WorldWideScience

Sample records for world agricultural trade

  1. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: THE COTTON PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    2000-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations could have important implications for Southern Agriculture. This paper explores some of the issues surrounding the WTO negotiations for cotton. Specifically, this paper examines the impacts of the phase-out of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) on the location of textile production and cotton trade flows. Generally, it is believed that the WTO negotiations will have little direct impact on cotton, but will have indirect impacts through textile po...

  2. Globalization's effects on world agricultural trade, 1960–2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-01-01

    Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and—in the case of farm products—by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted economic growth and reduced poverty globally, especially in Asia. The first but maybe not the second of these drivers will continue in coming decades. World food prices will depend also on whether (and if so by how much) farm productivity growth continues to outpace demand growth and to what extent diets in emerging economies move towards livestock and horticultural products at the expense of staples. Demand in turn will be driven not only by population and income growth, but also by crude oil prices if they remain at current historically high levels, since that will affect biofuel demand. Climate change mitigation policies and adaptation, water market developments and market access standards particularly for transgenic foods will add to future production, price and trade uncertainties. PMID:20713399

  3. The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade: A Review of Modeling Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    A major issue on the agenda of the ongoing Doha Round of multilateral negotiations by members of the World Trade Organization concerns how and to what extent policies that affect agricultural trade should be liberalized...

  4. Impacts of Agricultural Biotechnology on China's Economy and World Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jikun; Ruifa, Hu; Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of adopting non-food genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in China on production, trade and welfare. On the one hand the paper focuses on the productivity enhancing impact of GMOs and on the other hand it treats the consequences of some form of restrictions on Chinese

  5. Pengaruh Kebijakan Agreement on Agriculture (Aoa) Oleh World Trade Organization (WTO) Terhadap Kenaikan Impor Kopi Indonesia Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Parapat, Johan Kristo

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and proves the influence of policy AgreementOn Agriculture (AoA) by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for theIndonesian coffee. AoA policy is a policy of international trade in agricultureby WTO.This research uses perspective of pluralism. Pluralist assumes that stateis not unitary actor. This study also uses international trade and internationalorganizations theory.Agreement On Agriculture (AoA) is an international treaty on trade inagriculture in the WTO context. Ao...

  6. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  7. Exploring the Linkages: Trade Policies, Third World Development, and U.S. Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trade and Development Program, Washington, DC.

    This resource, a publication of the Trade and Development Program, was designed by a coalition of 10 farm and church groups to help U.S. citizens discover the connections between their lives, world food trade, and the needs of developing nations; it can be used for a single program, a multi-session workshop, or a study series. Targeted for high…

  8. Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. This book presents research findings based on a series of commodity studies of significant economic importance to developing countries. Setting the stage with background chapters and investigations of cross-cutting issues, the authors describe trade and domestic policy regimes affecting agricultural and food markets and analyz...

  9. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  10. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  11. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  12. Regional Trade Agreement and Agricultural Trade in East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-EAC trade is very low, that is, at 9 per cent of the total regional trade, but it is on upward trend. Agricultural trade accounts for over 40 per cent of the intra-EAC trade. This study investigated the effect of EAC regional trade agreement on the regions agricultural trade by analyzing the degree of trade creation and ...

  13. World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fergusson, Ian F

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations resumed in 2007 after being suspended in July 2006 after key negotiating groups failed to break a deadlock on agricultural tariffs and subsidies...

  14. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    third world states belong to the class of developing countries. .... cuts in tariff on agriculture and manufacturing.18 In many instances, this proved ..... will be accepted for reasons of international standards such as safety and packaging which for.

  15. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...] Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development Facility... The STDF is a unique global partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World... cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2013 (FY 2013) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and...

  16. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  17. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  18. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  19. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  20. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  1. US and world coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, B

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the US's coal trade with other countries in the world. Despite being pressed to support domestic coal producers, US utilities are looking towards Colombia for more of their supplies. Whilst the amount of Colombian coal imported into the US is small, it is a combination of this and coal imported from Australia, Canada and China which is causing concern. Studies indicate that the volume of coal imported into the US may rise to 3 Mt/year within three years. Coal exports may suffer if Brazil bans the import of significant quantities of US coking coal in retaliation against American trade sanctions against Brazilian computer import barriers. Also, Romania is expected to impose tariffs on US imports which will have an impact on US coal exported to Romania. US remains the top coal exporter to the European Communities but its lead was cut back due to a big rise of Australian export. A portion of EC market has also been lost to the USSR and Poland. Meanwhile, Japan is resisting buying US's steam coal because it is too expensive.

  2. Energy content of world trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Gernot

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a comprehensive dataset of oil and total energy embedded in world trade of manufacturing goods for 73 countries from 1978 to 2000. Applying the data to debates on the dependency on foreign energy sources makes clear that achieving complete energy independence in the foreseeable future is unlikely to be feasible and may not be desirable. Applying it to the discussion of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) highlights an important distinction between production and consumption of energy. Richer countries use relatively less energy in their industrial production yet still consume relatively large amounts of energy indirectly. A further investigation largely excludes structural shifts of production in and out of the manufacturing sector as an explanation for the downward-sloping portion of the EKC. Country-level analyses add caveats but show tentative support for the cross-country conclusions. - Research highlights: →Energy dependency goes beyond direct imports; energy is also embedded in trade. →Production-based energy use follows an inverse U-shape, consumption-based energy use does not. →Richer countries import energy-intensive products and, thus, export pollution.

  3. Energy content of world trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Gernot [Environmental Defense Fund, 257 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper constructs a comprehensive dataset of oil and total energy embedded in world trade of manufacturing goods for 73 countries from 1978 to 2000. Applying the data to debates on the dependency on foreign energy sources makes clear that achieving complete energy independence in the foreseeable future is unlikely to be feasible and may not be desirable. Applying it to the discussion of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) highlights an important distinction between production and consumption of energy. Richer countries use relatively less energy in their industrial production yet still consume relatively large amounts of energy indirectly. A further investigation largely excludes structural shifts of production in and out of the manufacturing sector as an explanation for the downward-sloping portion of the EKC. Country-level analyses add caveats but show tentative support for the cross-country conclusions. (author)

  4. Trade-offs of European agricultural abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is a policy challenge, especially for areas with unfavorable conditions for agriculture and remote and mountainous areas. Agricultural abandonment is an important land use process in many world regions and one of the dominant land use change processes in Europe.

  5. 78 FR 30729 - World Trade Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... ways we can do that is by boosting manufacturing and expanding trade that allows us to sell more of our..., high-standard trade agreement: the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Once realized, the deal would boost our... creates jobs and grows our economy. During World Trade Week, we recognize workers, growers, and...

  6. What Prospects for the World Trading System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New developments and dramatic changes are under way in the world trading system. This paper aims to take stock of the latest and most relevant developments and highlight the prospects for global trade governance. The focus is on three major issues, i.e. : (1 the outcome of the Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference in December 2013 in Bali (Indonesia and especially its significance for enhancing the multilateral trading system; (2 the accelerated pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs and their wider impact; and (3 the positive results of continued unilateral trade liberalization efforts, in contrast with the pervasiveness of crisis-related protectionist measures. The paper concludes that, despite improved prospects for multilateral trade liberalization following the last WTO Ministerial Conference, the world trading system is becoming more fragmented and less coherent, and also more uncertain, being increasingly driven by RTAs and a variable geometry approach to WTO trade agreements.

  7. The World Trade Organization and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.K.

    2000-09-01

    This book explains the role and limitations of liberalized international trade on the global environment and sustainable development. A distinguishing feature of this book is an integration of trade, environment and development perspectives for operationally meaningful policy purposes. The topics explored include an analysis of the global trade regimes, their interrelationships with the existing multilateral environmental agreements, institutional mechanisms governed by the World Trade Organization, and a framework for pragmatic reforms. (author)

  8. World Trade Organization activity for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Clémence

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of a multilateral trading system and the increasing mobility of professionals and consumers of health services, it seems strongly necessary that the World Trade Organization (WTO) undertakes negotiations within the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and that WTO's members attempt to reach commitments for health-related trade in services. How important is the GATS for health policy and how does the GATS refer to health services? What are the current negotiations and member's commitments?

  9. 75 FR 23223 - Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC) and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade (ATACs) will hold closed meetings on May 6, 2010. The advisory committees are administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). The meetings are closed to the public in accordance with the Trade Act of 1974, 19 U.S.C. 2155(f)(2), and the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4)(6). USTR has determined that public access to the meetings would seriously compromise the development by the U.S. government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or bargaining positions with respect to the operation of trade agreements and other matters arising in connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United States. Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements.

  10. 20 CFR 404.1095 - Agricultural trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the services...

  11. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  12. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...

  13. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  14. The Skill Bias of World Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Epifani; Gino Gancia

    2004-01-01

    We argue that, with an elasticity of substitution in consumption greater than one and higher scale economies in the skill-intensive sectors, the entire volume of world trade matters for wage inequality. This implies that trade intergration, even among identical countries, is likely to increase the skill premium. This result can also explain the increase in skill premia in developing countries that have experienced drastic trade liberalizations. Further, we argue that evidence of a falling rel...

  15. Environmental pollution and world trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Ravi; Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  16. Environmental pollution and world trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, Ravi [Department of Economics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0496 (United States); Beladi, Hamid; Frasca, Ralph [Department of Economics and Finance, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-2240 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In this paper we present a model that highlights the relationship between international trade and environmental pollution. It includes a small open economy that produces a domestic composite good and imports another composite good and energy products. The pollution is created by local production, global production and transportation. Given this model we demonstrate that free trade within the current political and economic context may produce a suboptimal level of welfare. The rationale is based upon the argument that transportation is energy-intensive and that, therefore, trade itself is a source of pollution. Consequently, under certain global conditions the introduction of an energy tariff in a small open economy raises social welfare and is superior to free trade. A consumption tariff adopted by a single nation will not have similar consequences because it has no impact upon local usage. However, when a consumption tariff is globally adopted there is the opportunity for a net benefit. Finally, we argue that a global tariff that raises both the price of energy and the price of the imported composite good may generate the greatest increase in welfare by reducing both energy-intensive production and energy-intensive trade

  17. 76 FR 33700 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given that the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary), in coordination with the United States Trade Representative (USTR), has renewed the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC).

  18. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  19. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  20. Trade tensions between EU and Russia: Possible effects on trade in agricultural commodities for Visegrad countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper includes overview of the current state of the EU-CIS and the EU-Russia trade flows with particular attention to trade in agricultural commodities, as well as contemporary tendencies in agricultural production and foreign trade in agricultural commodities and food in Russia. The paper

  1. Belgium’s position in world trade

    OpenAIRE

    V. Baugnet; K. Burggraeve; L. Dresse; Ch. Piette; B. Vuidar

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the article is to give a general overview of the position that Belgium occupies in the world trade stakes and its ability to adjust in response to changes in the international environment. Over the last two decades, world trade has expanded considerably, buoyed up by the rapid growth of new economic centres, the advanced economies generally having seen a drop in their market share. However, the growth in Belgium’s exports has lagged behind the average for twelve European coun...

  2. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for development

    OpenAIRE

    The World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The world's demand for food is expected to double within the next 50 years, while the natural resources that sustain agriculture will become increasingly scarce, degraded, and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In many poor countries, agriculture accounts for at least 40 percent of GDP and 80 percent of employment. At the same time, about 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. World Development Report 2008 seeks t...

  3. Nigeria in World Ginger Trade: An analysis of performance from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the performance of Nigeria in the world ginger trade using available secondary data from the United Nations commodity trade statistics. The trade performance of Nigeria was based on world ginger export characteristics, value of trade and quantity traded from 2008 to 2012 assessed on yearly and ...

  4. The heterogeneity of world trade collapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses drivers of imports during the major world trade collapses of the Great Depression (1930s; 34 countries) and the Great Recession (1930s; 173 countries). The analysis deals with the first year of these episodes and develops a small empirical model that shows a

  5. Ukraine's Membership in the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Marchi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The WTO is a multilateral organization that seeks to ensure that international trade relations are governed by the rule of law and not by the rule of power. It comprises a network of contractual rules and commitments capable of being monitored and enforced multilaterally. Ukraine’s accession to the WTO has been marked by notable achievements in the areas of legislation and bilateral agreements with member-states regarding market access. Outstanding issues in Ukraine’s accession include agriculture, industry policy, trade-related investment measures (TRIMs, technical barriers to trade (TBT, sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS measures, and intellectual property rights. While completion of the process relies on Ukraine’s efforts alone, progress is being made and is expected to reach a successful conclusion.

  6. The World Trade Organization and organic food trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    disagreement on whether the WTO's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (addresses food labelling) covers production standards based on ethical values such as those defining organic food standards. Another problem is that two sets of international standards for organic food exist—the Codex Alimentarius...... guidelines and the standards of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. Finally, many certification bodies are private organisations certifying on the basis of government standards. This blurs the distinction between private and public and questions whether WTO rules apply...

  7. The dynamics of the world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    The steadily growing distances between the world's gas rich regions and consumer zones foreshadow a powerful expansion of the international trade, at an annual rate of around 3.5% by 2020. Flows could then account for about 32% of marketed production. Trade by LNG tanker is very likely to emerge as the winner of this dynamic, with the flexibility it procures exploited to adjust supply to the demand of a more global market. This is today's gamble of an industry which, driven by technological improvements and market potential, is investing massively in new infrastructures

  8. Evaluation of Exchange Rate Policy on Agricultural Trade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... this study was to evaluate the effect of exchange rate policy on agricultural trade in Nigeria. ... Government support to farmers in the form of credit and input subsidies is a veritable ...

  9. Agricultural Trade Barriers 10 years later Uruguay Round Trade Agreement Signature

    OpenAIRE

    Mahia, R.; Arce, Rafael de; Escribano, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of current state of agricultural trade barriers is carried out alter ten years of Uruguay Round Agricultural Trade Agreement Signature The descriptive analysis showed that small advances in trade barriers removing have been taken out. About the heterogeneity in tariff applications, tariff progresivity and peak tariffs, the same situation is pointed out.

  10. Free trade or just trade? The world trade organisation, human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author critically examines the role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). In recent years, it is noted, the organisation's agenda of trade liberalisation, its perceived lack of accountability and insensitivity to human rights have attracted intense criticism. It has been asserted that provisions of WTO agreements concerning ...

  11. Fashioning a New Regime for Agricultural Trade: New Issues and the Global Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Schoenbaum

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of issues such as the global food crisis, export controls on agricultural products, and food security on the agricultural trade negotiations currently underway in connection with the Doha Development Agenda convened by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. These important issues, which were not foreseen when the negotiations began, must now be squarely faced. Many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, t...

  12. A Review of Economic Analyses on the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Jee-Hyeong Park

    2002-01-01

    The GATT, which later became the WTO, has contributed to the expansion and activation of world trade by assisting trading partners to establish and enforce international trade rules through multilateral trade negotiations. Currently negotiations for new trade rules are contironing by launching Doha Round. This review intends to promote understanding of a basic analytical framework, upon which constructive debates and research have been conducted about the role of the WTO in the world trade re...

  13. Are we moving towards functioning agricultural markets and trade relations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brosig, Stephan; Glauben, Thomas; Levkovych, Inna

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a special feature on the functioning of international agricultural markets. This feature is motivated by the increased interest in the functioning of commodity markets raised by unprecedented price turbulences since 2008, major structural changes through changed roles of emerging...... economies and related concerns regarding food security. We argue that the delineation of non-functioning markets from markets that adequately adjusted to adverse framework conditions lacks theoretical foundation. We discuss the relevance of some results on institutions for agricultural markets in emerging...... and transition countries. A synthesis of the articles included in the special feature is provided by highlighting the selection of topics that span a topical range covering price formation on world and domestic markets, market power and trade policy modelling....

  14. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region's presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa's participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa's share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa's overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa's share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%)

  15. Imported emissions. The world trade stowaway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2013-05-01

    This study first gives an overview of existing tools and methodological challenges to account emissions included in consumed products fabricated elsewhere. It notably discusses the passage from a methodology based on a production principle to a methodology based on a consumption principle, outlines the different methodologies associated with the different analysis levels, and the importance of uncertainty sources. The second part proposes a view on emission flows included in exports and imports. It addresses the following issues: the international level, increasing importance of emissions transferred via world trade, emissions related to consumption per capita and per social class, carbon and energy intensity of products at the origin of emissions, composition of imported and exported products and intensity of their emissions, impact of a methodological change on greenhouse gas emissions by France, extent of emissions imported in France, and Germany as the first trade partner and emission importer of France. The third part discusses the political implications of an accounting of emissions related to consumption and to world trade

  16. Effects Of Trade Liberalisation Policy On Nigerian Agricultural Exports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization on Agricultural exports in Nigeria. It was observed that the policy had tremendous effects on the level and value of exports in agricultural sub-sector. A regression analysis relating the total value of agricultural produce and the aggregated domestic prices, and other ...

  17. Open Day at the World Trade Organization

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On Sunday 6 September, the World Trade Organization will open its doors to the public. Throughout the day there will be guided tours of the building, which will reveal the many works of art donated by countries over the years; on the main terrace, food stands will give visitors a flavour of the worldwide membership of the WTO and provide the opportunity to sample regional specialities; and children can have fun with face painting, a bouncy castle and a drawing contest on the theme "Draw me globalization" and/or "Draw me the WTO". The full programme of activities

  18. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  19. 75 FR 80038 - Notice of Meetings of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC) and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade (ATAC) will hold closed meetings on January 13, 2011. The advisory committees are administered by USDA and the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). The meetings are closed to the public in accordance with the Trade Act of 1974, 19 U.S.C. 2155(f)(2), and the Government in the Sunshine Act, 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4) and (6). USTR has determined that public access to this meeting would seriously compromise the development by the U.S. Government of trade policy priorities, negotiating objectives, or bargaining positions with respect to the operation of trade agreements and other matters arising in connection with the development, implementation, and administration of the trade policy of the United States. Topics will include Doha Round negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO), WTO accession negotiations, and negotiations in bilateral and regional free trade agreements.

  20. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  1. Evolving An Effective Trade Policy Against Agricultural Subsidies Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of developing countries to this trend has been a weak and uncoordinated trade policy. They have been unable to effectively curtail the onslaught of dumping. This paper is an analysis of Nigeria's trade policy in tackling the issue of agricultural subsidies. This took the form of an in-depth assessment of the ...

  2. Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  3. Current subsidies in the agricultural sector of the global trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Voronina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.

  4. Google matrix analysis of the multiproduct world trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-04-01

    Using the United Nations COMTRADE database [United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database, available at: http://comtrade.un.org/db/. Accessed November (2014)] we construct the Google matrix G of multiproduct world trade between the UN countries and analyze the properties of trade flows on this network for years 1962-2010. This construction, based on Markov chains, treats all countries on equal democratic grounds independently of their richness and at the same time it considers the contributions of trade products proportionally to their trade volume. We consider the trade with 61 products for up to 227 countries. The obtained results show that the trade contribution of products is asymmetric: some of them are export oriented while others are import oriented even if the ranking by their trade volume is symmetric in respect to export and import after averaging over all world countries. The construction of the Google matrix allows to investigate the sensitivity of trade balance in respect to price variations of products, e.g. petroleum and gas, taking into account the world connectivity of trade links. The trade balance based on PageRank and CheiRank probabilities highlights the leading role of China and other BRICS countries in the world trade in recent years. We also show that the eigenstates of G with large eigenvalues select specific trade communities.

  5. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2016-09-16

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  6. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  7. Reassessing the Evolution of World Trade, 1870-1949

    OpenAIRE

    Milionis, Petros; Klasing, Mariko J.

    2012-01-01

    The typical narrative regarding the evolution of world trade prior to World War II refers to a secular rise that started around 1870 and a subsequent collapse that began in 1914. This narrative, though, is based on measures of trade openness that do not fully take into account purchasing power differences across countries, as in the literature non-PPP-adjusted trade data are typically denominated by PPP-adjusted GDP data. The present paper seeks to resolve this inconsistency by constructing n...

  8. 75 FR 67345 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade and the Agricultural Technical Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... balance on each committee will also be sought. Nominations: Nominating a person to serve on any of the... ability to serve as an advisor on the U.S. agriculture advisory committee for trade. Dated: October 26...

  9. Transgressing boundaries of tourism, agriculture and trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoye, Monica

    Introduction: Danish small-scale food producers working with origin labelled products (OLP) experience themselves as situated somewhere in between tourism, agriculture and business. The existence of OLP in Denmark is something completely new for both the tourism and agricultural sectors. Therefore......', the national steering committee for the project ‘Gourmet Denmark' and the national organisation ‘The Taste of Denmark'. Findings are structured through grounded theory. The smallest entity of observation is the local network. No individual interviews are planned. Findings: Previous work has shown that the vast...... majority of Danish small-scale food producers wish to participate in co-operative networks, which can strengthen the development of their own company. The group of companies is heterogeneous as regards the interest in growth. However, the majority of the growth-oriented companies share difficulties...

  10. Walking a Tightrope: World Trade in Manufacturing and the Benefits of Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Messerlin

    2008-01-01

    Negotiators in Geneva are still struggling to conclude the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks at the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, after seven years of negotiations, many people - and especially many industrialists in Europe and the United States - are not convinced that the negotiations are worth the efforts being put into them. These doubts have been fueled by the modesty of recent estimates of the gains on the table in the negotiations on Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA...

  11. Trade reform in Iran for accession to the World Trade Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, Zakariya; Zhu, Xueqin; Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We developed a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to study the potential welfare and environmental impacts of Iran's trade reform for accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Our results show that removing trade barriers not only results in higher welfare and GDP as well as lower

  12. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 225.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and... Government Procurement Agreement, acquire only U.S.-made, qualifying country, or designated country end...

  13. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition... 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. (a... in 25.402(a)(1). The WTO GPA and FTAs specify procurement procedures designed to ensure fairness (see...

  14. A complex system approach to address world challenges in food and agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil, van H.G.J.; Foegeding, E.A.; Windhab, E.J.; Perrot, N.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and amount of the world food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on world economy, international trade, and global political stability. The choice of land used for agriculture, and

  15. Can Integration of Agriculture With International Trade Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activity is greatly constituted by transactions and exchange that can impoverish primary producers while unfairly making others rich in an inequitable manner. Integration of agriculture into international trade is always thought and assumed to bring greater income benefit to farmers, but is this really the case, ...

  16. ETHIOPIA'S ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful strategies and avoid ... Acronyms. GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services .... services; v. preparation of indigenous traditional medicines; vi. ..... Tourism/ travel services. 66.73.

  17. 77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... entrepreneurs, and productive workers, we have met a global demand for goods and services designed and produced... signed legislation to implement three trade agreements that will make it easier for American companies...

  18. A Review of Economic Analyses on the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hyeong Park

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GATT, which later became the WTO, has contributed to the expansion and activation of world trade by assisting trading partners to establish and enforce international trade rules through multilateral trade negotiations. Currently negotiations for new trade rules are contironing by launching Doha Round. This review intends to promote understanding of a basic analytical framework, upon which constructive debates and research have been conducted about the role of the WTO in the world trade regime. To achieve this goal, we provide a review of recent theoretical developments in studies on the role of the WTO regarding trade negotiations and rule enforcement, based on a commonly used model of trade in the literature. With respect to trade negotiations, we review a study of the effect of the reciprocity principle and most favored nation clause of the WTO on the outcome of trade negotiations and analyze the race-to-the-bottom concerns that the exclusive focus of the WTO on tariff negotiations will promote deterioration of environmental and labor standards. Regarding the rule of enforcement, we introduce the repeated game framework that is often used in the analysis of international trade rule enforcement, then discuss the studies on the role of safeguard provisions and the dispute settlement procedure of the WTO.

  19. The World of Organic Agriculture (Session at the BIOFACH 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Sahota, Amarjit

    2017-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture 2017 www.organic-world.net Presentations at the Session "The World of Organic Agriculture" - Organic Agriculture Worldwide 2017: Current Statistics (Dr. Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Dr. Helga Willer) - Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2017 (Beate Huber) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update & Challenges (Amarjit Sahota)

  20. Bilateral export trade and income similarity: Does the Linder hypothesis hold for agricultural and food trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we invesƟgate the Linder hypothesis for bilateral export trade in agricultural and food products by uƟlizing the sectoral gravity equaƟon derived in Hallak (2010). Based on a sample of 152 countries, we study the relaƟonship for 737 agricultural and food products at the 6-digit HS code level, using trade data for 1995-2012. We esƟmate the gravity equaƟon year by and year and sector by sector, analyzing the esƟmates of Linder's term for two specificaƟons of the similarity index. W...

  1. Past, Present and Future: GATT, Free Trade Areas and... the World Trade Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Bernardos

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are, on the one hand, to carry out a reconsideration of the workings of the commercial system since the Bretton Woods agreements and, on the other hand, to make some reflections regarding the function that the World Trade Organizationmust carry out in the future in a world divided, probably just like now, in regional areas of free trade. In order to achieve these aims the following are specified: the bases on which the liberalization of trade has been founded after the Second World War, the causes whichprovoked the wave of protectionism in the Eighties, the reasons which have brought about the division of the world into trading blocks as well as the need for an organization which encourages inter-regional trade and reduces the commercial wars between these blocks.

  2. Intra-EU agricultural trade, virtual water flows and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Tamea, S; Yang, H

    2017-06-01

    The development of approaches to tackle the European Union (EU) water-related challenges and shift towards sustainable water management and use is one of the main objectives of Horizon 2020, the EU strategy to lead a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The EU is an increasingly water challenged area and is a major agricultural trader. As agricultural trade entails an exchange of water embodied in goods as a factor of production, this study investigates the region's water-food-trade nexus by analysing intra-regional virtual water trade (VWT) in agricultural products. The analysed period (1993-2011) comprises the enactment of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Aspects of the VWT that are relevant for the WFD are explored. The EU is a net importer of virtual water (VW) from the rest of the world, but intra-regional VWT represents 46% of total imports and 75% of total exports. Five countries account for 60% of total VW imports (Germany, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium) and 65% of total VW exports (The Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium and Spain). Intra-EU VWT more than doubled over the period considered, while trade with extra-EU countries did not show such a marked trend. In the same period, blue VWT increased significantly within the region and net import from the rest of the world slightly decreased. Water scarce countries, such as Spain and Italy, are major exporters of blue water in the region. The traded volumes of VW have been increasing almost monotonically over the years, and with a substantial increase after 2000. The overall trend in changes in VWT does not seem to be in accordance with the WFD goals. This study demonstrated that VWT analyses can help evaluate intertwining effects of water, agriculture and trade policies which are often made separately in respective sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. China's WTO commitments in agriculture and impacts of potential OECD agricultural trade liberalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Frandsen, Søren E.

    2005-01-01

    general equilibrium simulation results show that China’s WTO commitments will lead to increased agricultural imports and slightly declined outputs in China. The resulting efficiency gains will be negated by terms-of-trade losses, leading to quantitatively small welfare impacts. Furthermore, sectoral...... results depend critically on correctly representing the more complex policy measures, such as the tariff rate quotas. The negative output effects on Chinese agriculture can be alleviated/reversed if the rich OECD countries commit to reform their agriculture policies. The present paper concludes that trade...... liberalization should be carried out in both developing and developed countries. Reforming the latter will be particularly helpful in easing the problems facing those developing countries that are carrying out ambitious trade reforms....

  4. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  5. Implications of Domestic Support Disciplines for Further Agricultural Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Walsh; Martina Brockmeier; Alan Matthews

    2005-01-01

    This paper employs the GTAP computable general equilibrium model and dataset to analyse the implications of domestic support reductions in the context of agricultural trade liberalisation. Three specific issues are addressed: overhang in domestic support, the accurate distinction of the boxes in the GTAP dataset and the treatment of market price support in the amber box. An extensive domestic support database is used to calculate the change in applied domestic support rates from a specified c...

  6. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... support and government programs related to agricultural markets, foreign direct investment policies, and... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-518] China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive... investigation No. 332-518, China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports. DATES...

