Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is expressed in lesions of patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL), but its precise role in the disease remains unknown. In the present study, silencing and overexpression of IL-32 was performed in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis or L. (Leishmania) amazonensis to investigate the role of IL-32 in infection. We report that Leishmania species induces IL-32γ, and show that intracellular IL-32γ protein production is dependent on endogenous TNFα. Silencing or overexpression of IL-32 demonstrated that this cytokine is closely related to TNFα and IL-8. Remarkably, the infection index was augmented in the absence of IL-32 and decreased in cells overexpressing this cytokine. Mechanistically, these effects can be explained by nitric oxide cathelicidin and β-defensin 2 production regulated by IL-32. Thus, endogenous IL-32 is a crucial cytokine involved in the host defense against Leishmania parasites.

  16. Cytokines and microbicidal molecules regulated by IL-32 in THP-1-derived human macrophages infected with New World Leishmania species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Cristina Dos Santos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-32 (IL-32 is expressed in lesions of patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL, but its precise role in the disease remains unknown.In the present study, silencing and overexpression of IL-32 was performed in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis or L. (Leishmania amazonensis to investigate the role of IL-32 in infection. We report that Leishmania species induces IL-32γ, and show that intracellular IL-32γ protein production is dependent on endogenous TNFα. Silencing or overexpression of IL-32 demonstrated that this cytokine is closely related to TNFα and IL-8. Remarkably, the infection index was augmented in the absence of IL-32 and decreased in cells overexpressing this cytokine. Mechanistically, these effects can be explained by nitric oxide cathelicidin and β-defensin 2 production regulated by IL-32.Thus, endogenous IL-32 is a crucial cytokine involved in the host defense against Leishmania parasites.

  17. Injury rate and injury patterns in FIS World Cup Alpine skiing (2006-2015): have the new ski regulations made an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Bjørnar; Steenstrup, Sophie E; Bere, Tone; Bahr, Roald; Nordsletten, Lars

    2016-01-01

    New regulations for ski equipment were implemented prior to the 2012/2013 season in the International Ski Federation (FIS) Alpine World Cup (WC). To investigate the effect of the new ski regulations on the rate and pattern of injuries by comparing data before (2006-2012) and after the implementation (2012-2015). Injuries were recorded on the basis of the FIS Injury Surveillance System (FIS ISS) through retrospective interviews at the end of each of the nine WC seasons. All acute injuries that required medical attention were registered. Exposure was calculated on the basis of the official result lists. The absolute injury rate (injuries/100 athletes/season) was lower in the three seasons after the new ski regulations compared with the six seasons before (risk ratio (RR) 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87). This was also the case for the relative injury rate (injuries/1000 runs) (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.98). These changes were evident for male skiers, not for female skiers. There was a lower absolute injury rate for upper body injuries (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.77), while no difference was found for lower extremity injuries (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.01). We found a lower rate of injuries in the three seasons after the new ski regulation compared with the six seasons before. However, the ability to draw conclusions on the effects of the equipment change in subgroups of sex, discipline or body part is restricted by the limited statistical power. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...

  19. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  20. Worlds Fantastic, Worlds Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-02-01

    Introduction; 1. Mercury: the hottest little place; 2. Venus: an even hotter place; 3. Mars: the abode of life?; 4. Asteroids and comets: sweat the small stuff; 5. Galileo's treasures: worlds of fire and ice; 6. Enceladus: an active iceball in space; 7. Titan: an Earth in deep freeze?; 8. Iapetus and its friends: the weirdest 'planets' in the Solar System; 9. Pluto: the first view of the 'third zone'; 10. Earths above: the search for exoplanets and life in the universe; Epilogue; Glossary; Acknowledgements; Index.

  1. The Development of a Novel Perfused Cadaver Model With Dynamic Vital Sign Regulation and Real-World Scenarios to Teach Surgical Skills and Error Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneti, Michael; Baker, Craig J; Sullivan, Maura E

    2017-10-13

    The landscape of graduate medical education has changed dramatically over the past decade and the traditional apprenticeship model has undergone scrutiny and modifications. The mandate of the 80-hour work-week, the introduction of integrated residency programs, increased global awareness about patient safety along with financial constraints have spurred changes in graduate educational practices. In addition, new technologies, more complex procedures, and a host of external constraints have changed where and how we teach technical and procedural skills. Simulation-based training has been embraced by the surgical community and has quickly become an essential component of most residency programs as a method to add efficacy to the traditional learning model. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe the development of a perfused cadaver model with dynamic vital sign regulation, and (2) to assess the impact of a curriculum using this model and real world scenarios to teach surgical skills and error management. By providing a realistic training environment our aim is to enhance the acquisition of surgical skills and provide a more thorough assessment of resident performance. Twenty-six learners participated in the scenarios. Qualitative data showed that participants felt that the simulation model was realistic, and that participating in the scenarios helped them gain new knowledge, learn new surgical techniques and increase their confidence performing the skill in a clinical setting. Identifying the importance of both technical and nontechnical skills in surgical education has hastened the need for more realistic simulators and environments in which they are placed. Team members should be able to interact in ways that allow for a global display of their skills thus helping to provide a more comprehensive assessment by faculty and learners. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epithelial-intrinsic IKKα expression regulates group 3 innate lymphoid cell responses and antibacterial immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomin, Paul R.; Moy, Ryan H.; Noti, Mario; Osborne, Lisa C.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Alenghat, Theresa; Liu, Bigang; McCorkell, Kelly A.; Troy, Amy E.; Rak, Gregory D.; Hu, Yinling; May, Michael J.; Ma, Hak-Ling; Fouser, Lynette A.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical for maintaining epithelial barrier integrity at mucosal surfaces; however, the tissue-specific factors that regulate ILC responses remain poorly characterized. Using mice with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)–specific deletions in either inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK)α or IKKβ, two critical regulators of NFκB activation, we demonstrate that IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression selectively regulates group 3 ILC (ILC3)–dependent antibacterial immunity in the intestine. Although IKKβΔIEC mice efficiently controlled Citrobacter rodentium infection, IKKαΔIEC mice exhibited severe intestinal inflammation, increased bacterial dissemination to peripheral organs, and increased host mortality. Consistent with weakened innate immunity to C. rodentium, IKKαΔIEC mice displayed impaired IL-22 production by RORγt+ ILC3s, and therapeutic delivery of rIL-22 or transfer of sort-purified IL-22–competent ILCs from control mice could protect IKKαΔIEC mice from C. rodentium–induced morbidity. Defective ILC3 responses in IKKαΔIEC mice were associated with overproduction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by IECs, which negatively regulated IL-22 production by ILC3s and impaired innate immunity to C. rodentium. IEC-intrinsic IKKα expression was similarly critical for regulation of intestinal inflammation after chemically induced intestinal damage and colitis. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for epithelial cell–intrinsic IKKα expression and TSLP in regulating ILC3 responses required to maintain intestinal barrier immunity. PMID:26371187

  3. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  4. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  5. Meta-Analytic Estimates Predict the Effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Strategies in the "Real World": Reply to Augustine and Hemenover (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Augustine and Hemenover (2013) were right to state that meta-analyses should be accurate and generalizable. However, we disagree that our meta-analysis of emotion regulation strategies (Webb, Miles, & Sheeran, 2012) fell short in these respects. Augustine and Hemenover's concerns appear to have accrued from misunderstandings of our inclusion…

  6. "Hypothesis for the Modern RNA World": A pervasive Non-coding RNA-Based Genetic Regulation is a Prerequisite for the Emergence of Multicellular Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Stadler, Peter F.; Prohaska, Sonja J.

    2011-12-01

    The transitions to multicellularity mark the most pivotal and distinctive events in life's history on Earth. Although several transitions to "simple" multicellularity (SM) have been recorded in both bacterial and eukaryotic clades, transitions to complex multicellularity (CM) have only happened a few times in eukaryotes. A large number of cell types (associated with large body size), increased energy consumption per gene expressed, and an increment of non-protein-coding DNA positively correlate with CM. These three factors can indeed be understood as the causes and consequences of the regulation of gene expression. Here, we discuss how a vast expansion of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNAs) regulators rather than large numbers of novel protein regulators can easily contribute to the emergence of CM. We also propose that the evolutionary advantage of RNA-based gene regulation derives from the robustness of the RNA structure that makes it easy to combine genetic drift with functional exploration. We describe a model which aims to explain how the evolutionary dynamic of ncRNAs becomes dominated by the accessibility of advantageous mutations to innovate regulation in complex multicellular organisms. The information and models discussed here outline the hypothesis that pervasive ncRNA-based regulatory systems, only capable of being expanded and explored in higher eukaryotes, are prerequisite to complex multicellularity. Thereby, regulatory RNA molecules in Eukarya have allowed intensification of morphological complexity by stabilizing critical phenotypes and controlling developmental precision. Although the origin of RNA on early Earth is still controversial, it is becoming clear that once RNA emerged into a protocellular system, its relevance within the evolution of biological systems has been greater than we previously thought.

  7. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  8. The self-regulated nature of self-concept and the Life World – investigating the process of personal change and transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the systemic (dynamic nature of self-concept to determine how the experience, and associated understandings, of change(s in self-concept might be researched amongst Beginning Teachers (BT’s who are undertaking a long course of education and training. Self-concept has been extensively researched over many years and across a large number of fields; formulating a coherent overview of the topic has been difficult, however, because of the varied traditions and perspectives operating within different research communities. By adopting an approach similar to that used by Sternberg; this paper attempts to identify and map the many metaphors relating to self-concept according to their systemic properties, ie, structure, pattern and process, also their internal, external and boundary relationships within the individual person. The paper then examines self-regulation as a key feature of the autopoietic self, a systems based view of the human as a self-bounded, self-regulating and self-perpetuating entity, and develops a systemic perspective of self-concept as the basis for an integrated conceptual framework. This, essentially descriptive, view of self-concept is then further developed by introducing two process based ideas from Life Span Developmental Psychology – the notion of the life course as a evolving structure and the concept of the developmental life task. The paper ends by examining the role of possible selves as the dynamic force that ‘powers’ the process of everyday living and suggests ways in which the original research question might be further investigated.

  9. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975).

  10. Typical worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    2017-05-01

    Hugh Everett III presented pure wave mechanics, sometimes referred to as the many-worlds interpretation, as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. While pure wave mechanics is an objectively deterministic physical theory with no probabilities, Everett sought to show how the theory might be understood as making the standard quantum statistical predictions as appearances to observers who were themselves described by the theory. We will consider his argument and how it depends on a particular notion of branch typicality. We will also consider responses to Everett and the relationship between typicality and probability. The suggestion will be that pure wave mechanics requires a number of significant auxiliary assumptions in order to make anything like the standard quantum predictions.

  11. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  12. Putting the World into World History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews whether textbook publishers have put the "world" in world history textbooks by comparing the editions of four different world history textbooks over 25 years. Evaluates 10 current editions of world history textbooks. Offers questions to consider and discusses additional content concerns. Includes charts and references of the reviewed…

  13. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  14. The World of Organic Agriculture (Session at the BIOFACH 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Sahota, Amarjit

    2017-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture 2017 www.organic-world.net Presentations at the Session "The World of Organic Agriculture" - Organic Agriculture Worldwide 2017: Current Statistics (Dr. Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Dr. Helga Willer) - Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2017 (Beate Huber) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update & Challenges (Amarjit Sahota)

  15. The Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John Sears

    1981-01-01

    Relates personal experiences about what constitutes the "real world." Shows how experiences from philosophy, history, literature, art, and the movies add meaning to "reality." Stresses a compromise of imagination and sensation to make the real world palatable. (RL)

  16. World Council-OMEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Details the 1990 meeting of the World Council of the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) in Lagos, Nigeria. OMEP's Statement to the World Summit for Children is provided. The conditions of Nigerian children and female children in India are considered. (BG)

  17. Semantic Game Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutenel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different

  18. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...

  19. Regulating the regulators : accountability of Australian regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bird, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Accountability of Australian regulators - Australian Securities and Investments Commission - Australian Prudential Regulation Authority - concept of 'accountability' - mechanisms for accountability...

  20. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  1. World Government: Utopia?

    OpenAIRE

    Vahram Ayvazyan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on inter...

  2. Benchmarking the World's Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, the United States was a world leader in industrial benchmarking. However, after World War II, once no one could compete with the U.S., it became complacent. Many industrialized countries now have higher student achievement and more equitable and efficient education systems. A higher proportion of young people in their workforces…

  3. Land and World Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  4. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  5. World-Class Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  6. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  7. Archives: Science World Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... Archives: Science World Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Science World Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 39 of 39 Items. 2017 ...

  8. The World without Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews several books on world history from the 1920s to the 1940s. These include books authored by a diverse group: H.G. Wells, "Outline of History" (Macmillan, 1920); James Henry Breasted, "Ancient Times, A History of the Early World" (published in 1916 by Ginn and Company and largely rewritten in 1935); M.…

  9. The Two World Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…

  10. Towards Developmental World Englishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Kingsley; Graddol, David; Meierkord, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Over the last three decades scholars promoting the world Englishes paradigm (WE) have worked towards establishing a more positive attitude towards international varieties of English. However, despite the best intentions of Western linguists working in this field, there is an obvious imbalance between the developed and developing world in many…

  11. World Englishes and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    2001-01-01

    Examines the theoretical concept of the world Englishes in light of globalization. Outlines phenomena in the organic spread of English around the globe and raises the issue of opportunism in English language teaching. Ethical implications and implications for research on world English are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  12. World Society and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…

  13. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  14. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  15. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  16. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  17. World Magnetic Model 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  18. Who in the World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Allee J.

    The live and taped portions of a speech concerning human needs, particularly the need to find one's own identity, and the responsibility of educators in helping young children answer the question "who in the world am I?" are presented. (KM)

  19. One Class, Many Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Boutonne, Sylvie; Lucas, Keith B.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of a physics class in which few interactions occur among students. Concludes, through observations and interviews. that students describe both the social and physical world in different ways. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  20. World Magnetic Model 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  1. IS THE WORLD FLAT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Încalţărău

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization became more and more prominent during the last decades. There is no way to argue that globalization led to more interconnected economies, facilitating the communication and the collaboration around the world. But where is this going? Doesglobalization mean uniformity or diversity? As the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more, which can exacerbate nationalistic feeling. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. But is this really true? Although politic and cultural factors can stand in front of a really flat world, what is the key for Chinese and Indian success and which are theirs perspectives?

  2. Globalization in world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Garifullina, A.; Ilyasova, I.

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is objective process of formation, development and action of new world, global system. Undoubtedly, consequences of globalization can carry both positive, and negative character, however to it isn’t present alternative

  3. The world's biggest experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregson, Liz

    2008-01-01

    According to CERN, our understanding of the Universe is about the change. Meet the Imperial alumni and staff who are involved in CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest experiment. (3 pages)

  4. Virtual-World Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reynolds

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes a player will stray from the path described by a game, moving into new spaces, developing new possible modes of interaction, and often discovering the rougher edges of the game world, where physics models break down, textures become incongruous, and the pieces don’t quite fit together. Gameplay that seeks out these spaces and these phenomena, that searches for such clues to the underlying construction of the virtual environment, is a kind of virtual-world naturalism, at once a return to an investigative urge that has been subsumed to the exhaustive mapping and description of the real world and a form of resistance to the very idea of pre-defined paths of action, of externally imposed limits, in virtual worlds as well as in our own.

  5. Regulating groundwater use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, Jaime; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    Around the world it has proven very difficult to develop policies and interventions that ensure socio-environmentally sustainable groundwater use and exploitation. In the state of Guanajuato, Central Mexico, both the national government and the decentralized state government have pursued to regulate

  6. A world on fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson; David N. Bengston

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world on fire. In just the past few years, major wildland fires have struck at least 13 U.S. states, as well as Indonesia, Australia, China, southern Europe, Russia, Canada, Bolivia, and other parts of the world. Wildland fires are increasing in number, size, and intensity. In particular, there has been an increase in large fire events—megafires—that...

  7. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  8. β-Glucan Size Controls Dectin-1-Mediated Immune Responses in Human Dendritic Cells by Regulating IL-1β Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Elder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dectin-1/CLEC7A is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β-1,3 glucans, and its stimulation initiates signaling events characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines from human dendritic cells (DCs required for antifungal immunity. β-glucans differ greatly in size, structure, and ability to activate effector immune responses from DC; as such, small particulate β-glucans are thought to be poor activators of innate immunity. We show that β-glucan particle size is a critical factor contributing to the secretion of cytokines from human DC; large β-glucan-stimulated DC generate significantly more IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 compared to those stimulated with the smaller β-glucans. In marked contrast, the secretion of TSLP and CCL22 were found to be insensitive to β-glucan particle size. Furthermore, we show that the capacity to induce phagocytosis, and the relative IL-1β production determined by β-glucan size, regulates the composition of the cytokine milieu generated from DC. This suggests that β-glucan particle size is critically important in orchestrating the nature of the immune response to fungi.

  9. WORLD EXPERIENCE OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kornilova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and summarizes the experience of the financial support of innovative development of the world economy, which occupied a high position in the world economy and demonstrates active dynamics of innovation growth. We consider the financial advantage of direct and indirect actions, which are often used in the practice of the regulation of innovation-studied countries.

  10. World Bank Group/World Bank Corporate Scorecards, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...

  11. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  12. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  13. Designing Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    2014-01-01

    The online social platforms known as virtual worlds present their users various affordances for avatar based co-presence, social interaction and provide tools for collaborative content creation, including objects, textures and animations. The users of these worlds navigate their avatars as personal...... world known as Second Life by the collaborative efforts of its so-called residents. The social semiotic perspective is used to develop a multimodal analytical framework and to analyze the co-creation of meaning potentials by various social actors who use the available semiotic resources as mediational...... means. The findings show that co-design and co-creation practices do not only depend on various actors and their mediated interactions, but also on a variety of tools, practices and resources that digital media platforms provide. Moreover, the multimodal analysis of these places demonstrates how...

  14. Surfing the quantum world

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

  15. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  16. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  17. The world's biggest gamble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, Johan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Hoskins, Brian; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Schlosser, Peter; Brasseur, Guy Pierre; Gaffney, Owen; Nobre, Carlos; Meinshausen, Malte; Rogelj, Joeri; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    The scale of the decarbonisation challenge to meet the Paris Agreement is underplayed in the public arena. It will require precipitous emissions reductions within 40 years and a new carbon sink on the scale of the ocean sink. Even then, the world is extremely likely to overshoot. A catastrophic failure of policy, for example, waiting another decade for transformative policy and full commitments to fossil-free economies, will have irreversible and deleterious repercussions for humanity's remaining time on Earth. Only a global zero carbon roadmap will put the world on a course to phase-out greenhouse gas emissions and create the essential carbon sinks for Earth-system stability, without which, world prosperity is not possible.

  18. Suicide in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Värnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.

  19. Engaged World-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Maria Louise Bønnelykke; Rubow, Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    traps, whales, coastal protection devices, and scientific findings of sand sedimentation processes and sea level rise, we demonstrate how the island worlds are constantly made and remade by social and natural forces, and somewhat surprisingly, how the rising sea is conspicuously absent at many island......Drawing on fieldwork in Kiribati and the Cook Islands, this chapter shows how atoll islands and tropical lagoons, considered highly vulnerable to present and future sea level rise, are extraordinary malleable socio-natural worlds. Revolving around sacred islands submerged by sea water, ancient fish...

  20. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  1. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  2. Entertaining the whole world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheok, Adrian David; Romão, Teresa; Yu, Gino; Cheok, A.D.; Nijholt, Antinus; Romão, T.

    2014-01-01

    Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries

  3. Searching for world domination

    CERN Multimedia

    Quillen, E

    2004-01-01

    "Optimists might believe Microsoft suffered a setback last week that will impede its progress toward world domination, but I suspect the company has already found a way to prevail. At issue before the European Union was Microsoft's bundling of its Windows Media Player with its operating system" (1 page)

  4. World Heart Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    For World Heart Day, learn more about what heart-healthy steps you can take in the workplace.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  5. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1.

  6. World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact sheet Creative campaigns spread awareness on antibiotic resistance Climate change impact on health in Small Island Developing States ... November 2017 Antibiotic resistance Updated November 2017 Antimicrobial resistance ... and Climate Change at COP23 6–17 November 2017 World Antibiotic ...

  7. Caring about worldings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Helle; Juelskjær, Malou

    on the care and concerns of and about the worlds that we are of.  We will be dialoging with soil (radioactive or not) (de la Bellacasa 2015)(Barad, 2016) land and race (Rose 2004) leaf bugs ((Schrader 2015) and Hesse-Honegger 2008) and other non-humans and technologies (Haraway 2008, Haraway 2016, de la...

  8. World Security and Equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA very neat illustration of the skilful use of small, manageable, world models to consider pressing policy questions of great current relevance. Ron Smith, The Economic Journal" Jan Tinbergen, in this book as in his earlier work, has the courage to address central issues. Dietrich

  9. Tenable world strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, D.L. (New Hampshire Univ. (USA). Inst. for Policy and Social Science Research)

    1991-10-01

    The Author presents several arguments explaining and backing the mechanics of a world strategy of zero growth. First, attention is brought to Aurelio Peccei's concerns regarding the short-sightedness of the energy and economic policies of industrialized nations. In his book (entitled 'Verso l'Abisso'), written almost 25 years ago, he correctly predicted the severity and timing of current global environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect and acid rain. Urgent and concerted action by world governments is recommended to contain and and remedy damage being caused by a diverse mix of integrated factors - over-population, uncontrolled food production, pollution, over-production by industry, and the improper use of energy and other natural resources. The Author sets guidelines for the creation of a world of steady-state growth in which an equilibrium is reached between overall standards of living and population dynamics. To meet this goal of global man/environment peaceful coexistence, he strongly urges the creation and instillation of a new set of values through the placing of emphasis on the research and development of cultural, psychological, institutional and moral philosophies which, in the last century, have been almost entirely supplanted world-wide by growing materialistic ideals and the pursuit of technological perfection.

  10. Inside the world's playlist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe Streamwatchr, a real-time system for analyzing the music listening behavior of people around the world. Streamwatchr collects music-related tweets, extracts artists and songs, and visualizes the results in three ways: (i) currently trending songs and artists, (ii) newly discovered songs,

  11. One World: Service Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Bees are a vital part of the ecology. People of conscience are a vital part of society. In Nina Frenkel's "One World" poster, the bee is also a metaphor for the role of the individual in a diverse society. This article presents a lesson that uses Frenkel's poster to help early-grades students connect these ideas and explore both the importance of…

  12. In a Perfect World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, all children should live at home with their family, play with the kids in their neighborhood, walk or ride the school bus to a community-based school--after affectionately kissing or hugging their parents goodbye. They should receive adequate classroom services and return home at 3 p.m. or thereabouts. They may even…

  13. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  14. World Future Society. Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Future Society, Washington, DC.

    The monthly bulletin, directed toward professional futurists, is supplemental to the Futurist magazine. Typical items include information about selected papers, letters, publications, and news with a view toward the future world in the areas of business, international community, space, history, science, technology, sociology, and other social…

  15. the External 'World

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reform in the structure and content of teacher education and learner-centered learning has become the buzzword for the .... interactive teaching and learning process. Although the -learner-centered ..... expanding world enormously. ' The importance of English as a second language is evident during all HDP lessons and.

  16. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...

  17. World beyond Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Marlowe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    What happens when a hardened criminal on the run for his life gets mixed up with an all-girl symphony traveling between lesser-populated planets in a futile attempt to bring culture to their rowdy inhabitants? Well, to put it mildly, hijinks ensue. Read Stephen Marlowe's thoroughly entertaining World Beyond Pluto to find out the rest.

  18. World Mathematical Year 2000

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. World Mathematical Year-2000 Event. Information and Announcements Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 99-99. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0099-0099. Resonance ...

  19. Coal for the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    With reserves of 7 billion t of coal, Colombia is the world's fourth-largest exporter of bituminous coal and has the potential to grow further. The paper discusses current production and the future potential of the La Guajira reserves with Carbones del Cerrejon Ltd., Colombia. 1 ref.

  20. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  1. Brane world scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    February 2003 physics pp. 183–188. Brane world scenarios. DILEEP P JATKAR. Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Email: dileep@mri.ernet.in. Abstract. .... However, we have to tuneV0 = V1 =24M3k and this is like fine tuning. There are a couple of caveats in the RS model ...

  2. What Is World History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  3. Withdrawn Amidst the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette Birkedal; Nørgaard, Lars Cyril; Nagelsmit, Eelco

    2017-01-01

    The pious Élisabeth d'Orléans, Mme de Guise, had a vivid correspondence with Armand-Jean de Rancé, abbot of the Cistercian abbey of La Trappe in Normandy. Rancé was considered a champion of unconditional isolation from the world by his contemporaries, but in fact he recommended quite diverse forms...... in remarkable detail how the Duchess should balance her obligations to God and human beings by being a model of withdrawal. To this end she must constantly, in action and demeanour, display to the world her withdrawal from the world. Rancé's spiritual advice to Mme de Guise throws new light on the devotional...... horizon of Gaston d'Orléans's daughter and the pastoral practice of the abbot of La Trappe. Above all, it shows the intricacies and modulations of the withdrawal from the world prescribed to late seventeenth-century aristocratic dévots and, especially, dévotes....

  4. Constructing public worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2013-01-01

    world. In affluent or individualistic public spheres we recognise the classical developmental pathway proposed by Piaget, with a clear increase in the separation between self and society as children grow. Children’s representations are flexible semiotic systems whose form and content interact...

  5. Gorbachev's New World View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, William F.; Hellman, Joel S.

    1987-01-01

    The following two themes form the foundation of Mikhail Gorbachev's world view: (1) nuclear arms have reached a new complexity in technical development and numbers, and in ability to control the weapons; and (2) a new trend in international relations is moving away from competition and rivalry and towards "interdependence" and…

  6. The World Science Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth was mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing, scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1-5, following the AAVSO/AAS meetings. World Science Festival was founded by Dr. Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated through the World Science Foundation. The Festival is "saturation science" all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in "science" venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend from hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers, to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort has been made to geographically disperse them, even to the outer boroughs. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, and pavilions highlight their work. In past years this fair drew 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter-million attendees. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the "Earth to the Universe" display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at "Earth..." on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  7. World energy insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 21st World Energy Congress offers a unique opportunity for all stake-holders of the energy sector to meet and exchange visions, strategies and practices, during four days of very intensive and interesting sessions, round-tables and exhibitions. More than 3,000 energy leaders gather from around the world from both developed and developing countries, from all types of energy, from public and private companies and government organisations, in order to think together about how to bring about a sustainable and acceptable energy future. The truth is that nobody has the choice any longer. All energy leaders have to take decisions every day, and they need to have a clear analysis of what is at stake, what the risks are, and what the solutions can be.

  8. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  9. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  10. [Real-world evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiore, Luca; Addis, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Real-world evidence is among the most frequently discussed issues at professional medical conferences and meetings. It refers to data and information derived from sources such as electronic health records, disease or product registries, and observational research. Looking for an accelerated approval of new pharmaceutical products and devices, real-world evidence is considered a useful tool to confirm data collected for regulatory purposes. Anyway, randomised controlled trials still remain the gold standard of clinical research, in order to minimize bias and to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical intervention. A pragmatic approach and quasi-randomised trials to shorten length and costs of the studies can be considered. The problem lies with the quality of data rather than with the context in which evidence is gathered.

  11. The world of particles

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    What is our Universe made of? Where does it come from? Why does it behave as it does? We do not have all the answers to these questions but in recent years we have uncovered a lot of information about the Universe which surrounds us. This search has revealed that, beyond the evidence of our eyes, there is a seething world of tiny particles and messengers which pass between them...

  12. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  13. World Presidents Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization take a try at 'piloting' a mock-up of the space shuttle cockpit during a Jan. 26 visit to StenniSphere, the museum and visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site.

  14. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  15. View on world market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, J. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  16. [World deliberations in Rio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, B

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 and dealt with world trade, environmental education, environmental emergencies, the transfer of technology and financial resources, and the restructuring of international systems for tackling environmental problems. Other issues on the agenda were the protection of the atmosphere, the ozone shield, deforestation, the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable urban and rural development, and the safeguarding of human health and quality of life. The preparation for the conference took place through a series of meetings, which also featured the problems of rural areas in the Americas. Some environmental organizations based in Washington, D.C. had become impassive over the years and promoted bipartisan and apolitical issues in order to obtain funds. Nonetheless, some groups criticized the projects of the World Bank. In 1990 the World Bank established the World Environmental Program for developing countries, which envisioned the execution of 15 projects and 11 technical assistance proposals. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were also active in this effort. The Interamerican Development Bank also launched a forest policy for preserving forest resources. This was the consequence of the 1982 scheme that aimed at protecting forest populations and promoting sustainable forest industries. At another conference of development specialists the discrimination against women was cited as a major factor in the deleterious use of natural resources. A new development concept was urged that would incorporate the rights and participation of women as a central strategy in solving the global environmental crisis. The global population is growing at a rate of 95 million people per year, which underlines the need for better representation of women, poor people, and rural areas in state agencies and multilateral and environmental organizations for promoting sustainable

  17. Brane-World Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maartens, Roy; Koyama, Kazuya

    2010-01-01

    The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV) level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies - the 5-dimensional Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

  18. Brane-World Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Maartens

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the “brane” embedded in a 1+3+d-dimensional spacetime (the “bulk”, with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak (∼ TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity “leaks” into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes, and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review analyzes the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall–Sundrum models. We also cover the simplest brane-world models in which 4-dimensional gravity on the brane is modified at low energies – the 5-dimensional Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati models. Then we discuss co-dimension two branes in 6-dimensional models.

  19. New World Arenavirus Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarute, Nicolás; Ross, Susan R

    2017-09-29

    Hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses were identified in the late 1950s in South America. These viruses have existed in their hosts, the New World rodents, for millions of years. Their emergence as infectious agents in humans coincided with changes in the environment and farming practices that caused explosions in their host rodent populations. Zoonosis into humans likely occurs because the pathogenic New World arenaviruses use human transferrin receptor 1 to enter cells. The mortality rate after infection with these viruses is high, but the mechanism by which disease is induced is still not clear. Possibilities include direct effects of cellular infection or the induction of high levels of cytokines by infected sentinel cells of the immune system, leading to endothelia and thrombocyte dysfunction and neurological disease. Here we provide a review of the ecology and molecular and cellular biology of New World arenaviruses, as well as a discussion of the current animal models of infection. The development of animal models, coupled with an improved understanding of the infection pathway and host response, should lead to the discovery of new drugs for treating infections.

  20. World Cup Hopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    From May 31 to June 30 the biggest single-sport event in the world, the 2002 FIFA World Cup (tm), will be taking place in Asia. South Korea and Japan are acting as hosts for the event which is being held in Asia for the first time. This true-color image of the southern Korean peninsula and southern Japan was acquired on May 25, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Thirty-two nations are represented at this year's Finals including the 1998 champion France, European powers England and Italy, tournament favorite Argentina, and the United States. The finals are the culmination of a 2-year qualifying process which started with 132 nations competing in regional qualification tournaments. In the round-robin first round of the World Cup, the U.S. team will be competing against teams from Portugal, Poland, and South Korea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies

  2. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  3. The World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, O

    2008-09-01

    The control of human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the most successful global partnerships ever supported by the World Bank. Mectizan mass treatments have greatly contributed to this success and have shaped the strategies of the programmes in which the World Bank has been involved - the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP), which covered onchocerciasis control in West Africa until 2002, and the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), which is currently working in 30 countries, to protect millions of people from onchocerciasis. Through the strategy of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), onchocerciasis control in Africa was transformed from a technologically-driven and vertical health initiative to a community-directed process of treatment and empowerment. Together, CDTI and the donation of Mectizan also reduced costs, producing one of the most effective and affordable disease-control schemes ever seen, and the CDTI strategy is now being applied to other disease-control initiatives. The onchocerciasis programmes have also been exemplary in shaping partnerships with communities, countries, the World Health Organization, governments, non-governmental development organizations, and the private sector. The Bank's involvement in onchocerciasis control has helped mobilize funds, giving confidence to other donors. More than U. S.$800 million was raised for both the OCP and APOC (excluding the initial costs of Mectizan). With these funds and the commitment of the partners involved, high coverages have been achieved in the Mectizan distributions. The Bank is confident that, during the years to come, the partners will continue their success, and that the APOC will achieve its goals by the target date for its closure, in 2015.

  4. Brane-World Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartens Roy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane" embedded in a 1+3+$d$-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk", with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the $d$ extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak ($sim$TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. General relativity cannot describe gravity at high enough energies and must be replaced by a quantum gravity theory, picking up significant corrections as the fundamental energy scale is approached. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review discusses the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models.

  5. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Hilma, Rila

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  6. Building online worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The fantasy genre has proven to be extremely durable in creating blockbuster successes across multiple media platforms, such as books, films, tabletop and especially online computer games. Currently 85 % of all Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are situated in fantasy...... universes (Van Geel, 2012). This paper will focus on the far most popular fantasy-MMORPG to date, namely World of Warcraft (Blizzard, 2004) as a lens to examine the different potentials of the fantasy genre spanning across various media platforms. Using the concept of “worldness”, traditionally understood...

  7. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  8. Ontology of World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture division influences our lives differently in how we identify and evaluate who we are as individuals. We respond to life situations in how we interpret ourselves. How we function in society as a whole signifies invaluable differences in how we base our demeanor. Freedom of speech is a given right in American society. It is the social norm to be able to voice your opinion on diverse issues faced in our global environment. The Ontology of World Politics is a form of mediating issues of concern.

  9. A disappearing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-27

    The article discusses how, in reality, the old world of the UK coal miners has already largely disappeared, with a fall in workforce from 286,000 in 1970 to 32,500 after the recent announcement of proposed pit closures. Fatalism is now the prevailing mood of coal miners, even amongst those at the 'saved' Clipstone mine, and many miners have a silent reaction to the government's recent announcements. The article includes a brief summary of the key recommendations of the White Paper.

  10. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Hilma, Rila

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining International re...

  11. The Africana world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    years since the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was founded in May 1963 and ten years since the African Union (AU) was born with a vision that seeks 'the actualisation of human dignity, development and prosperity for the entire African people ... anchored on a vision of an integrated, prosperous...... diaspora in order for the unity and renaissance dreamed of to become a reality. The chapters in Africana World: From Fragmentation to Unity and Renaissance address colonial and postcolonial African realities with a view to present a holistic and transcontinental appraisal of questions, issues...

  12. World's simplest electric train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physics of the "world's simplest electric train." The "train" consists of a AA battery with a strong magnet on each end that moves through a helical coil of copper wire. The motion of the train results from the interaction between the magnetic field created by the current in the wire and the magnetic field of the magnets. We calculate the force of this interaction and the terminal velocity of the train due to eddy currents and friction. Our calculations provide a good illustration of Faraday's and Lenz's laws, as well as of the concepts of the Lorentz force and eddy currents.

  13. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries....

  14. Topical application of Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates experimentally induced atopic dermatitis by the regulation of Th1/Th2/Th17 balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Debnath, Trishna; Tang, Yujiao; Ryu, Young-Bae; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions and has been used as a vegetable and in traditional medicine. In this study, the anti-atopic dermatitis activity of the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaf was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, HaCaT human keratinocytes were used for cytokines and MAPKinase assay. In the in vivo study, M. oleifera leaf ethanolic extract (MO) was topically applied to BALB/c mice with Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract)- and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). The expression of TNF-α, CCL17, IL-1β, IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine-related mRNA, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT keratinocytes were reduced by MO. Epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin levels, as well as gene expression of various cytokines in the ear tissue, lymph nodes, and splenocytes were improved by treatment with MO. In addition, MO reduced the expression of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γT (RORγT), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and mannose receptor (CD206) mRNA in the ear tissue and improved cervical lymph node size. The results of this study strongly suggest the beneficial effects of MO on AD via the regulation of inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Targeting allergen to FcgammaRI reveals a novel T(H)2 regulatory pathway linked to thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Kathryn E; Reefer, Amanda J; Engelhard, Victor H; Patrie, James T; Ziegler, Steven F; Chapman, Martin D; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    The molecule H22-Fel d 1, which targets cat allergen to FcgammaRI on dendritic cells (DCs), has the potential to treat cat allergy because of its T-cell modulatory properties. We sought to investigate whether the T-cell response induced by H22-Fel d 1 is altered in the presence of the T(H)2-promoting cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Studies were performed in subjects with cat allergy with and without atopic dermatitis. Monocyte-derived DCs were primed with H22-Fel d 1 in the presence or absence of TSLP, and the resulting T-cell cytokine repertoire was analyzed by flow cytometry. The capacity for H22-Fel d 1 to modulate TSLP receptor expression on DCs was examined by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of inhibitors of Fc receptor signaling molecules. Surprisingly, TSLP alone was a weak inducer of T(H)2 responses irrespective of atopic status; however, DCs coprimed with TSLP and H22-Fel d 1 selectively and synergistically amplified T(H)2 responses in highly atopic subjects. This effect was OX40 ligand independent, pointing to an unconventional TSLP-mediated pathway. Expression of TSLP receptor was upregulated on atopic DCs primed with H22-Fel d 1 through a pathway regulated by FcgammaRI-associated signaling components, including src-related tyrosine kinases and Syk, as well as the downstream molecule phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Inhibition of TSLP receptor upregulation triggered by H22-Fel d 1 blocked TSLP-mediated T(H)2 responses. Discovery of a novel T(H)2 regulatory pathway linking FcgammaRI signaling to TSLP receptor upregulation and consequent TSLP-mediated effects questions the validity of receptor-targeted allergen vaccines. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site: Providing regulated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This area is of exceptional value not only in terms of its geological, cultural and natural attributes, but also because of its recreational potential, which forms a large part of the local tourism industry. Being relatively close to densely populated areas like Johannesburg and Pretoria, whitewater rafting on the Vaal River quickly ...

  17. PENSION REFORMS AND WORLD BANK-REGULATED LAWS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ankpa: Association of Women in Colleges of Education and Cuca. Communications. Ahmad, M.K. (2006) The contributory pension scheme: institutional and legal frameworks. Billion. (Central Bank of Nigeria Publication). Vol. 30, No2. Bonturi, Marcos (2002) “The Brazilian pension system: reforms and challenges ahead”.

  18. ICPES World Congress 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Pak Lau

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The XII World Congress on Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology is co-organised by the International Cardiac Pacing & Electrophysiology Society (ICPES and the Hong Kong College of Cardiology (HKCC. It will take place at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre on February 19-22, 2003. The World Congress has been organized in various countries, including USA, France, The Netherlands, Japan, Canada, Austria, Israel, Argentina and Germany. The coming Congress is going to be held in the centre of Asia where East meets West – Hong Kong, which is now a Special Administrative Region of China since 1997. Hong Kong continues to enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and has remained an important center of finance, information technology, tourism, trade and exchange in Asia. In addition, it enjoys increasing interaction with the rapidly developing Mainland China. Developed with the assistance of a broadly represented International Scientific Advisory Committee, the scientific programme will feature 11 major topics - “Electrophysiology”, “Catheter Ablation”, “Pacing”, “Defibrillation”, “Pharmacology”, “Hybrid Therapy”, “Pediatric Arrhythmias”, “Arrhythmias for Allied Professionals”, “Genetics & Gene Therapy”, “ECG, Noninvasive Evaluation & Risk Stratification” and “Implantable Monitoring Devices”. It includes Plenary Sessions, Core Sessions, Expert Sessions, Featured Symposia, Live Demonstration, Teaching Courses, Abstract Presentations and Poster Sessions.

  19. Sensing a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend Ligtenberg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The workshop “Sensing a Changing World” was held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, from November 19–21, 2008. The main goal of the workshop was to explore and discuss recent developments in sensors and (wireless sensor networks for monitoring environmental processes and human spatial behavior in a changing world. The challenge is then to develop concepts and applications that can provide timely and on-demand knowledge to end-users in different domains over a range of different spatial and temporal scales. During this workshop over 50 participants, representing 15 countries, presented and discussed their recent research. The workshop provided a broad overview of state-of-the-art research in a broad range of application fields: oceanography, air quality, biodiversity and vegetation, health, tourism, water management, and agriculture. In addition the workshop identified the future research challenges. One of the outcomes of the workshop was a special issue in the journal Sensors with contributions presented at the workshop. This editorial of the special issue aims to provide an overview of the discussions held during the workshop. It highlights the ideas of the authors and participants of the workshop about directions of future research for further development of sensor-webs for “sensing” spatial phenomena. The “big” question was are we already able to sense a changing world? And if the answer is positive, then what are we going to sense and for what?