  7. World Economy and World Seaborne Trade in the 2005-2013 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Bosneagu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1990-2013 the world economy has evolved increasing and decreasing with good and weak years, with mini crisis, and with a recent strong crisis, which apparently has not yet passed. World seaborne trade, inextricably linked to the global economy followed the upward and the downward trend of the global economy, but with much higher amplitudes. Comparative analysis of the evolution of the global economy and world seaborne trade during the period 2005-2013 shows a decrease in world seaborne trade in tandem with the global economy.

  8. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  9. International Trade of Agricultural Products in the Context of "B&R" Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing WU; Shuhua XIE

    2016-01-01

    At present,China’s agricultural product trade is facing the development dilemma. The trade deficit is expanding,market and product structure is irrational,and the Chinese agriculture products often encounter trade barriers. " B&R" initiative provides a rare opportunity for the development of agricultural products in China. It is necessary to seize this opportunity to change idea and innovate upon mechanism so as to increase the added value of exported agricultural products through various channels. There is also a need to develop electronic commerce,and make full use of interconnectivity and trade facilitation in " B&R" initiative to develop the international trade of agricultural products.

  10. 75 FR 28183 - World Trade Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... compete and win in the 21st century, we must rebuild our economy on a stronger, more balanced foundation. Part of that effort will require us to boost our exports, which are critical for our long-term... innovative and productive workers in the world. We have the most dynamic and competitive economy, and we...

  11. Recent Trends in World Trade and International Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Bellmann; Trineesh Biswas; Marie Chamay

    2010-01-01

    World trade in 2009 was dominated by the worst financial and economic crisis in decades. Global output shrank. So did the volume of international trade. Despite bearing no responsibility for the crisis, the poorer developing countries have fared the worst. China, Brazil and India saw exports drop by between a fifth and a third in the second half of 2008, but countries not belonging to the top 20 developing country exporters were hit even harder. Trade and GDP growth have started to pick up ag...

  12. Implications of the New Regional Trade Agreements for the World Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The year 2013 witnessed an outstanding rise in the pace and scale of negotiations on regional trade agreements (RTAs. While RTAs are not a new phenomenon, current negotiations involve multiple parties and/or major trading countries that have a significant combined economic weight, i.e. mega-RTAs. This paper looks at the recent surge in trade regionalism and addresses some of the key issues related to the potential impact of mega-RTAs upon the world trading system and global trade patterns. It examines the peculiarities of the new mega-RTAs and the factors underlying their proliferation, and discusses the main concerns raised by their foreseeable impact on excluded countries and the wider trading system. The paper finds that, if successfully concluded, mega-RTAs are likely to have far-reaching implications for the world trading regime, affecting its transparency and coherence. Nevertheless, the adverse effects could be cushioned through a revival of trading nations’ interest in the multilateral Doha Round talks.

  13. World Trade Organization, ILO conventions, and workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The World Trade Organization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund can assist in the implementation of ILO Conventions relating to occupational safety and health in developing countries. Most countries that seek to trade globally receive permission to do so from the WTO. If the WTO required member countries to accept the core ILO Conventions relating to occupational safety and health and workers' compensation, it could accomplish something that has eluded international organizations for decades. International workers' compensation standards are seldom discussed, but may at this time be feasible. Acceptance of a minimum workers' compensation insurance system could be a requirement imposed on applicant nations by WTO member states.

  14. Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuertenberger, Laura; Koellner, Thomas; Binder, Claudia R.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical applications

  15. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION – REFORM IT OR CHANGE IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes and realities. The transition is being made toward a more regionalized and preferential global trade and the emergence of strong developing countries shape the whole multilateral trade negotiations. The important growth rates in emerging countries are translated also in strong demand for representation in global trade governance. Objectives: This paper aims to underline the role of multilateralism as form of international cooperation, the link with global economic governance and what concerns academic community in terms of having a reform of it. Prior Work: It has been tried to emphasizing the concepts already developed by known researchers in the field. Approach: The approach is a more theoretic one done in a comparative manner with emphasis on results and future research. The critical method approach is done with qualitative results. Results: The key results are related to pros and cons of reforming the World Trade Organization, as well as presenting the criticisms and proposals for having a second World Trade Organization. Implications: The implications are varied in terms of studying the concepts and addresses researchers in the field, but also lecturers and students. Value: The main added value is the compared approach of the traditional WTO as it derived from General Agreement on Tariff and Trade and the proposal for a new one and its formal relationship with the global economic governance.

  16. Trade and health: how World Trade Organization (WTO) law affects alcohol and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The alcohol field is becoming more aware of the consequences of world trade law for alcohol policies. However, there is a need for greater clarity about the different effects of trade on alcohol-related harm. A comprehensive review of all literature on alcohol and world trade [including World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes on alcohol], supported by a more selective review of other relevant cases, academic reports and the grey literature on trade and health. The burden of WTO law on alcohol policies depends upon the type of policy in question. Purely protectionist policies are likely to be struck down, which may lead to increases in alcohol-related harm. Partly protectionist and partly health-motivated policies are also at risk of being struck down. However, purely health-motivated policies are likely to be defended by the WTO-and to the extent that policy makers misunderstand this, they are needlessly avoiding effective ways of reducing alcohol-related harm. WTO agreements contain genuine and substantial risks to alcohol policies, and various ways of minimizing future risks are suggested. However, the 'chilling effect' of mistakenly overestimating these constraints should be avoided. Health policy makers should decide on which policies to pursue based primarily on considerations of effectiveness, ethics and politics rather than legality. As long as any effect of these policies on trade is minimized, they are overwhelmingly likely to win any challenges at the WTO.

  17. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2009 ... Two high-level commissions — the Sutherland report in 2004 and the Warwick Commission report in 2007 — addressed the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and made proposals for incremental reform. This book goes further. It explains why institutional reform of the WTO is needed at this ...

  18. Ethiopia's accession to the world trade organisation: lessons from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the experiences of least developing countries (LDCs) acceded to World Trade Organisation (WTO) in relation to their accession process, terms of accession and implementation of commitments with a view to drawing lessons which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful strategies and avoid ...

  19. The world trade organisation, human rights and development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    M The Political Economy of the World Trading System: The WTO and Beyond .... enhancement of immunizations programmes and other strategies for controlling ... many African countries faced the “problem of poverty” which rendered them ... attendant opportunistic infections typically cost almost 15 times as much as their.

  20. Terrorirünnak filmis "World Trade Center" / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    9. augustil esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  1. Cocoa Farmers' Perception of the Effect of World Trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of cocoa farmers of the effect of the standards of the World Trade Organisation on cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select farmers in the area covered by the project and primary data were collected through the use of a structured ...

  2. World Development Report : Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... inform research debate and development practice in the sector under study. The 2008 Report will address agriculture and rural development. Since the last World Development Report on agriculture was published in 1982, ... Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies.

  3. The effects of agricultural trade openness on food price transmission in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Flachsbarth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade of agricultural commodities has grown significantly in most Latin American countries (LAC over the last two decades. However, after the international food price surges in 2006-08 and 2011-12 concerns about food access of the poor arose. Within a panel framework containing six LAC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, we used a single equation error correction model to identify possible cointegrating relationships between the food consumer price index (CPI and a set of trade related and domestic variables. The main focus of the study was to examine how different levels of trade openness impact international food price transmission to domestic markets. Our results confirm that deeper market integration increases global price transmission elasticities. In other words, more agricultural trade openness proves to elevate food CPIs during global price spikes. Thus, for poor consumers world price shocks can be deteriorating in the short-run and domestic food prices will slowly converge to a higher long-run equilibrium. Especially in increasingly integrated economies, effective policies to buffer food price shocks should be put in place, but must be carefully planned with the required budget readily available. We also found that exchange rate appreciations can buffer price shocks to a certain extent and that monetary policies seem to be an appropriate means for stabilizing food prices to safeguard food access of the poor population.

  4. The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics and Emerging Trends 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Yussefi, Minou

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, BioFach/Oekowelt GmbH commissioned Foundation Ecology & Agriculture SOEL to compile statistical data and general information on organic agriculture world-wide. Since then this study has been revised annually, and the newest figures are regularly presented at Biofach, which takes place in Nuremberg, Germany, every year. Since the 2003 edition the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL and the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) have collaborated i...

  5. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system. Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  6. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO FREE TRADE WITHIN FAIR TRADE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free trade and fair trade are considered an ambiguous term with relative meanings of identification. Objectively, free and fair trade does not mean completely free and fair, but it means trade under binding rules obeyed by member countries as a consequence of their commitment after signing and ratification of the WTO agreements. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the issue and does an effort to harmonise between free trade and fair trade within the WTO system.   Perdagangan bebas dan perdagangan yang adil adalah dua istilah yang ambigu maknanya. Secara obyektif, perdagangan bebas tidak bermakna bebas dan adil seluruhnya, tetapi bermakna sebuah perdagangan di bawah aturan-aturan mengikat setelah negara anggota menandatangani dan meratifikasi kesepakatan WTO. Tetapi dalam realitas kebanyakan Negara, terutama negara berkembang tidak mampu untuk membuka pasar dan menurunkan tarif secara keseluruhan. Persoalan tidak berimbangnya kekuatan, kurang demokrasi, krisis legitimasi dan dobel standar dalam WTO sistem merupakan sebuah tantangan yang masih berlanjut. Paper ini akan mengkaji persoalan ini dan berupaya mengharmonisasikan antara perdagangan bebas dan adil dalam sistem WTO.

  7. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  9. The Impacts of U.S. Agricultural and Trade Policy on Trade Liberalization and Integation via a U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Hathaway

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at several major legislative actions in 2002 that will substantially affect trade negotiations with the United States, and examines the US import protection for agricultural products that will be critical in trade negotiations with Central American countries. The two important legislative actions were the passage of the 2002 Farm Bill and the passage of Trade Promotion Authority, which provides for "fast track" treatment of trade agreements. The 2002 farm bill was widely deno...

  10. WTO confidential: the case of asbestos. World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO), created in 1995, adjudicates "trade disputes" between member nations in cases with great human rights, cultural, environmental, and public health significance. Throughout the process of dispute resolution and even after a case is concluded, very little of what happens is made accessible to the public. However, it is one thing to criticize the WTO for its lack of transparency from outside the process, and another to critically examine what was withheld from disclosure and what dangers that presents. This is the inside story from a scientific adviser to one of the parties in a WTO case, analyzing what happened from a public health point of view. This analysis concludes that the public health justification of banning asbestos was accepted in the end by the economists at the WTO, despite the WTO's bias in favoring the party (Canada) making the free trade challenge (to public health legislation, in this case) in numerous stages of the process, despite the WTO's utter lack of expertise in science, medicine, engineering, and public health, and despite important erroneous statements made to the WTO under the cover of confidentiality. Despite its result, this case illustrates that the WTO's threat to national sovereignty could never withstand the light of day, that the people of the world would reject this dangerous free trade fundamentalism if the limitations and dangers of the process were open for all to see.

  11. Agricultural trade and farm employment in China during 1994-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Wusheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade f...... employment effects do not lend support to the popular notion that increased agricultural trade would help increase farm employment and have important implications for evaluating current and future trade policy in China and elsewhere.......Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade...... flows and use these estimates to compute the farm employment effects. Findings – The authors find that China's agricultural trade has indeed generally developed along its widely believed comparative advantages and disadvantages; however, the farm employment “creation” effect due to labor...

  12. Leading Trade Networks in the Context of Globalisation of the World Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavun Olha O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main tendencies of development of trade networks during 2002 – 2012 and determines that the overwhelming majority of them increased their presence in foreign markets. It analyses specific features of manifestation of the expansion policy by trade structures depending on the region of their origin. It studies motives that make leading retailers go out of boundaries of the national markets. Main of them are sharpening of competition in domestic, more mature markets, due to increase of concentration of network structures and also application of the state policy of restrictions in the trading activity. It considers methods that were selected by major trade networks in 2011 – 2012 for entering foreign markets. It establishes that the most popular was franchising. It determines directions of manifestation of regulation barriers, faced by major trade networks of the world when entering markets of developing countries. It establishes that major national structures, which are the main competitors for international trade networks and which make them develop a more weighted approach to making decisions that are connected with entering a new market and adjustment of existing strategies of development, are represented in markets of individual countries, in particular, in Asia and South Africa.

  13. International outsourcing as a challenge for the world trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sivacheva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available From the strategic management point of view, the twenty-first century is being widely recognized as the century for outsourcing in the global economy. In the meantime international outsourcing is one of the most dynamic, innovation-driven and complicated processes in modern world. The present paper concentrates on the essence of international outsourcing (tracing its roots in the international division of labour and world economic relations theoretical approaches, reviews its explicit and implicit challenges and finally presents opportunities for regulating international outsourcing. Attention is focused on the following key questions: to what extent does international outsourcing represent a challenge for the world trade system? what contribution does international outsourcing make to economic «strength» in the modern world?

  14. Climate protection and emission trading in the agriculture; Klimaschutz und Emissionshandel in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luenenbuerger, Benjamin

    2013-01-15

    The percentage of the agriculture in the greenhouse-gas emissions in Germany amounts 7.1% in the year 2010. Despite its importance, climate protection instruments in the area of the German agriculture are still not developed. There are hardly special regulatory, informational or market-based instruments for the climate protection in the agriculture. The question arises whether the emission trading can be a suitable instrument for climate protection in the agriculture. Thus, the opportunities of the emission trading in the agriculture are investigated. Moreover, alternative and additional instruments of climate protection are considered with respect to the agriculture.

  15. AGRI-FOOD TRADE - A PATH TO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CIMPOIES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we try to assess the progress in the development of the agricultural sector of Moldova. As indicator of the successful/unsuccessful development of the agri-food sector may serve the foreign trade activity. Thus, in the given research is analyzed the changes in the agri-food trade structure during 2007-2011, the competitiveness of the agricultural sector and the pattern trade flows. For this aim was computed Gruber-Lloyd index for evaluating the intra-industrial trade in this period, and RTA index for inter industrial trade. As well, some policy measures necessary for further integration will be discussed.

  16. The J-Curve Effect and the U.S. Agricultural Trade Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Colin A. Carter; Daniel H. Pick

    1989-01-01

    According to the J-curve theory, following a currency depreciation, there will be an initial deterioration of the trade balance before an improvement is realized. This paper finds empirical evidence indicating the first segment of the J-curve does exist for the U.S. agricultural trade balance. A 10% depreciation of the U.S. dollar is estimated to lead a deterioration of the agricultural trade balance that will last for about nine months.

  17. Recent Trends in World Trade and International Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available World trade in 2009 was dominated by the worst financial and economic crisis in decades. Global output shrank. So did the volume of international trade. Despite bearing no responsibility for the crisis, the poorer developing countries have fared the worst. China, Brazil and India saw exports drop by between a fifth and a third in the second half of 2008, but countries not belonging to the top 20 developing country exporters were hit even harder. Trade and GDP growth have started to pick up again, but some economists fear a “double-dip” recession. If unemployment continues to grow, it may become harder for governments to resist protectionist pressures. In terms of the WTO negotiations, the crisis cuts both ways. Governments are preoccupied with more immediate concerns. But the crisis has shattered the sense that protectionism was unthinkable, making a trade deal seem more valuable. The G-20 major economies have called for concluding the Doha Round in 2010, but it remains to be seen whether this pledge will amount to anything. The number of bilateral trade deals continues to grow, with Switzerland an enthusiastic participant. Some of these deals have been criticised for “WTO-plus” obligations, particularly regarding intellectual property. Meanwhile, there are real grounds for arguing that the Doha Round agenda does not reflect many current problems, especially climate change. With the US and the EU threatening to impose tariffs on exports from emerging economies with no hard emissions caps, it is clear that governments need to find some way of discussing the new challenges confronting the global economy.

  18. Impacts of ASEAN Agricultural Trade Liberalization on ASEAN-6 Economies and Income Distribution in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Oktaviani; Eka Puspitawati; Haryadi

    2008-01-01

    This research paper intends to analyse: (a) the impacts of ASEAN trade liberalization on the macroeconomy variables – gross domestic product (GDP), Terms of Trade (ToT), balance of trade, inflation and real wage – and agricultural industries (output, exports and imports) in the ASEAN 6 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, and Viet Nam); and (b) the impact of trade liberalization on income distribution in Indonesia. A multi-country and multi-commodity computabl...

  19. Law [Review of: World trade report 2011: the WTO and preferential trade agreements: from co-existence to coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential

  20. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  1. A Rather Empty World: The Many Faces of Distance and the Persistent Resistence to International Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of world trade over the past several decades, international trade patterns remain very much affected by high trade costs. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of distance between countries in a proper explanation of the persistent resistance to trade. We find that both

  2. Are Competitors' Free Trade Agreements Putting U.S. Agricultural Exporters at a Disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Wainio, John; Dyck, John H.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Vollrath, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of free trade agreements among U.S. competitors has prompted questions about whether U.S. agricultural exporters may lose a share of the global market. ERS research shows that the recently created ASEAN-China and ASEANAustralia/ New Zealand free trade agreements are likely to have modest adverse impacts on U.S. agricultural exports. The Mercosur-Colombia free trade agreement has reduced U.S. agricultural exports to Colombia; U.S. grain sellers face increasingly stiff compet...

  3. [Can gene technology in agriculture prevent hunger in the world?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goewie, E A

    2002-03-01

    The world population grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is an agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of poverty. This problem will not be solved by gene technology based agricultural production. This article explains the basic principles of mainstream and organic farming. Literature shows that the production potentials of both kinds of farming are, by far most, not yet exhausted. Gene technology is therefore unnecessary.

  4. World Bank and agricultural development: food production and rural poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryker, R E

    1979-03-01

    Over the past decade, the World Bank has become the leading international institution for development financing and for elaborating new development strategies. This has involved a major shift in lending toward agriculture and rural development. Explanations for the change range from more progressive expertise within the Bank to the shock of the 1972-74 food crisis and renewed penetration of Third World agriculture by capitalist agribusiness. Discriminating among these perspectives requires attention to the core issue of the relationship between increasing food production and reducing rural poverty. The author feels that the issue is irreducibly political and that the Bank's record is less encouraging than the reformist rhetoric. 33 references, 4 tables.

  5. The Evolution of World Trade from 1995 to 2014 : A Network Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda, Fredy; Gamboa, Freddy; Leon Rincon, Carlos; Rincon, Hernan

    2017-01-01

    This paper employs network analysis to study world trade from 1995 to 2014. We focus on the main connective features of the world trade network (WTN) and their dynamics. Results suggest that countries’ efforts to attain the benefits of trade have resulted in an intertwined network that is

  6. Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Agricultural and Food Products Between Poland and EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapinska Justyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  7. Urban agriculture in the developing world: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini , Francesco; Kahane , Remi; Nono-Womdim , Remi; Gianquinto , Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The year 2007 marked a critical event in the world history. For the first time, more than half of the world population now lives in cities. In many developing countries, the urbanization process goes along with increasing urban poverty and polluted environment, growing food insecurity and malnutrition, especially for children, pregnant and lactating women; and increasing unemployment. Urban agriculture represents an opportunity for improving food supply, health conditi...

  8. World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban

    2011-01-01

    The increasing co-movements between the world oil and agricultural commodity prices have renewed interest in determining price transmission from oil prices to those of agricultural commodities. This study extends the literature on the oil-agricultural commodity prices nexus, which particularly concentrates on nonlinear causal relationships between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). To this end, the linear causality approach of Toda-Yamamoto and the nonparametric causality method of Diks-Panchenko are applied to the weekly data spanning from 1994 to 2010. The linear causality analysis indicates that the oil prices and the agricultural commodity prices do not influence each other, which supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. In contrast, the nonlinear causality analysis shows that: (i) there are nonlinear feedbacks between the oil and the agricultural prices, and (ii) there is a persistent unidirectional nonlinear causality running from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices. The findings from the nonlinear causality analysis therefore provide clues for better understanding the recent dynamics of the agricultural commodity prices and some policy implications for policy makers, farmers, and global investors. This study also suggests the directions for future studies. - Research highlights: → This study determines the price transmission mechanisms between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). → The linear and nonlinear cointegration and causality methods are carried out. → The linear causality analysis supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. → The nonlinear causality analysis shows that there is a persistent unidirectional causality from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices.

  9. Measuring the Effects of Trade Liberalization: Multilevel Analysis Tool for Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, Francoise; Marty, Isabelle; Lancon, Frederic; Versapuech, Marion

    1998-01-01

    This book is the product of the projects "Farmers' Strategies Regarding Agricultural Diversification" (1993-1995) and "Agricultural Diversification and Food Crop Trade: Their Implications to Agricultural Policies in Southeast Asia" (1994-1996), both supported by CIRAD and the Government of France. It describes the first project attempting to apply the MATA methodology in a country like Indonesia. As constructed, the Multilevel Analysis Tool for Agriculture is able to answer various policy que...

  10. Assessment the Impact of Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA on Exports of Indonesian Agricultural Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Akhmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigation whether Indonesian membership on ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA increased export of agriculture commodity. The panel augmented gravity model data from 33 major partner countries over the period of 2000-2014 has been applied to analyze the factors affected Indonesian agricultural exports. The overall finding showed that Indonesian agricultural exports were positively correlated with the size of economy and partner countries population, while they are negatively correlated with the appreciation of currency exchange rate and the enrollment on free trade agreement. Moreover, the Indonesian membership on AFTA does not gave significant impact and profitable on Indonesian agricultural exports.

  11. Agriculture and natural resources in a changing world - the role of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, T.; Havlík, P.; Schneider, U. A.; Kindermann, G.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water. Against the background of resource sustainability and food security topics, this study integrates the spatial and operational heterogeneity of irrigation management into a global land use model. It represents a first large scale assessment of agricultural water use under explicit consideration of alternative irrigation options in their particular biophysical, economic, and technical context, accounting for international trade, motivation-based farming, and quantified aggregated impacts on land scarcity, water scarcity, and food supply. The inclusion of technical and economic aspects of irrigation choice into an integrated land use modeling framework provides new insights into the interdisciplinary trade-offs between determinants of global land use change. Agricultural responses to population and economic growth include considerable increases in irrigated area and agricultural water use, but reductions in the average water intensity. Different irrigation systems are preferred under different exogenous biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Negligence of these adaptations would bias the burden of development on land and water scarcity. Without technical progress in agriculture, predicted population and income levels for 2030 would require substantial price adjustments for land, water, and food to equilibrate supply and demand.

  12. 75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... many of the issues that the GFO committee addresses, such as genetically modified organisms, new... modifying the existing structure of both the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees (ATAC) for Trade in...

  13. 7 CFR 2.72 - Chairman, World Agricultural Outlook Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Chief Economist... (a)(7), the following delegations of authority are made by the Chief Economist to the Chairman, World... following authority is reserved to the Chief Economist: Review all proposed decisions having substantial...

  14. Technological Developments and their Effects on World Trade: Any Implications for Governments?

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut Kibritcioglu

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes new developments in world trade, technological changes worldwide and their implications for recent theoretical studies in economics. After defining the economic globalization and schematizing its relations with international trade, economic growth and technological change, dramatic increases in world trade in goods, services and financial assets in last decades are statistically documented in Chapter 2. Theoretical studies of economists on international trade and economi...

  15. The Evolution of World Trade from 1995 to 2014: A Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cepeda, Fredy; Gamboa, Freddy; Leon Rincon, Carlos; Rincon, Hernan

    2017-01-01

    This paper employs network analysis to study world trade from 1995 to 2014. We focus on the main connective features of the world trade network (WTN) and their dynamics. Results suggest that countries’ efforts to attain the benefits of trade have resulted in an intertwined network that is increasingly dense, reciprocal, and clustered. Trade linkages are distributed homogeneously among countries, but their intensity (i.e. their value) is highly concentrated in a small set of countries. The mai...

  16. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-01-01

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure

  17. Articles from Volume 2, Issue 1, 2006, Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    Content: Abler, David. "Introduction: Modeling Global Food and Agricultural Markets." (pp. v); (1) Sheldon, Ian. "Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 1-32); (2) Abbott, Phillip. "Comment on: Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 33-38); (3) Sarker, Rakhal and Yves Surry. "Product Differentiation and Trade in Agri-Food Products: Taking Stock and Looking Forward." (pp. 39-78); (4) Alston, Julian M....

  18. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  19. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  20. A basis for greenhouse gas trading in agriculture : Final report of the emission reduction trading protocol team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A link has been established between increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the rise in global temperatures. The burning of fossil fuels, land use changes, agricultural and industrial activities play a large part in the increase of greenhouse gases and result in in changes to temperature, precipitation and weather patterns. The two methods that can be used to reduce the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are the reduction of the gases and the sequestration of carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide is absorbed) into terrestrial processes. Several policy options are being considered to effect this reduction in buildup, and one of those includes the implementation of a tradable system of emission permits. Such a scenario would involve the agricultural sector removing and reducing on-farm emissions of greenhouse gases, thereby earning it credits that could then be sold to those industries that face tougher greenhouse gases control costs. The study led to several findings: (1) trades in carbon dioxide in the Albertan agricultural sector and changes in agricultural practices could lead to reductions of up to 5 million tonnes per year to 2008, (2) the sector is in a good position to trade carbon removals and credits into a large final emitter cap and trade system, (3) some uncertainties in the policy area remain, (4) the early years of trading are not risk-free, and (5) the risks are being hedged through a number of mechanisms and tools that have already been identified. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  1. The Effect of Foreign Trade Policy Transparency on Integration of Ukraine in the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovchenko Victoria S.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the interdependence between dynamics of the international trade and economic relations development and the existing level of foreign trade policy transparency in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement. The effect of observance of transparency principle in foreign trade policy on forming the transaction costs in foreign trade is analyzed. A comparative analysis of the influence of import duties and transaction costs on the formation of Ukraine’s foreign trade barriers is carried out. Prospects of the national export-import activity development under increasing transparency of foreign trade policy of Ukraine and other world countries are determined.

  2. The impacts of the global economic crisis on selected segments of the world trade in commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Horská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impacts of the economic crisis on the world trade in order to highlight the mutual interdependence of the development of the world output and trade. The paper observes mutual correlation in development of the world trade and output. The results of the analysis indicate that changes in the value of world GDP and world trade are correlated by more than 90%. It is important to mention that in the years 2000–2009, the value of world trade and world output increased significantly (although in 2009, a significant decline in both value and volume of global production and trade was recorded due to the crisis. In relation to the world trade, it should be noted that its commodity structure is dominated by trade in manufactures. The crisis that occurred in the period 2008–2009 greatly affected the world economy and trade in particular. In this respect it should be pointed out that the crisis mainly affected trade in manufactures and then trade in fuels and mining outputs in terms of both absolute and relative indicators. Agrarian trade dealt with the crisis the best and the impact of the crisis on development of its values and volume was the least significant. This verifies the fact that agrarian and food products tend to be the most resistant to the crisis (on contrary, in times of global economic growth or reconstruction, the trade in agrarian and food products shows lower degree of elasticity in relation to the global GDP growth in comparison to other segments of commodities trade.

  3. The Impact of the Uruguay Round on World Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Sil Kim

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of the Uruguay Round (UR implementation on world agriculture using a multi-regional general equilibrium model and the mapping function of the Geographic Information System (GIS. The results of this study show that the Uruguay Round has had a negative impact on world agriculture in the light of total food production and food distribution. For commodities such as grains, while grain production rises in exporting countries, the effect is not sufficient to cover the fall in production in importing countries. In particular, the impact is serious on food security in importing countries of agricultural products. The negative impact is almost concentrated in importing countries, particularly Japan, the European Union (EU and South Korea. As is clearly visible on the maps produced by the GIS function, the real state of world agriculture as well as the results evaluated by this Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model has changed negatively in major importing countries and particularly the Least Developed Countries (LDCs, Sub-Saharan Africa following the Uruguay Round.