  20. Belief in a Just World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kilinc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belief in a just world hypothesis is defined as the belief that the world is a just place where people generally get what they deserve. It states that individuals have a need to believe that they live in a just world; they believe in a world where people get what they deserve and where people deserve what they get. Individuals believe that who work hard or who perform good acts obtain rewards for their actions, while the sinners and the laggards receive punishments instead. Similarly, individuals want to believe that positive outcomes, whether money, success, or happiness, are obtained only by good people and, conversely, that negative outcomes only happen to bad persons. Justice beliefs have been hypothesized as adaptive for dealing with day-to-day stres. Just world beliefs protect individuals from the daily negative psychological consequences of living in what is realistically an unjust world. In addition, just world beliefs are thought to enhance feelings of security to the extent that if the individual satisfies the conditions for being "good," he or she is protected from injustice. The belief in a just world, like other positive illusions, should contribute to the maintenance of one's mental health. Belief in a just world's is discussed in two ways: personal belief in a just world's answers the question “how much justly is the world to me?”, whereas the belief in a just world's in general answers the question “how much justly is the world?”

  1. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  2. 77 FR 57567 - Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for World Health Organization AGENCY...). ACTION: Notification of Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for World Health Organization for a... Regulations (IHR) (2005). A case of smallpox detected by a member state requires notification to World Health...

  3. 75 FR 23151 - Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Parts 360 and 361 Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper... noxious weed regulations by adding Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum (Cavanilles) R. Brown... Old World climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum (Cavanilles) R. Brown) and maidenhair creeper (Lygodium...

  4. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our missions Transparency ... Services Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE ...

  5. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  6. Diving into Real World Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  7. Virtual Worlds in Computing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crellin, Jonathan; Duke-Williams, Emma; Chandler, Jane; Collinson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a virtual world ("Second Life") in computing education, and identifies the precursors of current virtual world systems. The article reviews the potential for virtual worlds as tools in computing education. It describes two areas where "Second Life" has been used in computing education: as a…

  8. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  9. Building worldly insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael

    2017-07-01

    This article offers health leaders in Canada an opportunity to build a more worldly understanding of healthcare challenges. The focus is on post-conflict countries and island/small countries. Small and island countries often depend on other countries for their workforce and for specialist healthcare services. Conflict usually undermines if it doesn't destroy a country's healthcare system. Small and island countries offer opportunities for the majority of Canadian provinces and territories to develop new approaches from novel comparator countries, with which they may have more in common. Post-conflict countries offer an opportunity to consider the applicability of the determinants of policy and institutional failure to Aboriginal healthcare in Canada.

  10. Worlds Smaller than Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Computerized animations show the following: (1) an artist's conception of a Saturn-like extrasolar planet; (2) star and planet motion; and (3) young stellar disk and planet formation. Footage shows the outside of the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii and Geoff Marcy and Paul Butler inside while they are processing information. Then a press conference,'Worlds Smaller than Saturn', is seen. Anne Kinney, Origins Science Director, NASA Headquarters, introduces Geoff Marcy, Paul Butler, Alan Boss, and Heidi Hammel. They discuss the discovery of the two new Saturn-sized extrasolar planets that are orbiting the stars HD46375 and 79 Seti, giving details on the search technique and size distribution. They then answer questions from the press.

  11. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  12. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  13. Local Worlds of Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Kerstin; Hollertz, Katarina; Garsten, Christina

    2017-01-01

    . This article studies local activation policy and practice in three Swedish municipalities, representing three distinct ‘local worlds of activation’. The analysis shows that policy orientations in the municipalities studied ranged from ‘work-first’ to ‘life-first’ approaches to activation. Governance...... of Coordination Unions, as multi-party collaborate organisational structures established for activation policy implementation for certain target groups. Thus, activation must be approached not as a fixed and universal policy for social inclusion, but as susceptible to local practice and hence open to influence...... from local politics, established local traditions, patterns of networking and modes of collaborating, as the notion of ‘local words of activation’ intends to capture....

  14. World Energy Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-09

    The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.

  15. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic exchange relationship. Our world system is characterized by mechanisms which bring about a redistribution of resources from the periphery to the core. His analytical approach has made a significant impact and established an institutional base devoted to the general approach.

  16. Learning from the World and Learning for the World: An Essay on World Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    This essay draws on the author's personal experiences as a head of school on three continents, over 20 years, as well as on some of his recent writings and talks. From Martin Luther King Jr's idea of a world house is derived the concept of a "world school". This project charts a way for national schools to develop world-minded graduates. It is…

  17. World news; Actualite international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-06-01

    The 21. of April 2005, was held in Paris the 6. international petroleum meeting whose main theme was: the supply and demand. The participants of this summit have in majority argued for a greater opening of the productive countries to the international investments which are indispensable to face with a world demand of oil in full expansion. Total has announced the approval by the British authorities of the development of the gas and condensates deposit of north Forvie, located at about 440 km at the nord-east of Aberdeen. Technip and Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corp., have received the prestigious price of the Offshore Technology Conference 2005. The Norway and the United Kingdom have signed a cooperation treaty for stimulating the development of petroleum and natural gas deposits in North sea. The petroleum groups Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil think to sale their shares in three fields in the North sea. Total and Lubrifin, one of the main manufacturers and distributors of lubricants and greases on the Romanian market, have just finalize an agreement for the establishment of a common firm: Total Lubrifin. The IEA has published a study for the governments to rapidly reduce the petroleum consumption in transports in the case of crisis or breakdown of the supply. In order to avoid an accident risk which could have disastrous environmental consequences, by the important transit in the Bosphore pass, a plan (dating from 1995) provides that the petroleum of the Caspian sea transiting by the Russian harbour of Novorossiisk, on North sea, be conveyed by sea way to the Bulgarian harbour of Bourgas, to be transported by pipeline on 320 km to the Alexandroupolis harbour. Vladimir Poutine has received last April to the Kremlin John Browne, general director of the British firm BP, came ask for its investment in Russia in the common firm: TNK-BP. The Algerian petroleum firm Sonatrach is in the 12. world place among the hundred first petroleum firms in the world. Shell Ivory Coast

  18. The Old and New RNA World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Szweykowska-Kulińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous hypotheses offering a scenario for the origin of life on Earth, the one called “The RNA World” has gained the most attention. According to this hypothesis RNA acted as a genetic information storage material, as a catalyst of all metabolic reactions, and as a regulator of all processes in the primordial world. Various experiments show that RNA molecules could have been synthesized abiotically, with the potential to mediate a whole repertoire of metabolic reactions. Ribozymes carrying out aminoacyl-tRNA reactions have been found in SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment approaches and the development of a ribosome from a RNA-built protoribosome is easy to imagine. Transfer RNA aminoacylation, protoribosome origin, and the availability of amino acids on early Earth allowed the genetic code to evolve. Encoded proteins most likely stabilized RNA molecules and were able to create channels across membranes. In the modern cell, DNA replaced RNA as the main depositor of genetic information and proteins carry out almost all metabolic reactions. However, RNA is still playing versatile, crucial roles in the cell. Apart from its classical functions in the cell, a huge small RNA world is controlling gene expression, chromatin condensation, response to environmental cues, and protecting the cell against the invasion of various nucleic acids forms. Long non-coding RNAs act as crucial gene expression regulators. Riboswitches act at the level of transcription, splicing or translation and mediate feedback regulation on biosynthesis and transport of the ligand they sense. Alternative splicing generates genetic variability and increases the protein repertoire in response to developmental or environmental changes. All these regulatory functions are essential in shaping cell plasticity in the changing milieu. Recent discoveries of new, unexpected and important functions of RNA molecules support the hypothesis that we

  19. WORLD HEALTH DAY THEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Saxena

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1970     - Early Detection of Cancer Saves Life.1971     - A Full Life Despite Diabetes.1972     - Your Heart is Your Health.1973     - Health Begins at Home.1974     - Better Food for a Healthier World.1975     - Small Pox - Point of no Return.1976     - Foresight Prevents Blindness.1977     - Immunise and Protect Your Child.1978     - Down With High Blood Pressure.1979     - A Health Child-A Sure Future.1980     - Smoking or Health - The Choice is Yours.1981     - Health for all for by the Year 2000.1982     - Add Years to Life.1983     - Health for all by 2000 - The Count Down has Begun1984     - Children’s Health: Tomorrows Wealth.1985     - Health Youth : Our best Resource.1986     - Health Living - Everyone a Winner.1987     - Immunisation - A Chance for Every Child.1988     - Health For All - All for Health.1989-Let’s Talk Health.1990    - Our Planet - Ourhealth; Think Globally, Act Locally.1991    - Should Disaster Strike - Be Prepared.1992    - Health Beat - The Rhythm of Life.1993    - Handle Life with Care - Prevent Violence and Negligence.1994    - Our Health for a Healthy Life.1995    - Target - 2000 - A World Without Polio.1996    - Healthy Cities for Better Life.1997    - Emerging Infectious Diseases.1998    - Safe Motherhood.1999    - Active Ageing Makes the Difference.2000     - Be a Life Saver, Be a Blood Doner; Blood Saves Life.2001     - Stop Exclusion, Dare to Care.2002     - Move for Health.- Shape the Future of Life, Healthy Environments for Children

  20. 75 FR 49525 - World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color Covington Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration World Color (USA), LLC Formerly Known as Quebecor World World Color... to workers of World Color (USA), LLC, formerly known as Quebecor World, World Color Covington... IH Services were employed on-site at the Covington, Tennessee, location of World Color (USA), LLC...

  1. Many worlds in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päs, Heinrich

    2017-08-01

    A minimal approach to the measurement problem and the quantum-to-classical transition assumes a universally valid quantum formalism, i.e. unitary time evolution governed by a Schrödinger-type equation. As had been pointed out long ago, in this view the measurement process can be described by decoherence which results in a ”Many-Worlds” or ”Many-Minds” scenario according to Everett and Zeh. A silent assumption for decoherence to proceed is however, that there exists incomplete information about the environment our object system gets entangled with in the measurement process. This paper addresses the question where this information is traced out and - by adopting recent approaches to model consciousness in neuroscience - argues that a rigorous interpretation results in a perspectival notion of the quantum-to-classical transition. The information that is or is not available in the consciousness of the observer is crucial for the definition of the environment (i.e. the unknown degrees of freedom in the remainder of the Universe). As such the Many-Worlds-Interpretation, while being difficult or impossible to probe in physics, may become testable in psychology.

  2. Uncertain Science… Uncertain World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Robert

    Why doesn't society act in the face of overwhelming evidence that human influences are changing the Earth's climate? Henry Pollack devotes his book, Uncertain Science… Uncertain World, to addressing one important reason. Much about climate science is highly uncertain, he argues; and as a general rule, most well-educated citizens don't understand the nature of scientific uncertainty. Thus, they have difficulty understanding competing claims made by advocates in the policy debate and in internalizing the extent of the problem.A distinguished professor of geophysics at the University of Michigan, as well as a participant in many public debates involving science, Pollack aims to help lay readers understand the role of uncertainty in science. “In making comparisons and analogies with uncertainties that exist in science and everyday life,” he writes, “my goal is to help readers to understand and accommodate scientific uncertainties in much the same way that they deal with other uncertainties in life.”

  3. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  4. World endocrinology news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Berkovskaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available • Actuality of the problem of metabolic syndrome: expert opinion. • Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. • Brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are characterised by impaired glucose tolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity and related metabolic defects. • Microvascular dysfunction: a potential pathophysiological role in the metabolic syndrome. • Cardiotrophin-1 is expressed in adipose tissue and it is UP-regulated in the metabolic syndrome. • Magnesium Intake, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Inflammation. • Red meat in the diet. • Relationships of maternal and paternal birth weights to features of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring: an inter-generation study in South India. • The truth about milk! • Therapeutic uses of aromatase inhibitors in men. • Reduction of body weight and co-morbidities by orlistat: The XXL - Primary Health Care Trial

  5. Cultures, Global Worlds and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-José Cano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the works that derive from the field of study about peace and, more specifically, the theory relating to imperfect peace, developed by a group of researchers some years ago. Francisco A. Muñoz, researcher from Granada (Andalusia, Spain was the originator of this theory at the beginning of the 2000 and afterwards, it was applied by other academics to different fields related to the study of peace. The central theme of our work is to analyse the cultural field and the mediating role of cultures in the peaceful regulation of conflicts, considering that all human activity has cultural connotations. We will talk about cultures, not as isolated entities that are geographically delimited, but as interrelating spaces that give rise to social structures in which changes and transformations, ideas and ways of acting (ranging from the personal to the social, the political and the international occur that may be common, shared and compatible. These cultural aspects will be studied from the method or perspective called Peace Research, discipline which allow us analysing, among others, the social and culture phenomena that form part of historical processes in different places and times. The main topic will be focussed on the religious aspect, as one of the cultural identifying and its influence on identities, although other cultural dimensions could be studied (economical, political, environmental or educational. Additionally, we are setting our analysis on the world stage, where cultures and all human activity unfold today. Current globalization is a process that affects most of our reality: economic models, the market, nationalisms, international relations, relationships between cultures and religions, gender relations, education, etc. In all these spheres, problems and conflicts are generated that cannot be understood if we do not consider them to be ‘global problems’. Once the results of our study are reached, we can

  6. Hidden Worlds of Marine Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Every drop of seawater contains fantastically diverse groups of microbes that control key biogeochemical processes in the ocean and determine the habitability of our planet. The challenge is to scale from this world of individual cells to ecosystem function and ultimately to ocean basin processes. Our work begins with microscopic marine diatoms because they are responsible for about twenty percent of the photosynthesis that occurs on Earth each year, they form the base of highly productive marine food webs, and they help regulate past and current fluxes of CO2 into the ocean. Diatoms evolved in a dilute environment where they are never free from the influences of other microbes. We explore the specifics of these interactions via model diatom/bacteria systems that can be manipulated in the laboratory - one includes an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the growth of diatoms and a second includes a synergistic bacterium that enhances the growth of diatoms. We scale up from the cellular level to population-level interactions through use of our continuous flow cytometer, SeaFlow, which taps into a ship's seawater intake system to provide a continuous read-out of abundance, size and type of the smallest phytoplankton. We use this data to estimate division rates and mortality rates of these phytoplankton across thousands of kilometers of ocean basins. We tie these scales together with genomic approaches in both laboratory experiments and in open ocean field studies to document how interactions with the environment and between microbes drive specific adaptations. Our ultimate goal is to understand how microbial communities will respond to and will help shape future ocean conditions.

  7. Public Health Events and International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-21

    Dr. Katrin Kohl, a medical officer at the CDC, discusses the World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations for assessing and reporting on public health events across the world.  Created: 6/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/21/2012.

  8. World Cup Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  9. The professional 'tug of war' : the regulation of foreign lawyers in China, business scope issues and some suggestions for reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GODWIN, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory framework governing foreign law firms in China - challenges for foreign lawyers, Chinese lawyers and Chinese regulators - World Trade Organization commitments - Administrative Regulations...

  10. Corporate Training in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nebolsky

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents virtual training worlds that are relatively low-cost distributed collaborative learning environments suitable for corporate training. A virtual training world allows a facilitator, experts and trainees communicating and acting in the virtual environment for practicing skills during collaborative problem solving. Using these environments is beneficial to both trainees and corporations. Two system prototypes – the sales training and the leadership training virtual worlds – are described. The leadership training course design is discussed in details.

  11. Science in the Muslim world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2010-04-01

    There are more than a billion Muslims in the world today - over a fifth of the world's total population - spread over many more than the 57 member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in which Islam is the official religion. These include some of the world's wealthiest nations, such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, as well as some of the poorest, like Somalia and Sudan. The economies of some of these countries - such as the Gulf States, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Malaysia and Pakistan - have been growing steadily for a number of years, and yet, in comparison with the West, the Islamic world still appears somewhat disengaged from modern science.

  12. Making “World Machines”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, Ann; Bardzell, Jeffrey; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    The world machine is a new archetype for a socio-technical system drawing together a group of tools that combine computational powers with a social agenda of cross-world collaboration in resistance to dominant market rhetoric. Specifically, we look at how powers to connect, sense and infer can...... be combined and turned to crowd-sourcing public engagement with shared world issues - as an alternative to business-as-usual in the context of developing and deploying networked technology. We combine theoretical aspects of world machines, such as what a political entity of this kind might seek to do...

  13. Images of World Society: A Third World View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Sarvepalli

    1982-01-01

    Discusses conditions in the Third World which prevent the development of a harmonious world society. The effects of nationalism, nuclear proliferation, racism, political and economic inequities, and social and religious conservatism on the growth of a global outlook are considered. (AM)

  14. Introduction to World Peace through World Law. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Grenville; Sohn, Louis

    Two models for changing existing international organizations into effective instruments of world governance are presented. The first model revises the present Charter of the United Nations; the second calls for a new world security and development organization which would supplement the existing machinery of the United Nations for peacekeeping,…

  15. Our world was rocked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hironaka, L Kari; Trozzi, Maria; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2010-06-01

    Nicole is a beautiful 14-month wide-eyed girl who presents for routine health care maintenance in your office. Since her 9 month visit, her weight has fallen from the 25th percentile to significantly less than the 5th percentile. Her height has dropped from the 10th percentile to slightly less than the 5th percentile, while her head circumference has remained at about the 25th percentile. Her language, motor, cognitive, and social development are normal. She is 2 months late for this visit as her family has recently had significant family loss because of the earthquake in Haiti. When you take a feeding history, she seems to eat age-appropriate foods--macaroni, chicken pieces--but her mother notes that she tends to be restless and fidgety while eating and will no longer sit still in her mother's lap while she feeds her. Her stools tend to be frequent, with particles of food seen. Urine is normal. There are no symptoms of respiratory or neurological disease, and her review of systems is otherwise negative. She has been a healthy child and this is the first time they have fallen behind in routine health care maintenance visits. Her medical history is entirely unremarkable. She was born at term, weighing 3.5 kg, without any perinatal complications. The family has lived in the United States for the last 10 years. Mother recalls that there were other children in her family who were deemed small as young children but who caught up later in childhood. Mother describes a history of increased sadness and worry in the last 2 months. They receive phone calls from family in Haiti several times per week and she admits to being upset during and after these calls. When asked how the event has impacted her family, she states, "It has rocked our entire world but Nicole is just a baby who won't eat!" Parents are married, and there is no history of abuse or violence in the household. Her physical examination is essentially normal. Her anterior fontanelle is still open, roughly 2 cm

  16. Managing the world's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  17. World's finest tech sites immortalised

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    They may have transformed man's understanding of the universe but the monumental impact of the world's first large radio telescope and the planet's largest particle physics lab has never been fully recognised. Now both Jodrell Bank and CERN are among the technological landmarks that could be immortalised alongside the pyramids of Egypt and Taj Mahal on UNESCO's World Heritage Site (WHS) list.

  18. Australia in a World Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the need for a world systems approach to locating one's experiences in the environment. Uses experiences of three poets and of the author to illustrate questions and issues geography teachers should reflect on when teaching Australian geography in a world context. Concludes with 10 questions that encourages teachers to reflect on these…

  19. Methane Digestors. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  20. The World of Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2008-01-01

    Soon, the best athletes in the world will face each other at the Summer Olympics in Beijing. Many of them will sustain injuries, or seek to prevent them, and will be thankful that among their entourages are some of the best sports medicine professionals in the world. When an athlete collapses from fatigue, or something else, there will be a group…

  1. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  2. The Indigenous Old World Passifloras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1972-01-01

    A short revision of the indigenous Old World taxa in Passifiora in the form of a key, the enumeration of synonyms, descriptions, and an index accounting for all names proposed for the area. Examined specimens, distributional areas, and some notes are given. In the Old World 20 indigenous species are

  3. The metaphors of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors.......The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors....

  4. The Challenge of World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Cristobal T.

    2012-01-01

    The author started teaching world history during his first year of teaching at Harlingen High School. To be given such an assignment, because of the breadth of the course, in one's first year might be considered a great misfortune. However, looking back, the author would not have preferred it any other way. World history quickly became his…

  5. Ethnography in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora

    2013-01-01

    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  6. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  7. Impossible Worlds and Logical Omniscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup

    2013-01-01

    , and considerably less investigated challenge is to ensure that the resulting modal space can also be used to model moderately ideal agents that are not logically omniscient but nevertheless logically competent. Intuitively, while such agents may fail to rule out subtly impossible worlds that verify complex logical...... falsehoods, they are nevertheless able to rule out blatantly impossible worlds that verify obvious logical falsehoods. To model moderately ideal agents, I argue, the job is to construct a modal space that contains only possible and non-trivially impossible worlds where it is not the case that “anything goes......”. But I prove that it is impossible to develop an impossible-world framework that can do this job and that satisfies certain standard conditions. Effectively, I show that attempts to model moderately ideal agents in a world-involving framework collapse to modeling either logical omniscient agents...

  8. World Assessment Unit Geological Characterizations, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapfile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of the World. Each assessment unit is...

  9. Flat world versus real world : where is weathering the most important ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mountain ranges are a key driver of the Earth climates. Acting on a large range of timescales, they modulate the atmospheric and oceanic circulations but also plays a crucial role in regulating the geological carbon cycle through their impacts on erosion and continental weathering. Since the 90's, there is an ongoing debate about the role of the mountain uplift on the long term global cooling of the Earth climate. Mountain ranges are thought to enhance silicate weathering and the associated CO2 consumption. But this has been repeatedly questioned in the recent years. Here we present a new method for modeling the spatial distribution of both physical erosion and coupled chemical weathering. The IPSL ocean-atmosphere model calculates the continental climate, which is used to force the erosion/weathering model. We first compare the global silicate weathering for two geographical configurations: the present-day world with mountain ranges, and a world where all mountains have been removed. Depending on the chosen formalism for silicate weathering and on the climate changes linked to the removal of mountains, it can be higher in the flat world than in the real world, or up to 5 times weaker. In the second part of the talk, we will explore the role of the Hercynian mountain range on the onset and demise of the late Paleozoic ice age, within the context of the Pangea assembly.

  10. An Evolutionary Analysis of World Energy Consumption and World Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegel, U.; Mende, W.; Grauer, M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of large-scale systems is described by a model based on the assumption of hyperbolic growth and saturation processes. It is shown that this Hyper-Logistic Evolution Model (HLEM) successfully describes the development of world population and global primary energy consumption over the past century; the model is also used to provide projections of world population and primary energy consumption up to the year 2100.

  11. ENHANCING SPIRITUALISM IN VIRTUAL WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Lata DANGWAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in virtual World now. Technology and Spirituality together forms the material to which man can incline on to and work for the development of a globe in which war will be considered a taboo and violence a rejected dogma. Therefore there is an urgent nee to made the world a safe place to live in and the spiritual reconstruction can help us in achieving this.Spiritualism, Virtual World, Online Technology.

  12. Tomorrow`s solar world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Meg

    1996-12-31

    The largest privately funded solar power installation in the world is at the Florida Walt Disney World. It is the Universe of Energy exhibit at the Experimental Prototype Community of the World. The Universe of Energy shows the development and exploitation of energy sources and how energy is used and includes a recreation of the primeval world from which coal and oil deposits were formed. Visitors travel through two giant theatres in electrically powered cars. Most of the ride system is powered by a solar cell array on the roof of the building. The array is composed of 2,200 modules each made up of 36 cells and can generate 70kW of DC power which is fed through an inverter to convert it to AC. (UK)

  13. Rockets in World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  14. Where the New World Is

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bone, Martyn Richard

    Reviews "The southern question has never seemed so richly global as it does in Martyn Bone’s powerful new book Where the New World Is. Moving from original readings of Zora Neale Hurston and Nella Larsen to pioneering interpretations of Russell Banks and Monique Truong, Bone succeeds brilliantly...... in weaving together southern literary studies and post-national American studies. Americanists of all kinds will learn a great deal from this important work." —Harilaos Stecopoulos, author of Reconstructing the World: Southern Fictions and U.S. Imperialisms, 1898–1976 "Martyn Bone's Where The New World...... leaves you with a sense of where we all need to go next. This book is the future of southern literary criticism." —Matthew Pratt Guteri, author of Seeing Race in Modern America Description Where the New World Is assesses how fiction published since 1980 has resituated the U.S. South globally and how...

  15. Quantum Computation and Many Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt-Horsman, Clare

    2002-01-01

    An Everett (`Many Worlds') interpretation of quantum mechanics due to Saunders and Zurek is presented in detail. This is used to give a physical description of the process of a quantum computation. Objections to such an understanding are discussed.

  16. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  17. Teaching about World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines a unit approach to World War II that emphasizes totalitarianism, the military conduct of the war, and the Holocaust. Advocates using a variety of teaching strategies, methods, and materials. Includes several examples of innovative materials and activities. (MJP)

  18. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  19. Earthworm Collections of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, Emma; Livermore, Laurence; Scott, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A poster presenting "Earthworm Collections of the World" This site provides a central hub for researchers and students to locate earthworm collections and specimens, along with useful information on the various earthworm families and species.

  20. The Tectonics of Small Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Wyrick, D. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding small world tectonics may help us predict small rocky exoplanet geodynamics. Vesta has an intermediate style of tectonic deformation, with impact-formed fractures (asteroidal), but also large graben and magmatic structures (planetary).

  1. Corporate Training in Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Nebolsky; Nicholas K. Yee; Valery A. Petrushin; Anatole V. Gershman

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents virtual training worlds that are relatively low-cost distributed collaborative learning environments suitable for corporate training. A virtual training world allows a facilitator, experts and trainees communicating and acting in the virtual environment for practicing skills during collaborative problem solving. Using these environments is beneficial to both trainees and corporations. Two system prototypes – the sales training and the leadership training virtual worl...

  2. Development Trends of World Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yuetong

    2009-01-01

    Energy has been one of the most important issues and challenge humans face in the 21st century which has a bearing on international economic and social development, global climate changes and environment protection. With a focus on development trends of world energy, this paper analyses the current world energy status and from the perspectives of energy sources, regions, end-use sectors, the balance of energy production and consumption, and in the context of its implications on the global env...

  3. Adjustment in the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman

    1987-01-01

    There is a widespread view that world payments imbalances can be remedied through increased demand in surplus countries and reduced demand in deficit countries, without any need for real exchange rate changes. In fact shifts in demand and real exchange rate adjustment are necessary couplets, not substitutes. The essential reason for this complementarity is that a much higher fraction of a marginal dollar of US than of foreign spending falls on US output. As a result, a redistribution of world...

  4. Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Ted

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

  5. 78 FR 49757 - Notification of an Expansion to the Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... expansion to the Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health Organization for a grant titled: ``Smallpox... HUMAN SERVICES Notification of an Expansion to the Cooperative Agreement Award to the World Health... Regulations (IHR) (2005). A case of smallpox detected by a member state requires notification to World Health...

  6. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  7. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...... affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretizisation...... and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts....

  8. Regulation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bouvet, F.

    2015-06-15

    This paper reviews the design of regulation loops for power converters. Power converter control being a vast domain, it does not aim to be exhaustive. The objective is to give a rapid overview of the main synthesis methods in both continuous- and discrete-time domains.

  9. 78 FR 21191 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... the pollution of the environment, noise disturbances and conservation of energy (fuel consumption... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for... upcoming scheduled meetings of the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) and its...

  10. 77 FR 4618 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... conservation of energy (fuel consumption). Special Technical Considerations Informal Working Groups (IWGs) In... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for... scheduled upcoming meetings under the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) and...

  11. The world anti-doping code : a South African perspective : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During February 2003 the World Anti-Doping Agency adopted the World-Anti Doping Code in Copenhagen in an effort to create and independent anti-doping body and to co-ordinate the harmonisation of doping regulations. The Code encompasses the principles around which the anti-doping effort in sport will revolve in ...

  12. The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbenz, Markus; Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Amarjit, Sahota

    2015-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015) Presentations - Introduction (Markus Arbenz) - Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics (Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - The World of Organic Agriculture: Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2015 (Beate Huber, Christiane Mannigel) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Helga Willer) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update...

  13. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  14. RegulatING chromatin regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors...... on the basis of reports describing their down-regulation and mislocalization in a variety of cancer types. In addition to their regulation by transcriptional mechanisms, understanding the range of PTMs (post-translational modifications) of INGs is important in understanding how ING functions are fine...

  15. Being in a Virtual World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads; Grimshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct that funct......We present a theoretical framework by which virtual world sound designers may work towards the attainment of presence. Drawing on the study of cognitive metaphors and the view that sound is an emergent perception we offer an account of the environment as a salient and dynamic construct...... that functions as a synecdoche for the nonself. Separating environment from world, we discuss the role of sound in the forming of the environment and argue that it is this environment that establishes the means for presence because it is the process behind the construction of the environment that individuates...

  16. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  17. World-line perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Holten, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The motion of a compact body in space and time is commonly described by the world line of a point representing the instantaneous position of the body. In General Relativity such a world-line formalism is not quite straightforward because of the strict impossibility to accommodate point masses and rigid bodies. In many situations of practical interest it can still be made to work using an effective hamiltonian or energy-momentum tensor for a finite number of collective degrees of freedom of the compact object. Even so exact solutions of the equations of motion are often not available. In such cases families of world lines of compact bodies in curved space-times can be constructed by a perturbative procedure based on generalized geodesic deviation equations. Examples for simple test masses and for spinning test bodies are presented.

  18. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Piet

    2008-05-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com).

  19. Synchronization of world economic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Andreas; Ghil, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Common dynamical properties of business cycle fluctuations are studied in a sample of more than 100 countries that represent economic regions from all around the world. We apply the methodology of multivariate singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA) to identify oscillatory modes and to detect whether these modes are shared by clusters of phase- and frequency-locked oscillators. An extension of the M-SSA approach is introduced to help analyze structural changes in the cluster configuration of synchronization. With this novel technique, we are able to identify a common mode of business cycle activity across our sample, and thus point to the existence of a world business cycle. Superimposed on this mode, we further identify several major events that have markedly influenced the landscape of world economic activity in the postwar era.

  20. World Culture in the Capitalist World-System in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Arnove, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    World culture theory (WCT) offers an explanatory framework for macro-level comparative analyses of systems of mass education, including their structures, accompanying policies and their curricular and pedagogical practices. WCT has contributed to broader efforts to overcome methodological nationalism in comparative research. In this paper, we…

  1. World population, world health and security: 20th century trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, A

    2008-03-01

    The connection between infectious disease control and national security is now firmly entrenched. This article takes a historical look at another security issue once prominent in debate on foreign policy and international relations, but now more or less absent: overpopulation. It explores the nature of the debate on population as a security question, and its complicated historical relation to the development of world health.

  2. World sheets of spinning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparulin, D. S.; Lyakhovich, S. L.

    2017-11-01

    The classical spinning particles are considered such that quantization of classical model leads to an irreducible massive representation of the Poincaré group. The class of gauge equivalent classical particle world lines is shown to form a [(d +1 )/2 ]-dimensional world sheet in d -dimensional Minkowski space, irrespectively to any specifics of the classical model. For massive spinning particles in d =3 , 4, the world sheets are shown to be circular cylinders. The radius of the cylinder is fixed by representation. In higher dimensions, the particle's world sheet turns out to be a toroidal cylinder R ×TD, D =[(d -1 )/2 ]. Proceeding from the fact that the world lines of irreducible classical spinning particles are cylindrical curves, while all the lines are gauge equivalent on the same world sheet, we suggest a method to deduce the classical equations of motion for particles and also to find their gauge symmetries. In d =3 Minkowski space, the spinning particle path is defined by a single fourth-order differential equation having two zero-order gauge symmetries. The equation defines the particle's path in Minkowski space, and it does not involve auxiliary variables. A special case is also considered of cylindric null curves, which are defined by a different system of equations. It is shown that the cylindric null curves also correspond to irreducible massive spinning particles. For the higher-derivative equation of motion of the irreducible massive spinning particle, we deduce the equivalent second-order formulation involving an auxiliary variable. The second-order formulation agrees with a previously known spinning particle model.

  3. 3. Introduction to World History

    OpenAIRE

    Michelet, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Fig. 2. Jules Michelet, circa 1842, after a drawing by Thomas Couture, reproduced in Jules Michelet, Lettres inédites (1841-1871), ed. Paul Sirven (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1924), frontispiece. With the world, a war began that will end with the world, and not before: the war of man against nature, of spirit against matter, of liberty against fatality. History is nothing but the story of this endless struggle. In recent years fatality has seemed to be taking possession of knowl...

  4. World nuclear performance report 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  5. Trust Propagation in Small Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Chen, Yong

    2003-01-01

    do not scale well. We aim to develop trust-based security mechanisms using small world concepts to optimise formation and propagation of trust amongst entities in these vast networks. In this regard, we surmise that in a very large mobile ad hoc network, trust, risk, and recommendations can...... be propagated through relatively short paths connecting entities. Our work describes the design of trust-formation and risk-assessment systems, as well as that of an entity recognition scheme, within the context of the small world network topology....

  6. Tuvan music and World Music

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-01-01

    The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of t...

  7. Stabilizing and changing phenomenal worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Andersen, Hanne

    2001-01-01

    In the work of both Ludwik Fleck and Thomas Kuhn the scientific literature plays important roles for stability and change of scientific phenomenal worlds. In this article we shall introduce the analyses of scientific literature provided by Fleck and Kühn, respectively. From this background we shall...... discuss the problem of how divergent thinking can emerge in a dogmatic atmosphere. We shall argue that in their accounts of the factors inducing changes of scientific phenomenal worlds Fleck and Kuhn offer substantially different approaches, and we shall discuss in which respects their approaches may...

  8. The Politics of World Polity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E.; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    -writing is a function of both world-cultural frames and material interests, held by different intra-organizational actors: scientific IGO staff and state representatives in governing bodies, respectively. The interplay between these frames and interests determines whether scripts will institutionalize....... In this theoretical model, world-cultural and power-political explanations are pertinent to different, mutually informing, and coexisting aspects of the script-writing process. As a corollary of our approach, we present a conceptual framework for the study of intra-IGO script-writing, which is contingent on three...

  9. The USGS World Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The world has recently experienced rapid change to market-driven economies and increasing reliance on petroleum supplies from areas of political instability. The interplay of unprecedented growth of the global population, increasing worldwide energy demand, and political instability in two major petroleum exporting regions (the former Soviet Union and the Middle East) requires that the United States maintains a current, reliable, objective assessment of the world's energy resources. The need is compounded by the environmental implications of rapid increases in coal use in the Far East and international pressure on consumption of fossil fuels.

  10. Year of consolidation (world survey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, G.; Jeffs, E.

    1984-05-01

    A review of nuclear programmes around the world is given. In a series of tables, information is presented on nuclear generation in 1982, capacity and number of reactors entering service from 1984 onwards and plant currently under construction. There is currently some 225Gwe of nuclear plant under construction or firmly planned around the world, including the CMEA countries. Over 30 reactors are due to come into operation during 1984 but several reactors under construction are under threat of cancellation and others could suffer further delays. Nuclear power now accounts for 20 per cent or more of total electricity generation in seven industrialized countries and in two newly industrialized countries.

  11. Aloes of the world project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopper, Ronell R.; Smith, Gideon F.; Crouch, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Background - The Old World genus Aloe L. comprises ± 630 species to which almost 1300 names have been applied. Members of the genus are prominent components of many, mainly arid, African landscapes. Aloes can be found in Africa (the majority of species), the Arabian Peninsula, Socotra, Madagascar...... and the Mascarene Islands. The berried aloes of the genus Lomatophyllum Willd. are included as a section of the genus Aloe for the purpose of this project. Aims - As part of the African Plants Initiative (JSTOR Plant Science), the Aloes of the World project aims to provide a comprehensive electronic facility...

  12. Social Science and World Revolutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Chase-Dunn

    2017-01-01

    .... I have been very fortunate to have lived most of my life during the second half of the 20th century and the first decades of the 21st century, which has been a period of relative peace and security in the world, and to have been a middle-class white citizen of the US.

  13. One world of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L J

    2009-08-01

    The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.

  14. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  15. New World Symphony and Discord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author features the life and works of Antonin Dvorak, a Czech classical musician. In the throes of a New World epiphany, Dvorak has espoused a future for American music based on "negro melodies." For three years, beginning in the fall of 1892, Dvorak found himself embroiled in a sustained and often bitter debate over issues of…

  16. Genocide in World History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)

  17. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  18. Nanotechnology for the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M. Saladin [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-11-15

    The letter discusses the indispensable importance of Nanotechnology for the scientific and economical revival of the developing world. Similar to the nuclear age, and maybe far more so, the nanoage will be something of a Hemingway line of demarcation between the have and the have nots.

  19. Teenagers and their digital world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Guus Wijngaards; Dr. Jos Fransen; Pieter Swager

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and computers increasingly determine our daily lives. This goes for almost everyone in the Netherlands. Still, it is mostly teenagers who are well informed on how to use all the possibilities of new technologies. They are building a digital world of their own that parents usually know

  20. Adolescent Psychology around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors…

  1. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Macy, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure

  2. Innovating Interfaces with Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    2009-01-01

    Presentation given to the Virtual Worlds Research Group workshop on February 26th, 2009. Presentation focused on the innovations in video game consoles, leading to the emergence of the Nintendo Wii as the current leader, with discussion as to why this is.

  3. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  4. The best of both worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carola Simon; Lotte Vermeij; Anja Steenbekkers

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Het beste van twee werelden. In the eyes of many rural dwellers, the Dutch countryside combines the best of both worlds. They enjoy the peace and quiet, space and landscape around them every day and are happy to live in an environment where people still have time and attention

  5. Democracy in the Arab World

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ibrahim Elbadawi, formerly Lead Economist at the Development Research Group of the World Bank, he is currently Director of the Macroeconomics Research and Forecasting Department at the Dubai Economic Council and has published widely on macroeconomic and development policy and the economics of civil war.

  6. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment

  7. The History of World Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David

    This survey of the history of world cinema begins with the "Pre-history" of film making and covers developments, by major periods, through 1972. The film making of all major countries, except Australia, receives attention, and the appendixes contain a note on animated films, a selected filmographies list, and a bibliography. Aspects of…

  8. Defying Reality: Performing Reimagined Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intili, Amanda; Pembleton, Matthew; LaJevic, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Art educators are concerned with exposing their students to contemporary art making practices. They aim to create fresh lessons that expand their understandings of art in today's world while highlighting the importance of imagination. With a personal interest in performance and street art (art forms that have gained popularity in recent years),…

  9. Water research for the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Halem, D.

    2013-01-01

    Let’s start with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Report 2012. Remember the target? Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Thanks to China and India the world has met the drinking water target in 2010,

  10. Addressing the world water crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...

  11. Lighting the World with Molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 8. Lighting the World with Molecules. S Ramasesha. General Article Volume 14 Issue 8 August 2009 pp 782-798. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/08/0782-0798. Keywords.

  12. A microbial world within us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The microbial world within us includes a vast array of gastrointestinal (GI) tract communities that play an important role in health and disease. Significant progress has been made in recent years in describing the intestinal microbial composition based on the application of 16S ribosomal RNA

  13. World Map of Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2017-06-26

    A comparative world map of scientific misconduct reveals that countries with the most rapid growth in scientific publications also have the highest retraction rate. To avoid polluting the scientific record further, these nations must urgently commit to enforcing research integrity among their academic communities.

  14. PACS for the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Mendel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital imaging is now firmly ensconced in the developed world. Its widespread adoption has enabled instant access to images, remote viewing, remote consultation, and the end of lost or misplaced film. Unfortunately, the current paradigm of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS, with advanced technology inseparable from high complexity, high purchase costs, and high maintenance costs, is not suited for the low-income developing world. Like the simple, easy to repair, 1950’s American cars still running on the streets of Havana, the developing world requires a PACS (DW-PACS that can perform basic functions and survive in a limited-resource environment. The purpose of this article is to more fully describe this concept and to present a blueprint for PACS tailored to the needs and resources of the developing world. This framework should assist both users looking for a vendor-supplied or open-source solutions and developers seeking to address the needs of this emerging market.

  15. World History Textbooks: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2004-01-01

    This world history review examines standard textbooks used between the sixth and twelfth grades in schools across the nation. These established textbooks dominate the field and set the pitch for new and forthcoming volumes. The 2002 Texas history textbook adoption and the California list have influenced what textbooks will dominate the national…

  16. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  17. Learning Diversity from World Englishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2001-01-01

    Describes World Englishes (WE) that are global varieties of English and provides a rationale for teaching WE. Explores suggested activities and materials for teaching about WE, such as learning WE from videos, teaching the history of English, using international newspapers and guest speakers, and having students conduct a country study. (CMK)

  18. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  19. New World Mystery. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tom W.

    To better understand the issues behind the colonization of the New World and to see why some colonies and empires failed while others flourished, students analyze the motivations and resources of the colonial powers. Noting that the results of the colonial era are counter-intuitive (the Spanish, who colonized areas rich in gold, silver, and…

  20. Canadian Students and World Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes the results of survey of 1,100 grade 5, 8, and 11 students to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward world affairs. Notes that age, sex, and class were the most important correlates and that children were only marginally more knowledgeable about domestic politics than international affairs. (SB)

  1. Guidelines for a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell; Brack, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the issues surrounding teachers' use of social networking media and their First Amendment rights. It focuses on the need to develop a school district policy outlining specific guidelines for the use of technology and social networking. It also focuses on the changing world of technology and social networking as well as…

  2. Enhancing Spiritualism in Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangwal, Kiran Lata; Singh, Shireesh Pal

    2012-01-01

    Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in…

  3. Multiscale expansions in discrete world

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations, KdV equation is derived in §3 and 4, respectively. Finally, some conclusions are ... type to KdV-type equations in discrete world. For a given discrete nonlinear ..... Filiz Tascan and Mehmet Naci Özer. [2] M Toda, Theory of nonlinear lattices (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981).