  4. Trade Blocs, Currency Blocs and the Disintegration of World Trade in the 1930s

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry; Irwin, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    The dramatic implosion and regionalization of international trade during the 1930s has often been blamed on the trade and foreign exchange policies that emerged in the interwar period. We provide new evidence on the impact of trade and currency blocs on trade flows from 1928 1938 that suggests a blanket indictment of interwar trade policies and payments arrangements is not warranted. Discriminatory trade policies and international monetary arrangements had neither a uniformly favorable nor un...

  5. Cotton Trade Liberalizations and Domestic Agricultural Policy Reforms: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...

  6. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klimek

    Full Text Available We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.

  7. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Hausmann, Ricardo; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.

  8. Farmers versus ideas: explaining the continuity in French agricultural trade policy during the GATT Uruguay Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    France's protectionist position regarding agricultural trade is often claimed to result from French farm lobby influence. This article challenges such established claims, based on an analysis of French decision-making on the agricultural chapter of the GATT Uruguay Round. Farm lobby pressure cannot

  9. Agriculture, trade and the environment: The impact of liberalization on sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Antle, J. (ed.); Lekakis, J. (ed.); Zanias, G. (ed.)

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record Revised papers selected from the international conference "European agriculture at the crossroads: Competition and sustainability" hosted by the Dept. of Economics of the University of Crete, in Rethimno, 1996. The conference examined the relationship between free trade and agricultural sustainability in the European Union.

  10. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Panama, and South Korea Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 4, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov...Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues. Author Contact Information Remy Jurenas Specialist in Agricultural Policy rjurenas@crs.loc.gov, 7-7281 .

  11. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Turkey’s Agricultural Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Karakaş

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, impact of the real effective exchange rate (REER and its volatility (REERV on Turkey's agricultural foreign trade was investigated. 25importantcountries in agricultural trade of Turkey and 1990-2012 periods were examined, and panel data analysis was used in this research. IGARCH model was applied to obtain for the REERV. Influence of the REER and REERV on Turkey's agricultural trade was analyzed whit FMOLS model both individual country and groups panel. According to the results of FMOLS model; It was determined that Turkey agricultural import (7.61% and export (2.24% were increased when the REER was risen about 1%. The agricultural import was decreased 18.83% in case the REERV was increased 1%. On the other hand, when the REERV was increased around 1%, there was no significantly relationship between agricultural export and REERV. As a result, it can be stated that REER and REERV were caused an imbalance on Turkey's agricultural foreign trade. Agricultural producers and industrialists are often adversely affected by the REERV. For these reasons, it is important to take protective measures for them.

  12. Agricultural Trade and Economic Growth in East African Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Community states, as many other states in the region, depend largely on agricultural activities to boost their economic growth and create employment. Up to 80 per cent of the populace depends on agriculture directly and indirectly for food, employment and income, while about 40 million people in EAC suffer ...

  13. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  14. TRADE LIBERALISATION IN EUROPE AND THE REST OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Spiridon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to disseminate how liberalisation processes were conducted around the globe and especially in Europe since the XIXth century up to date. The research objective is to review the liberalisation of trade dynamics and create an image of the architecture of the most important trading blocs. Analysis will be conducted considering the three major regional blocs: Europe, North America and East Asia. The main findings will show that, despite the few mutations that occurred in international trade as a result of the emergence of developing nations as major trade partners, the European Union and the United States remain the economic and trade hegemons.

  15. Occupational toxicant inhalation injury: the World Trade Center (WTC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Shohet, Michael R; Chasan, Rachel; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Levin, Stephen M; Herbert, Robin

    2008-02-01

    Clinical descriptive data is presented on a group of 554 former workers and volunteers (with more than 90 different occupations) at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site. A subsample of 168 workers (30% of the group) was selected to examine lower airway disease risk in relation to smoking and WTC exposure variables. Five diagnostic categories clearly predominate: upper airway disease (78.5%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (57.6%), lower airway disease (48.9%), psychological (41.9%) and chronic musculoskeletal illnesses (17.8%). The most frequent pattern of presentation was a combination of the first three of those categories (29.8%). Associations were found between arrival at the WTC site within the first 48 h of the terrorist attack and lower airway and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and between past or present cigarette smoking and lower airway disease. Occupational exposures at the WTC remain consistently associated with a disease profile, which includes five major diagnostic categories. These conditions often coexist in different combinations, which (as expected) mutually enhances their clinical expression, complicates medical management, and slows recovery. Cigarette smoking and early arrival at the WTC site appear to be risk factors for lower airway disease diagnosis.

  16. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei

    2018-05-01

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils: a potential carbon trading opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Annette L.; Murphy, Brian; Rawson, Andrew; Wilson, Brian; Singh, Bhupinderpal; Young, Rick; Grange, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Emissions trading schemes emerging in Australia and internationally create a market mechanism by which release of greenhouse gases incurs a cost, and implementation of abatement measures generates a financial return. There is growing interest amongst Australian landholders in emissions trading based on sequestration of carbon in soil through modified land management practices. Intensively cropped soils have low carbon content, due to disturbance, erosion and regular periods of minimal organic matter input. Because cropping soils in Australia have lost a substantial amount of carbon there is significant potential to increase carbon stocks through improved land management practices. Evidence from long term trials and modelling indicates that modified cropping practices (direct drilling, stubble retention, controlled traffic) have limited impact on soil carbon (0 to +2 tC02e ha-' year1) whereas conversion from cropping to pasture gives greater increases. Small-increases in soil carbon over large areas can contribute significantly to mitigation of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, increase in soil organic matter will improve soil health, fertility and resilience. However, the inclusion of soil carbon offsets in an emissions trading scheme cannot occur until several barriers are overcome. The first relates to credibility. Quantification of the extent to which specific land management practices can sequester carbon in different environments will provide the basis for promotion of the concept. Current research across Australia is addressing this need. Secondly, cost-effective and accepted methods of estimating soil carbon change must be available. Monitoring soil carbon to document change on a project scale is not viable due to the enormous variability in carbon stocks on micro and macro scales. Instead estimation of soil carbon change could be undertaken through a combination of baseline measurement to assess the vulnerability of soil carbon

  18. The effect of trade liberalisation on Syrian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian agricultural policy should be characterized by a high level of government intervention, including fixed prices, government monopoly in strategic crop marketing, government distribution of industrial fertilizers, significant barriers on food and agricultural commodities import and so on. Although there were certain changes and liberalization in this area during several last years, the Syrian agriculture remains as the most regulated sector of national economy in Near east and northern Africa.On the other hand, we may state the fact that Syrian governmental agriculture policy was successful considering so called strategic crops most of all in achieving self-sufficiency in wheat production, also an essential increase of cotton production volume which represents most important export crop of this near east country, took a part. Besides this progress there was restriction of disparity development in countryside and municipal household’s incomes, which is partial reason for slowing down of Syrian countryside poverty. These positive outcomes were reached at the expense of increasing go­vern­men­tal expenses and worsening of resources efficiency usage both in agriculture production and energy sectors. Considering forecasted spend of oil sources, the Syrian government will be ne­ce­s­sa­ri­ly forced to search for alternative resources of economic growth and government budget incomes in near future.The last five year country plan presumes consequental delimitation of grants and implication of value added tax. There is to be a quite large liberalisation in agriculture sector, which should lead to consequential down of wheat production, sugar beet and cotton and increase of barley, lentil and chickpea production.

  19. Benefits of trade facilitation as a simpler procedure for world trade growth

    OpenAIRE

    Miteva-Kacarski, Emilija; Gorgieva-Trajkovska, Olivera

    2011-01-01

    “The simplification and harmonisation of international trade procedures” where trade procedures are the “activities, practices and formalities involved in collecting, presenting, communicating and processing data required for the movement of goods in international trade” is trade facilitation according the WTO. Trade facilitation initiatives benefit both the business community and governments. The business community benefits by obtaining enhanced competitiveness in national and international ...

  20. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States March/April 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports fell to $16.5 billion (55 million tons) during the ·first 5 months of FY 1991, a decline of $1.4 billion and 14 million tons... Agricultural imports remained at $9.4 ·billion during the first 5 months of FY 1991....USDA allocated $200 million to 47 trade organizations to conduct export market promotions for a variety of agricultural products during FY 1991... Japan was the top market for U.S. agricultural exports during the past 3 fiscal years, followed by the Soviet...

  1. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States, July/August 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports slipped 14 percent to $25.6 billion during the first 9 months of fiscal year (FY) 1985 (October 1984-June 1985). Rising U.S. consumer demand and a strong dollar spurred U.S. agricultural. imports 8 percent over year-earlier levels to $15.1 billion. The U.S. dollar advanced against all five currencies most important to U.S. agricultural trade in May, immediately followed by declines in June. Agricultural exports under U.s. Government-financed programs totaled $1.5 bil...

  2. Application of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture: promoting world food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salema, P.Manase

    1998-01-01

    Agriculture is the backbone of the economies of many countries, including Romania. The need to improve both quantity and quality of agricultural products and promote trade while at the same time preserving the natural resource base, and the environment in general, is paramount for achieving sustainable development. It was recognized at the World Food Summit held in Rome, Italy last year that, there was a need to break through the present yield/production barriers and to use natural resources in a more sustainable manner if there would be hope of eliminating hunger and associated poverty from the world in the foreseeable future. For this to happen, the world will have to rely on science and technology to provide new methods of farming, new varieties of crops, better ways of protecting crops and livestock etc. Nuclear techniques are efficient tools for research and development and will play an important and often indispensable role in the effort to achieve sustainable food security and development in the world. (author)

  3. Agricultural trade liberalization in the Uruguay Round : one step forward, one step back?

    OpenAIRE

    Ingco, Merlinda D.

    1995-01-01

    After evaluating the Uruguay Round's impact on agriculture and border protection in the next decade, the author concludes that while there was significant reform of the rules - particularly the conversion of nontariff barriers into tariffs and the reduction and binding of all tariffs - in practice, trade will probably be liberalized less than expected. The objective of the Round was to reverse protectionism and remove trade distortions. This may not be achieved in practice, at least not until...

  4. Road Transportation, Agriculture and Trade in Western Nigeria after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role and impact of road transportation on the economy of southwestern Nigeria after World War II. The focus ... used road transportation as an instrument to bring about the desired social and economic transformation.

  5. EVOLUTION AND TRENDS IN TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Moldova's foreign trade value will exceed 10 billion U.S. dollars, exports increased by 12 percent annually andimports by about 9, 4 percent in the years 2014 to 2016, according to preliminary forecasts prepared by theMinistry of Economy. For 2013, an increase of 7,5 percent and 6 percent of exports imports. The foreign tradetrends may come back in 2011, when supplies of Moldovan goods to foreign markets grew faster than imports. In2012 exports fell by 2,5%, while imports rose 0,4%.

  6. Assessment of Biotechnology Policies and International Trade in Key Markets for U.S. Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Song, Baohui

    2005-01-01

    The United States leads the world in agricultural biotechnology research, adoption, commercialization, and exports. Our biotech commodities are highly dependent on international markets. Thus, any biotech policy changes by key importing countries may affect U.S. agricultural biotech product exports. This article identifies key markets for U.S. agricultural exports including biotech commodities and discusses current and proposed biotech policies in key markets for U.S. agricultural exports foc...

  7. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh‟s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific.

  8. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Talukder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh’s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific

  9. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  10. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  11. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION - REFORM IT OR CHANGE IT?

    OpenAIRE

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes a...

  13. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION – REFORM IT OR CHANGE IT?

    OpenAIRE

    Sterian Maria Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes a...

  14. Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding to Optimize Chinese Agriculture (OPTICHINA was a three-year EU–China project launched in June of 2011. As designed, the project acted as a new strategic model to reinforce systematic cooperation on agricultural research between Europe and China. The OPTICHINA International Conference “Breeding to Optimize Agriculture in a Changing World” was held in Beijing, May 26–29, 2014. The conference included six thematic areas: (1 defining and protecting the yield potential of traits and genes; (2 high-throughput precision phenotyping in the field; (3 molecular technologies in modern breeding; (4 plant ideotype; (5 data analysis, data management, and bioinformatics; and (6 national challenges and opportunities for China. The 10 articles collected in this special issue represent key contributions and topics of this conference. This editorial provides a brief introduction to the OPTICHINA project, followed by the main scientific points of articles published in this special issue. Finally, outcomes from a brainstorming discussion at the end of the conference are summarized, representing the authors' opinions on trends in breeding for a changing world.

  15. Agricultural protectionism of the European union in the conditions of international trade liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of agricultural protectionism is reflected in the protection and developing of agriculture sector. Integrated parts of this policy in the European Union are the initial model of agricultural protectionism and a new strategy of agricultural policy, which emerged as a response to the shortcomings of previously existing model. The paper presents the key reforms of agricultural policy, conditioned to internal problems and pressures in the negotiations of trade liberalization of agricultural and food products. Reform solutions for the period of 2014 to the 2020 will have similar goals. The priority will be to develop sustainable food production and sustainable management of natural resources. There is a widespread awareness of sustainable development that includes not only the economic component (which is reflected in the increase in productivity and production efficiency, but also an environmental component (the need to preserve the environment, as well as the social component of sustainable development (integrated rural development. Conducting negotiations in the framework of liberalization of agricultural and food products, there was a gradual reduction of restrictive measures in the field of domestic agriculture protection. However, the European food market is still highly protected from foreign competition because of the many features of the agricultural production sector and the importance of agriculture for the entire society. It is certain that the CAP will lose its narrow agricultural character.

  16. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  17. Urban and agricultural soils: conflicts and trade-offs in the optimization of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setälä, H.; Bardgett, R.D.; Birkhofer, K.; Brady, M.; Byrne, L.; de Ruiter, P.C.; de Vries, F.T.; Gardi, C.; Hedlund, K.; Hemerik, L.; Hotes, S.; Liiri, M.; Mortimer, S.R.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.; Pouyat, R.; Tsiafouli, M.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: Agriculture Ecosystem services Land use Management optimization Soil Urban Trade-off] On-going human population growth and changing patterns of resource consumption are increasing global demand for ecosystem services, many of which are provided by soils. Some of these ecosystem services

  18. Trade liberalization and state support of agriculture: effects for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Ivolga, A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at the overview of the main approaches of state support implemented by developed and developing countries and the assessment of their distorting influences on the trade with agricultural commodities. The current state of state support is analyzed on the examples of EU-27, the USA and

  19. Against the grain : French and German preference formation on agricultural trade during the GATT Uruguay Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    In Against the Grain, Gerry Alons presents her research on French and German preference formation on agricultural trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s. In this process, the French and German governments were confronted with contradictory domestic and international pressure. While the farm

  20. Ghana integrated to the world economy : focus on Ghana-UK-Germany trade linkage model

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpong, Daniel Bruce

    1998-01-01

    In this study of Ghana integrated to the world economy, we focus primarily on Ghana-UK-Germany trade axis partly because of Ghana?s relative dependence on the EU for her international trade. The study employs ?representative? country macroeconometric models of these economies, using data over 1970-1991, including bilateral trade links among them and with the USA and Japan, to quantitatively analyze and draw policy inference of the international transmission mechanism of macroeconomic disturba...

  1. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  2. Cointegration and error correction modelling of agricultural commodity trade: The case of ASEAN agricultural exports to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objecti e of this study is to increase our understanding of the specification and estimation of agricultural commodity trade models as well as to provide instruments for trade policy analysis. More specifically,the aim is to build a set of dynamic,theory-based econometric models which are able to capture both short-run and long-run effects of income and price changes,and which can be used for prediction and policy simulation under alternati e assumed conditions.A relati ely unrestricted,data determined,econometric modelling approach based on the error correction mechanism is used,in order to emphasise the importance of dynamics of trade functions.Econometric models are constructed for se en agricultural commodities –cassa a,cocoa,coconut oil,palm oil,pepper, rubber,and tea –exported from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANto the European Union (EU.With the aim of providing broad commodity co erage,the intent is to explore whether the chosen modelling approach is able to catch the essentials of the behavioural relationships underlying the specialised nature of each commodity market. The import demand analysis of the study examines two key features:(1the response of EU ’s agricultural commodity imports to income and price changes,and (2the length of time required for this response to occur.The estimations of the export demand relationships provide tests whether the exporters ’ market shares are influenced by the le el of relati e export price,and whether exports are affected by ariations in the rate of growth of imports.The export supply analysis examines the relati e influence of real price and some non-price factors in stimulating the supply of exports.The lag distribution (the shape and length of the lagis found to be ery critical in export supply relationships,since the effects of price changes usually take a long time to work themselves through and since the transmission of the price effects can be complex.The set of

  3. Heterogeneous economic resilience and the great recession's world trade collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.; Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This special section aims to fill a gap in the regional resilience literature and to stimulate future spatial studies of resilience to include the international dimension in empirical analyses. It demonstrates the do-ability and relevance by the natural experience of the global trade collapse that

  4. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  5. World Trade Organization Status of China's Trade Commitments to the United States and Other Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowles, Adam

    2000-01-01

    .... As a result, the administration has asked Congress to pass legislation that would allow the President to grant China permanent normal trade relations status, which would eliminate a potential conflict between U.S. law and U.S...

  6. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    model includes 3 regions: Iran, ECO and CIS countries as commercial partners of Iran, and the rest of the world, 5 production factors: land, skilled labor, unskilled labor, capital, and natural resources, and finally, 3 production sectors: agriculture, industry, and services. Two scenarios are simulated in this study: first, 50 percent imports value tariff reduction, and zero import tax target rate on intermediate goods for agriculture production in Iran is been considering. For the second scenario, we set a zero target rate for all cases mentioned above. It should be noted that according to Social Accounting Matrix gathered for Iran currently, the average tariff rate on imports of agricultural products from selected commercial partners is 27.67 percent and 7.82 percent from Iran to these countries. Results and Discussion: Results showed that 50 percent reduction in tariffs, increases social welfare, while full elimination of agricultural tariffs leads to a loss in welfare. The welfare analysis illustrated that the efficiency of resource allocation in agriculture sector increased in the first scenario, while in the second scenario, the share of efficient allocation of resources in welfare was negative. Despite equal reduction in tariff rate on the value of imports from these countries to Iran and vice versa, trade balance of Iran has been worse, while it was beneficial for trade balance of her commercial partners. However, agricultural sector had positive share in trade balance of Iran, but the negative effect of industrial sector on trade balance, totally, reduced trade balance of Iran in large quantities. The first scenario increased agricultural production, but increased production was lower in the second scenario..However, the industrial sector production was slightly reduced. On the other hand, more production in agriculture lead more production factors demand, such as skilled and unskilled labors, and capital using in this sector. Moreover, price of production

  7. Analysis of the Factor Endowments and Agricultural Trade for Economic Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong Keun Eor

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production factors, productivity and trade structures of China, Japan and Korea were analyzed. Their agriculture has mutual complementarity arising from differences in factor endowments as well as mutual competitiveness caused by similarities in production structure. Although agriculture of the three countries can be characterized by small-scale farming in common, the capital/labor ratio and the labor/land ratios are much different by country. As a result, Japan and Korea have advantages in producing labor saving and capital intensive products while China has advantages in labor intensive and capital saving products. Since agricultural productivity of factors such as labor, land and capital showed huge differences by country, mutually beneficiary development might be possible through the agricultural cooperation in the Northeast Asian region. Agricultural products of China, Japan and Korea can be classified into two groups of mutually competitive and complementary products. Regional cooperation in agriculture can be vitalized by combining production of mutually competitive products at certain levels in each country with internalizing trade of mutually complementary products. Unfortunately, however, agricultural exports are more and more competitive as the export similarity indices are high and degree of export competition is increasing in the region. For the regional agriculture, sharing markets in the region through establishing complementary systems of utilizing production factors would be better than seeking monopolistic rent or market domination through unlimited competition with each other. Price competition based on the concept of comparative advantage assumes production specialization. However, such kind of competitive advantage is likely to disappear when relative factor prices change as the national economy grows. Consequently, agricultural markets in the region might be dominated by any competitor outside the region. China

  8. Feeding and healing the world: through regenerative agriculture and permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The study of soil is a mature science, whereas related practical methods of regenerative agriculture and permaculture are not. However, despite a paucity of detailed peer reviewed research published on these topics, there is overwhelming evidence both that the methods work and they may offer the means to address a number of prevailing environmental challenges, e.g. peak oil, climate change, carbon capture, unsustainable agriculture and food shortages, peak phosphorus (phosphate), water shortages, environmental pollution, desert reclamation, and soil degradation. What is lacking is a proper scientific study, made in hand with actual development projects. By elucidating the scientific basis of these remarkable phenomena, we may obtain the means for solving some of the otherwise insurmountable problems confronting humanity, simply by observing, and working with, the patterns and forces of nature. This article is intended as a call to arms to make serious investment in researching and actualising these methods on a global scale. Despite claims that peak oil is no longer a threat because vast resources of gas and shale oil (tight oil) can now be recovered by fracking (hydraulic fracturing) combined with horizontal drilling, the reality is that proven actual reserves are only adequate to delay the peak by a few years. Furthermore, because of the rapid depletion rates of flow from gas wells and oil wells that are accessed by fracking, it will be necessary to drill continuously and relentlessly to maintain output, and there are material limits of equipment, technology and trained personnel to do this. Moreover, to make any sensible difference to the liquid fuel crisis, which is the most immediate consequence of peak oil, it would be necessary to convert the worlds one billion vehicles to run on natural gas rather than liquid fuels refined from crude oil, and this would take some considerable time and effort. The loss of widespread personalised transportation is thus

  9. Latin America in the World Economy and Trade at the Beginning of the XXI st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Massarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of Latin America in the world economy during the pre- and post-crisis period. It analyses the dynamics of the indicators that define social and economic capacity of the region and the impact of the world financial crisis in different types of the region's countries. The article examines in details structural and regional shifts in the foreign trade of Latin America. The analysis revealed the major problems of the region's foreign trade (branch and regional structure and allowed to set out the ways of their decisions through the diversification of Latin American export and the intensification of intra-regional trade.

  10. The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbenz, Markus; Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Amarjit, Sahota

    2015-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015) Presentations - Introduction (Markus Arbenz) - Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics (Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - The World of Organic Agriculture: Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2015 (Beate Huber, Christiane Mannigel) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Helga Willer) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update...

  11. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  12. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  13. Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    given date, is prima facie inconsistent with Article 23 because in some cases it mandates a USTR determination—and statutorily reserves a right for...threat of violative determinations and consequently the prima facie inconsistency was removed because of U.S. undertakings, as set forth in the Uruguay...procedure for withdrawing trade sanctions imposed by a complaining Member where the defending Member believes it has fulfilled its WTO obligations . As a

  14. Emissions trading in the real world : Ontario Power Generation's domestic and international trading activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzi, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation, the author discussed Ontario Power Generation's voluntary commitment to stabilize carbon dioxide equivalent emissions at 1990 levels. To do so, Ontario Power Generation is implementing a series of green energy initiatives, a corporate tree planting program, internal energy efficiency, and an emission reduction trading (ERT). The emphasis was placed on emission trading, where Ontario Power Generation is a leader in the field of greenhouse gas, nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide trading in Canada. The approach to trading adopted was explained, with the specifics provided for each of the different categories of emissions. Some examples further illustrated the process. The outlook for the future was outlined, with plans for the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery, low nitrogen oxide gasoline additive. The benefits of emission trading were discussed from the perspective of Ontario Power Generation and the environment, such as allowing real reductions in emissions in a cost effective manner, enhanced risk management, investments in emissions reductions. The author argued that emission reduction is the way of the future, representing the only way in which the greenhouse gas emissions reductions required to minimize global climate change will be accomplished

  15. The former Iron Curtain still drives biodiversity-profit trade-offs in German agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Gallé, Róbert; Riesch, Friederike; Fischer, Christina; Dormann, Carsten F; Mußhoff, Oliver; Császár, Péter; Fusaro, Silvia; Gayer, Christoph; Happe, Anne-Kathrin; Kurucz, Kornélia; Molnár, Dorottya; Rösch, Verena; Wietzke, Alexander; Tscharntke, Teja

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural intensification drives biodiversity loss and shapes farmers' profit, but the role of legacy effects and detailed quantification of ecological-economic trade-offs are largely unknown. In Europe during the 1950s, the Eastern communist bloc switched to large-scale farming by forced collectivization of small farms, while the West kept small-scale private farming. Here we show that large-scale agriculture in East Germany reduced biodiversity, which has been maintained in West Germany due to >70% longer field edges than those in the East. In contrast, profit per farmland area in the East was 50% higher than that in the West, despite similar yield levels. In both regions, switching from conventional to organic farming increased biodiversity and halved yield levels, but doubled farmers' profits. In conclusion, European Union policy should acknowledge the surprisingly high biodiversity benefits of small-scale agriculture, which are on a par with conversion to organic agriculture.

  16. The role of ionizing radiation in facilitating trade between the countries of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2011-01-01

    The fast growth of the international trade with agricultural products, particularly during the last century, however few problems are encountered , among other things, transmitting agricultural pests into new areas which caused human, agricultural and even environmental hazards. Consequently, new regulations were imposed (quarantine laws) and trade barriers were created. To overcome these difficulties, agricultural shipments with possible quarantine pests are subjected to certain treatments (quarantine treatments). Methyl bromide, a chemical fumigant highly effective against quarantine pests and widely used in quarantine treatments, is phased out globally due to environmental concerns with no other chemical alternative in hand. Treatment with ionizing radiation is a new, promising and constitutes a possible solution. This article deals with the history, importance, basic knowledge, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of this method. In addition, it discusses its current use, possible applications, future opportunities and challenges facing this technology. (author)

  17. An Analysis of the Impact of Guangxi Agricultural Finance, Loan and Insurance on the Trade between Guangxi and CAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukun Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial support, agriculture loan and insurance are the main funding modes for the development of agriculture. This study firstly uses software eviews6.0 to make an analysis of the current state of the Trade between Guangxi and CAFTA, and then makes a study of the data of the funds and the trading volume of Guangxi-ASEAN, and comes to the conclusion that the funds involved has an effect on the trade volume. Generally, government fiscal support curbs the trade while the agricultural loan and the agricultural insurance promote it; however, the case in Guangxi seems the opposite. The trade volume is promoted by government financial support while curbed by loan and insurance.

  18. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND UNEXPLAINED GENDER WAGE GAPS: EVIDENCE FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jorge Molina Tejerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has the objective of showing evidence that there would be a reduction on wage differences between men and women in agriculture if they participate in international trade. The methodology that will be used is based on Molina[Mol10], who used Becker [Bec71] as a knowledge base for his study. This methodology consists on showing that wage difference occurs because of a taste for discrimination. This means that companies are willing to pay a higher salary to men just because they want to. But because international trade brings new competence to the markets, local companies need to be more competitive to survive. Therefore they wouldn’t be able to pay higher wages to men; this would reduce the wage difference by gender. Agriculture shows a different behavior from other sectors due to the strong agricultural subsidies governments give, De la Dehesa[Del03]. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition an estimate wage can be found for both men and women in tradable and non-tradable sectors of agriculture. At the same time two components will be found, one of them shows the difference produced by factors that affect the productivity of an individual. The second component shows the difference that cannot be explained, this is where discrimination is shown. Once these results are found they will be compared to find out if they are different in tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results that have been found show consistency with Molina’s study for the year 2002. Agriculture shows a behavioral difference from other economic sectors and different from Becker’s idea. As there is no unexplained wage difference by gender between tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results show that the difference is that these two sectors are the same. Thus international trade doesn’t result in a reduction of inequality in agriculture.

  19. 77 FR 75145 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-138-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 61--San Juan, Puerto Rico; Application for Subzone; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, PR An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Puerto Rico Trade & Export Company, grantee of FTZ 61...

  20. 77 FR 73509 - Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading December 6, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Emerging World Pharma, Inc...

  1. DOHA Negotiations on Agriculture and Future of the WTO Multilateral Trade System

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The WTO Doha Round of trade negotiations was launched in 2001 and after twelve years of negotiations members seem unable to bring it to a successful conclusion. An attempt to deliver an ‘early harvest’ of deliverables at the 9th WTO Ministerial Conference in Bali in December 2013 does not appear likely to be more successful. This paper describes the stage that the negotiations have reached in agriculture and the value of what is currently on the table. It reviews the agricultural agenda for t...