  4. Wanted: A World Development Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1968-01-01

    textabstractDevelopment planning has become a routine activity for large numbers of corporations as well as for public authorities at various levels, particularly national governments. In quite a few national planning agencies extensive analyses of the probable expansion of world supply and demand

  5. The World Bank and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, T; Tomson, G

    2000-03-01

    Within less than a decade the World Bank has become the largest single source of finance (loans) for health in low and middle income countries as well as a major player in the field of pharmaceuticals. Often 20-50% of the recurrent government health budget in developing countries is used to procure drugs. Drugs are among the most salient and cost-effective elements of health care and often a key factor for the success of a health sector reform. However, pharmaceuticals are frequently being used irrationally, mainly due to market imperfections in health care, such as information asymmetries, leading to serious health problems and a heavy financial burden on the health system. Lending priorities set by the World Bank could be used to promote public health sector reform, leading to the rational use of affordable and available drugs of good quality in developing countries. This report provides the first analysis of World Bank activity in the pharmaceutical sector worldwide. The analysis of 77 staff appraisal reports, describing the planning phase of World Bank country projects, shows that 16% of the total World Bank health, nutrition and population budget, or approximately US$1.3 billion, has been committed to loans or credits supporting pharmaceutical activities in the programme countries between 1989-95. Roughly US$1.05 billion has been committed to procurement of drugs and medical equipment. Only 5% of the total pharmaceutical sector lending is committed to software components such as drug policy work and rational use of drugs. No more than 45% of the projects were developed in collaboration with pharmaceutical expertise. The World Bank is recommended to improve its pharmaceutical sector involvement by promoting drug policy research and development including national and international dialogue on pharmaceutical issues to ensure rational use of both drugs and loans. In this, the World Bank has an advantage given its experience from working with both the private and

  6. 33 CFR 100.110 - World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME. 100.110 Section 100.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Boat Race, Jonesport, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Moosabec Reach...

  7. World Engineer’s Convention 2011: Engineers Power the World

    CERN Multimedia

    Yi Ling Hwong (Knowledge Transfer) and Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Can the increasing global energy consumption be met without intensifying global warming? Do the necessary technical solutions exist, and is the switch to a low-carbon energy supply feasible and financially viable? These crucial questions and many others were dealt with at the 2011World Engineer’s Convention (WEC). CERN was invited to participate in the event, highlighting its significant contribution to global engineering with an exhibition space devoted to the LHC on the convention floor and a keynote speech delivered by CERN’s Director-General.   From 4 – 9 September 2011, more than 2000 engineers and researchers, as well as politicians and business representatives from about 100 countries gathered at the 2011World Engineer’s Convention (WEC). Held in Geneva, Switzerland, they met to discuss solutions for a sustainable energy future. Discussions looked at the development of engineering solutions through a variety of approaches, with ...

  8. Cuba in the World, the World in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Lorini, Alessandra; Basosi, Duccio

    2009-01-01

    The volume approaches Cuba as a nation that hosts a convergence of extraordinary global developments and, in turn, projects itself onto the world's major cultural, political and economic processes. From different perspectives, ranging from architecture and music to politics and economics, the twenty-one essays presented here embrace the multifaceted interactions between Cuba and foreign imperial strategies during the 19th century, the troublesome formation of national political cultures in th...

  9. Regulation and policy: International trends and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, W.S.

    1997-03-01

    As offshore oil and gas resources become exhausted, the associated production platforms and facilities will be decommissioned. The world-wide oil and gas industry is strictly regulated by global, regional and national guidelines which have been developed by governments to find the most responsible framework to perform the decommissioning. In the summer of 1995, the Brent Spar incident brought uncertainty to decommissioning world-wide. In June of 1995, a moratorium prohibiting sea disposal within the North East Atlantic was imposed by the Oslo Commission, and an unsuccessful attempt was made in December of 1995 to impose a world-wide moratorium on sea disposal at the London Convention.

  10. In the world, but not of the world : The prospects of Christianity in the modern world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, P.H.A.I.

    2000-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the prospects of Christianity in the modern world from a philosophical perspective (section 1). In order to do so, I analyse in the second section Gianni Vattimo’s and Charles Taylor’s views of the problems of modernity. They interpret modern civilisation as being

  11. Towards Role Detection in Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); V.P. Lavrenko

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractVirtual worlds are a topic of steadily growing relevance. Some of the providers report user numbers that exceed the population of entire nations in the real world. Virtual worlds typically provide a high degree of complexity, which in some areas approaches the real world's richness of

  12. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    We model the notion of a "small world" as a context dependent state space embedded into the "grand world". For each situation the decision maker creates a "small world" reflecting the events perceived to be relevant for the act under consideration. The "grand world" is represented by an event space...

  13. Researchers making sense of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.; Williams, Dmitri; Ho, Caroline

    Virtual worlds, from gaming worlds to social worlds, have gained increasing attention by academics, public organizations and private entrepreneurs.  Much has been said about what virtual worlds are and what they mean to people and society.  However, this panel is interested in how we come to know...

  14. Unit 148 - World Wide Web Basics

    OpenAIRE

    148, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit explains the characteristics and the working principles of the World Wide Web as the most important protocol of the Internet. Topics covered in this unit include characteristics of the World Wide Web; using the World Wide Web for the dissemination of information on the Internet; and using the World Wide Web for the retrieval of information from the Internet.

  15. Sustainable regulation of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The seminar examined the role building codes and regulations can have in promoting a more sustainable approach to construction, particularly through their application to non-industrial building materials. A range of building materials such as straw, bamboo, rammed earth, adobe, and cob (a mixture of clay and chopped straw) were described and illustrated by slides to show their building potential. The current codes have a prime concern to protect the health and safety of people from the built environment. They have been developed almost exclusively for mainstream industrial materials and methods of construction, which makes them difficult to use with alternative, indigenous, or non-industrial building materials, even though those materials may be considered more sustainable. The argument was put forward that with only one-third of the world population living in modern industrial buildings today, it is not sustainable to re-house the remaining rapidly expanding population in high technology dwellings. Many of the low technology building materials and methods now used by the majority of people in the world need only incremental improvement to be equal or superior to many of their industrial replacements. Since these can be more sustainable methods of building, there needs to be an acceptance of the use of alternative materials, particularly in the developing parts of the world, where they are being rejected for less sustainable industrial methods. However, many codes make it difficult to use non-industrial materials; indeed, many of the industrial materials would not meet the demands that must be now met if they were now being introduced as new materials. Consequently, there is a need to develop codes to facilitate the use of a wider range of materials than in current use, and research is needed to assist this development. Sustainable regulation should take into account the full range of real impacts that materials and systems have in areas such as resource use and

  16. [World epidemiology of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Luc; Thellier, Marc; Faussart, Alexandra; Danis, Martin

    2007-01-31

    Parasitic diseases are cosmopolitan and may affect all the world population. They kill several million people every year. The migrations and tourism make that even tropical diseases can be frequently met outside their geographical distribution area. Except the arthropod-borne infections, the great majority of these diseases are in relation with the faecal contamination of soil, the general level of hygiene and the food practices. Malaria remains the first world parasitic disease in term of mortality. The strong fall of the amoebic endemicity is due only to the improvement of the methods of molecular diagnosis. The socio-political and climatic upheavals may result in a creeping extension of the geographical limits of many parasites.

  17. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  18. Probing Solitons in Brane Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Youm, Donam

    2000-01-01

    We study dynamics of a probe p-brane and a test particle in the field background of fully localized solutions describing the source p-brane within the worldvolume of the source domain wall. We find that the probe dynamics in the background of the source p-brane in one lower dimensions is not reproduced, indicating that p-branes within the worldvolume of domain walls perhaps describe an exotic phase of p-branes in brane worlds. We speculate therefore that a (p+1)-brane where one of its longitudinal directions is along the direction transverse to the domain wall is the right describtion of the p-brane in the brane world with the expected properties.

  19. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  20. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  1. World grain takes a spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1992-01-01

    World grain production decreased 5% in 1991, which combined with the 90 million in population increase resulted in a 6.4% decline/person. This is the largest drop ever recorded. Currently world production is off 9% from the all time high in 1984 of 757 pounds/person. There are many signs that this trend will continue. Soil erosion continues to decrease the amount of available farm land, irrigation water logs fields, deforestation and desertification, air pollution, acid rain and increased ultra violet light form depleting ozone are all adding to the problem. Currently in the US 28 million acres idle as part of commodity supply management and 34 million acres are designated threatened and are in Conservation Reserve. However, even with this area put into production, the total area worldwide is still smaller than it was in 1984.

  2. Anaphora resolution without world knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffa Vilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical problem in the resolution of pronominal anaphora is the presence of more than one candidate for the antecedent of the pronoun. Considering two English sentences like (1 "People buy expensive cars because they offer more status" and (2 "People buy expensive cars because they want more status" we can see that the two NPs "people" and "expensive cars", from a purely syntactic perspective, are both legitimate candidates as antecedents for the pronoun "they". This problem has been traditionally solved by using world knowledge (e.g. schema theory, where, through an internal representation of the world, we "know" that cars "offer" status and people "want" status. The assumption in this paper is that the use of world knowledge does not explain how the disambiguation process works and alternative explanations should be explored. Using a knowledge poor approach (explicit information from the text rather than implicit world knowledge the study investigates to what extent syntactic and semantic constraints can be used to resolve anaphora. For this purpose, 1,400 examples of the word "they" were randomly selected from a corpus of 10,000,000 words of expository text in English. Antecedent candidates for each case were then analyzed and classified in terms of their syntactic functions in the sentence (subject, object, etc. and semantic features (+ human, + animate, etc.. It was found that syntactic constraints resolved 85% of the cases. When combined with semantic constraints the resolution rate rose to 98%. The implications of the findings for Natural Language Processing are discussed.

  3. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment initiated an international momentum to secure the needs of both present and future generations through a joint policy agenda for sustainable development. Institutions such as the United Nations played...

  4. Marine Mammals Enact Individual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Delfour, Fabienne

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literature describes the various ways that we perceive animals and their contribution to our humanization. Our understanding of “animality” is changing, corresponding to an ever-increasing general knowledge of animals. Scientific studies provide objective descriptions of the complexity of animal worlds. The present article discusses recent findings on socio-spatiality, social cognition, and self-recognition in various marine mammal species, as well as the relevance and coherence of...

  5. Library Marketing in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Enache; Simona Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    The article is a sequel to the previous one published in the previous issue of the Librarianship and Information Science magazine. A presentation of several experiences concerning the implementation of library marketing in Europe being already made, in what follows we will deal with other situations from different countries of the world. All these examples can be useful to the infodocumentary structures in Romania which marketing is a new domain, still discreet.

  6. The End of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Maria Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Our fear of the world ending, like our fear of the dark, is ancient, deep-seated and perennial. It crosses boundaries of space and time, recurs in all human communities and finds expression in every aspect of cultural production – from pre-historic cave paintings to high-tech computer games. This book examines historical and imaginary scenarios of Apocalypse, the depiction of its likely triggers, and imagined landscapes in the aftermath of global destruction. Its discussion moves effortlessly...

  7. Music Festivals, a Changing World

    OpenAIRE

    Négrier, Emmanuel; Bonet, Lluís; Guérin, Michel

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This work presents the first study undertaken using a single, unique method on a sample of 390 music festival (from 15 different countries). They represent a wide variety of genres, musical styles, scope and seasonal programmes. All major aspects are explored, from the purpose of the festivals to human resources and business models adopted.The first part reviews this analytical journey through the world of festivals. The second part contains several chapters on differe...

  8. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  9. Explicit Emotion Regulation: Comparing Emotion Inducing Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Dhaka; Naveen Kashyap

    2017-01-01

    Emotions are a major part of our subjective experiences of the world. At times, our emotions are not appropriate and require active management. Emotion regulation refers to the various ways of managing or controlling emotional responses. External stimuli play specific role in electing emotions. Pictures and movies elicit emotions and emotional effects of films are believed to exceed that of pictures. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies...

  10. Management effectiveness of the world's marine fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified.

  11. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  12. Management Effectiveness of the World's Marine Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Camilo; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J.; Sumaila, Rashid U.; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J.; Worm, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified. PMID:19547743

  13. Possibility and agency in Figured Worlds: becoming a 'good doctor'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Deirdre; Solomon, Yvette; Bergin, Colm; Horgan, Mary; Dornan, Tim

    2017-03-01

    Figured Worlds is a socio-cultural theory drawing on Vygotskian and Bakhtinian traditions, which has been applied in research into the development of identities of both learners and teachers in the wider education literature. It is now being adopted in medical education. The objective of this paper is to show what Figured Worlds can offer in medical education. Having explained some of its central tenets, we apply it to an important tension in our field. The assumption that there is a uniform 'good doctor' identity, which must be inculcated into medical students, underlies much of what medical educators do, and what our regulators enforce. Although diversity is encouraged when students are selected for medical school, pressure to professionalise students creates a drive towards a standardised professional identity by graduation. Using excerpts from reflective pieces written by two junior medical students, we review the basic concepts of Figured Worlds and demonstrate how it can shed light on the implications of this tension. Taking a Bakhtinian approach to discourse, we show how Adam and Sarah develop their professional identities as they negotiate the multiple overlapping and competing ways of being a doctor that they encounter in the world of medical practice. Each demonstrates agency by 'authoring' a unique identity in the cultural world of medicine, as they appropriate and re-voice the words of others. Finally, we consider some important areas in medical education where Figured Worlds might prove to be a useful lens: the negotiation of discourses of gender, sexuality and social class, career choice as identification within specialty-specific cultural worlds, and the influence of hidden and informal curricula on doctor identity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  14. Query Migration from Object Oriented World to Semantic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Soussi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, object-oriented approach was able to take a large share of databases market aiming to design and implement structured and reusable software through the composition of independent elements in order to have programs with a high performance. On the other hand, the mass of information stored in the web is increasing day after day with a vertiginous speed, exposing the currently web faced with the problem of creating a bridge so as to facilitate access to data between different applications and systems as well as to look for relevant and exact information wished by users. In addition, all existing approach of rewriting object oriented languages to SPARQL language rely on models transformation process to guarantee this mapping. All the previous raisons has prompted us to write this paper in order to bridge an important gap between these two heterogeneous worlds (object oriented and semantic web world by proposing the first provably semantics preserving OQLto-SPARQL translation algorithm for each element of OQL Query (SELECT clause, FROM clause, FILTER constraint, implicit/ explicit join and union/intersection SELECT queries.

  15. Nutritional rickets around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ann

    2013-07-01

    Nutritional rickets is a major public health problem in many countries of the world. The disease is characterized by deformities of the long bones, enlargement of the wrists and costochondral junctions, hypotonia and, in infants, craniotabes and delayed fontanelle closure. Predominantly caused by severe vitamin D deficiency, rickets can also be associated with hypocalcemic seizures and cardiac failure. First presentation is typically at 6-24 months of age, although hypocalcemia may be evident in younger infants. In many affluent industrialized countries, the prevalence of rickets in the general population diminished after the introduction of clean-air legislation and dietary supplementation. However, in such countries, vitamin-D deficiency rickets has re-emerged in recent years, particularly among groups with limited exposure to UVB-containing sunshine. Infants at risk of rickets tend to be those whose mothers had poor vitamin D status during pregnancy and those exclusively breast-fed for a prolonged period with little skin exposure to UVB. In other countries of the world, the prevalence of rickets can be high, even in regions with abundant year-round UVB-containing sunshine. In general, this is also due to vitamin D deficiency related to limited sun exposure. However, reports from Africa and Asia suggest that there may be other etiological factors involved. Studies in South Africa, Nigeria, The Gambia and Bangladesh have identified rickets in children, typically 3-5 years old at first presentation, in whom plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are higher than those characteristic of primary vitamin D deficiency. Calcium deficiency has been implicated, and in some, but not all, disturbances of phosphate metabolism, renal compromise and iron deficiency may also be involved. Continuing studies of the etiology of nutritional rickets will provide evidence to underpin guidelines for the prevention and treatment of rickets world-wide. This article is part of a

  16. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  17. World Congress on Engineering 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Gelman, Len

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains fifty-one revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the international conference on Advances in Engineering Technologies and Physical Science (London, UK, 2-4 July, 2014), under the World Congress on Engineering 2014 (WCE 2014). Topics covered include mechanical engineering, bioengineering, internet engineering, wireless networks, image engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers an overview of the tremendous advances made recently in engineering technologies and the physical sciences and their applications, and also serves as an excellent reference for researchers and graduate students working in these fields.

  18. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  19. Besat af World of Warcraft

    OpenAIRE

    Phoruen, Amphon; Andersen, Josephine Søgaard; Drews, Stine; Saleh, Mohammed; Schiffmann, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what motivates players to play the popular online video game World of Warcraft (abbreviated WoW), and how an addiction to WoW can be considered harmful to the players. To answer this, we have used a qualitative diary method on three informants who play WoW regularly. This diary method acts as a basis for our paper and is used to collect datas on how our informants interact with the video game and what motivates them to play, and if there are negative effects connected to t...

  20. Authentic Learning and Alien Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Sara D.; Watt, Keith; Gleim, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Glendale Community College has developed a laboratory course and observing program which provides non-science majors with opportunities to perform authentic science in a community college setting. The program is designed around experiential learning which allows students to meaningfully construct concepts within contexts that involve real-world problems that are relevant to the learner. Students learn observational astronomy and data analysis techniques by observing exoplanet transits using 8-inch Celestron telescopes. The exoplanet data gathered and analyzed by the students is contributed to the exoplanet database. This poster presents an overview of the program and highlights early educational results.

  1. Interactions in an acoustic world

    CERN Document Server

    Simaciu, Ion; Borsos, Zoltan; Bradac, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to complete an earlier paper where the acoustic world was introduced. This is accomplished by analyzing the interactions which occur between the inhomogeneities of the acoustic medium, which are induced by the acoustic vibrations traveling in the medium. When a wave packet travels in a medium, the medium becomes inhomogeneous. The spherical wave packet behaves like an acoustic spherical lens for the acoustic plane waves. According to the principle of causality, there is an interaction between the wave and plane wave packet. In specific conditions the wave packet behaves as an acoustic black hole.

  2. Can the world learn wisdom?

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, N

    2015-01-01

    The crisis of our times is that we have science without wisdom. All our current global problems have arisen as a result. Learning how to become wiser has become, not a luxury, but a necessity. The key is to learn from the success of science. We need to learn from scientific progress how to achieve social progress towards a wiser world. This is an old idea that goes back to the French Enlightenment. However, in developing the idea, the philosophes of the Enlightenment made serious blunders, an...

  3. Fieldwork Skills in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Benjamin; Lloyd, Geoffrey; Gordon, Clare; Houghton, Jacqueline; Morgan, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Virtual reality has an increasingly significant role to play in teaching and research, but for geological applications realistic landscapes are required that contain sufficient detail to prove viable for investigation by both inquisitive students and critical researchers. To create such virtual landscapes, we combine DTM data with digitally modelled outcrops in the game engine Unity. Our current landscapes are fictional worlds, invented to focus on generation techniques and the strategic and spatial immersion within a digital environment. These have proved very successful in undergraduate teaching; however, we are now moving onto recreating real landscapes for more advanced teaching and research. The first of these is focussed on Rhoscolyn, situated within the Ynys Mon Geopark on Anglesey, UK. It is a popular area for both teaching and research in structural geology so has a wide usage demographic. The base of the model is created from DTM data, both 1 m LiDAR and 5 m GPS point data, and manipulated with QGIS before import to Unity. Substance is added to the world via models of architectural elements (e.g. walls and buildings) and appropriate flora and fauna, including sounds. Texturing of these models is performed using 25 cm aerial imagery and field photographs. Whilst such elements enhance immersion, it is the use of digital outcrop models that fully completes the experience. From fieldwork, we have a library of photogrammetric outcrops that can be modelled into 3D features using free (VisualSFM and MeshLab) and non-free (AgiSoft Photoscan) tools. These models are then refined and converted in Maya to create models for better insertion into the Unity environment. The finished product is a virtual landscape; a Rhoscolyn `world' that is sufficiently detailed to provide a base not only for geological teaching and training but also for geological research. Additionally, the `Rhoscolyn World' represents a significant tool for those students who are unable to attend

  4. The Best of Both World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Ferguson, Richard; Gaddefors, Johan

    2015-01-01

    impacts on their opportunity creation. Based on a multiple case study we find that rural entrepreneurs mix what we refer to as placial embeddedness – an intimate knowledge of and concern for the place – with strategically built non-local networks, i.e. the best of two worlds. Notably, the entrepreneurs...... seek to exhaust the localised resource base before seeking out non-local resources. Our findings thus contribute to our understanding of entrepreneurship in context and challenge future research to explore how different forms of contexts are bridged in different settings to create varieties...