  2. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  3. Projections of Virtual Water Trade Under Agricultural Policy Scenarios in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?

  4. Multilateral agricultural trade liberalization: The contrasting fortunes of developing countries in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Antoine Bouet, Yvan Decreux, Sébastien Jean

    2005-01-01

    An applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the impact of multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture, with particular emphasis on developing countries. We use original data, and the model includes some specific features such as a dual labor market. Applied tariffs, including those under preferential regimes and regional agreements, are taken into account at the detailed product level, together with the corresponding bound tariffs on which countries negotiate. The various type...

  5. Agricultural Trade Restrictiveness in the European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Luca Salvatici

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a summary measure of the Uruguay Round tariff reduction commitments in the European Union and the United States, using the Mercantilistic Trade Restrictiveness Index (MTRI) as the tariff aggregator. We compute the index for agricultural commodity aggregates assuming a specific (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) functional form for import demand. The levels of the MTRI under the actual commitments of the Uruguay Round are computed and compared with two hypothetical cases,...

  6. Trade Liberalization and Climate Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Impacts on Global Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Rehdanz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the A1B and A2 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES, this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture, and its interactions with trade liberalization, as proposed for the Doha Development Round. The analysis uses the new version of the GTAP-W model, which distinguishes between rainfed and irrigated agriculture and implements water as an explicit factor of production for irrigated agriculture. Significant reductions in agricultural tariffs lead to modest changes in regional water use. Patterns are non-linear. On the regional level, water use may go up for partial liberalization, and down for more complete liberalization. This is because different crops respond differently to tariff reductions, and because trade and competition matter too. Moreover, trade liberalization tends to reduce water use in water scarce regions, and increase water use in water abundant regions, even though water markets do not exist in most countries. Considering impacts of climate change, the results show that global food production, welfare and GDP fall over time while food prices increase. Larger changes are observed under the SRES A2 scenario for the medium term (2020 and under the SRES A1B scenario for the long term (2050. Combining scenarios of future climate change with trade liberalization, countries are affected differently. However, the overall effect on welfare does not change much.

  7. Estimating the impact of transport efficiency on trade costs: Evidence from Chinese agricultural traders

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhigang; Yu, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yinchu

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique survey data on agricultural traders in China in 2004, this study provides direct evidence on significance of interregional transport costs and their key determinants. Our major findings are as follows: (1) the trade barriers within China are dominated by transport-related costs but not artificial barriers, approximated by tolls and fines; (2) Labor and fuels costs are the most significant component of transport costs; (3) road quality is very important for transportation effici...

  8. Linked sustainability challenges and trade-offs among fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Julia L; Watson, Reg A; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Cottrell, Richard S; Nash, Kirsty L; Bryndum-Buchholz, Andrea; Büchner, Matthias; Carozza, David A; Cheung, William W L; Elliott, Joshua; Davidson, Lindsay N K; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Dunne, John P; Eddy, Tyler D; Galbraith, Eric; Lotze, Heike K; Maury, Olivier; Müller, Christoph; Tittensor, Derek P; Jennings, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Fisheries and aquaculture make a crucial contribution to global food security, nutrition and livelihoods. However, the UN Sustainable Development Goals separate marine and terrestrial food production sectors and ecosystems. To sustainably meet increasing global demands for fish, the interlinkages among goals within and across fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture sectors must be recognized and addressed along with their changing nature. Here, we assess and highlight development challenges for fisheries-dependent countries based on analyses of interactions and trade-offs between goals focusing on food, biodiversity and climate change. We demonstrate that some countries are likely to face double jeopardies in both fisheries and agriculture sectors under climate change. The strategies to mitigate these risks will be context-dependent, and will need to directly address the trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals, such as halting biodiversity loss and reducing poverty. Countries with low adaptive capacity but increasing demand for food require greater support and capacity building to transition towards reconciling trade-offs. Necessary actions are context-dependent and include effective governance, improved management and conservation, maximizing societal and environmental benefits from trade, increased equitability of distribution and innovation in food production, including continued development of low input and low impact aquaculture.

  9. Support of the landscape amenity function of agriculture and trade liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kubíčková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent agricultural policy and trade discussions have given increasing attention to “multifunctionality”, the notion, that agriculture provides multiple outputs that include public goods (such as landscape amenities as well as privately traded commodities. A frequent point of contention is also whether payment for the provision of non-commodity outputs distorts trade by giving domestic farmers a competitive advantage over foreign competitors. The paper reviews some requirements for environmental policy design and the role of property rights for the justification of the development of compensation programs targeted to landscape protection. The second part of the paper illustrates the possibilities, how to use results of Contingent Valuation (CV study of landscape amenity benefits of agriculture to prove eligibility for agri-environmental payments in the case of the Protected Landscape Area White Carpathians (Bílé Karpaty. It is documented in the paper, that Contingent Valuation can provide useful information about genuine concern and overall efficiency of compensation programs as well as people’s views about alternative ethical ends, besides human well-being, that policy makers should take in consideration.

  10. Randomizing world trade. II. A weighted network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Based on the misleading expectation that weighted network properties always offer a more complete description than purely topological ones, current economic models of the International Trade Network (ITN) generally aim at explaining local weighted properties, not local binary ones. Here we complement our analysis of the binary projections of the ITN by considering its weighted representations. We show that, unlike the binary case, all possible weighted representations of the ITN (directed and undirected, aggregated and disaggregated) cannot be traced back to local country-specific properties, which are therefore of limited informativeness. Our two papers show that traditional macroeconomic approaches systematically fail to capture the key properties of the ITN. In the binary case, they do not focus on the degree sequence and hence cannot characterize or replicate higher-order properties. In the weighted case, they generally focus on the strength sequence, but the knowledge of the latter is not enough in order to understand or reproduce indirect effects.

  11. World Reference Base | FAO SOILS PORTAL | Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Soil classification > World Reference Base FAO SOILS PORTAL Survey Assessment Biodiversity Management Degradation/Restoration Policies/Governance Publications Soil properties Soil classification World Soil Maps and Databases World Reference Base Dominant soils of the world The World Reference Base (WRB

  12. CHANGES IN FARMER TERMS OF TRADE AND AGRICULTURE NET-BARTER TERMS OF TRADE: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanto Siregar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In line with the Prebisch-Singerhypothesis, it is found that the Indonesian farmer terms of trade in aggregatefollowed a negative trend. Spatially, this tendency was mainly the case for theWestern Part of Indonesia, whereas in the Eastern Part of the country,especially in some Sulawesi and Kalimantan provinces, the farmer terms of tradeincreased significantly. This shows a potency to properly expand theagricultural sector in these provinces without risking the relative welfare offarmers to decline. Thus more agricultural development efforts should bedevoted to these regions. The net barter terms of trade for agriculture, whichmay be seen as a proxy of relative welfare of farmers with some accesses toexport/import market, on the other hand, generally depict a non-negative trend.This suggest that in average this group of farmers, or perhaps a group ofagricultural exporters, was less severaly affected by the crisis or crisis-likeevents than the peasant farmers. Therefore, systematic development program,which should be more than a rescue-short-term-demand-side program, is neededwith a main aim to stabilize the relative welfare of the peasant. The analysisalso suggests that Indonesiaagricultural exports are supply determined, which means that eliminations ofsupply bottlenecks and technological advancement leading to a lower unit costrelative to price received are necessary to undertake.

  13. The prospects for the World Trade Organisation Agreement on Government Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Arwel

    2000-01-01

    This thesis questions the prospects for the World Trade Organisation, Agreement on Government Procurement. This is the most important international agreement seeking to promote cross-border trade in hitherto closed national procurement markets. For the above threshold goods, services and construction services contracts which it covers, the Agreement's principal objective is to require the non-discriminatory treatment of foreign suppliers. It is because of this general insistence on non-discri...

  14. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  15. For Smooth Expansion of Coal Trade in the Asia-Pacific Region and the World:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, H.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with issues related to the smooth expansion of coal trade in the Asia-Pacific region and the world. Since the oil crises, the coal trade has significantly expanded and will further expand, but there remain barriers to this expansion. This paper describes the issues discussed during the first Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Coal Flow Seminar which took place in Tokyo on October 4 to 6, 1994. With the expected increase in coal demand, there will be less barriers concerning its trade. (TEC)

  16. The Big Trade-Off in the World of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2015-01-01

    The world is changing rapidly. This paper describes key shifts and it discusses their likely impacts on employment-related aspects. Labor market pressures are felt around the globe, and robots and automation increasingly become reality. However, there will be no "end of work". Rather, it is that work will take on different forms. Important innovations are required nonetheless to carefully and smartly balance the positives and negatives of the changing workforce and workplace. But societies ha...

  17. 75 FR 11986 - Public Comments for Multilateral Negotiations in the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... the World Trade Organization on Expansion of the Lists of Pharmaceutical Products Receiving Zero... members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The specific information being sought is described in the... World Health Organization (WHO). (Table 1 currently includes INNs from WHO lists 1-93.) Prefixes and...

  18. Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 1. Key Issues for a Pro-Development Outcome of the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    McCalla, Alex F.; Nash, John

    2007-01-01

    Reforming agricultural trade for developing countries is a two-volume set. The first volume is subtitled Key issues for a pro- development outcome of the Doha Round, and it is focused on specific concerns that are being encountered in the agricultural negotiations, and on strategies for dealing with them to arrive at a final agreement that will significantly spur growth and reduce poverty in developing countries. The companion volume is subtitled Quantifying the impact of multilateral trade r...

  19. China and the world trading system : will 'in and up' be replaced by 'down and out'?

    OpenAIRE

    WINTERS, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of China into the world trading system, focusing on the size and nature of the shocks that this implied for the world economy and the reactions to those shocks proposed by policy makers and academics. While the WTO has acted as a forum in which many of the adjustment pressures created by China’s rapid growth were dealt with fairly constructively, the recent shift by the United States and the EU to mega-regional trade deals, notably the Tran-Pacific Partners...

  20. Wood products trade and foreign markets. Annual production, consumption, and trade issue. Principal countries impacting US trade in wood products. Foreign agriculture circular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Forest Products Division has compiled production, consumption, and trade data on selected wood products for twenty eight significant countries. The data, collected from various sources, is not necessarily compatible with US export and import data normally published in this circular, which comes from the US Census Bureau. To supplement this data, the following perspectives offer a comparative snapshot of conditions in these countries, both in the general economy and the wood products sector. Economic information was extracted from the 1992 World Factbook; Central Intelligence Agency

  1. The Impact of Trade Policies on Spiraling Prices in International Agricultural Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s food prices have been on an upward trend. In the first months of 2011, agricultural commodity prices reached an all-time high, fuelling fears about the imminent outbreak of a new food crisis, similar to the 1973/74 and 2006/08 ones. Behind concerns about increased price levels and volatility in international agricultural commodity markets lie concerns about food security. Hence, the international community is now under pressure to urgently find solutions for tempering strong upward fluctuations in prices for many major food commodities. Trade policy changes are increasingly discussed as a major contributing factor to food price surges. This paper addresses some issues related to the recurrent global food crises from the perspective of trade policy, specifically export restrictions. After a brief review of the fundamental drivers of the upward trend in real food prices (rising global population and income, climate change, high oil prices, increasing cereal use for biofuel production, and financial speculation, it examines the upsurge in agricultural export restrictions over the recent years. Relying on WTO's trade policy monitoring exercise, it highlights typology, motivations and effects of the newly introduced export restrictions, and finds that a major factor behind their recent proliferation is the lack of effective and binding multilateral rules concerning these trade policy instruments. The paper argues that strenghtening and improving WTO's rules and disciplines is essential for mitigating increased price pressure and volatility as well as the associated food security risks. While the issue of export restrictions is currently the topic of discussions under the Doha Round, trade negotiations are in impasse since 2008. Hence, urgent and successful conclusion of the round would be an essential step. In the meanwhile, a closer regular monitoring of all forms of export restrictions would help to provide at least more

  2. World-trade web: Topological properties, dynamics, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Reyes, Javier; Schiavo, Stefano

    2009-03-01

    This paper studies the statistical properties of the web of import-export relationships among world countries using a weighted-network approach. We analyze how the distributions of the most important network statistics measuring connectivity, assortativity, clustering, and centrality have coevolved over time. We show that all node-statistic distributions and their correlation structure have remained surprisingly stable in the last 20years —and are likely to do so in the future. Conversely, the distribution of (positive) link weights is slowly moving from a log-normal density towards a power law. We also characterize the autoregressive properties of network-statistics dynamics. We find that network-statistics growth rates are well-proxied by fat-tailed densities like the Laplace or the asymmetric exponential power. Finally, we find that all our results are reasonably robust to a few alternative, economically meaningful, weighting schemes.

  3. A trade policy for transition in agriculture Política comercial en la transición de la agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano Jesús Antonio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the possibilities and characteristics of an
    agricultural trade policy for transition, that is, of a policy which
    would allow a transition from an agriculture which is protected and isolated from international price signals to an open agriculture capable of competing in the world market. Although trade policy affects all agricultural activity, the emphasis is placed on importable products, which were very protected over several decades and on which the adverse effects of the trade opening have fallen.En este artículo se analizan las probabilidades y características de una política comercial agrícola de transición, es decir, de una política que permita pasar de una agricultura protegida y aislada de las señales de precios internacionales a una agricultura abierta capaz de competir en el mercado mundial. Aunque la política comercial afecta al conjunto de actividad agrícola, el énfasis se centra en los productos importables, que estuvieron protegidos durante varias décadas y sobre los que recayeron los efectos adversos de la apertura comercial.

  4. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  5. Change of trade balance analysis in agricultural and food products with using of index pyramidal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the trade balance in Czech Republic in the field of agricultural and food products. The main goal is to determine the influence of analytical indicators; in this case these are changes of quantity and average unit price of export and import; over the synthetic indicator – change of trade balance. Next step of this analysis is to calculate the portions of change of inputs volume and change of total productivity of inputs over the change of export caused by change of quantity. To fulfill this aim it is suitable to use methods for pyramidal decomposition of indicators – chain substitution, logarithmic and functional methods. These methods are compared and the results are interpreted.

  6. Quantifying Trade-Offs Among Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity, and Agricultural Returns in an Agriculturally Dominated Landscape Under Future Land‑Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Underwood

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss2art4Change in land use in agriculturally dominated areas is often assumed to provide positive benefits for land-owners and financial agricultural returns at the expense of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. For an agriculturally dominated area in the Central Valley of California we quantify the trade-offs among ecosystem services, biodiversity, and the financial returns from agricultural lands. We do this by evaluating three different landscape management scenarios projected to 2050 compared to the current baseline: habitat restoration, urbanization, and enhanced agriculture. The restoration scenario benefited carbon storage services and increased landscape suitability for birds, and also decreased ecosystem disservices (nitrous oxide emissions, nitrogen leaching, although there was a trade-off in slightly lower financial agricultural returns. Under the urbanization scenario, carbon storage, suitability for birds, and agricultural returns were negatively affected. A scenario which enhanced agriculture, tailored to the needs of a key species of conservation concern (Swainson’s Hawk, Buteo swainsoni, presented the most potential for trade-offs. This scenario benefitted carbon storage and increased landscape suitability for the Swainson's Hawk as well as 15 other focal bird species. However, this scenario increased ecosystem disservices. These spatially explicit results, generated at a scale relevant to land management decision-makers in the Central Valley, provide valuable insight into managing for multiple benefits in the landscape and an approach for assessing future land-management decisions.

  7. Implications of the World Trade Organization in combating non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A; Voon, T

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a number of strategies to combat non-communicable diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes by targeting the risk factors of tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol and poor diet. A number of the domestic regulatory responses contemplated by WHO and individual countries have the potential to restrict or distort trade, raising the question of whether they are consistent with the obligations imposed on Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This article demonstrates that WTO rules do limit Members' flexibility in implementing public health measures to address these diseases. However, the focus of WTO provisions on preventing discrimination against or between imports and the exceptions incorporated in various WTO agreements leave sufficient scope for Members to design carefully directed measures to achieve genuine public health goals while minimizing negative effects on international trade. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of multi-language trading system of ethnic characteristic agricultural products based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqin, Wu; Yasheng, Jin; Yugang, Dai

    2017-06-01

    Under the current situation where Internet technology develops rapidly, mobile E-commerce technology has brought great convenience to our life. Now, the graphical user interface (GUI) of most E-commerce platforms only supports Chinese. Thus, the development of Android client of E-commerce that supports ethnic languages owns a great prospect. The principle that combines front end design and database technology is adopted in this paper to construct the Android client system of E-commerce platforms that supports ethnic languages, which realizes the displaying, browsing, querying, searching, trading and other functions of ethnic characteristic agricultural products on android platforms.

  9. The impact of the Mexican crisis on trade, agriculture, and migration:

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Sherman; Burfisher, Mary E.; Thierfelder, Karen

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses a two-country, computable general equilibrium (CGE), trade model to analyze the impact on Mexico and the U.S. of the precipitous peso depreciation in late 1994 and early 1995, and of the policy response to the crisis. The model includes explicit treatment of agricultural policies in the two countries, and of labor-market linkages, including rural-urban migration within Mexico and Mexico-U.S. migration. We explore “hard,” “medium,” and “soft” landing scenarios, which differ in ...

  10. The almost unanimous false memory of the first World Trade Center impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tia

    2005-01-01

    Although footage of the first plane's crash into World Trade Center did not become publicly available until later, the memory of having seen it on September 11, 2001, seem as pervasive as it is obviously false. In the scientific literature, this error has already been documented in several American...

  11. 76 FR 40733 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program Science/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP-STAC) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on June 23...

  12. Changing World, Unchanging Accounting? Cost Systems for Hungarian Agricultural Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Musinszki

    2011-01-01

    The literature of agricultural cost accounting has defined the definition of cost centres and cost bearers, the contents of the accounts, the procedures and methods for cost accounting and unit cost calculation without any significant changes for decades now. Do the agricultural companies set up and operate their own cost allocation and unit cost calculation systems on procedures made for state owned farms and cooperatives, or do they align their cost system with the challenges of our times? ...

  13. How does the World Trade Organization know? The mobilization and staging of scientific expertise in the GMO trade dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneuil, Christophe; Levidow, Les

    2012-02-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement procedure is a key arena for establishing global legal norms for what counts as relevant knowledge. As a high-profile case, the WTO trade dispute on GMOs mobilized scientific expertise in somewhat novel ways. Early on, the Panel put the dispute under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement through a new legal ontology; it classified transgenes as potential pests and limited all environmental issues to the 'plant and animal health' category. The selection of scientific experts sought a multi-party consensus through a fast adversarial process, reflecting a specific legal epistemology. For the SPS framing, focusing on the defendant's regulatory procedures, the Panel staged scientific expertise in specific ways that set up how experts were questioned, the answers they would give, their specific role in the legal arena, and the way their statements would complement the Panel's findings. In these ways, the dispute settlement procedure co-produced legal and scientific expertise within the Panel's SPS framework. Moreover, the Panel operated a procedural turn in WTO jurisprudence by representing its findings as a purely legal-administrative judgement on whether the EC's regulatory procedures violated the SPS Agreement, while keeping implicit its own judgements on substantive risk issues. As this case illustrates, the WTO settlement procedure mobilizes scientific expertise for sophisticated, multiple aims: it recruits a source of credibility from the scientific arena, thus reinforcing the standard narrative of 'science-based trade discipline', while also constructing new scientific expertise for the main task--namely, challenging trade restrictions for being unduly cautious.

  14. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.

  15. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  16. Global economic trade-offs between wild nature and tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis R; Webb, Edward L; Symes, William S; Koh, Lian P; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2017-07-01

    Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs) and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.

  17. Is world trade law a barrier to saving our climate? Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi-Osterwalder, N.; Norpoth, J.

    2009-09-01

    The present 'Questions and Answers' provide an overview of the various climate-related measures and policies that fall under the scope of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and offers an initial assessment of their WTO-compatibility. Is the WTO blocking progress in the fight against climate change? This was the question at the origin of this legal analysis. With this paper and its simple question and answer format, we hope to dispel some myths and shed some light on the reality of world trade rules in their relation with climate-friendly measures. In the end, we hope to encourage policy-makers in Europe and around the world not to see the WTO as an insurmountable barrier and not to use it as an excuse against strong action on climate change.

  18. Transferring technologies for agricultural development in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Agriculture Laboratory of the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories aims to assist developing countries to apply appropriate nuclear and related technologies to agricultural research. Research and development, training and technical support are all included in the Laboratory's programme. This article describes the procedures involved in providing technological assistance, from the definition of a problem requiring technological help to the provision of training and support services. Practical examples include application of controlled-release formulations of herbicides, studies of biological nitrogen fixation, and the sterile insect techniques

  19. Long-term outlook for world gas trade: 1920-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, M.W.; Linder, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    The World Gas Trade Model (WGTM) was designed to simulate the economic relationships of world and regional gas markets. Using the data gathered for supply, transportation and demand, the model calculated a consistent set of prices and quantities that, through time, would simultaneously satisfy all physical, behavioural and financial relations embodied in the model network. Three sensitivity cases were examined. The first one examined the effects on world gas supply, demand and trade with oil prices remaining constant throughout the study period. The second sensitivity case examined the effects of lower costs of new liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefaction facilities. The third sensitivity case examined the effects of policy shifts in favour of natural gas over other fossil fuels for environmental reasons. During the 25-year period of the study, global production of natural gas was projected to almost double, with the overall level of final consumption being very similar to production. Results indicated that natural gas would remain predominantly a regionally traded commodity. The relatively high cost of natural gas transportation was shown to provide a substantial competitive advantage to local producers compared to more distant competitors. The cost of new liquefaction facilities was not considered to be competitive with long distance pipeline transportation. The model also indicated that reducing transportation costs or increasing the wellhead price differential between exporting and importing regions would accelerate the development of global natural gas trade. figs., tabs., refs

  20. Deliberative Engagement within the World Trade Organization: A Functional Substitute for Authoritative Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    The transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) dispute settlement proceedings to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) represented a notable instance of judicialization within international economic governance. Since it began ruling......) prior to adoption of the dispute settlement rulings. We argue that such an increase would better enable the DSM to consider the interpretive preferences of the WTO membership as a whole, thus enabling it to better fulfill its fiduciary duties and its responsibility of deliberative engagement...... with Members in particular. This Article specifies how the proposal would work in practice and addresses potential limitations and obstacles to its implementation....

  1. Agricultural Extension in Africa. A World Bank Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nigel, Ed.

    The contributors to this document compare the main approaches to agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa; the cost-effectiveness in view of precarious national budgets; the weaknesses of the system for generating technology; the difficulties in forging productive partnerships between researchers, extensionists and farmers; the ineffective…

  2. "New World" and Mexican Contributions to Agriculture and Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochin, Refugio I.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that Hispanic-Americans can find reason for pride and positive self-images in their cultural heritage and contributions to California agriculture. Traces history of foods and plant propagation in Mesoamerica. Discusses corn, vanilla, chocolate, chiles, tomatoes, and other foods significant for their culinary legacy. (CH)

  3. 77 FR 38033 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels... and trigger levels for safeguard measures provided for in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement... measures under the safeguard provisions of the WTO [[Page 38034

  4. Improving World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates by Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W. L.; de Jeu, R. A.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shannon, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by developing monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main objective of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE. Soil moisture is a primary data gap at WAOB. Soil moisture data, generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, developed by NASA GSFC and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and customized to WAOB's requirements, will be directly integrated into GLADSE, as well as indirectly by first being integrated into USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)'s Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The LPRM-enhanced EPIC will be validated using three major agricultural regions important to WAOB and then integrated into GLADSE. Project benchmarking will be based on retrospective analyses of WAOB's analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns. WAOB is the focal point for economic intelligence within the USDA. Thus, improving WAOB's agricultural estimates by integrating NASA satellite observations and model outputs will visibly demonstrate the value of NASA resources and maximize the societal benefits of NASA investments.

  5. International Maritime Transport Sector Regulation Systems and their Impact on World Shipping and Global Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Grzelakowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.

  6. Trade Finance, Bank Bail-outs and Profit Taxation in an Interconnected World

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMIDT-EISENLOHR, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Defense date: 24 May 2010 Examining Board: Prof. Giancarlo Corsetti, EUI, Supervisor; Prof. Andrew Bernard, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth; Prof. Russell Cooper, EUI; Prof. Jonathan Eaton, New York University Countries are increasingly linked internationally. The three models developed in this thesis shed light on how firms and governments respond to the increasing interconnectedness of the world economy, analyzing profit taxation, trade finance and government intervention in the ...

  7. Environmental studies of the World Trade Center area after the September 11, 2001 attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Green, Robert O.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Meeker, Greg; Sutley, Steve; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, K. Eric; Plumlee, Geoff; Pavri, Betina; Sarture, Chuck; Wilson, Steve; Hageman, Phil; Lamothe, Paul; Vance, J. Sam; Boardman, Joe; Brownfield, Isabelle; Gent, Carol; Morath, Laurie C.; Taggart, Joseph; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Adams, Monique

    2001-01-01

    This web site describes the results of an interdisciplinary environmental characterization of the World Trade Center (WTC) area after September 11, 2001.Information presented in this site was first made available to the World Trade Center emergency response teams on September 18, 2001 (Thermal hot spot information), and September 27, 2001 (maps and compositional results).The Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), a hyperspectral remote sensing instrument, was flown by JPL/NASA over the World Trade Center (WTC) area on September 16, 18, 22, and 23, 2001 ( Link to the AVIRIS JPL data facility). A 2-person USGS crew collected samples of dusts and airfall debris from more than 35 localities within a 1-km radius of the World trade Center site on the evenings of September 17 and 18, 2001. Two samples were collected of indoor locations that were presumably not affected by rainfall (there was a rainstorm on September 14). Two samples of material coating a steel beam in the WTC debris were also collected. The USGS ground crew also carried out on-the-ground reflectance spectroscopy measurements during daylight hours to field calibrate AVIRIS remote sensing data. Radiance calibration and rectification of the AVIRIS data were done at JPL/NASA. Surface reflectance calibration, spectral mapping, and interpretation were done at the USGS Imaging Spectroscopy Lab in Denver. The dust/debris and beam-insulation samples were analyzed for a variety of mineralogical and chemical parameters using Reflectance Spectroscopy (RS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis, and chemical leach test techniques in U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Denver, Colorado.

  8. Stability of the World Trade Web over Time - An Extinction Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Foti; S. Pauls; Daniel N. Rockmore

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Web (WTW) is a weighted network whose nodes correspond to countries with edge weights reflecting the value of imports and/or exports between countries. In this paper we introduce to this macroeconomic system the notion of extinction analysis, a technique often used in the analysis of ecosystems, for the purposes of investigating the robustness of this network. In particular, we subject the WTW to a principled set of in silico "knockout experiments," akin to those carried out i...

  9. Estimating the effects of China's Accession to the World Trade Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Hua Mai; Mark Horridge; Frances Perkins

    2003-01-01

    Accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) marks a new era in China's economic reform. In this new era, state capital will lose its dominance of pillar industries such as iron and steel, automobile, petrochemicals, non-ferrous metal, insurance, telecommunication, banking, wholesale, and utilities. This study uses a computable general equilibrium model of China to estimate the economic benefits from China opening its pillar industries to private foreign and domestic capital. The study ant...

  10. Trade liberalization, the Mercosur integration process and the agriculture-industry transfers: a general equilibrium analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of trade liberalization and Mercosur integration process upon the Brazilian economy, with emphasis on the agricultural and agroindustrial production sectors, under the hypothesis that those phenomena could be another step in the rural-urban transfer process in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through an applied general equilibrium model. Results suggest that trade liberalization would hardly generate a widespread process of rural-urban transfers, although Brazilian agriculture shows up as a loser in the process. Notwithstanding that fact, there are transfers inside the agricultural sectors, where, besides the losses in the value added of the grain production sectors, there would be gains for the livestock and for the ''other crops" sectors. The agroindustry, in contrast, seems to gain both in Brazil and Argentina. Model results suggest yet that the Brazilian society would be benefitted as a whole by the integration, despite the losses in the agricultural sector.Este artigo analisa os efeitos do processo de liberalização comercial e de constituição do Mercosul sobre a economia brasileira, com ênfase nos setores produtivos da agricultura e da agroindústria, sob a hipótese de que aqueles fenômenos seriam mais uma etapa no processo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil. Para tanto, a análise é conduzida através do uso de um modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado. Os resultados sugerem que a integração comercial não irá gerar um processo amplo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil, embora a agricultura brasileira apareça, no agregado, como o setor perdedor na integração, em benefício da agricultura argentina. Há, entretanto, transferências dentro dos setores da agropecuária brasileira, onde, ao lado das perdas no valor adicionado do setor produtor de grãos, haveria ganhos para a pecuária e para o setor ''outras culturas". A agroindústria, em contraste, parece ganhar tanto no Brasil

  11. A hybrid Bayesian network approach for trade-offs between environmental flows and agricultural water using dynamic discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Lei, Jiaqiang; Sun, Huaiwei; Zeng, Fanjiang; Feng, Xinlong

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture and the eco-environment are increasingly competing for water. The extension of intensive farmland for ensuring food security has resulted in excessive water exploitation by agriculture. Consequently, this has led to a lack of water supply in natural ecosystems. This paper proposes a trade-off framework to coordinate the water-use conflict between agriculture and the eco-environment, based on economic compensation for irrigation stakeholders. A hybrid Bayesian network (HBN) is developed to implement the framework, including: (a) agricultural water shortage assessments after meeting environmental flows; (b) water-use tradeoff analysis between agricultural irrigation and environmental flows using the HBN; and (c) quantification of the agricultural economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The constructed HBN is computed by dynamic discretization, which is a more robust and accurate propagation algorithm than general static discretization. A case study of the Qira oasis area in Northwest China demonstrates that the water trade-off based on economic compensation depends on the available water supply and environmental flows at different levels. Agricultural irrigation water extracted for grain crops should be preferentially guaranteed to ensure food security, in spite of higher economic compensation in other cash crops' irrigation for water coordination. Updating water-saving engineering and adopting drip irrigation technology in agricultural facilities after satisfying environmental flows would greatly relieve agricultural water shortage and save the economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The approach in this study can be easily applied in water-stressed areas worldwide for dealing with water competition.

  12. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and…

  13. Examining the Effect of World Price Transfer to Domestic Markets for Sensitive and Certain Agricultural Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. shabanzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agriculture as one of old sectors of economy has been important role in the supply food for peoples and raw materials. Globalization causes rapid growth of world trade and reduces information and communications costs. Globalization and rapid growth of trade increases the potential benefits of trade for agriculture from various aspects. The potential benefits of trade for agriculture increases from three aspects. Direct increase in the domain of agricultural sector activities for competition in the global market results in the benefits of access to global markets. This is especially true in cases where there is comparative advantage and the indirect effects of increased global trade on non-agricultural sectors that cause the domestic demand for food change from qualitative and quantitative aspects, are the benefits of this event. However, during the process of globalization, how to influence prices in different markets, including the impact of world prices on domestic prices is an important issue in trade policy analysis. During this process domestic prices are directly related to world prices. With this approach, the main objective of this study is to examine the effect of world price transfers to domestic markets for sensitive and certain agricultural products in Iran during 1360-91. Materials and Methods: To achieve this goal in this study, the Armington and the foreign currency elasticity of ten selected agricultural products in Iran including wheat, barley, rice, corn, soybean meal, vegetable oil (soybean and sunflower, sugar, eggs, poultry and beef, have been estimated and examined using Autoregressive Distribution lag Model (ARDL. In order to investigate speed of adjustment or in other words the speed of movement towards equilibrium, typically the error correction model (ECM is used. Existence of cointegration or in other words, long term relationship between a set of economic variables provide the basis for the use of error

  14. Technological changes in the transportation sector : effects on U.S. food and agricultural trade : a proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to raise awareness within the Economic Research Service (ERS) about the role and importance of transportation in U.S. food and agricultural trade and to discuss the need of an agency research agenda in this area. Subje...

  15. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD, THE EU-27 AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operating in Africa and Asia, especially in India, Uganda and Mexico. In 2010, organic food sales accounted for Euro 44.5 Billions of which 50 % in Europe. In the same year, the organic agriculture area increased by 20 % in the EU-27 and reached 9.01 million ha and continues to grow, representing 5.10 % of agricultural land. The larges areas in organic agriculture are in Spain, Italy, Germany and France. In the EU-27 there are 219,290 organic producers of which 40 % in Italy, Spain, Germany and Austria. In 2010, Romania’s area in organic agriculture was 300,205 ha, 2 times higher than in 2006. A number of 10,253 organic operators were registered in 2010, representing 4.67 %, of the EU number. The main organic products are cereals, vegetables, wine, honey, dairy products, representing a chance for Romania’s export on the EU market.

  16. Unveiled Risks in a Telecoupled Arena Dependent on Agricultural Commodity Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistella, M.; Silva, R. F. B. D.; Liu, J.; Moran, E. F.; Torres, S.; Dou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In less than five years, a new field of interdisciplinary research has been widely developed within the coupled human-natural systems (CHANS) community. Based on well-known concepts acting over long distances, such as teleconnections for biophysical sciences and globalization for human sciences, the telecoupling framework states that long distant CHANS may be integrated through flows of capital, information, and matter, shaping environmental and socioeconomic changes within local systems. An international project including researchers from Brazil, China, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (USA) is using such a framework to study the flows of agricultural commodities between sending systems such as Brazil and the USA, and receiving systems such as China with soybean trade as a case in point. Many findings have already shown that these dynamics are intrinsically connected and changes in environmental conditions in one system may affect economic conditions in other systems. In the case of the double-crop practice (i.e., soybean followed by maize, two crops year round) used in some regions of Brazil, maize production is strongly connected with soybean production through the supply chain, logistics, producer regions, and farmers. Consequently, maize has been displaced to second-crop status, making it more vulnerable to rain shortfalls. The use of the telecoupling framework has also unveiled a possible threat for soybean production in the long run if it only relies on international demand and inputs. The telecoupled soybean production system has put some Brazilian farmers at economic risk, and is pushing them towards diversification and alternative production practices (e.g., non-GMO crops, biological control, in-farm seed production) to reduce their risk. This, in turn, may affect the demand-consumption relationship among traditional trading partners. With this paper, we also highlight the role of cascading effects and spillover systems of telecoupling in

  17. COMPETITIVENESS ОF CHINESE ECONOMY AFTER JOINING WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shlik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of the China’s membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO. The advantages and disadvantages of WTO joining and also prospects and unforeseen difficulties are given in the paper. The People’s Republic of China has already been a full-member of WTO for 6 years. The Chinese Government has mainly fulfilled all the conditions which were imposed for WTO joining. They concerned customs legislation that presupposed a considerable reduction of custom duties, an access to the service market for foreign investors, an increase of responsibility for violation of intellectual property rights. Many of these conditions have been fulfilled in advance.

  18. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKET BAD PRICE DYNAMICS THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grodzievskaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is about main threats of the bad price dynamics on the world agricultural market for agriculture producers. Scientific point of view on the risks is considered. Mostly theoretical point of view allows understanding how deep and wide scientists could research this problem. Author considers reasons of this menaces and ways out, how to avoid or estimate the rate of undesirable consequences for agriculture producers and agriculture price conjuncture. Researcher distinguishes several main reasons of the agriculture threats among them: production, finance, inflation and conjuncture fluctuation. In this article readers can find new ideas for governmental way to operate risky and low informative level situations in agricultural sphere. Researchers can use structural approach of the risk identification due to the scheme of risks realization reasons. Also few formulas provided for cybernetic way to research this problem. Scientist proposes ways for neutralization threats, among them are: adaptation, insurance, spends minimization, etc. Author analyzes Ukrainian agricultural tendencies in the last decades and draws a conclusion for socio-economic trend in witch modern world economy moves.

  19. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests.

  20. The world trade organisation and Human Rights: The role of principles of Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Denkers

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF or the World Bank. This does not mean, however, that the WTO has no autonomous powers at all. This contribution attempts to make clear what these activities are and how they may affect the protection of human rights. The implementation of good governance principles in international organisations can be considered a sine qua non for the realisation of human rights. Therefore, it will be examined what role the principles of good governance plays within the WTO. More specifically, the focus will be on how the good governance principles of transparency and participation can contribute to sensitising the organisation for human rights considerations.

  1. The Use of DOE Technologies at The World Trade Center Incident: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, B.; Kovach, J.; Carpenter, C.; Blair, D.

    2003-01-01

    In response to the attack of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) National Hazmat Program (OENHP) assembled and deployed a HAZMAT Emergency Management Team (Team) to the disaster site (Site). The response team consisted of a Certified Industrial Hygienist and a rotating team of industrial hygienists, safety professionals, and certified HAZMAT instructors. Through research funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the IUOE conducted human factors assessments on baseline and innovative technologies during real-world conditions and served as an advocate at the WTC disaster site to identify opportunities for the use and evaluation of DOE technologies. From this work, it is clear that opportunities exist for more DOE technologies to be made readily available for use in future emergencies

  2. The Use of DOE Technologies at The World Trade Center Incident: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, B.; Kovach, J.; Carpenter, C.; Blair, D.

    2003-02-25

    In response to the attack of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) National Hazmat Program (OENHP) assembled and deployed a HAZMAT Emergency Management Team (Team) to the disaster site (Site). The response team consisted of a Certified Industrial Hygienist and a rotating team of industrial hygienists, safety professionals, and certified HAZMAT instructors. Through research funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the IUOE conducted human factors assessments on baseline and innovative technologies during real-world conditions and served as an advocate at the WTC disaster site to identify opportunities for the use and evaluation of DOE technologies. From this work, it is clear that opportunities exist for more DOE technologies to be made readily available for use in future emergencies.

  3. [Research on the virtual water composition and virtual water trade for agriculture in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jun-hong; Dong, Yan-yan; Han, Zhao-xing

    2007-12-01

    Based on the irrigation norm of typical district and county, and revised by the isoline map of Chinese crops water demand, the change of crops program was analyzed as well as the agricultural water use and its GDP benefits. Then the virtual water was calculated for years. At last, the input-output method was used to calculate the trade of virtual water in Beijing. As the results, the virtual water for cereal crops has been decreasing in Beijing, from 1.832 x 10(9) m3 in 1990 to 4.283 x 10(8) m3 in 2004. Otherwise the virtual water for technical crops has been increasing, which is from 9.06 x 10(8) m3 in 1990 to 1.492 x 10(9) m3 in 2004. On the whole, the virtual water for crops has been decreasing in Beijing. From the angle of primary products Beijing is a virtual water importing area. Virtual water importing of annual average is 2.37 x 10(8) m3, which is about 5.93% of the total water of Beijing. Virtual water has been an important supplement of local real water of Beijing.

  4. The Impact of Trade Openness on Poverty via Agricultural TFP in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    The importance of trade openness in the reduction of poverty has been debated over the ... by which trade openness influences poverty: Farm household; distribution channel .... But these channels can be classified as static effect and dynamic.

  5. Detecting early signs of the 2007-2008 crisis in the world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-07-01

    Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008-2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles.

  6. INSTITUTIONAL RISK IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN THE FACE OF NEGOTIATING THE TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP (TTIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Lipińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues connected with the EU entering and conducting negotiations with the US on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. These issues relate to institutional risk due to the necessity to change the agricultural policy statement of the parties and to implement new legal instruments or amend those that already exist. The article aims at analysing the proposed organisational and legal solutions relating to agriculture in the face of negotiations of the contents of the partnership. It also intends to indicate essential diff erences between the parties relating to agriculture and food production, to determine the direction of amendments in the event of joining the partnership, and to assess its potential consequences from the perspective of EU agricultural producers and food consumers.

  7. The rising tide of green unilateralism in world trade law. Options for reconciling the emerging north-south conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F.

    2000-12-01

    This paper argues that to reconcile the objectives of free trade and environmental protection, limited reforms of international trade law are required. There is a need to guarantee, first, that universally accepted international environmental agreements that mandate trade-restrictions remain compatible with international trade law, in particular with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Second, it is necessary to ensure that the interests of small and vulnerable states are protected against environmental unilateralism of the major trading nations. This reform agenda could be realized, it is argued, through an authoritative interpretation of international trade law by the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This interpretation should stipulate that environmentally-motivated trade restrictions which are related to processes and production methods, and which are intended to protect environmental goods outside the importing country, be compatible with WTO law, but only if mandated by international environmental agreements that have been previously accepted by the Ministerial Conference. This paper outlines the rationale for such authoritative interpretation and offers a possible legal draft. This clarification of the relationship between international environmental and international trade law would protect the sovereign right of smaller trading nations, particularly developing countries, to enact their own environmental standards as may be appropriate and feasible according to their specific situation. It would also maintain the supremacy of multilateralism in both international trade and environmental policies, as opposed to unilateral action. The principle of international co-operation and the rule of law would be strengthened, and attempts to use the international trade system for the enforcement of unilaterally decided environmental standards would be precluded. (orig.)

  8. Agriculture and food systems in sub-Saharan Africa in a 4°C+ world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Philip K; Jones, Peter G; Ericksen, Polly J; Challinor, Andrew J

    2011-01-13

    Agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa faces daunting challenges, which climate change and increasing climate variability will compound in vulnerable areas. The impacts of a changing climate on agricultural production in a world that warms by 4°C or more are likely to be severe in places. The livelihoods of many croppers and livestock keepers in Africa are associated with diversity of options. The changes in crop and livestock production that are likely to result in a 4°C+ world will diminish the options available to most smallholders. In such a world, current crop and livestock varieties and agricultural practices will often be inadequate, and food security will be more difficult to achieve because of commodity price increases and local production shortfalls. While adaptation strategies exist, considerable institutional and policy support will be needed to implement them successfully on the scale required. Even in the 2°C+ world that appears inevitable, planning for and implementing successful adaptation strategies are critical if agricultural growth in the region is to occur, food security be achieved and household livelihoods be enhanced. As part of this effort, better understanding of the critical thresholds in global and African food systems requires urgent research.

  9. World Trade Organization: U.S. Experience in Dispute Settlement System: The First Five Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Established in January 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations, the WTO administers rules for international trade and provides a forum for conducting trade negotiations...

  10. World food and agriculture: outlook for the medium and longer term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandratos, N

    1999-05-25

    The world has been making progress in improving food security, as measured by the per person availability of food for direct human consumption. However, progress has been very uneven, and many developing countries have failed to participate in such progress. In some countries, the food security situation is today worse than 20 years ago. The persistence of food insecurity does not reflect so much a lack of capacity of the world as a whole to increase food production to whatever level would be required for everyone to have consumption levels assuring satisfactory nutrition. The world already produces sufficient food. The undernourished and the food-insecure persons are in these conditions because they are poor in terms of income with which to purchase food or in terms of access to agricultural resources, education, technology, infrastructure, credit, etc., to produce their own food. Economic development failures account for the persistence of poverty and food insecurity. In the majority of countries with severe food-security problems, the greatest part of the poor and food-insecure population depend greatly on local agriculture for a living. In such cases, development failures are often tantamount to failures of agricultural development. Development of agriculture is seen as the first crucial step toward broader development, reduction of poverty and food insecurity, and eventually freedom from excessive economic dependence on poor agricultural resources. Projections indicate that progress would continue, but at a pace and pattern that would be insufficient for the incidence of undernutrition to be reduced significantly in the medium-term future. As in the past, world agricultural production is likely to keep up with, and perhaps tend to exceed, the growth of the effective demand for food. The problem will continue to be one of persistence of poverty, leading to growth of the effective demand for food on the part of the poor that would fall short of that required for

  11. Stimulating climate smart agriculture within the boundaries of international trade law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    The Paris Agreement implies that comprehensive policies aimed at climate smart agriculture, i.e., reducing emissions from agriculture, increasing sequestration through agriculture and land use, and increasing resilience of the agricultural sector need to be developed and implemented soon. This

  12. Applying the World Water and Agriculture Model to Filling Scenarios for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Daniel L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The World Water and Agriculture Model has been used to simulate water, hydropower, and food sector effects in Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia during the filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This unique capability allows tradeoffs to be made between filling policies for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This Nile River Basin study is presented to illustrate the capacity to use the World Water and Agriculture Model to simulate regional food security issues while keeping a global perspective. The study uses runoff data from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 and information from the literature in order to establish a reasonable set of hydrological initial conditions. Gross Domestic Product and population growth are modelled exogenously based on a composite projection of United Nations and World Bank data. The effects of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam under various percentages of water withheld are presented.

  13. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The impact of foreign trade in agricultural products of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the framework of CEFTA 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćejvanović Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, characterized by the growing importance of foreign trade between the countries, relations of a country with international environment play an increasingly impor­tant role in economic development. Over the last decade the process of economic integration through the removal of barriers for the free movement of goods, services, money and people has improved job creation and economic growth. From economic cooperation with foreign countries should expect positive effects on the economy of the state if the external economic factor used in accordance with the plans and programs of economic development of a coun­try. Thereto, there are social forces that can decide relatively independently to all elements of internal development and cooperation with foreign countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the CEFTA 2006 on the foreign trade of agricultural products in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this respect it may be noted that foreign trade of agricultural products has an impact on the agricultural sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  15. International Agricultural Trade and Policy: Issues and Implications for U.S. Agriculture. Texas Agricultural Market Research Center Special Series Report No. SS-2-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary W.

    Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…

  16. How the World Trade Organisation is shaping domestic policies in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D; Pollock, A M; Shaoul, J

    1999-11-27

    High up on the agenda of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is the privatisation of education, health, welfare, social housing and transport. The WTO's aim is to extend the free market in the provision of traditional public services. Governments in Europe and the US link the expansion of trade in public services to economic success, and with the backing of powerful medico-pharmaceutical, insurance, and service corporations, the race is on to capture the share of gross domestic product that governments currently spend on public services. They will open domestic European services and domestic markets to global competition by government procurement agreements, dispute-settlement procedures, and the investment rules of global financial institutions. The UK has already set up the necessary mechanisms: the introduction of private-sector accounting rules to public services; the funding of public-sector investment via private-public partnerships or the private finance initiative; and the change to capitation funding streams, which allows the substitution of private for public funds and services. We explain the implications of these changes for European public-health-care systems and the threat they pose to universal coverage, solidarity through risk-pooling, equity, comprehensive care, and democratic accountability.

  17. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  18. The World Trade Center Attack Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness. PMID:11737919

  19. Paresthesias Among Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael; Shao, Yongzhao; Bhatt, D. Harshad; Stecker, Mark M.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Goldring, Roberta M.; Rosen, Rebecca L.; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Kazeros, Angeliki; Pradhan, Deepak; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Reibman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Paresthesias can result from metabolic disorders, nerve entrapment following repetitive motions, hyperventilation pursuant to anxiety, or exposure to neurotoxins. We analyzed data from community members exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001, to evaluate whether exposure to the disaster was associated with paresthesias. Methods: Analysis of data from 3141 patients of the WTC Environmental Health Center. Results: Fifty-six percent of patients reported paresthesias at enrollment 7 to 15 years following the WTC disaster. After controlling for potential confounders, paresthesias were associated with severity of exposure to the WTC dust cloud and working in a job requiring cleaning of WTC dust. Conclusions: This study suggests that paresthesias were commonly associated with WTC-related exposures or post-WTC cleaning work. Further studies should objectively characterize these paresthesias and seek to identify relevant neurotoxins or paresthesia-inducing activities. PMID:28157767

  20. Factors associated with high-rise evacuation: qualitative results from the World Trade Center Evacuation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Qureshi, Kristine A; Rubin, Marcie S; Raveis, Victoria H

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fact that most high-rise structures (i.e., >75 feet high, or eight to ten stories) are constructed with extensive and redundant fire safety features, current fire safety procedures typically only involve limited evacuation during minor to moderate fire emergencies. Therefore, full-scale evacuation of high-rise buildings is highly unusual and consequently, little is known about how readily and rapidly high-rise structures can be evacuated fully. Factors that either facilitate or inhibit the evacuation process remain under-studied. This paper presents results from the qualitative phase of the World Trade Center Evacuation Study, a three-year, five-phase study designed to improve our understanding of the individual, organizational, and environmental factors that helped or hindered evacuation from the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers 1 and 2, on 11 September 2001. Qualitative data from semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus groups involving WTC evacuees were collected and analyzed. On the individual level, factors that affected evacuation included perception of risk (formed largely by sensory cues), preparedness training, degree of familiarity with the building, physical condition, health status, and footwear. Individual behavior also was affected by group behavior and leadership. At the organizational level, evacuation was affected by worksite preparedness planning, including the training and education of building occupants, and risk communication. The environmental conditions affecting evacuation included smoke, flames, debris, general condition and degree of crowdedness on staircases, and communication infrastructure systems (e.g., public address, landline, cellular and fire warden's telephones). Various factors at the individual, organizational, and environmental levels were identified that affected evacuation. Interventions that address the barriers to evacuation may improve the full-scale evacuation of other high-rise buildings under extreme

  1. The Level of African Engagement at the World Trade Organization from 1995 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Apecu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the level of individual and collective participation of African World Trade Organization (WTO Members in the Organization over a 15 year period, from 1995 to 2010. Specifically, it compares participation levels in three core areas of the WTO: regular committee work; Doha multilateral negotiations; and, dispute settlement. Primary data are collected and examined. Analysis showed that individual and collective participation by African WTO Members was nominal, minimal and largely ineffectual in relation to the group's significant membership share, in areas identified as priority, and compared to members' participation from other regions. The results of the analysis strongly suggest that the described level of participation of African countries is explained by the continuing inertia of a “special and differential exemption orientation”; misalignment in coordinating capital-driven domestic trade policy and economic reforms with the African WTO "Geneva frontline"; misallocation of negotiators across the core areas of work; a small trade share; and, to a lesser extent, specialised capacity handicaps. Furthermore, analysis indicated that the degree of engagement of participation of African WTO Members could be explained by levels of personal commitment and professional engagement of individual negotiators, regardless of capacity constraints and weaknesses. There were evident relationships between the level of African participation and the governance and institutional structures from which negotiators originated. Negotiators from systems with fragile democracies and weak governance structures tended to be tentative, largely inactive, inconsistent in participation and ineffectual in engagement. Within this overarching explanatory framework, specific variables have intervened in different combinations in the three areas of work to influence the levels of engagement, such as trade share levels, specific commercial interests, and

  2. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  3. Evaluating agricultural trade-offs in the age of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanter, David R.; Musumba, Mark; Wood, Sylvia L.R.; Palm, Cheryl; Antle, John; Balvanera, Patricia; Dale, Virginia H.; Havlik, Petr; Kline, Keith L.; Scholes, R.J.; Thornton, Philip; Tittonell, Pablo; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    A vibrant, resilient and productive agricultural sector is fundamental to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Bringing about such a transformation requires optimizing a range of agronomic, environmental and socioeconomic outcomes from agricultural systems – from crop yields, to

  4. Crop Breeding for Low Input Agriculture: A Sustainable Response to Feed a Growing World Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner A. Benedito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World population is projected to reach its maximum (~10 billion people by the year 2050. This 45% increase of the current world population (approaching seven billion people will boost the demand for food and raw materials. However, we live in a historical moment when supply of phosphate, water, and oil are at their peaks. Modern agriculture is fundamentally based on varieties bred for high performance under high input systems (fertilizers, water, oil, pesticides, which generally do not perform well under low-input situations. We propose a shift of research goals and plant breeding objectives from high-performance agriculture at high-energy input to those with an improved rationalization between yield and energy input. Crop breeding programs that are more focused on nutrient economy and local environmental fitness will help reduce energy demands for crop production while still providing adequate amounts of high quality food as global resources decline and population is projected to increase.

  5. Effects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on World Agriculture, Food Consumption, and Economic Welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Because of many uncertainties, quantitative estimates of agriculturally related economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions are often given low confidence. A major source of uncertainty is our inability to accurately project future changes in economic activity, emissions, and climate. This paper focuses on two issues. First, to what extent do variable projections of climate generate uncertainty in agriculturally related economic impacts? Second, to what extent do agriculturally related economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions depend on economic conditions at the time of impacts? Results indicate that uncertainty due to variable projections of climate is fairly large for most of the economic effects evaluated in this analysis. Results also indicate that economic conditions at the time of impact influence the direction and size of as well as the confidence in the economic effects of identical projections of greenhouse gas impacts. The economic variable that behaves most consistently in this analysis is world crop production. Increases in mean global temperature, for example, cause world crop production to decrease on average under both 1990 and improved economic conditions and in both instances the confidence with respect to variable projections of climate is medium (e.g., 67%) or greater. In addition and as expected, CO2 fertilization causes world crop production to increase on average under 1990 and improved economic conditions. These results suggest that crop production may be a fairly robust indicator of the potential impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. A somewhat unexpected finding is that improved economic conditions are not necessarily a panacea to potential greenhouse-gas-induced damages, particularly at the region level. In fact, in some regions, impacts of climate change or CO2 fertilization that are beneficial under current economic conditions may be detrimental under improved economic conditions (relative to the new economic base). Australia plus

  6. World Trade Organization: U.S. Experience in Dispute Settlement System: The First Five Years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... of multilateral trade rules. In addition, the Uruguay Round agreements established a new dispute settlement system, replacing that under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the predecessor to the WTO...

  7. 3 CFR 8373 - Proclamation 8373 of May 6, 2009. World Trade Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Hollywood movie, or visit the Grand Canyon, they are helping to create and maintain good jobs for Americans... observe this week with events, trade shows, and educational programs that celebrate the benefits of trade...

  8. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Chanona, Rita María; Grujić, Jelena; Jeldtoft Jensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree) and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  9. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita María Del Río-Chanona

    Full Text Available The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  10. The precautionary principle and/or risk assessment in World Trade Organization decisions: a possible role for risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Bernard; Carruth, Russellyn S

    2004-04-01

    Risk analysis has been recognized and validated in World Trade Organization (WTO) decision processes. In recent years the precautionary principle has been proposed as an additional or alternative approach to standard risk assessment. The precautionary principle has also been advocated by some who see it as part of postmodern democracy in which more power is given to the public on health and safety matters relative to the judgments of technocrats. A more cynical view is that the precautionary principle is particularly championed by the European Community as a means to erect trade barriers. The WTO ruling against the European Community's trade barrier against beef from hormone-treated cattle seemed to support the use of risk assessment and appeared to reject the argument that the precautionary principle was a legitimate basis for trade barriers. However, a more recent WTO decision on asbestos contains language suggesting that the precautionary principle, in the form of taking into account public perception, may be acceptable as a basis for a trade barrier. This decision, if followed in future WTO trade disputes, such as for genetically modified foods, raises many issues central to the field of risk analysis. It is too early to tell whether the precautionary principle will become accepted in WTO decisions, either as a supplement or a substitute for standard risk assessment. But it would undermine the value of the precautionary principle if this principle were misused to justify unwarranted trade barriers.