  5. String inspired brane world cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germani, Cristiano; Sopuerta, Carlos F

    2002-06-10

    We consider brane world scenarios including the leading correction to the Einstein-Hilbert action suggested by superstring theory, the Gauss-Bonnet term. We obtain and study the complete set of equations governing the cosmological dynamics. We find they have the same form as those in Randall-Sundrum scenarios but with time-varying four-dimensional gravitational and cosmological constants. By studying the bulk geometry we show that this variation is produced by bulk curvature terms parametrized by the mass of a black hole. Finally, we show there is a coupling between these curvature terms and matter that can be relevant for early universe cosmology.

  6. Cosmology of Dilatonic Brane World

    OpenAIRE

    Youm, Donam

    2000-01-01

    We study cosmological solutions in the dilatonic brane world models. The effective four-dimensional equations on the brane are analyzed for the models with one positive tension brane and two branes with tensions of opposite signs. Just as in the non-dilatonic brane case, the conventional Friedmann equations of the four-dimensional universe are reproduced to the leading order in matter energy density for the model with one brane and the introduction of a radion potential is required in order t...

  7. Astronomy Map of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.

    2017-09-01

    I have created an online clickable and zoom-enabled world map - now viewed over 5,400 times - that contains weblinks to institutions where astronomy is either researched professionally and / or and taught in classrooms at the university level. Not included are stand-alone museums, planetariums, amateur astronomical societies, virtual institutes, nor observatories which do not fulfill this criteria. One can click on a marker to access the relevant institute. The map currently contains 697 institutes, and has multiple potential uses for undergraduate students, graduate students, postdocs, faculty and journal editors.

  8. Three Worlds of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenev, G.

    2011-06-01

    Mountain in its symbolic presentation can be considered as a world axis and place for alliance of three worlds: heavenly world, ours or middle world and underworld. Image of the three worlds represents also intellectual establishment, proportion and unity among Gods, Cosmos and Man. The three observation posts of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino actually are symbols of those three worlds in the ancient people's imagination, defining ritual activities. At the same time, they were used for organizing all agricultural and stock breeding activities of the early agricultural communities in the wider region surrounding the ancient observatory.

  9. Investigating the Future of Internet Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Heidemarie; Towell, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 86 Internet providers in 38 countries found that, although Internet providers felt they had the most control over material accessed, more than half do not censor content. Respondents indicated that some regulation may be necessary, but the cultural diversity in the world will make it difficult to implement. (PEN)

  10. Herbicides as stimulators regulators and ripeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of low doses of herbicide as plant growth regulators to increase sugar concentrations (ripen) in sugarcane prior to harvest plays an important role in the profitable and sustainable production of sugarcane in the U.S. as well as in other sugarcane industries around the world. Several studies...

  11. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  12. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  13. The Stuff of Other Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbery, EIleen K.; Latner, Alexis Glynn

    2000-01-01

    Extraterrestrial material eternally rains down on Earth. Meteorites flare in the night sky. Cosmic rays plow into Earth's atmosphere, creating invisible bursts of secondary particles. These processes began when the Earth formed in the primordial solar system and have continued ever since, indifferent to the exceedingly recent presence of human intelligence. For us to seek out stuff of other worlds, in contrast, takes a great deal of determined ingenuity. First we have to send a spacecraft somewhere else in the solar system. Indigenous material has to be collected and then brought back to Earth without exposure to conditions that might significantly alter it. The material must undergo meaningful scientific analysis. Most important, part of the material is preserved intact for future investigations. Beginning with bringing back Moon rocks, and now moving onward in the form of new missions to capture the hot thin solar wind and cold thin atmosphere of comets, extraterrestrial sample return takes place on the cutting edge of scientific technology. Sample return is also the fulcrum of an energetic debate about how to do planetary science missions. Scientists and engineers are debating whether to rely on remote sensing and in situ analysis, or to plan missions to undertake sample return. The latter is definitely more expensive on a per mission basis, and is usually technologically more challenging. But for an initially high investment of money and technology, bringing the stuff of other worlds back to Earth yields an incomparable return in scientific results.

  14. One world schoolhouse education reimagined

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Salman

    2013-01-01

    A free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere: this is the goal of the Khan Academy, a passion project that grew from an ex-engineer and hedge funder's online tutoring sessions with his niece, who was struggling with algebra, into a worldwide phenomenon. Today millions of students, parents, and teachers use the Khan Academy's free videos and software, which have expanded to encompass nearly every conceivable subject; and Academy techniques are being employed with exciting results in a growing number of classrooms around the globe. Like many innovators, Khan rethinks existing assumptions and imagines what education could be if freed from them. And his core idea - liberating teachers from lecturing and state-mandated calendars and opening up class time for truly human interaction - has become his life's passion. Schools seek his advice about connecting to students in a digital age, and people of all ages and backgrounds flock to the site to utilise this fresh approach to learning. In THE ONE WORLD SCHOOL...

  15. Cofactors in the RNA World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    RNA world theories figure prominently in many scenarios for the origin and early evolution of life. These theories posit that RNA molecules played a much larger role in ancient biology than they do now, acting both as the dominant biocatalysts and as the repository of genetic information. Many features of modern RNA biology are potential examples of molecular fossils from an RNA world, such as the pervasive involvement of nucleotides in coenzymes, the existence of natural aptamers that bind these coenzymes, the existence of natural ribozymes, a biosynthetic pathway in which deoxynucleotides are produced from ribonucleotides, and the central role of ribosomal RNA in protein synthesis in the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. Here, we uses both a top-down approach that evaluates RNA function in modern biology and a bottom-up approach that examines the capacities of RNA independent of modern biology. These complementary approaches exploit multiple in vitro evolution techniques coupled with high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Together these complementary approaches advance our understanding of the most primitive organisms, their early evolution, and their eventual transition to modern biochemistry.

  16. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  17. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  18. Multinational Corporations and World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Orac Camelia; Stefan Monica

    2010-01-01

    This paper is trying to illustrate the role of multinational corporations in the global economy and the result of the increase of the FDI share. The impact of multinational corporations in developing economies is based on the principles of economic efficiency and capacity of states to impose stricter regulation of corporations. Developing countries are forced to reduce restrictions on multinational corporations considering tax policy, labor factor and environment protection.

  19. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  20. World Climates and Food Supply Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, James E.; Pickett, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    This article contains an outline of the major variations in the world's climates and suggestions for taking these variations into account in any plans made to improve world food production and supply. (PEB)

  1. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  2. Learning in a technology enhanced world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Specht, M. (2009). Learning in a technology enhanced world. Invited talk given at the World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare & Higher Education. October, 27, 2009, Vancouver, Canada.

  3. INTEGRATION AND GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrin Caraganciu; Andronic Roman

    2008-01-01

    This article emphasizes some aspects regarding integrationist processes in world economy, as well as the phenomenon of globalization. Also, there are mentioned stages of world economy globalization, as well as problems referring to this phenomenon.

  4. World Ocean Database 2013 (NCEI Accession 0117075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the World’s largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  5. THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS AND LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Coggiola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fastly, the world economic crisis show its effects in Latin America. The text arises some of its main economic consequences. It is not a "regional contagion", but the conclusion of an unprecedent world integration of world capitalist economy. It´s a world crisis, in a real sense. It makes evident the historical and structural problems of Latin American economic framework.

  6. Russia in the World Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    resources, including surface and ground waters, for the territory and the population; precipitation; indicators of anthropogenic impact, such as population, water withdrawals, sewage waters, irrevocable consumption of water, data on flow regulation by reservoirs; the state of natural waters was estimated by comparison of the average long-term values of water resources with characteristics of anthropogenic impact, and economic efficiency of water use - by water and gross domestic product comparison. The objective of this paper was to give a general idea of the position of Russia in the world water management in the period of time. Further work on this subject is aimed at clarifying the indicators of water resources, human impact on them and the effectiveness of their use. Particular attention will be paid to the assessment of the impact of economic activity in the catchment on rivers and reservoirs. Such kind of assessment is necessary for achieving sustainable water supply in the near and distant future, raising living standards and preserving the environment. References: Koronkevich N.I., Zaytseva I.S., 2003. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Resources of Russia and Neighboring Countries at the end of XXth Century. Moscow, Nauka. Bibikova T., 2011 Comparative Analysis of Anthropogenic Impact on Water Resources in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the Post-Soviet Period. Water Res. Vol. 38 No. 5, 549-556.

  7. The Satirical Value of Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Imaginary worlds have been devised by artists and commentators for centuries to focus satirical attention on society's problems. The increasing sophistication of three-dimensional graphics software is generating comparable "virtual worlds" for educational usage. Can such worlds play a satirical role suggesting developments in distance…

  8. Ibn Battuta Mall: Edutaining the World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae Ho

    2010-01-01

    Nakheel, a Dubai World Company has created the world's largest themed mall based on the narrative of Ibn Battuta, a 14th century Muslim explorer whose world travels are well documented. The Ibn Battuta Mall is located in the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates and utilizes a communication strategy called edutainment: a neologistic…

  9. Collective Action Situated in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Bridget M.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time in the history of collective action, the offline world has experienced a virtually organized and enacted union strike. While this was the first publicly noticed political action in a virtual world, others have been going on for several years now. As virtual worlds continue to grow in popularity, this type of protest of action…

  10. Economic impact World Rowing Championships 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter Verhoogt; Marije de la Faille Deutekom

    2014-01-01

    Economische impact World Rowing Championships 2014 Van 24 tot 31 augustus 2014 vond op de Bosbaan in Amsterdam de World Rowing Championships (WRC) plaats. Met het oog op de verdere ontwikkeling van het evenement wil de World Rowing Federation (FISA inzicht krijgen in de economische impact van

  11. New World Order – Perspectives to Achieve

    OpenAIRE

    Albu Gina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we have treated several fundamental issues underlying a new world order of political and economic perspective. I made a brief foray into what about the prospects of creating a new world order and ways to implement it. new world order is a fundamental problem in the global economy..

  12. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  13. [Anemia in Third World children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, I; Vovor, A

    1989-10-21

    The number of persons suffering from anaemia in the world is estimated at fifty million to one billion. Most of these are children, since they are more vulnerable than adults as regards nutrition and they constitute the bulk of the population in developing countries. Depending on the region, the prevalence of anaemia among children varies from 15 to 25 p. 100 in Latin America and Indonesia and from 70 to 80 p. 100 in Africa south of the Sahara desert and in India. Anaemia results from multiple deficiencies simultaneously involving iron, folic acid and proteins. The responsibility of each of these deficiencies is difficult to determine and probably varies from one region to another. The causes of these deficiencies are multiple; they include insufficient intake, inadequate absorption, increased needs and excessive losses. The only efficient measure would be an improvement in the level of life.

  14. Catalysis in the Primordial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Raos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Catalysis provides orderly prebiotic synthesis and eventually its evolution into autocatalytic (self-reproduction systems. Research on homogeneous catalysis is concerned mostly with random peptide synthesis and the chances to produce catalytic peptide oligomers. Synthesis of ribose via formose reaction was found to be catalysed by B(OH4−, presumably released by weathering of borate minerals. Oxide and clay mineral surfaces provide catalytic sites for the synthesis of oligopeptides and oligonucleotides. Chemoautotrophic or iron-sulphur-world theory assumes that the first (pioneer organisms developed by catalytic processes on (Fe/NiS particles formed near/close hydrothermal vents. The review provides an overlay of possible catalytic reactions in prebiotic environment, discussing their selectivity (regioselectivity, stereoselectivity as well as geological availability of catalytic minerals and geochemical conditions enabling catalytic reactions on early Earth.

  15. Grand unified brane world scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masato; Blaschke, Filip; Eto, Minoru; Sakai, Norisuke

    2017-12-01

    We present a field theoretical model unifying grand unified theory (GUT) and brane world scenario. As a concrete example, we consider S U (5 ) GUT in 4 +1 dimensions where our 3 +1 dimensional spacetime spontaneously arises on five domain walls. A field-dependent gauge kinetic term is used to localize massless non-Abelian gauge fields on the domain walls and to assure the charge universality of matter fields. We find the domain walls with the symmetry breaking S U (5 )→S U (3 )×S U (2 )×U (1 ) as a global minimum and all the undesirable moduli are stabilized with the mass scale of MGUT. Profiles of massless standard model particles are determined as a consequence of wall dynamics. The proton decay can be exponentially suppressed.

  16. Shopping in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  17. World Congress on Engineering 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Gi-Chul; Gelman, Len

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents selected peer-reviewed, revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers who participated in the World Congress on Engineering 2015, held in London, UK, 1-3 July, 2015. This large international conference covered advances in engineering technologies and the physical sciences, with contributions on subjects including mechanical engineering, bioengineering, internet engineering, image engineering, wireless networks, knowledge engineering, manufacturing engineering, and industrial applications. This book offers a snapshot of the state-of-the-art, highlighting tremendous advances in engineering technologies and physical sciences and their applications, and will serve as an excellent reference for researchers and graduate students working in many different disciplines of physical sciences and engineering.

  18. EDITORIAL: MUSLIM WORLD CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has proofed its self as a very spectacular phenomenon until no one may deny its impacts, but on the other hand, it reflexively suggests localization of the global. In this context, religion is not exclusion. It remains believed however, that religion still has its formula for solving the problems that emerged from globalisation. Scholars have devoted attempts to propose new ideas for this challenge. Local interpretations of symbols representing “global” Islam, for instance, increasingly grow in line with the growth of Islamic revival. This has drawn very much attention and responses from Muslims, whether to protest against or support for the new idea. The present edition of the journal is designed to more deeply explore the current issues from Muslim world, whether as very local phenomena or in a more global context.

  19. India and The Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ivanovich Lounev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that Indian-Arab relations are very complex and are affected by many positive and negative factors. From a political point of view, the Middle East does not rank high in the priorities of India’s modern foreign policy. In the bipolar period, India tried to strengthen ties with all developing countries with the aim of becoming a leader of the South. In this respect, the region (especially Egypt in the 1950-1970s played a special role. Now India pays attention mainly to vital actors. Policy of non-interference in regional conflicts is typical for India. Delhi has focused on the developing of ties with the countries of the Persian Gulf, due mainly to economic reasons that are of primary importance to India. This subregion is a major supplier of hydrocarbons to India, that is extremely vital for further rapid economic growth of the country (oil and gas account for about a third of India’s imports. In addition to this, millions of Indian citizens live in the Persian Gulf, and India (due to them has become the world leader by the volume of migrant remittances. The largest semi-peripheral countries, among which India should be mentioned particularly, began to play a special role in the new world system. However, the politics of balancing is characteristic for India both on global level as well as on regional one. But a real great power (and the desire to obtain such high status was always the main goal for an Asian giant should demonstrate a clear vision of global and regional issues, play an active role and offer its own solution of different conflicts and contradictions.

  20. Culture collections over the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2003-06-01

    Culture collections have the crucial role of providing the authenticated biological material upon which high quality research is based. Importantly, they serve as repositories for strains as part of patent deposits, providers of safe and confidential services to store key organisms for research and industry, and sources of organisms cited in scientific papers that can be used in the confirmation of results and for further study. The demands upon culture collections change as new technologies and uses of organisms are discovered. Many are becoming Biological Resource Centres, as defined by the OECD Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative, in that they operate according to international quality criteria, carry out essential research, enhance the value and applications of strains and provide a vital information resource. In a changing international scientific environment, many collections are under threat of extinction because of inadequate funding, changing government support strategies and the cost of new technologies. We are also suffering a decline in the number of biosystematists, who are needed to form a sound base for molecular technologies and to aid in identifying, and characterizing microbial diversity. In this environment, collections must work together to make the best use of new technologies and to contribute to the description of the 1.4 million fungi yet to be discovered. At the current rate, this will take 700 years. New technologies and novel ways of funding this task must be engaged and, above all, scientists must collaborate. Common policies are necessary to address the regulatory demands on collections, to control access to dangerous organisms, and, in particular, to enforce the Convention on Biological Diversity. Countries that hold the majority of biodiversity require support in building the facilities required to explore their hidden resource. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) and, in Europe, the European Culture Collection

  1. Sustainable Development and World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadii Ursul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article points out that the progressive deterioration of the social and environmental situation on the planet and the emergence of the real threat of anthropo-ecological catastrophe necessitate the abandoning of the current model of civilizational development and the formation (first in theory and then in practice of an ultimately new one. This innovative strategy, which means taking account of the main socio-natural contradiction, is called a sustainable development strategy. This new form of civilizational development must become rationally governed on a planetary scale, thus providing the survival and temporal continuation of the existence of humans and biosphere. The authors regard sustainable development as a vitally important (later on - dominating orientation of international, political and global processes. This vision makes it crucially important to embed this conception into the proper scientific disciplines and research fields. The authors make use of the A.D. Bogaturov's conceptualization approach for the scientific discipline of world politics and consider the latter as an evolutionary form of global political development. The real global integrity of the world political system serves as a global attractor of this evolutionary transformation, and this aspect represents the specific pattern of all global processes. It is supposed that these processes will unfold through transition to sustainable development. The development of the global system of political actorship is considered a fundamental process within the growth of overall complexity of the global political structure. In the evolutionary sustainable development perspective it should result in the formation of an integral subject of global politics and global activity. The article shows that the dominating state-centric approach reproduces the political model of unsustainable development, which is characterized by archaic prerequisites of political realism, spontaneous

  2. Common aspirations of world women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B

    1996-02-01

    The comments of the Director of Foreign Affairs for the China State Family Planning Commission reflect satisfaction with the achievements at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It is posited that the historic documents from the conference reflect the common aspirations of all women in the world for equality, development, and peace. The conference's focus on social development for women has been translated in China into a "vigorous" IEC campaign. China is developing integrated approaches to family planning in rural areas. The approach aims to help rural women to become economically independent before achieving equality within the family and society. A National Conference on Integrated Programs was held in Sichuan province. Examples of integrated programs in Sichuan, Jilin, and Jiangsu were described for conference participants. The example is given of how poor rural women in Deyang Prefecture, Sichuan province, have received credit for income generation and access to skill development and literacy classes. Continuous economic and social development are important for achieving "poverty eradication and the liberation of women." Sustainable development involves use of resources, environmental protection, the reasonable change in consumption patterns, and transitional changes in modes of production. The concept of reproductive health means Chinese family planning workers must meet higher standards. Future plans include intensifying the IEC program in meeting the comprehensive biological, psychological, and social reproductive health needs of women. Respect must be given to the fertility intentions and reproductive rights of wives and husbands. "In China, voluntary choice of childbearing should be guided by the fertility policy formulated by the government." Training of family planning workers should be intensified to include training in public health, reproductive theory, contraception, and the techniques of interpersonal communication. Some provinces

  3. This-worldly and other-worldly: a holocaust pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin-Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This story is about a kind of pilgrimage, which is connected to the course of events which occurred in Częstochowa on 22 September 1942. In the morning, the German Captain Degenhardt lined up around 8,000 Jews and commanded them to step either to the left or to the right. This efficient judge from the police force in Leipzig was rapid in his decisions and he thus settled the destinies of thousands of people. After the Polish Defensive War of 1939, the town (renamed Tschenstochau had been occupied by Nazi Germany, and incorporated into the General Government. The Nazis marched into Częstochowa on Sunday, 3 September 1939, two days after they invaded Poland. The next day, which became known as Bloody Monday, approximately 150 Jews were shot deadby the Germans. On 9 April 1941, a ghetto for Jews was created. During World War II about 45,000 of the Częstochowa Jews were killed by the Germans; almost the entire Jewish community living there.The late Swedish Professor of Oncology, Jerzy Einhorn (1925–2000, lived in the borderhouse Aleja 14, and heard of the terrible horrors; a ghastliness that was elucidated and concretized by all the stories told around him. Jerzy Einhorn survived the ghetto, but was detained at the Hasag-Palcery concentration camp between June 1943 and January 1945. In June 2009, his son Stefan made a bus tour between former camps, together with Jewish men and women, who were on this pilgrimage for a variety of reasons. The trip took place on 22–28 June 2009 and was named ‘A journey in the tracks of the Holocaust’. Those on the Holocaust tour represented different ‘pilgrim-modes’. The focus in this article is on two distinct differences when it comes to creed, or conceptions of the world: ‘this-worldliness’ and ‘other- worldliness’. And for the pilgrims maybe such distinctions are over-schematic, though, since ‘sacral fulfilment’ can be seen ‘at work in all modern constructions of travel, including

  4. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  5. Development of transnational corporations in the world: opportunities and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra NICULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transnational corporations (TNCs are incorporated or unincorporated enterprises comprising parent enterprises and their foreign affiliates. Transnational Corporations exert a great deal of power in the globalized world economy. Many corporations are richer and more powerful than the states that seek to regulate them. Through mergers and acquisitions corporations have been growing very rapidly and some of the largest TNCs now have annual profits exceeding the GDPs of many low and medium income countries. TNCs dominate the global economy and exert their influence over global policymaking. Worldwide companies start the trend in many domains having a big range of competitors. Trade is an important development tool. Trade between developing and industrialized countries has expanded and borrowing from rich countries to the poor areas of this world increased. The links between these differing groups of economies intensified subsequently and made these two groups increasingly dependent from each other. TNCs based their activity around this idea. In this paper, we try to emphasize the role of the TNCs in the worldwide economy, the advantages and disadvantages these corporations bring to the countries they activate in and even to the entire world and what effect they have on globalization. Some opportunities and threats of TNS activity are presented, exemplifying through some well known corporations which succeded in this competitive world. The authors wanted in this way to show the positive and negative aspects of their performance and give the reader the opportunity to develop the own opinion.

  6. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of swords and armor: regulating the theft of virtual goods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arias, Andrea Vanina

    2008-01-01

    ... There is no longer a bright line between Massively-Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and reality. The more that virtual-world activities affect real-world economics and property interests, the more that virtual worlds will require legal regulation.3 A MMORPG is an online role-playing game in which a large number of players interact with one a...

  7. NASA World Wind: Infrastructure for Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The world has great need for analysis of Earth observation data, be it climate change, carbon monitoring, disaster response, national defense or simply local resource management. To best provide for spatial and time-dependent information analysis, the world benefits from an open standards and open source infrastructure for spatial data. In the spirit of NASA's motto "for the benefit of all" NASA invites the world community to collaboratively advance this core technology. The World Wind infrastructure for spatial data both unites and challenges the world for innovative solutions analyzing spatial data while also allowing absolute command and control over any respective information exchange medium.

  8. The Next World War: World-System Cycles and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chase-Dunn

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay places the contemporary period of global development in long-run historical perspective, elaborates a model of world-system cycles and trends, and discusses the main structural forces influencing the probability of future war among core powers. The possible continuation of the cycle of hegemonic rivalry is discussed in terms of the similarities and differences between the coming three decades and earlier periods in which a declining hegemon was challenged by upwardly mobile states. Possible bids for economic and political hegemony by Japan, Germany, China and the United States are discussed, as are the possibilities for different coalitions in East Asia and Europe. The phenomenon of bloc formation is discussed in a long-term perspective that includes earlier periods of colonial empire and "commonwealth." We conclude that there is a significantly high probability that warfare among core states could occur in the 2020s. The prospects for global state formation within the next three decades are considered. We recommend a combination of the build-up of U.N. peace-keeping forces and the continuation of U.S. military strength as the least worst and most feasible solution to the problem of avoiding nuclear holocaust in the 2020s.

  9. Effective doses, guidelines & regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have developed regulations or guidelines for cyanotoxins and cyanobacteria in drinking water, and in some cases in water used for recreational activity and agriculture. The main focus internationally has been upon microcystin toxins, produced predominantly by Microcystis aeruginosa. This is because microcystins are widely regarded as the most significant potential source of human injury from cyanobacteria on a world-wide scale. Many international guidelines have taken their lead from the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional guideline of 1 microg L(-1) for microcystin-LR in drinking-water released in 1998 (WHO 2004). The WHO guideline value is stated as being 'provisional', because it covers only microcystin-LR, for reasons that the toxicology is limited and new data for toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins are being generated. The derivation of this guideline is based upon data that there is reported human injury related to consumption of drinking water containing cyanobacteria, or from limited work with experimental animals. It was also recognised that at present the human evidence for microcystin tumor promotion is inadequate and animal evidence is limited. As a result the guideline is based upon the model of deriving a Tolerable Daily intake (TDI) from an animal study No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL), with the application of appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. The resultant WHO guideline by definition is the concentration of a toxin that does not result in any significant risk to health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption. Following the release of this WHO provisional guideline many countries have either adopted it directly (e.g., Czech Republic, France, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Brazil and Spain), or have adopted the same animal studies, TDI and derivation convention to arrive at slight variants based upon local requirements (e.g., Australia, Canada). Brazil currently has the most

  10. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  11. Analysing the World Population: Using Population Pyramids and "If the World Were a Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniglia, Joanne; Leapard, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The book "If the World Were a Village," by David J. Smith, is the context for analysing and creating graphs of the world's demographic information. Students examine numerical information regarding the more than six billion world inhabitants by imagining the world's population as 100 people.

  12. World Views, a Story about How the World Works: Their Significance in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum Cross-curriculum priorities and the Australian Curriculum: Geography both include the term "world views." The meaning of world views, the development of world views as part of the history of geographic thought, and the adoption world of views by teachers and students, affect the ways in which geography is taught…

  13. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. The world's smallest whale population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Paul R.; Kennedy, Amy; LeDuc, Rick; Barlow, Jay; Carretta, Jim; Shelden, Kim; Perryman, Wayne; Pitman, Robert; Robertson, Kelly; Rone, Brenda; Salinas, Juan Carlos; Zerbini, Alexandre; Brownell, Robert L.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2011-01-01

    The North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) was heavily exploited by both nineteenth century whaling and recent (1960s) illegal Soviet catches. Today, the species remains extremely rare especially in the eastern North Pacific. Here, we use photographic and genotype data to calculate the first mark–recapture estimates of abundance for right whales in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. The estimates were very similar: photographic = 31 (95% CL 23–54), genotyping = 28 (95% CL 24–42). We also estimated the population contains eight females (95% CL 7–18) and 20 males (95% CL 17–37). Although these estimates may relate to a Bering Sea subpopulation, other data suggest that the total eastern North Pacific population is unlikely to be much larger. Its precarious status today—the world's smallest whale population for which an abundance estimate exists—is a direct consequence of uncontrolled and illegal whaling, and highlights the past failure of international management to prevent such abuses. PMID:20591853

  15. Democratizing the world health organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, R; van Schaik, L G

    2014-02-01

    A progressive erosion of the democratic space appears as one of the emerging challenges in global health today. Such delimitation of the political interplay has a particularly evident impact on the unique public interest function of the World Health Organization (WHO). This paper aims to identify some obstacles for a truly democratic functioning of the UN specialized agency for health. The development of civil society's engagement with the WHO, including in the current reform proposals, is described. The paper also analyses how today's financing of the WHO--primarily through multi-bi financing mechanisms--risks to choke the agency's role in global health. Democratizing the public debate on global health, and therefore the role of the WHO, requires a debate on its future role and engagement at the country level. This desirable process can only be linked to national debates on public health, and the re-definition of health as a primary political and societal concern. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ageing world: Health care challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world population reached 7 billion in 2012, which is 6 billion more than in 1800. This remarkable population growth is the result of several factors like advances in the medical, technological and public health systems resulting in the control and treatment of communicable diseases, the control of pandemics, the end of large-scale wars, improvements in living conditions and the revolutions in the field of agriculture. Because of all these factors, there has been a considerable improvement in the life expectancy of human beings. There is also an alarming reduction in fertility rates. The combination of declining fertility rate and augmented life expectancies has led to a change in the demographics of the population with the strata of older individuals growing faster than the younger individuals. The aging of populations is poised to become the next global public health challenge. Advances in medicine and socioeconomic development have substantially reduced mortality and morbidity rates due to infectious conditions and, to some extent, non-communicable diseases. These demographic and epidemiological changes, coupled with rapid urbanization, modernization, globalization, and accompanying changes in risk factors and lifestyles, have increased the prominence of chronic non-infective conditions. Health systems need to find effective strategies to extend health care and to respond to the needs of older adults. This review highlights the pathophysiology of aging, biological and physiological changes, impact of aging on health, epidemiological transitions, multi-morbidity in elderly and challenges for health care system.

  17. Happy World IPv6 Day!

    CERN Multimedia

    Adrian Giordani (iSGTW)

    2011-01-01

    Almost 20 years after Tim Berners-Lee posted a summary of his World Wide Web project on the newsgroup, there are more than two billion users worldwide, and billions more web pages. It has transformed the way we socialize, conduct business, and even changed the way we do science. But unfortunately, the number of available Internet addresses has not grown at the same place to accommodate these changes.   The number of Internet addresses is fixed because of the way the Internet operates: data is routed through the Internet in packets that use numeric addresses to encode its origin and its destination. The layer of communication at this level is called Internet Protocol (IP), originally developed by Vint Cerf, a program manager at the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and now Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist of Google, USA, and member of numerous boards including as Commissioner for the Broadband Commission for Digital Development in 2010. IPv4 addresses, w...

  18. LEDs light up the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, N.

    2004-06-30

    A lighting system using light-emitting diodes, and privately financed by a Canadian engineering professor at the University of Calgary, has been set up in a village in Nepal in 2000. Since then, through the efforts of the 'Light Up The World' Foundation, established by Dr. Irvine-Halliday, projects have lit up thousands of homes in the Philippines, India, Afghanistan, the Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Angola. Although the goal of the project is primarily to provide lighting for reading and writing for school-children, the project has been the source of many other advantages; creation of enterprise, increased employment, enhanced income, gender equality, and improvements in health and safety among them. Since LED lamps in most cases replace kerosene lamps, the system also has significant environmental benefits. The system as originally envisioned creates electricity by pedal-powered generator, or by solar panels connected to a battery, depending on what is available at each home. Each home is connected to the power supply and supplied with low-energy diode lamps. The lights are extremely efficient and many homes can be equipped with them using less energy than it takes to power a single 100-watt light bulb. 5 photos.

  19. Out of this world and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  20. Tomorrow's world starts with mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1990-05-01

    In the Third World millions of malnourished, overworked women and girls are excluded from the circles of power, and they are out of touch with the other half of humanity approaching 5 billion. In the villages of South Asia they face poverty, constant toil, and continual pregnancies. The plight of those women is an scathing indictment on how these societies value their female citizens. There can be no long-term development anywhere on this planet unless women are fully involved in the design of the societies. To be involved they must be healthy, respected citizens. The centrality members is not clearly enough understood or recognized. Maternal mortality is too often the end-result of a life diminished by discrimination from the moment of birth to early marriage. If women are to be healthy they must have increased access to education, training, credit, health care, and legal protection. The poorer women are, the more vulnerable they are to exploitation from unfair labor practices, prostitution, and physical violence. In Peru, 70% of all crimes reported comprise women beaten by their partners. In India, police recorded 1,786 dowry deaths in 1987, but a women's action group estimates the figure is over 1000 in Gujarat state alone. Women must be brought into the mainstream of our societies. One way of doing so is to use the model of the Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women adopted by the UN General Assembly 10 years ago that gives legal guidelines to enhance women's rights and status.

  1. Penguins and their noisy world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Penguins identify their mate or chick by an acoustic signal, the display call. This identification is realized in a particularly constraining environment: the noisy world of a colony of thousands of birds. To fully understand how birds solve this problem of communication, we have done observations, acoustic analysis, propagation and playback experiments with 6 species of penguins studied in the field. According to our results, it appears that penguins use a particularly efficient ''anti-confusion'' and ''anti-noise'' coding system, allowing a quick identification and localization of individuals on the move in a noisy crowd.Os pingüins identificam seu parceiro ou seu filhote através de um sinal acústico, o grito de exibição. Esta identificação está realizada num ambiente particularmente exigente: o mundo barulhento de uma colônia de milhares de aves. Para entender totalmente como essas aves resolvem este problema de comunicação, realizamos observações, análises acústicas e experiências de propagação e de ''play-back'' com 6 espécies de pingüins estudados no campo. Segundo nossos resultados, parece que os pingüins usam um sistema de codificação ''anti-confusão'' e ''anti-barulho'' particularmente eficiente, permitindo uma rápida identificação e localização dos indivíduos em movimento numa multidão barulhenta.

  2. World Population Day special symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This article describes Japan's celebration of World Population Day, and provides excerpts from speeches at the symposium held on July 8, 1998. The symposium, in Tokyo, was attended by about 300 people. The Chairman of JOICFP gave the opening address. The executive director of UNFPA congratulated Japan for its efforts in the field of population awareness and noted Japan's self-sufficiency despite its importation of 40% of its food and most of its raw materials. A keynote address was delivered by the president of CPE and the former UN Secretary General, who stressed income inequities in the 66% of developing countries within the 185 UN member states. The UN has been promoting sustainable development, but is facing the issue of limited arable land and population growth. The Tutsi and Hutus are fighting due to population based issues. The emphasis should be on women's reproductive rights and protection of women's human rights. 1998 is the 50th year of human rights; progress has been made. The UNFPA Goodwill Ambassador spoke about the disparity between the rich and poor in the Philippines. A small donation reaps incredible progress. Manila has high levels of adolescent childbearing. Men appear to be unaware of the disadvantages of childbearing too early. Rural areas are dominated by strict Roman Catholic beliefs. Manila has commercial sex workers who provide services to Japanese men. The 1998 Kato Award was given to women who raised awareness about coercion in the sex trade and female genital mutilation. The economic situation in Japan creates even greater need to promote family planning and reproductive health.

  3. Constructing the World and Locating Oneself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagin, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In Our Knowledge of the Internal World, Robert Stalnaker describes two opposed perspectives on the relation between the internal and the external. According to one, the internal world is taken as given and the external world as problematic, and according to the other, the external world is taken as given and the internal world as problematic. Analytic philosophy moved from the former to the latter, from problems of world-construction to problems of self-locating beliefs. I argue in this paper that these problems are equivalent: both arise because experience and objective, external facts jointly underdetermine their relation. Both can be seen as a problem of expressive completeness; of the internal language in the former case, and of the non-indexical language in the second.

  4. Deploying Embodied AI into Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, David J. H.

    The last two years have seen the start of commercial activity within virtual worlds. Unlike computer games where Non-Player-Character avatars are common, in most virtual worlds they are the exception — and until recently in Second Life they were non-existent. However there is real commercial scope for Als in these worlds — in roles from virtual sales staff and tutors to personal assistants. Deploying an embodied AI into a virtual world offers a unique opportunity to evaluate embodied Als, and to develop them within an environment where human and computer are on almost equal terms. This paper presents an architecture being used for the deployment of chatbot driven avatars within the Second Life virtual world, looks at the challenges of deploying an AI within such a virtual world, the possible implications for the Turing Test, and identifies research directions for the future.

  5. Intermediality, Translation, Comparative Literature, and World Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlumpf, Erin; Schlumpf, Erin

    2011-01-01

    In her article "Intermediality, Translation, Comparative Literature, and World Literature" Erin Schlumpf postulates that the study of literature today is best performed in a framework of comparative...

  6. Online worlds as media and communication format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Digital media and network communication technology have not changed this setup, but rather have opened the possibility for encountering and experiencing additional types of worlds and performing additional types of spatial practices. Being situated online and being globally networked...... with the possibility of both synchronous and asynchronous communication, digitally mediated worlds provide possible interactions between users which are radically more independent of time and place than the ones facilitated by older media. From this perspective, the concept of online worlds both challenges...... and broadens our understanding of how media shape the world and how the media technology creates new social structures...

  7. Revisiting tourist behavior via destination brand worldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kayak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking tourists’ perspective rather than destination offerings as its core concept, this study introduces “perceived destination brand worldness” as a variable. Perceived destination brand worldness is defined as the positive perception that a tourist has of a country that is visited by tourists from all over the world. Then, the relationship between perceived destination brand worldness and intention to revisit is analyzed using partial least squares regression. This empirical study selects Taiwanese tourists as its sample, and the results show that perceived destination brand worldness is a direct predictor of intention to revisit. In light of these empirical findings and observations, practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  8. Anthropogenic Biomes of the World, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Biomes of the World Dataset, Version 1 describes globally- significant ecological patterns within the terrestrial biosphere caused by sustained...

  9. Opening Innovation in Regulation Inside Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Rasmus Koss; Hienerth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    of regulation and typology of four forms of user involvement based on the available public management literature. Second, we develop a model of the costs of regulation. We then analyze scenarios of how these four forms can contribute to reducing regulatory costs. We find that user innovation can contribute both......, however, has been critiqued for resulting in high levels of compliance costs throughout public sector organizations. Concurrently, we show that it has also generally been dominated by a closed and regulator-centered model of innovative development. In this paper, we develop first a concept of user......A marked increase in regulation inside government has been a defining feature of public management reform in throughout the Western world over the past thirty years, making regulatory innovation one of the most important forms of innovation in the public sector. The process of regulatory innovation...

  10. Stringency of environmental regulation and aquaculture growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Tveterås, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    During the last three decades, aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal-food-producing sector in the world, accounting for half of the present seafood supply. However, there is a significant growth disparity among aquaculture-producing countries. The reasons why some countries have achieved...... remarkable growth in aquaculture while others have stagnated or even declined have not been determined. In this article, we investigate whether environmental regulations have an impact on aquaculture growth. Using a cross-country regression analysis, we show that stringent environmental regulations...... are negatively related to aquaculture growth, whereas GDP growth has a positive effect. Countries often face a difficult balancing act between growth and environmental considerations when devising regulations. Our empirical results suggest that stricter environmental regulations in developed countries have...

  11. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  12. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Real-World Evidence, Public Participation, and the FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2017-11-01

    For observers of pharmaceutical regulation and the Food and Drug Administration, these are uncertain times. Events in late 2016 raised concerns that the FDA's evidentiary standards were being weakened, compromising the agency's ability to adequately perform its regulatory and public health responsibilities. Two developments most directly contributed to these fears-the approval of eteplirsen, a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, against the recommendations of both FDA staff and an advisory committee and the December 2016 signing of the 21st Century Cures Act, which encouraged greater use by the FDA of "real-world" evidence not obtained through randomized controlled trials. The arrival of the Trump administration-with its deregulatory, industry-friendly approach-has only amplified concerns over the future of the FDA. It is too early to know whether the recent developments are truly harbingers of an FDA less likely to prevent unsafe or ineffective products from reaching the market. But elements in the two events-the role of patient narratives in deliberations regarding eteplirsen and the enthusiasm for real-world evidence in the 21st Century Cures Act-raise critical issues for the future of evidence in the FDA's work. The rigorous, inclusive approach under way to consider issues related to real-world evidence provides a model for a similarly needed inquiry regarding public participation in FDA decision-making. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  14. Cross-correlations and influence in world gold markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) coefficient and the detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA) coefficient, we investigate cross-correlations and net cross-correlations among five major world gold markets (London, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Mumbai) at different time scales. We propose multiscale influence measures for examining the influence of individual markets on other markets and on the entire system. We find (i) that the cross-correlations, net cross-correlations, and net influences among the five gold markets vary across time scales, (ii) that the cross-market correlation between London and New York at each time scale is intense and inherent, meaning that the influence of other gold markets on the London-New York market is negligible, (iii) that the remaining cross-market correlations (i.e., those other than London-New York) are greatly affected by other gold markets, and (iv) that the London gold market significantly affects the other four gold markets and dominates the world-wide gold market. Our multiscale findings give market participants and market regulators new information on cross-market linkages in the world-wide gold market.

  15. Musical affect regulation in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. God and the World of Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johanne Stubbe T

    2016-01-01

    Review of Robinson, Andrew (Andrew John Nottage). God and the world of signs: Trinity, evolution, and the metaphysical semiotics of C. S. Peirce. Publisher: Leiden: Brill, 2010. ISBN: 9789004187993......Review of Robinson, Andrew (Andrew John Nottage). God and the world of signs: Trinity, evolution, and the metaphysical semiotics of C. S. Peirce. Publisher: Leiden: Brill, 2010. ISBN: 9789004187993...

  17. World Summit embraces Open Access, libraries

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaser, D

    2004-01-01

    "The long-anticipated "first phase" meeting of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva in December, was supposed to have been about equal access. It turned out being equally about open access as leading scientific organizations pushed their open-access initiative onto the World Summit agenda" (1 page)

  18. Myth and Other Norms in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the Thule Case at the Danish Supreme Court as an example of normativity in world society. Here norms, which may turn out to be important in world society could be myths of several kinds such as 'narrative normativity'. One myth may be that of (exclusive) sovereignty...