  11. British American Tobacco's tactics during China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Yano, Eiji

    2007-04-01

    China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 after years of negotiations. As a WTO member, China had to reduce tariffs on imported cigarettes and remove non-tariff barriers to allow foreign cigarettes to be more competitive in the Chinese market. Among foreign tobacco companies, British American Tobacco (BAT) was the most active lobbyist during China's WTO negotiations. To review and analyse BAT's tactics and activities relating to China's entry into the WTO. Internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and are featured here. Industry documents were searched mainly on the website of BAT's Guildford Depository and other documents' websites. 528 documents were evaluated and 142 were determined to be relevant to China's entry into the WTO. BAT was extremely active during the progress of China's entry into the WTO. The company focused its lobbying efforts on two main players in the negotiations: the European Union (EU) and the US. Because of the negative moral and health issues related to tobacco, BAT did not seek public support from officials associated with the WTO negotiations. Instead, BAT lobbyists suggested that officials protect the interests of BAT by presenting the company's needs as similar to those of all European companies. During the negotiation process, BAT officials repeatedly spoke favourably of China's accession into the WTO, with the aim of presenting BAT as a facilitator in this process and of gaining preferential treatment from their Chinese competitor. BAT's activities clearly suggest that tobacco companies place their own interests above public health interests. Today, China struggles with issues of tobacco control that are aggravated by the aggressive practices of transnational tobacco companies, tobacco-tariff reductions and the huge number of smokers. For the tobacco-control movement to progress in China, health advocates must understand how foreign tobacco companies have undermined anti-tobacco activities by taking advantage

  12. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (May/June issue)

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports rose slightly during the first 7 months of FY 1990, increasing 3 percent to $25.2 billion .... Record U.S. agricultural imports of $22 billion are forecast for FY 1990, $500 million above the February forecast of $21.5 billion .... Japan was the top market for U.S. agricultural exports during the past 3 fiscal years, followed by South Korea, Canada, the Soviet Union, the Netherlands, Mexico, Taiwan, and West Germany.

  13. Commercial border crossing and wait time measurement at Laredo World Trade Bridge and the Colombia-Solidarity Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This research is to establish a baseline and on-going measurement of border crossing times and : delay by measuring travel times for commercial trucks crossing the port of entry (POE) from : Mexico into Texas at the Laredo World Trade Bridge and the ...

  14. 75 FR 16824 - Notice of Modifications to U.S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement... of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Government Procurement (Canada-U.S..., steel, and manufactured products in procurement above $7,804,000 for construction services through...

  15. Chronic and acute exposures to the world trade center disaster and lower respiratory symptoms: area residents and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark

    2012-06-01

    We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN INHALATION EXPOSURES AND POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER TOWERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) towers, EPA, other federal agencies, and New York City and New York State public health and environmental authorities initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better ...

  17. 75 FR 16825 - Notice of Modifications to U.S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... hearing- or speech-impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal... construction project, and the total construction project has an estimated value of more than $7,804,000....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement...

  18. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  19. An integrated model for simulating nitrogen trading in an agricultural catchment with complex hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T J; Rutherford, J C; Kerr, S C; Smeaton, D C; Palliser, C C

    2013-09-30

    Nitrogen loads to several New Zealand lakes are dominated by nonpoint runoff from pastoral farmland which adversely affects lake water quality. A 'cap and trade' scheme is being considered to help meet targets set for nitrogen loads to Lake Rotorua, and a numerical model, NTRADER, has been developed to simulate and compare alternative schemes. NTRADER models both the geophysics of nitrogen generation and transport, including groundwater lag times, and the economics of 'cap and trade' schemes. It integrates the output from several existing models, including a farm-scale nitrogen leaching and abatement model, a farm-scale management economic model, and a catchment-scale nitrogen transport model. This paper details modeling methods and compares possible trading program design features for the Lake Rotorua catchment. Model simulations demonstrate how a cap and trade program could be used to effectively achieve challenging environmental goals in the targeted catchment. However, results also show that, due to complex hydrogeology, satisfactory environmental outcomes may be not achieved unless groundwater lag times are incorporated into the regulatory scheme. One way to do this, as demonstrated here, would be to explicitly include lag times in the cap and trade program. The utility of the model is further demonstrated by quantifying relative differences in abatement costs across potential regulatory schemes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-01-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita −1 yr −1 , or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita −1 yr −1 . Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently. (letter)

  1. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-02-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  2. Multi-laboratory testing of a screening method for world trade center (WTC) collapse dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosati, Jacky A.; Bern, Amy M.; Willis, Robert D.; Blanchard, Fredrick T.; Conner, Teri L.; Kahn, Henry D.; Friedman, David

    2008-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) covered a large area of downtown New York City with dust and debris. This paper describes the testing of an analytical method designed to evaluate whether sampled dust contains dust that may have originated from the collapse of the WTC. Using dust samples collected from locations affected and not affected (referred to as 'background' locations) by the collapse, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis method was developed to screen for three materials that are believed to be present in large quantities in WTC dusts: slag wool, concrete, and gypsum. An inter-laboratory evaluation of the method was implemented by having eight laboratories analyze a number of 'blind' dust samples, consisting of confirmed background dust and confirmed background dust spiked with varying amounts of dust affected by the WTC collapse. The levels of gypsum and concrete in the spiked samples were indistinguishable from the levels in the background samples. Measurements of slag wool in dust demonstrated potential for distinguishing between spiked and background samples in spite of considerable within and between laboratory variability. Slag wool measurements appear to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish dust spiked with 5% WTC-affected dust from 22 out of 25 background dust samples. Additional development work and inter-laboratory testing of the slag wool component will be necessary to improve the precision and accuracy of the method and reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability from levels observed in the inter-laboratory evaluation

  3. Trends in World Silk Cocoons and Silk Production and Trade, 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze world production and trade for fresh silk cocoons and raw silk using FAO Stat data for  the  period 2007-2010. The use of index, share and comparison methods allowed to identify the major trends in the analyzed period. Silk decline was determined by the increased importance of cotton and artificial fibres in textile and clothing industry. Important changes are taking place on silk cocoons and silk market. While, the European market decreased, the Asian market has mainly developed fresh cocoons and raw silk, while the European market became more interested of clothes. Silk consumption declined because of consumer’s preference for synthetic fibres, except traditional consumers from Asia.  China is the main producer and exporter of fresh and dry cocoons, while raw silk is produced and exported by China, Brazil and Italy and imported by India, Japan and Italy. In Europe, Bulgaria is the top producer of fresh cocoons and raw silk and Italy is the main raw silk importer and the top producer and exporter of textile and fashion clothes. Silk will remain an important raw material for producing high quality and luxury clothes.

  4. The Rights of Private Economic Actors Under the World Trade Organization Agreements in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nothing in the Uruguay Round mentions directly about rights of private economic actors. It seems that the relationship to private economic actors (or may be individual does not exist within the WTO Agreements, because as a general rule, private parties are not legal subjects of the international legal order. However, this article will prevail upon this situation, by looking closer at the essence of the WTO Agreements to discern the rights of private economic actors that derive from the WTO. The main question of this article is to what extent then Indonesia is dealing with the rights of private economic actors under the WTO Agreements? The background of this questionis because four years after ratifying the WTO Agreements, Indonesia has been facing what is arguably the most serious multidimensional crisis in 1997, some difficult situations have arisen from the crisis; therefore, the society hesitated to accept the open world trading system. The society seemed look askance to the implementation of the WTO Agreements. But Indonesian Government took major step to reduce the skepticism of society toward liberalization, by readjusting its national laws conform to the WTO Agreements with the intention to support the rights of national economic actors under the WTO Agreements in order to achieve total benefits of the WTO rules.

  5. World Trade Center disaster and sensitization to subsequent life stress: A longitudinal study of disaster responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Kotov, Roman; Schechter, Clyde B; Bromet, Evelyn; Gonzalez, Adam; Vujanovic, Anka; Pietrzak, Robert H; Crane, Michael; Kaplan, Julia; Moline, Jacqueline; Southwick, Steven M; Feder, Adriana; Udasin, Iris; Reissman, Dori B; Luft, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the role of World Trade Center (WTC) disaster exposure (hours spent working on the site, dust cloud exposure, and losing friend/loved one) in exacerbating the effects of post-disaster life stress on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and overall functioning among WTC responders. Participants were 18,896 responders (8466 police officers and 10,430 non-traditional responders) participating in the WTC Health Program who completed an initial examination between July, 2002 and April, 2010 and were reassessed an average of two years later. Among police responders, there was a significant interaction, such that the effect of post-disaster life stress on later PTSD symptoms and overall functioning was stronger among police responders who had greater WTC disaster exposure (β's=.029 and .054, respectively, for PTSD symptoms and overall functioning). This moderating effect was absent in non-traditional responders. Across both groups, post-disaster life stress also consistently was related to the dependent variables in a more robust manner than WTC exposure. The present findings suggest that WTC exposure may compound post-disaster life stress, thereby resulting in a more chronic course of PTSD symptoms and reduced functioning among police responders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trade reforms, market access, and poverty in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2003-01-01

    Much of the literature that studies the relationship between trade and poverty in developing countries focuses on the effects of national trade reforms, such as own tariff reductions. In contrast, the World Trade Organization negotiations at the Doha Round were more concerned with the poverty effects on low-income countries, and of foreign reforms, such as the elimination of agricultural s...

  7. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevich, Rosemarie; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2003-12-01

    We present an assessment of biofuel use and agricultural field burning in the developing world. We used information from government statistics, energy assessments from the World Bank, and many technical reports, as well as from discussions with experts in agronomy, forestry, and agro-industries. We estimate that 2060 Tg biomass fuel was used in the developing world in 1985; of this, 66% was burned in Asia, and 21% and 13% in Africa and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41% and 51% of the biofuel use in India and China. We find that 400 Tg of crop residues are burned in the fields, with the fraction of available residue burned in 1985 ranging from 1% in China, 16-30% in the Middle East and India, to about 70% in Indonesia; in Africa about 1% residue is burned in the fields of the northern drylands, but up to 50% in the humid tropics. We distributed this biomass burning on a spatial grid with resolution of 1° × 1°, and applied emission factors to the amount of dry matter burned to give maps of trace gas emissions in the developing world. The emissions of CO from biofuel use in the developing world, 156 Tg, are about 50% of the estimated global CO emissions from fossil fuel use and industry. The emission of 0.9 Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small, but nonnegligible when compared with the emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel use and industry, 5.3 Pg C. The biomass burning source of 10 Tg/yr for CH4 and 2.2 Tg N/yr of NOx are relatively small when compared with total CH4 and NOx sources; this source of NOx may be important on a regional basis.

  8. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    for irrigation can already be documented. Due to drier summers induced by climate change, this phenomenon is expected to gain more importance in the future. Related to water quantity and quality it is crucial to think about the diverging interests between the supply of the population with national agricultural products and the preservation of the water bodies, their ecological value and their other ecosystem services (e.g. drinking water supply). The project AProWa attempts to elucidate trade-offs of national goals for water protection and agricultural production in Switzerland by involving stakeholders from agricultural administration (Federal Office for Agriculture, FOAG), agricultural research (Agroscope), water research (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag) and environmental protection (Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN). This is done by applying multi-criteria decision analysis facilitating consensus regarding goals and possible activities and alternatives to reach these goals. This is followed by an evaluation of main conflicts and prioritized research gaps. We present preliminary results from workshops and interdisciplinary discussion groups that encompass an objectives hierarchy reflecting agricultural production and water conservation goals. Furthermore, an inventory of agricultural practices and water protection measures is presented, enabling their evaluation for the provision of agricultural production while sustaining aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  10. Environmentally sustainable agriculture and future developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is wi......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO...... in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...

  11. Hospitalizations for asthma among adults exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Archie, Sara A; Jordan, Hannah T; Alper, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Cone, James E; Friedman, Stephen M; Brackbill, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    We described the patterns of asthma hospitalization among persons exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, and assessed whether 9/11-related exposures or comorbidities, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS), were associated with an increased rate of hospitalization. Data for adult enrollees in the WTC Health Registry, a prospective cohort study, with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma who resided in New York State on 9/11 were linked to administrative hospitalization data to identify asthma hospitalizations during September 11, 2001-December 31, 2010. Multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to examine associations among 9/11 exposures, comorbid conditions, and asthma hospitalizations. Of 11 471 enrollees with asthma, 406 (3.5%) had ≥1 asthma hospitalization during the study period (721 total hospitalizations). Among enrollees diagnosed before 9/11 (n = 6319), those with PTSD or GERS had over twice the rate of hospitalization (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.1; ARR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.2, respectively) compared to those without. This association was not statistically significant in enrollees diagnosed after 9/11. Compared to higher educational attainment, completing less than college was associated with an increased hospitalization rate among participants with both pre-9/11- and post-9/11-onset asthma (ARR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9; ARR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.1, respectively). Sinus symptoms, exposure to the dust cloud, and having been a WTC responder were not associated with asthma hospitalization. Among enrollees with pre-9/11 asthma, comorbid PTSD and GERS were associated with an increase in asthma hospitalizations. Management of these comorbidities may be an important factor in preventing hospitalization.

  12. Inflammatory Biomarkers Predict Airflow Obstruction After Exposure to World Trade Center Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Anna; Naveed, Bushra; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Hall, Charles B.; Kwon, Sophia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Glaser, Michelle S.; Webber, Mayris P.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001, produced airflow obstruction in a majority of firefighters receiving subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) within 6.5 years post-September 11, 2001. Methods: In a cohort of 801 never smokers with normal pre-September 11, 2001, FEV1, we correlated inflammatory biomarkers and CBC counts at monitoring entry within 6 months of September 11, 2001, with a median FEV1 at SPE (34 months; interquartile range, 25-57). Cases of airflow obstruction had FEV1 less than the lower limit of normal (LLN) (100 of 801; 70 of 100 had serum), whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to LLN (153 of 801; 124 of 153 had serum). Results: From monitoring entry to SPE years later, FEV1 declined 12% in cases and increased 3% in control subjects. Case subjects had elevated serum macrophage derived chemokine (MDC), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interferon inducible protein-10 levels. Elevated GM-CSF and MDC increased the risk for subsequent FEV1 less than LLN by 2.5-fold (95% CI, 1.2-5.3) and 3.0-fold (95% CI, 1.4-6.1) in a logistic model adjusted for exposure, BMI, age on September 11, 2001, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The model had sensitivity of 38% (95% CI, 27-51) and specificity of 88% (95% CI, 80-93). Conclusions: Inflammatory biomarkers can be risk factors for airflow obstruction following dust and smoke exposure. Elevated serum GM-CSF and MDC levels soon after WTC exposure were associated with increased risk of airflow obstruction in subsequent years. Biomarkers of inflammation may help identify pathways producing obstruction after irritant exposure. PMID:21998260

  13. The impact of the World Trade Center attack on FDNY firefighter retirement, disabilities, and pension benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, J K; Webber, M P; Gustave, J; Zeig-Owens, R; Lee, R; Glass, L; Weiden, M D; Kelly, K J; Prezant, D J

    2011-09-01

    Our goal was to examine the effect of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack and subsequent New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue/recovery activities on firefighter retirements. We also analyzed the financial impact associated with the increased number and proportion of service-connected "accidental" disability retirements on the FDNY pension system. A total of 7,763 firefighters retired between 9/11/1994 and 9/10/2008. We compared the total number of retirements and the number and proportion of accidental disability retirements 7 years before and 7 years after the WTC attack. We categorized WTC-related accidental disability retirements by medical cause and worked with the New York City Office of the Actuary to approximate the financial impact by cause. In the 7 years before 9/11 there were 3,261 retirements, 48% (1,571) of which were accidental disability retirements. In the 7 years after 9/11, there were 4,502 retirements, 66% (2,970) were accidental disability retirements, of which 47% (1,402) were associated with WTC-related injuries or illnesses. After 9/11, the increase in accidental disability retirements was, for the most part, due to respiratory-related illnesses. Additional increases were attributed to psychological-related illnesses and musculoskeletal injuries incurred at the WTC site. Pension benefits associated with WTC-related accidental disability retirements have produced an increased financial burden of over $826 million on the FDNY pension system. The WTC attacks affected the health of the FDNY workforce resulting in more post-9/11 retirements than expected, and a larger proportion of these retirees with accidental disability pensions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Competitiveness analysis of Czech agrarian foreign trade in the context of world agrarian market and agrarian trade of EU-27 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commodity structure of Czech (CR agrarian trade in relation to the EU countries. An emphasis is put on comparative advantages of particular aggregations from the view-point of their application on the EU internal market. This analysis is based on an evaluation of comparative advantages by means of a modified Balassa index. It is studied in two stages, for the internal EU market and the world market. The analysis results are then shown in a graph. Subsequently, the authors implement an idea arising from a BCG matrix on the results of the graphic presentation. The aim is to identify those aggregations (SITC, rev. 3 which are or have a potential to be a pillar of agri-business (ie, the “cash cows” and “stars”, and vice versa to show the aggregation which are non-prospective in the long term or problematic (ie, the “dogs” and “problem children”. As start are identified as those aggregations which are characterised by the highest growth rate of comparative advantage value. From the analysis results, changes are apparent if we compare the CR trade commodity structure in relation to the EU countries. Findings also concern the development of comparative advantages and following CR specialisation on trade with certain aggregations.

  15. The potential impact of the World Trade Organization's general agreement on trade in services on health system reform and regulation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of talks without achieving new health services liberalization presents an important opportunity to evaluate the wisdom of granting further concessions to international investors in the health sector. The continuing deterioration of the U.S. health system and the primacy of reform as an issue in the 2008 presidential campaign make clear the need for a full range of policy options for addressing the national health crisis. Yet few commentators or policymakers realize that existing WTO health care commitments may already significantly constrain domestic policy options. This article illustrates these constraints through an evaluation of the potential effects of current WTO law and jurisprudence on the implementation of a single-payer national health insurance system in the United States, proposed incremental national and state health system reforms, the privatization of Medicare, and other prominent health system issues. The author concludes with some recommendations to the U.S. Trade Representative to suspend existing liberalization commitments in the health sector and to interpret current and future international trade treaties in a manner consistent with civilized notions of health care as a universal human right.

  16. Soil management shapes ecosystem service provision and trade-offs in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; De Simone, Serena; Sigura, Maurizia; Boscutti, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-08-31

    Agroecosystems are principally managed to maximize food provisioning even if they receive a large array of supporting and regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Hence, comprehensive studies investigating the effects of local management and landscape composition on the provision of and trade-offs between multiple ESs are urgently needed. We explored the effects of conservation tillage, nitrogen fertilization and landscape composition on six ESs (crop production, disease control, soil fertility, water quality regulation, weed and pest control) in winter cereals. Conservation tillage enhanced soil fertility and pest control, decreased water quality regulation and weed control, without affecting crop production and disease control. Fertilization only influenced crop production by increasing grain yield. Landscape intensification reduced the provision of disease and pest control. We also found tillage and landscape composition to interactively affect water quality regulation and weed control. Under N fertilization, conventional tillage resulted in more trade-offs between ESs than conservation tillage. Our results demonstrate that soil management and landscape composition affect the provision of several ESs and that soil management potentially shapes the trade-offs between them. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. A study on effect of world trade organization on Iran's membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Golmeymi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available World Trade Organization (WTO has been established to facilitate fringe trade in the world and there are many studies associated with the effect of WTO membership on export of various countries. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effect of WTO membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet. The survey uses insights from 80 experts who have at least ten years of related job experiences in carpet industry by performing an expletory and using descriptive and quantitative method for analyzing the data. The results of the survey indicate that Iran's membership in WTO will most likely reduce the sales price of handmade carpet. In addition, Iran's membership in WTO will increase scientific and professional power in handmade carpet. It will also help industry get more exposure into international market.

  18. Review of Studies of the Economic Impact of the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-29

    of the Budget, • New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce , Washington, DC 20548 Report Documentation Page Report Date 29MAY2002 Report Type...700R Impact of Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center 10 Eight Studies (cont’d) ! New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce , Economic...Center 29 Observations Observations The New York City Partnership and Chamber of Commerce study generated the most comprehensive estimates—direct and

  19. Performance trade-offs and ageing in the 'world's greatest athletes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Wilson, Robbie S

    2017-08-16

    The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within -individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among -individual variation in 'quality'. Although there is a current debate on how to unambiguously define and account for quality, no previous studies have partitioned trait correlations at the within- and among-individual levels. Here, we evaluate performance trade-offs among and within 1369 elite athletes that performed in a total of 6418 combined-events competitions (decathlon and heptathlon). Controlling for age, experience and wind conditions, we detected strong trade-offs between groups of functionally similar events (throwing versus jumping versus running) occurring at the among-individual level. We further modelled individual (co)variation in age-related plasticity of performance and found previously unseen trade-offs in throwing versus running performance that manifest through ageing. Our results verify that human performance is limited by fundamental genetic, environmental and ageing constraints that preclude the simultaneous improvement of performance in multiple dimensions. Identifying these constraints is fundamental to understanding performance trade-offs and predicting the ageing of motor function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  1. Trade-off analysis in the Northern Andes to study the dynamics in agricultural land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.; Antle, J.M.; Crissman, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that land use change can be induced by non-linearities and thresholds in production systems that impact farmers' decision making. Tradeoffs between environmental and economic indicators is a useful way to represent dynamic properties of agricultural systems. The Tradeoff

  2. Contesting the Neoliberal Project for Agriculture: Productivist and Multifunctional Trajectories in the European Union and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibden, Jacqui; Potter, Clive; Cocklin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of agricultural trade is strongly contested as an international policy project. In the context of the current World Trade Organisation (WTO) Doha trade round, concerns revolve around the implications of freer trade for rural livelihoods and environments. Analysis of this complex and morally charged issue offers important…

  3. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valin, H; Havlík, P; Mosnier, A; Obersteiner, M; Herrero, M; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits. (letter)

  4. Crossing the roof of the world: Trade in medicinal plants from Nepal to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Yang, Bin; Dong, Min; Wang, Yunshang

    2018-04-26

    Trade in medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) between Nepal and China has taken place for centuries along the Tibetan border. While there is anecdotal evidence that economic development in China over the past decades, coupled with regional infrastructure development and increasing market integration, has substantially changed this trade, there are no current published studies investigating this, e.g. in terms of species and market structure. This knowledge gap impedes the development of public interventions, e.g. in support of sustainable trade. The primary objective of this study is to provide the first informative insights into the Nepal-China trade in MAPs, with particular emphasis on the value chain in Tibet. Data was collected from December 2015 to August 2016 in Nepal and Tibet. The data collection included standardized questionnaires to understand and map the value chain of MAPs, including the actors involved and key governance issues. Data was collected from Katmandu-based MAPs wholesalers exporting from Nepal to China, (n = 6) and with regional wholesalers (n = 40) based in Tibet. The questionnaires contained quantitative and qualitative components focusing on key elements of the MAPs value chain, e.g. the traded species and their values. This was augmented with qualitative interviews with Lhasa-based processors (n = 4) and government officials (n = 12) working in border controls, customs, and/or drug administration. We also collected official statistics on the Nepal-China MAPs trade and conducted a workshop in Lhasa with traders and government officials to discuss the nature of the Nepal-China MAPs trade. The Nepal-China MAPs trade boomed after 2011 when the value of traded plants increased more than nine-fold. This rapid increase reflected both a broader species composition and higher unit prices in response to increasing demand from China. The trade expansion was also driven by increasing demand in China and facilitated by improved

  5. Work-related injuries and illnesses reported by World Trade Center response workers and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perritt, Kara R; Herbert, Robin; Levin, Stephen M; Moline, Jacqueline

    2011-12-01

    In 2002, the Mount Sinai Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, with support from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), began coordinating the World Trade Center (WTC) Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program (MSP) to monitor the health of qualified WTC responders. Enrolled participants were offered a clinical examination; interviewed to collect medical, mental health, and exposure information; and requested to complete a self-administered medical questionnaire. The objective of this study was to better understand work-related injuries and illnesses sustained on-site by WTC responders. A descriptive analysis of select data from the MSP self-administered medical questionnaire was conducted. Data collected July 2002 through April 2004 from MSP participants enrolled at the Mount Sinai clinic were reviewed using univariate statistical techniques. Records from 7,810 participants were analyzed, with most participants associated with either the construction industry (n = 2,623, 34%) or law enforcement (n = 2,036, 26%). Approximately a third of the participants (n = 2,486, 32%) reported at least one injury or illness requiring medical treatment that was sustained during WTC work/volunteer activities. Of the total 4,768 injuries/illnesses reported by these participants, respiratory complaints were most common (n = 1,350, 28%), followed by traumatic injuries excluding eye injuries (n = 961, 20%), eye injuries/ailments (n = 709, 15%), chest pain (n = 375, 8%), headaches (n = 359, 8%), skin conditions (n = 178, 4%), and digestive system conditions (n = 163, 3%). Participants reported that 36% of injuries/illnesses were treated off-site and 29% were treated on-site, with the remaining not specifying treatment location. Off-site treatment was prevalent for respiratory complaints, psychological stress, and chest pain. On-site treatment was predominate for eye injuries/ailments and traumatic injuries excluding eye injuries. Study

  6. World Trade Center fine particulate matter causes respiratory tract hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Stephen H; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Highfill, Jerry W; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chen, Lung Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Harkema, Jack R; Wagner, James G; Costa, Daniel L

    2003-06-01

    Pollutants originating from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on 11 September 2001 have been reported to cause adverse respiratory responses in rescue workers and nearby residents. We examined whether WTC-derived fine particulate matter [particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter mice to contribute to the risk assessment of WTC-derived pollutants. Samples of WTC PM2.5 were derived from settled dust collected at several locations around Ground Zero on 12 and 13 September 2001. Aspirated samples of WTC PM2.5 induced mild to moderate degrees of pulmonary inflammation 1 day after exposure but only at a relatively high dose (100 microg). This response was not as great as that caused by 100 microg PM2.5 derived from residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or Washington, DC, ambient air PM [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649a]. However, this same dose of WTC PM2.5 caused airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine aerosol comparable to that from SRM 1649a and to a greater degree than that from ROFA. Mice exposed to lower doses by aspiration or inhalation exposure did not develop significant inflammation or hyperresponsiveness. These results show that exposure to high levels of WTC PM2.5 can promote mechanisms of airflow obstruction in mice. Airborne concentrations of WTC PM2.5 that would cause comparable doses in people are high (approximately 425 microg/m3 for 8 hr) but conceivable in the aftermath of the collapse of the towers when rescue and salvage efforts were in effect. We conclude that a high-level exposure to WTC PM2.5 could cause pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in people. The effects of chronic exposures to lower levels of WTC PM2.5, the persistence of any respiratory effects, and the effects of coarser WTC PM are unknown and were not examined in these studies. Degree of exposure and respiratory protection, individual differences in sensitivity to WTC PM2

  7. COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA BY MEANS OF EFFICIENCY INDICATORS OF FOREIGN TRADE WITH AGRICULTURAL FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris COREŢCHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An old traditional form of foreign economic relations is represented by foreign trade. Republic of Moldova,Featuring a geographical position that represents the area of intersection the numerous trade routes and regionalconnotation communications, should use these advantages in order to extend the export-import relations; there for,Republic of Moldova follows to use the internal potential in intensive and effective way. Competitiveness of externaltrade with agricultural food products has a particularly important role which is steadily increasing, it determine theincreasing or decreasing of the national income produced outside depending upon the ratio between the nationaland international amount of goods. Ensuring the economic efficiency of production requires a certain minimumvolume of its. If the volume exceeds the absorption capacity of the internal market, ensuring efficient productionrequires a call to the external market. On the other hand, certain products can not be obtained either domesticproduction or isn’t justified from the economic point of view can be obtained only from the external market.

  8. Legal ivory trade in a corrupt world and its impact on African elephant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elizabeth L

    2015-02-01

    Illegal hunting of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) for ivory is causing rapid declines in their populations. Since 2007, illegal ivory trade has more than doubled. African elephants are facing the most serious conservation crisis since 1989, when international trade was banned. One solution proposed is establishment of a controlled legal trade in ivory. High prices for ivory mean that the incentives to obtain large quantities are high, but the quantity of tusks available for trade are biologically constrained. Within that context, effective management of a legal ivory trade would require robust systems to be in place to ensure that ivory from illegally killed elephants cannot be laundered into a legal market. At present, that is not feasible due to corruption among government officials charged with implementing wildlife-related legislation. With organized criminal enterprises involved along the whole commodity chain, corruption enables the laundering of illegal ivory into legal or potentially legal markets. Poachers and traffickers can rapidly pay their way out of trouble, so the financial incentives to break the law heavily outweigh those of abiding by it. Maintaining reliable permitting systems and leak-proof chains of custody in this context is challenging, and effective management breaks down. Once illegal ivory has entered the legal trade, it is difficult or impossible for enforcement officers to know what is legal and illegal. Addressing corruption throughout a trade network that permeates countries across the globe will take decades, if it can ever be achieved. That will be too late for wild African elephants at current rates of loss. If we are to conserve remaining wild populations, we must close all markets because, under current levels of corruption, they cannot be controlled in a way that does not provide opportunities for illegal ivory being laundered into legal markets. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Trade and agriculture policy conditions for the use of plant oils in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerdens, R.

    1994-01-01

    Preservation of resources, ecology and agricultural policy supply the most important argument for an increased use of raw materials which grow again. Regenerative raw materials are at present grown on about 2.5% of the arable land area in Germany, where production for the chemical technical field is to the fore. Access to the energy field is, however, difficult due to the considerable economic deficit compared to fossil fuels. Possibilities of use exist mainly in heating plant and in Diesel engines. (BWI) [de

  10. Doha round of WTO negotiations and trade liberalization in Serbian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The accession of Serbia to the WTO is expected in 2008. In negotiations process, the most difficult is to reach agreement in agriculture. This sector is very sensitive in market access for biotechnological, economical and social reasons. The level of sensitivity varies between production branches. In the course of defining the schedules of market access commitments, it is crucial to keep in mind the need of reconciliation dynamics and level of market liberalization with the obligations comprised in the EU Stabilization and Association Agreement. Export support policy also must conform to the Doha negotiations commitments.

  11. Markets, trade and the role of institutions in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Roe

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the interdependence between international trade and institutional reform and suggests that the trade barriers erected by advanced countries on the agricultural exports of poor countries, in particular sub-Saharan agriculture serve as an impediment to economic growth and development.  Drawing upon recent literature, the suggestion is that trade barriers inhibit institutional reform that is a major factor affecting economic growth. An empirical analysis of trade reform and economic growth shows that sub-Saharan economies can reciprocate potential gains from increased trade, which are larger when an integration with world markets induces institutional reform.

  12. Education Imports and Exports in the Framework of the World Trade Organization and Adjustments of Education Legislation and Policy Making in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansheng, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Commitments on trade in education services constitute a vital part of China's promises after securing World Trade Organization (WTO) membership. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the forms of educational imports and exports in the framework of WTO and examines the Chinese government's efforts to adjust education legislation and policy…

  13. East Asia in World Trade: The Decoupling Fallacy, Crisis and Policy Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Prema-chandra Athukorala; Archanun Kohpaiboon

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the export experience of China and other East Asian economies in the aftermaths of the global financial crisis against the backdrop of pre-crisis trade patterns. The analysis is motivated by the ‘decoupling' thesis, which was a popular theme in the Asian policy circles in the lead-up to the onset of the recent financial crisis, and aims to probe three key issues: Was the East Asian trade integration story that underpinned the decoupling thesis simply a statistical artifact...

  14. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Spatial Trade-Offs between Wind Power Production and Bird Collision Avoidance in Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eichhorn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energy production is seen as an appropriate way to mitigate climate change. Renewable energies are not free of negative external effects on humans and the natural environment. We analyzed the conflict between wind power production and bird protection through the example of one of the most sensitive species, the red kite (Milvus milvus in West Saxony, Germany. We investigated a large number of potential land use scenarios, defined by whether or not each potential site contained a wind turbine (WT. Based on meteorological and ornithological data, we evaluated the land use scenarios for their annual energy supply and impact on the red kite. We identified the efficient land use scenarios that maximized energy supply for a given ecological impact. Within the scope of our analysis, the current allocation of WTs in the study region was considered inefficient. The set of efficient scenarios allowed us to draw conclusions on the trade-offs involved. We developed an indicator that measures the severity of the conflict between wind power production and bird protection. Increasing the minimum distance of WTs to settlements beyond the legal requirements in order to minimize the impact on humans further intensifies the conflict. Our results can support planning authorities in their development of long-term regional plans by identifying areas that are most suitable for wind power production from an integrated point of view.

  16. Carbon trading as incentive for conversion to organic agriculture. Case study. Organic peanuts in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, F.

    2005-12-15

    In this pilot project, the climate effects of the conversion from conventional to organic cultivation of peanuts are evaluated. We could aim at voluntary carbon credits that do not comply with the CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) rules, but we try to meet the CDM rules by combining it with a agroforestry component. However, in the example of Tanzania meeting the CDM rules was a problem. The agricultural system in Tanzania consists of a rotation of several years cultivation and several years fallow. This fallow of grass, shrubs and trees could be considered as 'forest'. Taking fallow land into cultivation would then be deforestation, which would make the planting of trees no longer eligible under CDM. This is a shame because the traditional 'slash and burn' system emits a lot of greenhouse gases.

  17. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  18. Living in times of solidarity: fair trade and the fractured life worlds of Guatemalan coffee farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the social effects of fair trade transactions emerging from policies to expand the market around the globe. Focusing on the case of coffee farmers in Guatemala, it examines tensions that are created in local organisational networks linked to production, processing and

  19. The role of veterinary epidemiology and veterinary services in complying with the World Trade Organization SPS agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Thiermann, A; Kellar, J; Rojas, H; Willeberg, P

    2005-02-01

    The agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement) was one of the major products of the GATT's Uruguay round of multilateral trade negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others are part of the treaty that established the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade (WTO, 1998a). The SPS agreement's main intent is to provide guidelines and provisions to member countries to facilitate trade while taking measures to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The agreement dictates that all sanitary measures must be scientifically based and not more restrictive than required to avoid the risk identified. The agreement recommends the use of international standards from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Codex Alimentarius (CAC) and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) as the basis for import requirements. If a country chooses to apply more restrictive measures than those in the international standards, it has to justify its position through a risk analysis, thus avoiding the use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as unjustified barriers to trade. More than ever, veterinary services worldwide are faced with having to fulfill a crucial role in protecting their country's animal health status, provide sound surveillance information on the occurrence of diseases within their territories, and conduct scientifically valid risk analyses to establish justified import requirements. During the past two decades, most countries have experienced resource reduction in their veterinary services. The effect of these policies has been severe, in many cases leading to an inability of veterinary services to conduct their disease prevention and control duties. There is a clear inconsistency between the demands placed on veterinary services and the current level of funding and support they are receiving, particularly in

  20. 7. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.

    1992-01-01

    Global food production has increased substantially over the past two decades, but factors such as population pressures and environmental degradation are undermining agriculture's current condition and future prospects. This chapter discusses the following: global trends; production trends (livestock and fisheries); per capita production trends (population density and agriculture); environmental trends (soil degradation, inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and freshwater); economic trends (agricultural commodity prices, declining investment in irrigation, World Bank lending); trade liberalization and the Gatt negotiations; conventional agriculture and alternative agriculture; problems with the conventional model (on-farm impacts, off-farm impacts); agricultural policies - creating a new environment; policy impacts - distorted price structures; new policy options (reducing input subsidies, land conservation programs, management agreements, taxes, fees, and tax incentives, strengthening regulations, subsidizing conversion); the economics of alternative agriculture

  1. Assessment of nuclear energy embodied in international trade following a world multi-regional input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés-Borda, D.; Guillén-Gosálbez, G.; Jiménez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power can contribute to cover the increasing demand of energy while keeping the carbon emissions within the desired limits. Many countries are reluctant to implement nuclear technologies in their territories, but might still use them through imports of products that embody nuclear energy in their life cycle. This work quantifies the difference between the production-based (territorial) and consumption-based (global) nuclear energy use in the main 40 economies of the world (85% of the world's GDP) through the application of a multi-regional environmentally extended input–output model. The mismatch between the direct (territorial) and total (global) use of nuclear energy varies from −237% to 44% in the top economies. From a consumption-based viewpoint, 10 out of the 40 countries reduced the per-capita use of nuclear energy in the period 1995–2009, and 7 when following a production-based approach. The per-capita nuclear energy use could differ in up to 26.2 GJ/inhabitant·year, depending on whether the assessment is consumption or production based. It was also found that around 3.5% of the world's nuclear energy production is trade-embodied and that this amount is growing along with the global production of nuclear energy. Our findings might help to develop more effective environmental regulations worldwide. - Highlights: • Global and territorial nuclear energy could differ up to 237% in the main economies. • Trade-embodied nuclear energy has increased from 1.4% to 2.5% in 15 years. • Nuclear energy production has rised in tandem with trade-embodied nuclear energy. • Nuclear production decrease in 7 countries does not counteract the increase in others.

  2. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Tröger, Josephine [Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Muñoz, Katherine [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Frör, Oliver [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental Economics, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen, E-mail: schaumann@uni-landau.de [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  3. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers

  4. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  5. International Trade Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article captures a brief history of the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), analyzes its deadlock and offers some suggestions for a successful Doha deal. First, this study shows that the nearly decade-long negotiation stalemate is caused by the opposite perceptions between industrialized countries and developing ones on agriculture, as well as by the influences of economic crisis on the world trade. Subsequently, some proposals are presented to solve the current crisis fro...

  6. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  7. Some Thoughts on the Axiology and Constitutionalization of the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziemblicki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for the existence of the WTO is the assumption that international trade is beneficial to all parties. The theoretical justification for this assumption is the theory of comparative advantage. The WTO may also be credited with a contribution to peacekeeping and has strong doctrinal and philosophical foundations. The WTO is often accused of a bias towards exporters and failure to provide appropriate protection to other market participants. Other conflicting powers within the Organization are the supporters of free trade and fair trades. The third doctrinal tension is between the legislative and judicial powers. The Ministerial Conferences are ever more unable to make decisions and reform the WTO. At the same time a very effective dispute settlement mechanism is beginning to fill the gaps in legal texts. The WTO is often presented as an example of the ongoing process of constitutionalization of international law. The concept is difficult to define and each scholar distinguishes different characteristics. It is arguable whether the WTO is undergoing the process of constitutionalization and also whether it can be perceived as a self-contained régime. The contribution of the WTO to global governance in comparison to that of the GATT is another issue under discussion.

  8. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses: Ethnically Divided Trade in Hamburg and the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world. Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbor. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbor area export...

  9. Tracking global carbon revenues: A survey of carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, Jeremy; Fedor, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the current use of public revenues which are generated through both carbon taxes and cap-and-trade systems. More than $28.3 billion in government “carbon revenues” are currently collected each year in 40 countries and another 16 states or provinces around the world. Of those revenues, 27% ($7.8 billion) are used to subsidize “green” spending in energy efficiency or renewable energy; 26% ($7.4 billion) go toward state general funds; and 36% ($10.1 billion) are returned to corporate or individual taxpayers through paired tax cuts or direct rebates. Cap-and-trade systems ($6.57 billion in total public revenue) earmark a larger share of revenues for “green” spending (70%), while carbon tax systems ($21.7 billion) more commonly refund revenues or otherwise direct them towards government general funds (72% of revenues). Drawing from an empirical dataset, we also identify various trends in systems’ use of “carbon revenues” in terms of the total revenues collected annually per capita in each jurisdiction and offer commensurate qualitative observations on carbon policy design choices. - Highlights: •We analyze public revenue generated from global carbon tax and cap-and-trade systems. •70% of cap-and-trade revenues ($4.60 billion) are earmarked for “green spending”. •72% of carbon tax revenues ($15.6 billion) are refunded or used in general funds. •Revenues per capita vary widely and are a useful qualitative explanatory variable.

  10. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Wei, Z.; Strow, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Q.

    2017-03-01

    This study provides evidence of substantial increases in atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentrations (14 year) over several of the worlds major agricultural regions, using recently available retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The main sources of atmospheric NH3 are farming and animal husbandry involving reactive nitrogen ultimately derived from fertilizer use; rates of emission are also sensitive to climate change. Significant increasing trends are seen over the U.S. (2.61% yr-1), the European Union (EU) (1.83% yr-1), and China (2.27% yr-1). Over the EU, the trend results from decreased scavenging by acid aerosols. Over the U.S., the increase results from a combination of decreased chemical loss and increased soil temperatures. Over China, decreased chemical loss, increasing temperatures, and increased fertilizer use all play a role. Over South Asia, increased NH3 emissions are masked by increased SO2 and NOx emissions, leading to increased aerosol loading and adverse health effects.

  12. Skills Students Need in the Real World: Competencies Desired by Agricultural and Natural Resources Industry Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, R. G., III; Warner, Anna J.; Myers, Brian E.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Telg, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The competencies addressed by undergraduate agricultural education programs should be assessed so programs are effective in supplying a well-prepared agricultural- and natural resources-oriented workforce, and so human capital is optimized. In this study, agricultural and natural resources leaders were surveyed to determine the workforce…

  13. The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its implications of world-wide food trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor disaster of 26 April 1986 caused not only destruction, death, injury, and high level radioactive contamination in the zone around the nuclear power plant - it also caused wide-spread low level contamination in many countries of Easter and Central Europe. It is shown that although populations outside the disaster area were not exposed to serious danger, the confusion that arose not only among the general public but also among regulatory agencies, caused tremendous difficulties for food manufacturers and the food trade. 2 refs., 3 tabs, 3 figs

  14. Sectoral effects of a world oil-price shock: economy-wide linkages to the agricultural sector. Staff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.; Robinson, S.; Schluter, G.

    1991-10-01

    The effects of a world oil price shock on U.S. agriculture are analyzed in an economywide environment. The authors use an input-output model to analyze the direct and indirect cost linkages between energy and other sectors of the economy. Then, to allow sectoral output adjustment and the effects on the U.S. current account, they use the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Economic Research Service Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to analyze the sectoral effects under three different macro adjustment scenarios. The effects on agriculture are not limited to the direct and indirect energy costs. Exchange rate or foreign borrowing adjustments to higher oil import costs and government support programs for agriculture also matter

  15. The analysis of return on speculative trading with futures contracts of agriculture commodities in the context of the currency risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Šoba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on analysis of return on speculative operations with futures contracts from the view of participators not undertaking and undertaking the currency risk. The currency risk is determined by unexpected change of relevant exchange rate (currency denomination of futures contracts / domestic currency of participator. The paper analyses the basic factors influencing the profitability of these operations such as relative change of futures contract value, leverage incidence and relative change of relevant exchange rate. The paper is focused on futures contracts of the world most important agricultural commodities. The conclusion of the paper for participators not undertaking the currency risk is following: The relative change of futures contract is main factor for the calculation of return on speculative operation. This change is multiplied by leverage incidence finally. The conclusion of the paper for participators undertaking the currency risk is following: The relative change of relevant exchange rate is not usually relevant for the calculation of return on speculative operation. Main factor is the relative change of futures contract because this change is multiplied by leverage incidence finally but the relative change of relevant exchange rate isn’t.Neverthless the conclusions of this paper are not valid only for futures contracts of agricultural commodities but generally also for other commodity futures contracts and futures contracts where underlying assets are not commodities but for example financial assets.

  16. WTO disciplines on agricultural support: Experience to date and assessment of Doha proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Orden, David; Blandford, David; Josling, Timothy Edward; Brink, Lars

    2011-01-01

    When the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created in 1995, its members committed themselves to a set of disciplines for domestic support, market access, and export competition for agriculture. The Agreement on Agriculture laid the way for the pursuit of progressive reductions in world agricultural market distortions. Its supporters hoped the new rules and commitments would encourage countries to move domestic farm policies in a less trade-distorting direction. This research brief examines t...

  17. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-first Century

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Selective Adaptation of WTO Transparency Norms and Local Practices in ..... the WTO in light of good governance principles and make recommendations ...... and Policy Options (Penang, Malaysia: Third World Network [TWN], 2000). ...... efforts in relation to taxation or the European arrest warrant; see Philippart, above n 78.

  18. Maritime trade contacts of Odisha, east coast of India with the Roman world: An appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.; Pradhan, G.C.

    The present state of Odisha (previously known as Kalinga, Utkal,Odra and Orissa) lies on the east coast of India, and is known forits maritime contacts with the Roman world since the early histori-cal period, if not earlier. Initially, the Romans...

  19. Analysis of the Role of World Trade in the Cultural Evolution of Mecca (Fifth to Sixth Century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Zeinali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the topics of the studies on the pre-Islamic history includes the reasons and the trend of development of the culture of ignorance in Hejaz, especially in Mecca, as the center of the Abrahamic religion. Muslim historians’ accounts of this evolution are mainly the product of the analysis of events and interpretation of Quran verses rather than the stories and myths that reflect the method of this evolution. The present research, which was carried out based on references and textbooks using the descriptive and analytical method, aimed to explain the reason and the method of rejection of Islam by the habitants of Mecca in spite of their long history of worshiping Allah and believing in the values of the Hanif religion. According to the research findings, ignorance does not seem to have been an intellectual leap or depression influenced by regional changes. It has been rather driven by international changes, especially the growth of world trade, which has turned Arabia into an isolated safe country in charge of the relationship between eastern and western trade centers. This new role has played down monotheistic values by stressing new values.

  20. Longitudinal spirometry among patients in a treatment program for community members with World Trade Center (WTC)-related illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengling; Qian, Meng; Cheng, Qinyi; Berger, Kenneth I.; Shao, Yongzhao; Turetz, Meredith; Kazeros, Angeliki; Parsia, Sam; Goldring, Roberta M.; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Marmor, Michael; Reibman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The course of lung function in community members exposed to World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes remains undefined. We studied longitudinal spirometry among patients in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTCEHC) treatment program. Methods Observational study of 946 WTCEHC patients with repeated spirometry measures analyzed on the population as a whole and stratified by smoking status, initial spirometry pattern and WTC-related exposure category. Results Improvement in forced expiratory volume (FVC; 54.4 ml/year; 95% CI: 45.0-63.8) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; 36.8 ml/year; 95% CI: 29.3-44.3) was noted for the population as a whole. Heavy smokers did not improve. Spirometry changes differed depending on initial spirometry pattern and exposure category. Conclusions These data demonstrate spirometry improvement in select populations suggesting reversibility in airway injury and reinforcing the importance of continued treatment. PMID:22995806

  1. Psychological Distress in Parents and School-Functioning of Adolescents: Results from the World Trade Center Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Dechen, Tenzin; Cone, James E; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M

    2017-10-01

    Poor school-functioning can be indicative of parent and adolescent mental health and adolescent behavior problems. This study examined 472 adolescents enrolled in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, with a two-step path analysis, using regression-based models, to unravel the relationships between parent and adolescent mental health, adolescent behavior problems, and adolescent unmet healthcare need (UHCN) on the outcome school-functioning. WTC exposure was associated with UHCN and parental mental health was a significant mediator. There was no evidence that family WTC exposure was associated with UHCN independent of its effect on parental mental health. For the second path, after accounting for the effects of adolescent mental health, behavioral problems, and UHCN, there remained a significant association between parental mental health and school-functioning. Interventions for poor school-functioning should have multiple components which address UHCN, mental health, and behavioral problems, as efforts to address any of these alone may not be sufficient.

  2. Epidemiologic methods lessons learned from environmental public health disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Runkle, Jennifer R; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A; Bennett, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

  3. Is gene technology in agriculture able to prevent hunger in the world?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goewie, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    The worldpopulation grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is ar agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of

  4. Cardiovascular disease hospitalizations in relation to exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Stellman, Steven D; Morabia, Alfredo; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Alper, Howard; Laskaris, Zoey; Brackbill, Robert M; Cone, James E

    2013-10-24

    A cohort study found that 9/11-related environmental exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder increased self-reported cardiovascular disease risk. We attempted to replicate these findings using objectively defined cardiovascular disease hospitalizations in the same cohort. Data for adult World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees residing in New York State on enrollment and no cardiovascular disease history (n = 46,346) were linked to a New York State hospital discharge-reporting system. Follow-up began at Registry enrollment (2003-2004) and ended at the first cerebrovascular or heart disease (HD) hospitalization, death, or December 31, 2010, whichever was earliest. We used proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for HD (n = 1151) and cerebrovascular disease (n = 284) hospitalization during 302,742 person-years of observation (mean follow-up, 6.5 years per person), accounting for other factors including age, race/ethnicity, smoking, and diabetes. An elevated risk of HD hospitalization was observed among women (AHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.71) but not men (AHR 1.16, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.40) with posttraumatic stress disorder at enrollment. A high overall level of World Trade Center rescue and recovery-related exposure was associated with an elevated HD hospitalization risk in men (AHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.13; P for trend = 0.05), but findings in women were inconclusive (AHR 3.29, 95% CI 0.85 to 12.69; P for trend = 0.09). Similar associations were observed specifically with coronary artery disease hospitalization. Posttraumatic stress disorder increased the cerebrovascular disease hospitalization risk in men but not in women. 9/11-related exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder appeared to increase the risk of subsequent hospitalization for HD and cerebrovascular disease. This is consistent with findings based on self-reported outcomes.

  5. Biomarkers of World Trade Center Particulate Matter Exposure: Physiology of distal airway and blood biomarkers that predict FEV1 decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Caraher, Erin; Berger, Kenneth I.; Reibman, Joan; Rom, William N.; Prezant, David J.; Nolan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can be important predictors of disease severity and progression. The intense exposure to particulates and other toxins from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) overwhelmed the lung’s normal protective barriers. The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) cohort not only had baseline pre-exposure lung function measures but also had serum samples banked soon after their WTC exposure. This well phenotyped group of highly exposed first responders is an ideal cohort for biomarker discovery and eventual validation. Disease progression was heterogeneous in this group in that some individuals subsequently developed abnormal lung function while others recovered. Airflow obstruction predominated in WTC exposed patients who were symptomatic. Multiple independent disease pathways may cause this abnormal FEV1 after irritant exposure. WTC exposure activates one or more of these pathways causing abnormal FEV1 in an individual. Our hypothesis was that serum biomarkers expressed within 6 months after World Trade Center (WTC) exposure reflect active disease pathways and predict subsequent development or protection from abnormal FEV1

  6. Trajectories of Scores on a Screening Instrument for PTSD Among World Trade Center Rescue, Recovery, and Clean-Up Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Caramanica, Kimberly; Welch, Alice E; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M; Farfel, Mark R

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over 8-9 years was examined among 16,488 rescue and recovery workers who responded to the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) at the World Trade Center (WTC; New York, NY), and were enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Latent class growth analysis identified 5 groups of rescue and recovery workers with similar score trajectories at 3 administrations of the PTSD Checklist (PCL): low-stable (53.3%), moderate- stable (28.7%), moderate-increasing (6.4%), high-decreasing (7.7%), and high-stable (4.0%). Relative to the low-stable group, membership in higher risk groups was associated with 9/11-related exposures including duration of WTC work, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 2.0, witnessing of horrific events (range = 1.3 to 2.1), being injured (range = 1.4 to 2.3), perceiving threat to life or safety (range = 2.2 to 5.2), bereavement (range = 1.6 to 4.8), and job loss due to 9/11 (range = 2.4 to 15.8). Within groups, higher PCL scores were associated with adverse social circumstances including lower social support, with B coefficients ranging from 0.2 to 0.6, divorce, separation, or widowhood (range = 0.4-0.7), and unemployment (range = 0.4-0.5). Given baseline, exposure-related, and contextual influences that affect divergent PTSD trajectories, screening for both PTSD and adverse circumstances should occur immediately, and at regular intervals postdisaster. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  7. Towards a greener world : hydrogen and fuel cells 2004 conference and trade show. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Fuel Cells Canada and the Canadian Hydrogen Association hosted the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2004 Conference and Tradeshow in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on September 25-28, 2004. Industry leaders from around the world showcased the latest developments in fuel cell and hydrogen technology, and shared research breakthroughs. The conference focussed on many aspects of hydrogen and fuel cell technology, specifically: hydrogen technology progress, including storage, infrastructure and production; fuel cells, including quality, cost and applications; economics and policy, including government and industry strategies; fuel cell demonstrations, including transportation, micro-fuel cells, and portable power; and, impact on climate change, including health and the Kyoto Accord

  8. Challenges to the multilateral trading system and possible responses

    OpenAIRE

    Panagariya, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops three major themes. First, the atmosphere of gloom around the multilateral trading system due to dim prospects of a successful conclusion of the Doha Round notwithstanding, global trade regime remains open and the institution in charge of it, the World Trade Organization, is in sound health. If anything, the Doha Round has been a victim of its own success: considerable de facto liberalization in agriculture has been achieved since the launch of the round. Second, to secure...

  9. The World Debt Crisis and Its Resolution. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Mathew; Stallings, David

    The conclusion of this study of 79 developing countries was that forgiving some of the indebtedness of developing countries may stimulate mutually beneficial trade among all nations. the international debt-repayment problems of Poland in 1981 and was followed by problems in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina in 1982. This crisis has proven to be a more…

  10. Abstracts of the 17. world congress of the International Commission of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR) : sustainable biosystems through engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, P.; Villeneuve, J.; Morisette, R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre] (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This international conference provided a forum to discuss methods to produce agricultural products more efficiently through improvements in engineering and technology. It was attended by engineers and scientists working from different perspectives on biosystems. Beyond food, farms and forests can provide fibre, bio-products and renewable energy. Seven sections of CIGR were organized in the following technical sessions: (1) land and water engineering, (2) farm buildings, equipment, structures and environment, (3) equipment engineering for plants, (4) energy in agriculture, (5) management, ergonomics and systems engineering, (6) post harvest technology and process engineering, and (7) information systems. The Canadian Society of Bioengineering (CSBE) merged its technical program within the 7 sections of CIGR. Four other groups also held their activities during the conference. The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) organized its 9th international drainage symposium and the American Ecological Engineering Society (AEES) held its 10th annual meeting. The International Network for Information Technology in Agriculture (INFITA), and the 8th world congress on computers in agriculture also joined CIGR 2010.

  11. Toward Improved Market Access for ASEAN Agricultural Commodities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is highly dependent on the agricultural sector, and on exports to overseas markets. This trade in turn depends on compliance with strict plant health and safety standards established by the World Trade Organization (WTO). ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  12. 77 FR 56138 - World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of Certain Types of Cancer to the List of WTC-Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... lymphoid tissues (including, but not limited to, lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma) [ssquf] Childhood cancers... and autonomic nervous system [C47) and malignant neoplasm of other connective and soft tissue [C49... 0920-AA49 World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of Certain Types of Cancer to the List of WTC...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF INHALATION EXPOSURES AND POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS TO THE GENERAL POPULATION THAT RESULTED FROM THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER TOWERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the days following the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001 (9/11), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the ongoing impact of emissions from that disaster. Using these...

  14. Asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms 5 to 6 years following exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Hadler, James L; DiGrande, Laura; Ekenga, Christine C; Farfel, Mark R; Friedman, Stephen; Perlman, Sharon E; Stellman, Steven D; Walker, Deborah J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2009-08-05

    The World Trade Center Health Registry provides a unique opportunity to examine long-term health effects of a large-scale disaster. To examine risk factors for new asthma diagnoses and event-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among exposed adults 5 to 6 years following exposure to the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack. Longitudinal cohort study with wave 1 (W1) enrollment of 71,437 adults in 2003-2004, including rescue/recovery worker, lower Manhattan resident, lower Manhattan office worker, and passersby eligibility groups; 46,322 adults (68%) completed the wave 2 (W2) survey in 2006-2007. Self-reported diagnosed asthma following September 11; event-related current PTS symptoms indicative of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed using the PTSD Checklist (cutoff score > or = 44). Of W2 participants with no stated asthma history, 10.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9%-10.5%) reported new asthma diagnoses postevent. Intense dust cloud exposure on September 11 was a major contributor to new asthma diagnoses for all eligibility groups: for example, 19.1% vs 9.6% in those without exposure among rescue/recovery workers (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.4-1.7]). Asthma risk was highest among rescue/recovery workers on the WTC pile on September 11 (20.5% [95% CI, 19.0%-22.0%]). Persistent risks included working longer at the WTC site, not evacuating homes, and experiencing a heavy layer of dust in home or office. Of participants with no PTSD history, 23.8% (95% CI, 23.4%-24.2%) reported PTS symptoms at either W1 (14.3%) or W2 (19.1%). Nearly 10% (9.6% [95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%]) had PTS symptoms at both surveys, 4.7% (95% CI, 4.5%-4.9%) had PTS symptoms at W1 only, and 9.5% (95% CI, 9.3%-9.8%) had PTS symptoms at W2 only. At W2, passersby had the highest rate of PTS symptoms (23.2% [95% CI, 21.4%-25.0%]). Event-related loss of spouse or job was associated with PTS symptoms at W2. Acute and prolonged exposures were both

  15. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of EU biofuel policies on world agricultural production and land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banse, Martin; Meijl, Hans van; Tabeau, Andrzej; Woltjer, Geert; Hellmann, Fritz; Verburg, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union aims to increase the share of renewable energy in its total energy consumption to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and make the economy more CO 2 neutral. This policy is further motivated by a desire to reduce dependency on fossil fuel imports and to stimulate rural development and the agricultural sector.