  19. Strategy implications of world gas market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.

    2011-01-01

    Global trends – past and future – of world natural gas consumption, production, reserves, and prices are highlighted here analyzing the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011, the BP Energy Outlook 2011, and the latest natural gas data from the world’s major energy agencies. Growing demand and

  20. Against ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations''

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    The paper entitled ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations'' by A. Kent, which has recently been submitted to the e-Print archive (gr-qc/9703089) contained some misconceptions. The claims on Everett's many-worlds interpretation are quoted and answered.

  1. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9001 of July 25, 2013 World Hepatitis Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year, we mark World Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis is a major cause of liver cancer and...

  2. The ribosome challenge to the RNA world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jessica C; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2015-04-01

    An RNA World that predated the modern world of polypeptide and polynucleotide is one of the most widely accepted models in origin of life research. In this model, the translation system shepherded the RNA World into the extant biology of DNA, RNA, and protein. Here, we examine the RNA World Hypothesis in the context of increasingly detailed information available about the origins, evolution, functions, and mechanisms of the translation system. We conclude that the translation system presents critical challenges to RNA World Hypotheses. Firstly, a timeline of the RNA World is problematic when the ribosome is incorporated. The mechanism of peptidyl transfer of the ribosome appears distinct from evolved enzymes, signaling origins in a chemical rather than biological milieu. Secondly, we have no evidence that the basic biochemical toolset of life is subject to substantive change by Darwinian evolution, as required for the transition from the RNA world to extant biology. Thirdly, we do not see specific evidence for biological takeover of ribozyme function by protein enzymes. Finally, we can find no basis for preservation of the ribosome as ribozyme or the universality of translation, if it were the case that other information transducing ribozymes, such as ribozyme polymerases, were replaced by protein analogs and erased from the phylogenetic record. We suggest that an updated model of the RNA World should address the current state of knowledge of the translation system.

  3. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  4. The State of the World's Children 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report on the well-being of the world's children focuses on the issue of child labor and its impact on children's lives. Chapter 1 provides a historical context for children's rights and highlights the need to guarantee the civil, social, economic, and political rights of children. The chapter shows how the world's course toward peace,…

  5. The Mathematical State of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Ravn; Skovsmose, Ole; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    In this article we try to analyse the conditions for describing the world mathematically. We consider the role played by mathematics in discussing and analysing “the state of the world.” We use this discussion to clarify what it means to use a mathematical description. We illustrate why...

  6. 77 FR 68043 - World Freedom Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8903 of November 9, 2012 World Freedom Day..., 2012, as World Freedom Day. I call upon the people of the United States to observe this day with... WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of November, in the year of our Lord two thousand...

  7. World Studies through a Comparative Constitutional Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of understanding the development of democracy around the world by comparative study of constitutions. Uses the development of the Japanese constitution after World War II as a case study. Describes the work of the team appointed by General Douglas MacArthur and the significance of the clause guaranteeing equal rights for…

  8. Analysis of Population Dynamics in World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gress

    2011-01-01

    Population dynamics is an important topic in current world economy. The size and growth of population have an impact on economic growth and development of individual countries and vice versa, economic development influences demographic variables in a country. The aim of the article is to analyze historical development of world population, population stock change and relations between population stock change and economic development.

  9. Brane-world cosmology and inflation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This brane-world scenario is quite attractive because of the non-trivial geometry in the bulk and because it successfully gives four-dimensional general relativity in the low energy limit. After reviewing basic features of the RS2 scenario, we consider a brane-world inflation model driven by the dynamics of a scalar field living ...

  10. Soccer jersey sponsors and the world cup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.; Ferwerda, J.

    2014-01-01

    The market for soccer jerseys is a multibillion market dominated by Adidas, Nike and Puma. This paper investigates whether jersey sponsorship has a non-arbitrary effect on the outcomes of World Cup knockout matches. The results show that in the knockout stages of the last four World Cup tournaments,

  11. Guinness World Records: Presenting certificates to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rao, Achintya

    2014-01-01

    The latest edition of the Guinness Book of World Records features CERN, crediting the CMS and ATLAS collaborations for the first observation of a Higgs boson. On 20 August, representatives of Guinness World Records visit CERN to hand over certificates for the record.

  12. The World Needs a New Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The author proposes that today's existing, world-wide curriculum--based on offering roughly the same math, language arts, science, and social studies to all--is not what is required for the future, and is hurting rather than helping the world's students. Math, language arts, science, and social studies, he argues, are really "proxies"…

  13. Management van World-Wide Web Servers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, F.P.H.; Pras, Aiko

    1996-01-01

    Het World Wide Web is een populaire Internet toepassing waarmee het mogelijk is documenten aan willekeurige Internet gebruikers aan te bieden. Omdat hiervoor nog geen voorzieningen zijn getroffen, was het tot voor kort niet goed mogelijk het World Wide Web op afstand te beheren. De Universiteit

  14. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  15. Plants and Medicines. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  16. The Promise of AP World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Cristóbal T.

    2013-01-01

    AP World History is the ideal history course. It introduces students to 10,000 years of world history, and demands critical reading, critical writing, and critical thinking skills on the part of both the teacher and the students. It requires students to build their expertise in reading their textbook, and places demands on the teacher to assign…

  17. Teaching about Women in World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the subject of teaching about women in world history in K-12 schools and in programs of social studies teacher education. It includes a review of the place of gender in teaching about world history to current and future teachers at Teachers College, Columbia University. This informal research serves as the platform for a set…

  18. World History, Liberal Arts, and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Carey A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the role that world history might play in reshaping the liberal arts to better serve a twenty-first-century world that is increasingly interconnected, plural, and "globalized." While "Western civ" courses and perspectives are much less influential today than they were in the first seven decades of the…

  19. Teaching World Englishes via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Martin Jonghak; Shim, Rosa Jinyoung

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Internet in developing English language teaching materials in the context of world Englishes and describes a course titled "Sojourn to World Englishes" that was offered to students majoring in English at Open Cyber University of Korea. (Author/VWL)

  20. Integrativeness: Untenable for World Englishes Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee-van Rooy, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Kachru (1988) and Sridhar and Sridhar (1992) argue that the spread of English as a world language increases the types of context in which English is learnt today. The sociolinguistic realities of world Englishes learners today challenge the validity of some second-language acquisition theories. One of the theoretical limitations of existing…

  1. World Food Prospects for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses world hunger issues and the increasing world population. Sees continued imbalance between supply and demand. Points out Europe and the United States are dealing with surplus production, whereas developing nations continue to import needed food. Argues solving hunger problems requires eliminating poverty through development programs.…

  2. Bifurcated World of African Nationalist Historiography | Awasom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideological ammunition to combat colonialism in the Anglophone world was packaged and championed by the Ibadan School of History while in the Francophone world a similar task fell on the Dakar School of History. But the colonial iron curtain kept these two schools apart and even in the postcolony they are still ...

  3. Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…

  4. Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic…

  5. Experiences of Two UNESCO World Heritage Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevren, Lai; Ooi, Can-Seng

    This paper critically examines the relationship between federal and local‐state level governments in interpreting and presenting the World Heritage brand at two Malaysian World Heritage sites, George Town and Melaka. The World Heritage status is internationally recognised. Although the World...... Heritage brand offers many advantages in tourism development and destination marketing, what and how the local heritage is conserved, interpreted and appreciated remains open. This article shows that the mechanisms of interpreting and presenting the WH status vary according to the agendas and needs...... of authorities. This working paper also shows that material heritage and heritage stories are highly politicized, and the World Heritage recognition has inevitably become a tool for further ideological intentions....

  6. A local-world evolving hypernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Complex hypernetworks are ubiquitous in the real system. It is very important to investigate the evolution mechanisms. In this paper, we present a local-world evolving hypernetwork model by taking into account the hyperedge growth and local-world hyperedge preferential attachment mechanisms. At each time step, a newly added hyperedge encircles a new coming node and a number of nodes from a randomly selected local world. The number of the selected nodes from the local world obeys the uniform distribution and its mean value is m. The analytical and simulation results show that the hyperdegree approximately obeys the power-law form and the exponent of hyperdegree distribution is γ = 2 + 1/m. Furthermore, we numerically investigate the node degree, hyperedge degree, clustering coefficient, as well as the average distance, and find that the hypernetwork model shares the scale-free and small-world properties, which shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the real systems.

  7. Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Diane; Oliver, Martin; Burn, Andrew

    What might online communities and informal learning practices teach us about virtual world pedagogy? In this chapter we describe a research project in which learning practices in online worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second LifeTM (SL) were investigated. Working within an action research framework, we employed a range of methods to investigate how members of online communities define the worlds they encounter, negotiate the terms of participation, and manage the incremental complexity of game worlds. The implications of such practices for online pedagogy were then explored through teaching in SL. SL eludes simple definitions. Users, or "residents", of SL partake of a range of pleasures and activities - socialising, building, creating and exhibiting art, playing games, exploring, shopping, or running a business, for instance. We argue that the variable nature of SL gives rise to degrees of ambiguity. This ambiguity impacts on inworld social practices, and has significant implications for online teaching and learning.

  8. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  9. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, R. A. C.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.

  10. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R.A.C. [CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy. (orig.)

  11. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R. A. C., E-mail: fis04132@gmail.com [CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-02

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.

  12. World ocean atlas 2001 [electronic resource]: World ocean atlas 2001 figures : objective analyses and statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    World ocean atlas 2001 (WOA01) is an update of World ocean atlas 1998. WOA01 expands on WOA98 with the addition of the monthly nutrients fields and the introduction of annual and seasonal zooplankton biomass fields...

  13. Supranational Infrastructure Regulation: Institutional Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Estache; Liam Wren-Lewis

    2012-01-01

    As regions around the world are considering increased integration of key energy, transport or other infrastructure networks, issues build in the design of the supranational national regulation needed in that context are increasingly well recognized. Solutions are however slow to emerge. This paper reviews the challenges and discusses the directions suggested by theory to address these challenges. It highlight the potentially counterproductive effects of common standard policy recommendations ...

  14. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  15. Regulating through leverage: Civil regulation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürst, K.

    2016-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study is to examine the efforts of Chinese NGOs to prevent and/or control industrial pollution risks and then use the findings of this research to study the nature of civil regulation in, and beyond, China’s authoritarian setting. It first argues that 'regulation through

  16. The world solution for world problems : the problem, its cause, its solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, L.

    2002-01-01

    The book discusses the main world problem of today, which is the gradual, but lethal change of the soil and atmosphere, the main cause, which is the world-wide overpopulation, and the main solution, which is world government by lottocracy. It is a recipe for the solution of the one and only problem

  17. Latinamerican, Mercosur and imported countries regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Cea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins attract worldwide attention because of the significant economic losses associated with their impact on human health, animal production and both domestic and international trade. Those mycotoxins that are currently considered to be worldwide  importance are aflatoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin (Coker, 2000. The knowledge that mycotoxins can have serious effects on humans and animals has led many countries to establish regulations on mycotoxins in food and feed in the last decades to safeguard the health of humans, as well as the economical interests of producers and traders. Setting mycotoxin regulations is a complex activity which involves many factors and interested parties. In 1995, 23 percent of the world's inhabitants were living in a region where no known mycotoxin regulations were in force. This percentage had decreased to 13 percent in 2003, due to a slight increase in coverage in Latin America and Europe, and more significant increases in Africa and Asia/Oceania.The major Latin American agricultural crops (maize, wheat, coffee, cotton, soybeans, barley, sunflower, groundnuts and tree nuts, cocoa and dairy products are highly susceptible to fungal contamination and mycotoxin production (Pineiro, 2004. Nineteen countries, accounting for 91 percent of the population of the region, were known to have specific mycotoxin regulations. Uruguay has the most detailed regulations, including limits for ergot alkaloids in feeds, which is rather unique in the mycotoxin regulatory world. The same for deoxynivalenol in wheat products and barley products.MERCOSUR consists of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. These countries apply common limits for total aflatoxins in peanuts, maize and products thereof, and for aflatoxin M1 in fluid and powdered milk. The MERCOSUR regulations for mycotoxins also include official methods of sampling and analysis. In Europe, approximately 99 percent of the continent

  18. Combinatorial Gene Regulation Using Auto-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Rutger; Ursem, Bas; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2010-01-01

    As many as 59% of the transcription factors in Escherichia coli regulate the transcription rate of their own genes. This suggests that auto-regulation has one or more important functions. Here, one possible function is studied. Often the transcription rate of an auto-regulator is also controlled by additional transcription factors. In these cases, the way the expression of the auto-regulator responds to changes in the concentrations of the “input” regulators (the response function) is obviously affected by the auto-regulation. We suggest that, conversely, auto-regulation may be used to optimize this response function. To test this hypothesis, we use an evolutionary algorithm and a chemical–physical model of transcription regulation to design model cis-regulatory constructs with predefined response functions. In these simulations, auto-regulation can evolve if this provides a functional benefit. When selecting for a series of elementary response functions—Boolean logic gates and linear responses—the cis-regulatory regions resulting from the simulations indeed often exploit auto-regulation. Surprisingly, the resulting constructs use auto-activation rather than auto-repression. Several design principles show up repeatedly in the simulation results. They demonstrate how auto-activation can be used to generate sharp, switch-like activation and repression circuits and how linearly decreasing response functions can be obtained. Auto-repression, on the other hand, resulted only when a high response speed or a suppression of intrinsic noise was also selected for. The results suggest that, while auto-repression may primarily be valuable to improve the dynamical properties of regulatory circuits, auto-activation is likely to evolve even when selection acts on the shape of response function only. PMID:20548950

  19. Searching for the New World Monetary Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkhanov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the influence of the existing world currency system on the international financial relations is considered, the retrospective analysis of the existing four currency systems is carried out. The change of a world currency order is justified. The concept of the new international currency standard based on division of functions of money between separate financial instruments of one currency is offered. The functional communications between financial instruments are revealed. The comparison of function of money and independent tools of new world currency is carried out, it is supposed that tools are actually completely capable to carry out all functions of money. Therefore, the new international currency standard is based on division of these functions between separate tools and can be defined as polytool. The general function chart of the polytool world currency standard including their functional connections between reserve tool, reverse tool and credit as well as their characteristics which should determine the activity of world reserve system. Prerequisites of replacement of the Jamaican currency system by the alternative are proved; the most perspective way of transition to the polytool standard is revealed; the additional functions of the polytool standard are designated – stimulation of issuers of the leading world currencies to refuse harmful policy of competitive devaluation, stimulation of integration of the countries and creation of collective currencies (currency zones and associations that will significantly increase financial stability of world economy.

  20. Regulating fisheries under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Regulator uncertainty is decisive for whether price or quantity regulation maximizes welfare in fisheries. In this paper, we develop a model of fisheries regulation that includes ecological uncertainly, variable economic uncertainty as well as structural economic uncertainty. We aggregate...... qualification of the pro-price regulation message dominating the fisheries economics literature. We also believe that the model of a fishery developed in this paper could be applied to the regulation of other renewable resources where regulators are subject to uncertainty either directly or with some...

  1. World Oil Prices and Indonesia Macroeconomic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ichsandimas W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to look at the relation and contribution value, while the impact of world oil price on the macroeconomic Indonesian form 1980 to 2010. This Study used Vector Auto Regression (VAR method and tool of VAR used are Impulse Response Function (IRF and Variance Decomposition. The results of study finds a positive relation and statistically significant impact of world oil price on inflation and real GDP Indonesian, but not significant and negative relation on real exchange rates. World oil price has contribution value on the inflation, real exchange rates, Indonesia real GDP after first period.

  2. The Dark side of World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Abstract. This article presents a critical reading of the state of ‘the other’ in MMOGs in this case World of Warcraft (WoW) through an investigation of how relationships between players change along with changes in the general spatial design of the overall game world design. This investigation...... as embedded in architectural layout of game world. The ‘look’ of the other can emanate from buildings as Sartre points out in Being and Nothingness or as Michel Foucault teaches us in Discipline and Punish (1995) when he describes how ‘the look’ works as a social disciplining power embedded...

  3. World port cities as cosmopolitan risk community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Tschötschel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Extending Ulrich Beck’s theory of world risk society, this article traces the emergence of a cosmopolitan risk community of world port cities in Europe and East Asia, constituted around shared imaginations of the global risks and opportunities of climate change. Such urban risk imaginations...... indication of this cosmopolitan risk community, in terms of the timing, intensity, priorities and modes of government manifested in the climate policy engagements of 16 major world port cities across the regions of Europe and East Asia. The substantial similarities in such policy engagements, we conclude...

  4. 1. World Orders, Old and New1

    OpenAIRE

    Chomsky, Noam

    2016-01-01

    What I want to do today is to focus attention on the current scene, but also on its origins, which I think are important for understanding it. So, I want to talk about the world order that arose from the ashes of the Second World War, which is when the current system was established, pretty much in its present form. Perhaps it would be more accurate to say that the world order that was constructed from the ruins of that catastrophe was to an unusual extent (maybe to a unique extent) the produ...

  5. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  6. World knowledge affects prediction as quickly as selectional restrictions: Evidence from the visual world paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Evelyn; Warren, Tessa; Dickey, Michael Walsh

    There has been considerable debate regarding the question of whether linguistic knowledge and world knowledge are separable and used differently during processing or not (Hagoort, Hald, Bastiaansen, & Petersson, 2004; Matsuki et al., 2011; Paczynski & Kuperberg, 2012; Warren & McConnell, 2007; Warren, McConnell, & Rayner, 2008). Previous investigations into this question have provided mixed evidence as to whether violations of selectional restrictions are detected earlier than violations of world knowledge. We report a visual-world eye-tracking study comparing the timing of facilitation contributed by selectional restrictions versus world knowledge. College-aged adults (n=36) viewed photographs of natural scenes while listening to sentences. Participants anticipated upcoming direct objects similarly regardless of whether facilitation was provided by only world knowledge or a combination of selectional restrictions and world knowledge. These results suggest that selectional restrictions are not available earlier in comprehension than world knowledge.

  7. The Way: An Ecological World-view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a world view or cosmology in the form of 67 laws or principles which are seen by some as governing the Cosmos and the cosmological process. Defines the Cosmos in terms of the ecosphere or Gaia. (CW)

  8. Controlling the quantum world with light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the authors discuss the technological relevance of quantum mechanics, and describe how researchers use light to control the atomic and molecular world at its most fundamental level....

  9. A world in transition; Welt im Wandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Fabian

    2012-09-15

    Global climate change, shortage of resources, the Fukushima catastrophe: Did these threats affect other countries as they did Germany? The contribution investigates the energy policy attitudes of countries around the world.

  10. World Ocean Atlas 2013 (NODC Accession 0114815)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid and 1/4 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved...

  11. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  12. The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)

  13. Are New World leishmaniases becoming anthroponoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Brice

    2006-01-01

    In the New World, leishmaniases are originally wild exoanthropic zoonoses developing in sylvatic ecotopes. For a long time, Leishmania parasites have shown a remarkable plasticity to face modifications in their environment. Now, both geographical extension and numerical increase of leishmaniasis cases in the New World are giving cause for concern. These circumstances might have been provoked by the simple invasion of zoonotic foci by humans. However, dramatic evolutionary mechanisms are also at work in the New World: (i) the reduction of biodiversity associated with anthropogenic environmental changes (deforestation and urbanization); and (ii) the subsequent adaptations and interactions of new vectors and reservoir hosts at the interface with humans. This paper considers that these processes could result in new pathogenic complexes tending to synanthropic zoonoses, if not anthroponoses. Increasing man-made risk factors could thus possibly make leishmaniases a growing public health concern in the New World.

  14. 3Corners of the World / Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sang, Joosep

    2009-01-01

    Arvustused : Robert Jürjendal, Petri Kuljuntausta, David Rothenberg. 3Corners of the World. [Tallinn] : Terra Nova Music, 2008. Nadia ja Fragile. Uhke ali. [Tallinn] : Nadia & Fragile, 2008. UMA. Civitas Soli. [Tallinn] : Elwood, 2008. Uutest heliplaatidest

  15. Are there limits to running world records?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevill, Alan M; Whyte, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    ... records could reach their asymptotic limits some time in the future. Middle- and long-distance running world record speeds recorded during the 20th century were modeled using a flattened S-shaped logistic curve...

  16. Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2001, fifty tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were observed...

  17. 2003 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2003 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2003, fifty-one tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were...

  18. CERN prepares world's biggest science grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Niccolai, James

    2005-01-01

    Engineers at CERN have completed a 100-site gride, designed to support experimental work on the Large Hadron Collider. The grid, which is based in 31 countries, is claimed to be the world's larges international scientific grid (½ page)

  19. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...

  20. How Ancient Europeans Saw the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bandović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book: Peter Wells. How Ancient Europeans Saw the World: Vision, Patterns, and the Shaping of the Mind in Prehistoric Times. 2012. Princeton University Press. 285 pp.