  17. Feeding the world healthily: the challenge of measuring the effects of agriculture on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Dangour, Alan D; Johnston, Deborah; Lock, Karen; Poole, Nigel; Rushton, Jonathan; Uauy, Ricardo; Waage, Jeff

    2010-09-27

    Agricultural production, food systems and population health are intimately linked. While there is a strong evidence base to inform our knowledge of what constitutes a healthy human diet, we know little about actual food production or consumption in many populations and how developments in the food and agricultural system will affect dietary intake patterns and health. The paucity of information on food production and consumption is arguably most acute in low- and middle-income countries, where it is most urgently needed to monitor levels of under-nutrition, the health impacts of rapid dietary transition and the increasing 'double burden' of nutrition-related disease. Food availability statistics based on food commodity production data are currently widely used as a proxy measure of national-level food consumption, but using data from the UK and Mexico we highlight the potential pitfalls of this approach. Despite limited resources for data collection, better systems of measurement are possible. Important drivers to improve collection systems may include efforts to meet international development goals and partnership with the private sector. A clearer understanding of the links between the agriculture and food system and population health will ensure that health becomes a critical driver of agricultural change.

  18. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attach s, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Historically, these analog years are visually identified; however, the qualitative nature of this method sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. Thus, one goal of this study is to derive a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years, based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). A second goal is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data).

  19. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, V.; Barbier, C.; Riedacker, A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO 2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO 2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  20. Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Mousseau

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA. Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

  1. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Michael A.; Cho, Hyunje G.; Landrigan, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. (author)

  2. Inorganic chemical composition and chemical reactivity of settled dust generated by the World Trade Center building collapse: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.

  3. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts.

  4. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Liu

    Full Text Available The World Trade Center (WTC disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.82, 2.32, with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87 compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12. The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts.

  5. Health care and social issues of immigrant rescue and recovery workers at the World Trade Center site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Hill, Scottie; Chasan, Rachel; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Wilk-Rivard, Elizabeth; Herbert, Robin

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the experience of a unique occupational group of World Trade Center (WTC) workers: immigrant workers. This group is comprised largely of men, laborers, who are first-generation immigrants. The majority of these workers are from Latin America (predominantly from Ecuador and Colombia) or from Eastern Europe (predominantly from Poland). Our data shows that the disease profile observed in these workers was what we have previously reported for WTC working population as a whole. Recent reports have begun to document the disproportionate burden of occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses experienced by immigrant workers in the United States. The WTC experience of immigrants exemplified this burden but, additionally, highlighted that this burden is exacerbated by limitations in access to appropriate health care, disability and compensation benefits, and vocational rehabilitation services. A clinical program that was designed to address the complex medical and psychosocial needs of these workers in a comprehensive manner was successfully established. Full justice for these workers depends on larger societal changes.

  6. Emergency Preparedness Safety Climate and Other Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among World Trade Center Disaster Evacuees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Martin F; Gershon, Robyn R; Riley, Halley E M; Zhi, Qi; Magda, Lori A; Peyrot, Mark

    2017-06-01

    We examined psychological outcomes in a sample of participants who evacuated from the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2011. This study aimed to identify risk factors for psychological injury that might be amenable to change, thereby reducing adverse impacts associated with emergency high-rise evacuation. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2 years after the attacks to classify 789 evacuees into 3 self-reported psychological outcome categories: long-term psychological disorder diagnosed by a physician, short-term psychological disorder and/or memory problems, and no known psychological disorder. After nonmodifiable risk factors were controlled for, diagnosed psychological disorder was more likely for evacuees who reported lower "emergency preparedness safety climate" scores, more evacuation challenges (during exit from the towers), and evacuation-related physical injuries. Other variables associated with increased risk of psychological disorder outcome included gender (female), lower levels of education, preexisting physical disability, preexisting psychological disorder, greater distance to final exit, and more information sources during egress. Improving the "emergency preparedness safety climate" of high-rise business occupancies and reducing the number of egress challenges are potential strategies for reducing the risk of adverse psychological outcomes of high-rise evacuations. Focused safety training for individuals with physical disabilities is also warranted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:326-336).

  7. State regulation of the biotechnology (GM agricultural products: analysis of different approaches in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Yakovleva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although GM crops are cultivated on 175 million hectares in 27 countries, the regulation of agricultural biotechnology is in its becoming. In the future, many countries, of course, will lead to market biotech products, and the main focus will be biosafety issues for humans and the environment. Some countries have special regulatory mechanisms, others do not have the original national regulatory system, but their actions are under the provisions of international treaties for the production and handling of GM products. What are the main components of a strict but not stifling regulatory system? What are the disadvantages of existing systems? The article presents an overview of the state regulation systems of biotech agricultural products in the US, the EU, Argentina, South Africa and Brazil.

  8. Food for all in a sustainable world: The IIASA food and agriculture program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, K.; Rabar, F.

    1981-08-01

    The energy consumption and production in agriculture is described. Energy is used in forming for the mechanization of work, for irrigation, fertilizing and plant protectives. Energy is also supplied as biogas, manure, charcoal and alcohol, apart from foodstuffs. The largest energy input in the industrial countries is used for the mechanization in forming while the largest energy share in the developing countries is determined by fertilizers.

  9. The Rise of the Spirit of National Interest and the Existence of World Trade Organization Agreement: A Case Study of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been an anxiety over the rise of the spirit of national interest on the existence of World Trade Organization. This spirit that has been reflected from domestic trade policy, to some extent, has undermined trade negotiation process under the WTO as shown by the failure of the Doha Round to conclude significant trade deals. Countries also started concluding bilateral and regional trade agreements instead of the WTO. This article aimed to analyze whether the rise of the spirit of national interest has threaten the existence of the WTO agreements, putting Indonesia as a case study. This article is a normative research, analyzing the dynamics development of the national interest under the WTO, especially Indonesia, and how the judicial body has responded the rise of this spirit in its decisions. This article argues that the spirit of national interest will not threaten the existence of WTO as this spirit has been exist from the early establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1947 to the latest WTO negotiation. Moreover, the existence of the WTO judicial body will secure the existence of the WTO, especially because it has successfully controlled the overwhelming spirit of national interest of its members through its decisions.

  10. Assessing the hydrological impacts of agricultural changes upstream of the Tunisian World Heritage sea-connected Ichkeul Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aouissi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of changes in agricultural land use and practices as a controlling driver of hydrologic response and as a source of diffuse pollution, are studied in the Joumine River basin, discharging into the Ichkeul Lake, northern Tunisia, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979. The lake is characterized by a very specific hydrological functioning based on a seasonal alternation of water levels and salinity through its link to the Mediterranean Sea. Three Landsat images, in situ surveys and SWAT modelling were used to simulate and assess streamflows and nitrate loads under retrospective land uses.

  11. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; Mladenova, Iliana; Fang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by coordinating monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main goal of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE (See diagram below). Soil moisture is currently a primary data gap at WAOB.

  12. Combining integrated models and participatory methods to quantify water and agricultural trade-offs linked to different rural development scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David; Willaarts, Barbara; García, Ángel de Miguel; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the water and agricultural tradeoffs linked to three different rural development scenarios in the Cega-Eresma-Adaja basin (CEA) in Central Spain. Agriculture is a key socioeconomic activity in CEA, and nearly 44% of the basin is devoted to croplands and pastures. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 12% of the cropland area and is currently using over 84% of available water resources. To define the three scenarios for CEA, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders to infer how contrasting evolutions of EU agricultural, water and environmental policies could affect the local land use and agricultural management using participatory mapping techniques. The three scenarios reflect 1) a business as usual (BAU) rural development; 2) a land sharing strategy (LSH); and 3) a land sparing (LSP) situation. The integrated Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the changes in water use (hm^3/year) and agricultural productivity (ton/year) under each scenario. To account for changes in agricultural land use and management, the model integrates a large set of agricultural patterns obtained from combining high resolution remote sensing images (20m x 20m) for the years 2011-2015, agricultural productivity from survey by municipality and land use information obtained from the national map SIOSE2011 (1:50.000). Model calibration and sensitivity analysis were performed using SWAT-CUP/SUFI2 The period of the years 2005 to 2008 were used for parameter calibration and validation period extending between 2009 and 2014. The predicted daily streamflow presents a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and a NS coefficient of 0.81. The preliminary results reveal that under a BAU and a LSP scenario agricultural production and water demand will increase significantly (>25%) despite the improvements in water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. Under these scenarios, allocated water is likely to exceed the natural renewable water resources compromising the

  13. Prinsip Liberalisasi Perdagangan World Trade Organization (WTO dalam Pembaharuan Hukum Investasi di Indonesia ( Undang-undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    cep Rohendi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2007 tentang Penanaman Modal (UUPM merupakan peraturan mengenai investasi di Indonesia yang menggantikan Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1967 tentang Investasi Asing dan Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1968 tentang Investasi Domestik. Undang-undang ini tidak lagi membedakan antara investasi asing dan domestik. Pembentukan undang-undang ini merupakan komitmen Indonesia atas diratifikasinya Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO Agreement Pasal XVI, Ayat 4 dari Agreement tersebut mewajibkan negara anggota untuk menyesuaikan aturan-aturan atau hukum perdagangan mereka dengan aturan-aturan yang terdapat dalam Annex di WTO Agreement. Prinsip-prinsip WTO yang telah diimplementasikan pada UUPM, yaitu: 1 Prinsip (Most-Favoured-Nation dalam Pasal 1 ayat (1, Pasal 3 ayat (1, Pasal 4 ayat (2, dan Pasal 6 ayat (1; 2 Prinsip National Treatment dalam Pasal 6 ayat (1; 3 Prinsip Larangan Restriksi (pembatasan Kuantitatif dapat ditemukan dalam Pasal 8; 4 Prinsip Perlindungan melalui Tarif yang ditemukan secara tersirat pada asas efisiensi berkeadilan dalam Pasal 3 ayat (1 dan Pasal 14; 5 Prinsip Resiprositas dapat ditemukan dalam Pasal 7 dan Pasal 32; 6 Prinsip Perlakuan Khusus bagi Negara Berkembang diatur dalam Pasal 13. Indonesia telah mengimplementasi prinsip-prinsip tersebut sebagaimana diwajibkan bagi negara-negara anggota WTO. Abstract Law Number 25 Year 2007 is the investment law of Indonesia which replaces Law Number 1 year 1967 on Foreign Investment and Law Number 5 year 1968 on Domestic Investment. This new law no longer distinguishes foreign and domestic investment. The formation of law Number 25 Year 2007 is the commitment of Indonesia upon ratification of the (WTO Agreement. Article XVI paragraph 4 of the Agreement Establishing the WTO requires state parties to adjust their rules or which law of trade with the rules contained in the WTO Agreement Annex. WTO principles which have been implemented in the

  14. Evapotranspiration measurements in rainfed and irrigated cropland illustrate trade-offs in land and water management in Southern Amazonia's agricultural frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Black, T. A.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Hawthorne, I.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Amazonia, Brazil, is home to a rapidly expanding agricultural frontier in which tropical forest and savanna landscapes have been increasingly replaced by agricultural land since the 1990s. One important impact of deforestation is the reduction in water vapour transferred to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) from rainfed agriculture landscapes compared to natural vegetation, leading to a reduction in regional precipitation recycling. Here, we discuss land and water management choices for future agricultural production in Southern Amazonia and their potential effects on the atmospheric water cycle. We illustrate these choices by presenting ET measurements on an agricultural landscape by eddy covariance (EC) between September 2015 and February 2017. Measurements were made for two fields adjacent to one micrometeorological EC tower: (1) one rainfed field containing a succession of soybean, maize, brachiara and soybean, and (2) one irrigated field with a succession of soybean, rice, beans, and soybean. Over the time period, total ET in the rainfed and irrigated fields was 1266 ± 294 mm and 1415 ± 180 mm, respectively for a total precipitation of 3099 mm. The main difference in ET between the fields was attributed to the application of 118 mm of surface water irrigated for bean production in the irrigated field between June and September 2016. In the rainfed field, soybean ET was 332 ± 82 mm (2015-2016) and 423 ± 99 mm (2016-2017) for 824 mm and 1124 mm of precipitation, respectively. In the irrigated field, soybean ET was 271 ± 38 mm (2015) and 404 ± 60 mm (2016-2017) with supplemental irrigation added in 2015. Our results illustrate how supplemental irrigation can favour early soybean planting while transferring additional water vapour to the atmosphere at levels similar to natural vegetation. We conclude by discussing our results in the context of future land and water trade-offs for agricultural intensification in Brazil's "arc-of-deforestation".

  15. Food for all in a sustainable world: the IIASA food and agriculture program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, K.; Rabar, F. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the presentations at the conference which focus on understanding of national and international policy options to alleviate present food problems and to prevent future ones. Major emphasis is placed on methodological work that permits evaluations of national and international policy strategies in an interdependent world.

  16. Agricultural biodiversity, nutrition, and health: making a difference to hunger and nutrition in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Emile A; Smith, Ifeyironwa Francisca; Johns, Timothy; Cherfas, Jeremy; Eyzaguirre, Pablo B

    2006-06-01

    In spite of the strides made globally in reducing hunger, the problems of micronutrient deficiencies and coexisting obesity and related cardiovascular and degenerative diseases constitute a formidable challenge for the future. Attempts to reverse this trend with single-nutrient intervention strategies have met with limited success, resulting in renewed calls for food-based approaches. The deployment of agricultural biodiversity is an approach that entails greater use of local biodiversity to ensure dietary diversity. To outline a new strategy proposed by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) that employs agricultural biodiversity as the primary resource for food security and health. The authors carried out a meta-analysis to review and assemble existing information on the nutritional and healthful properties of traditional foods based on a diverse set of case studies and food composition and nutritional analysis studies. The methods highlight particular examples of foods where analysis of nutrient and non-nutrient composition reveals important traits to address the growing problems of malnutrition associated with the rise of chronic diseases. Finally, the authors analyze social, economic, and cultural changes that undermine the healthful components of traditional diets. Based on this multidisciplinary and comparative approach, the authors suggest a holistic food-based approach that combines research to assess and document nutritional and healthful properties of traditional foods, investigating options in which nutritionally valuable traditional foods can contribute to better livelihoods, and ways that awareness and promotional campaigns can identify healthful components of traditional diets that fit the needs of urban and market-oriented consumers. There is an urgent need for agricultural research centers, national agricultural research systems, universities, and community-based organizations to work together under a shared policy framework

  17. Structural Change and Income Inequality – Agricultural Development and Inter-sectoral Dualism in the Developing World, 1960-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Andersson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural change consists of the long-term changes in the sectoral composition of output and employment. We introduce a structural change perspective to the study of income inequality in 27 countries of the developing world for the period 1960-2010. The service sector has become the main employer, but the agricultural sector is central to the income distribution because poverty is mostly rural, and the labor surplus is high. We decompose the sectoral composition of aggregate labor productivity at the country level, divide the countries into agrarian, dual (beginner, intermediate and advanced, and mature economies and use the inter-sectoral productivity gap to test the effect of structural change on income inequality. We confirm increases in agricultural productivity everywhere and find that the inter-sectoral gap is positively associated with income inequality. The effect is negligible in agrarian and advanced economies but powerful in dual beginner economies: an increase of 1% in the inter-sectoral gap increases income inequality by 0.5%. The effect peters out in dual intermediate economies and disappears completely in dual advanced economies. Finally, redistribution has been the key to compensating the losers in the income changes, particularly for those entering the non-agricultural economy.

  18. Global Rice Watch: Spatial-temporal dynamics, driving factors, and impacts of paddy rice agriculture in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.; Xin, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice croplands account for more than 12% of the global cropland areas, and provide food to feed more than 50% of the world population. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands have changed remarkably in the past decades, driven by growing human population and their changing diet structure, land use (e.g., urbanization, industrialization), climate, markets, and technologies. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive review of our current knowledge on (1) the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands from agricultural statistics data and remote sensing approaches; (2) major driving factors for the observed changes in paddy rice areas, including social, economic, climate, land use, markets, crop breeding technology, and farming technology; and (3) major impacts on atmospheric methane concentration, land surface temperature, water resources and use, and so on. We will highlight the results from a few case studies in China and monsoon Asia. We will also call for a global synthesis analysis of paddy rice agriculture, and invite researchers to join the effort to write and edit a book that provides comprehensive and updated knowledge on paddy rice agriculture.

  19. 75 FR 8652 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE Application for Subzone CNH America, LLC (Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... agricultural equipment; valves; bearings; transmission shafts; electric motors; generators; clutches; brakes... some 30 percent of the plant's shipments will be exported. On its domestic sales, CNH would be able to...

  20. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN AGRICULTURAL-FOOD INDUSTRY IN THE WORLD BETWEEN 1990 AND 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jaworska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the specification of the sector, distinct tendencies in FDI flows can be expected both in the short and long term. The aforementioned assumption constituted the basis for the research the aiming at of which the presentation of the level, dynamics and structure of cross-border mergers and acquisitions in agricultural-food industry and exploration, on their basis, of the tendencies and directions in which they are going to change as well as to specify the place and role of agriculture and food industry in global flows of FDI. In order to reach the aforementioned goal, ex-post empiric analysis of capital flows in the form of mergers and acquisitions was applied (1990-2012 together with chosen statistical methods (measurements of placement and variation and with indicators of structure and dynamics. The results of the analysis showed that M&As, in the long term, was specified by a relatively high cyclical nature as well as by a growing trend with short-term fluctuations around the trend distinct from those specifying other sectors. Moreover, the research proved that mergers and acquisitions constituted an important form of FDI flows and their implementation had a marginal meaning when considering the whole sector. 

  1. Estimation of Future Cancer Burden Among Rescue and Recovery Workers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankura; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Moir, William; Hall, Charles B; Schwartz, Theresa; Vossbrinck, Madeline; Jaber, Nadia; Webber, Mayris P; Kelly, Kerry J; Ortiz, Viola; Koffler, Ellen; Prezant, David J

    2018-06-01

    Elevated rates of cancer have been reported in individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, including Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) rescue and recovery workers. To project the future burden of cancer in WTC-exposed FDNY rescue and recovery workers by estimating the 20-year cancer incidence. A total of 14 474 WTC-exposed FDNY employees who were cancer-free on January 1, 2012; subgroup analyses were conducted of the cohort's white male population (n = 12 374). In this closed-cohort study, we projected cancer incidence for the January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2031, period. Simulations were run using demographic-specific New York City (NYC) cancer and national mortality rates for each individual, summed for the whole cohort, and performed 1000 times to produce mean estimates. Additional analyses in the subgroup of white men compared case counts produced by using 2007-2011 FDNY WTC Health Program (FDNY-WTCHP) cancer rates vs NYC rates. Average and 20-year aggregate costs of first-year cancer care were estimated using claims data. World Trade Center disaster exposure defined as rescue and recovery work at the WTC site at any time from September 11, 2001, to July 25, 2002. (1) Projected number of incident cancers in the full cohort, based on NYC cancer rates; (2) cancer incidence estimates in the subgroup projected using FDNY-WTCHP vs NYC rates; and (3) estimated first-year treatment costs of incident cancers. On January 1, 2012, the cohort was 96.8% male, 87.1% white, and had a mean (SD) age of 50.2 (9.2) years. The projected number of incident cancer cases was 2960 (95% CI, 2883-3037). In our subgroup analyses using FDNY-WTCHP vs NYC cancer rates, the projected number of new cases in white men was elevated (2714 [95% CI, 2638-2786] vs 2596 [95% CI, 2524-2668]). Accordingly, we expect more prostate (1437 [95% CI, 1383-1495] vs 863 [95% CI, 816-910]), thyroid (73 [95% CI, 60-86] vs 57 [95% CI, 44-69]), and melanoma cases (201 [95

  2. The Best of Both Worlds? Free Trade in Services and EU Law on Privacy and Data Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakovleva, S.; Irion, K.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between European Union (EU) law on privacy and data protection and international trade law, in particular the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the WTO dispute settlement system. The argument distinguishes between the effects of international

  3. World Bank agricultural policies, poverty and income inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Stein

    2010-01-01

    The original logic underlying the World Bank's structural adjustment policies in Africa was that the removal of state-created distortions would not only improve efficiency in the operation of markets but also enhance income equality and reduce poverty. The paper explores the linkage between adjustment and the deteriorating income distribution and rising poverty in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on the rural sector where most of the population earns its livelihoods. The pattern observed is a ...

  4. Longitudinal Pulmonary Function in Newly Hired, Non-World Trade Center-Exposed Fire Department City of New York Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fen; Hall, Charles B.; Webber, Mayris P.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Dinkels, Michael; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few longitudinal studies characterize firefighters’ pulmonary function. We sought to determine whether firefighters have excessive FEV1 decline rates compared with control subjects. Methods: We examined serial measurements of FEV1 from about 6 months prehire to about 5 years posthire in newly hired male, never smoking, non-Hispanic black and white firefighters, hired between 2003 and 2006, without prior respiratory disease or World Trade Center exposure. Similarly defined Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers served as control subjects. Results: Through June 30, 2011, 940 firefighters (82%) and 97 EMS workers (72%) who met study criteria had four or more acceptable posthire spirometries. Prehire FEV1% averaged higher for firefighters than EMS workers (99% vs 95%), reflecting more stringent job entry criteria. FEV1 (adjusted for baseline age and height) declined by an average of 45 mL/y both for firefighters and EMS workers, with Fire − EMS decline rate differences averaging 0.2 mL/y (CI, −9.2 to 9.6). Four percent of each group had FEV1 less than the lower limit of normal before hire, increasing to 7% for firefighters and 17.5% for EMS workers, but similar percentages of both groups had adjusted FEV1 decline rates ≥ 10%. Mixed effects modeling showed a significant influence of weight gain but not baseline weight: FEV1 declined by about 8 mL/kg gained for both groups. Adjusting for weight change, FEV1 decline averaged 38 mL/y for firefighters and 34 mL/y for EMS workers. Conclusions: During the first 5 years of duty, firefighters do not show greater longitudinal FEV1 decline than EMS control subjects, and fewer of them develop abnormal lung function. Weight gain is associated with a small loss of lung function, of questionable clinical relevance in this fit and active population. PMID:23188136

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers Predict Susceptibility or Resistance to Lung Injury in World Trade Center Dust Exposed Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiden, Michael D.; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Cho, Soo Jung; Comfort, Ashley L.; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular loss is an early feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of inflammation and of metabolic syndrome, predicts loss of lung function in World Trade Center Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We investigated if other cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers also predicted WTC-LI. This nested case-cohort study used 801 never smoker, WTC exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March, 2008. A representative sub-cohort of 124/801 with serum drawn within six months of 9/11 defined CVD biomarker distribution. Post-9/11/01 FEV1 at subspecialty exam defined cases: susceptible WTC-LI cases with FEV1≤77% predicted (66/801) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1≥107% (68/801). All models were adjusted for WTC exposure intensity, BMI at SPE, age at 9/11, and pre-9/11 FEV1. Susceptible WTC-LI cases had higher levels of Apo-AII, CRP, and MIP-4 with significant RRs of 3.85, 3.93, and 0.26 respectively with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.858. Resistant WTC-LI cases had significantly higher sVCAM and lower MPO with RRs of 2.24, and 2.89 respectively; AUC 0.830. Biomarkers of CVD in serum six-month post-9/11 predicted either susceptibility or resistance to WTC-LI. These biomarkers may define pathways producing or protecting subjects from pulmonary vascular disease and associated loss of lung function after an irritant exposure. PMID:22903969

  6. Predictive Biomarkers of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Barrett's Esophagus in World Trade Center Exposed Firefighters: a 15 Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed H; Kwon, Sophia; Lam, Rachel; Lee, Audrey K; Caraher, Erin J; Crowley, George; Zhang, Liqun; Schwartz, Theresa M; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Liu, Mengling; Prezant, David J; Nolan, Anna

    2018-02-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Barrett's Esophagus (BE), which are prevalent in the World Trade Center (WTC) exposed and general populations, negatively impact quality of life and cost of healthcare. GERD, a risk factor of BE, is linked to obstructive airways disease (OAD). We aim to identify serum biomarkers of GERD/BE, and assess the respiratory and clinical phenotype of a longitudinal cohort of never-smoking, male, WTC-exposed rescue workers presenting with pulmonary symptoms. Biomarkers collected soon after WTC-exposure were evaluated in optimized predictive models of GERD/BE. In the WTC-exposed cohort, the prevalence of BE is at least 6 times higher than in the general population. GERD/BE cases had similar lung function, D LCO , bronchodilator response and long-acting β-agonist use compared to controls. In confounder-adjusted regression models, TNF-α ≥ 6 pg/mL predicted both GERD and BE. GERD was also predicted by C-peptide ≥ 360 pg/mL, while BE was predicted by fractalkine ≥ 250 pg/mL and IP-10 ≥ 290 pg/mL. Finally, participants with GERD had significantly increased use of short-acting β-agonist compared to controls. Overall, biomarkers sampled prior to GERD/BE presentation showed strong predictive abilities of disease development. This study frames future investigations to further our understanding of aerodigestive pathology due to particulate matter exposure.

  7. Risk factors for persistence of lower respiratory symptoms among community members exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Friedman, Stephen M; Reibman, Joan; Goldring, Roberta M; Miller Archie, Sara A; Ortega, Felix; Alper, Howard; Shao, Yongzhao; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Berger, Kenneth I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12–13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008–2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013–2014). Peripheral airway function was assessed with impulse oscillometry measures of R5 and R5-20. Probable PTSD was a PTSD checklist score ≥44 on a 2006–2007 questionnaire. Results Of 785 exam 1 participants, 545 (69%) completed exam 2. Most (321, 59%) were asymptomatic at all assessments. Among 192 participants with initial LRS, symptoms resolved for 110 (57%) by exam 2, 55 (29%) had persistent LRS and 27 (14%) had other patterns. The proportion with normal spirometry increased from 65% at exam 1 to 85% at exam 2 in the persistent LRS group (p<0.01) and was stable among asymptomatic participants and those with resolved LRS. By exam 2, spirometry results did not differ across symptom groups; however, R5 and R5-20 abnormalities were more common among participants with persistent LRS (56% and 46%, respectively) than among participants with resolved LRS (30%, p<0.01; 27%, p=0.03) or asymptomatic participants (20%, p<0.001; 8.2%, p<0.001). PTSD, R5 at exam 1, and R5-20 at exam 1 were each independently associated with persistent LRS. Conclusions Peripheral airway dysfunction and PTSD may contribute to LRS persistence. Assessment of peripheral airway function detected pulmonary damage not evident on spirometry. Mental and physical healthcare for survivors of complex environmental disasters should be coordinated carefully. PMID:28341697

  8. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  9. Post-9/11 drug- and alcohol- related hospitalizations among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Welch, Alice E; Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M

    2018-06-01

    To describe patterns of drug- and alcohol-related hospitalizations among persons exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks and to assess whether 9/11-related exposures or post-9/11 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with increased odds of hospitalization. Data for adult enrollees in the WTC Health Registry, a prospective cohort study, were linked to New York State (NYS) administrative hospitalization data to identify alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations from enrollment to December 31, 2010. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between substance use-related hospitalization, 9/11-related exposure and PTSD. Of 41,176 NYS resident enrollees, we identified 626 (1.5%) who had at least one alcohol- or drug-related hospitalization; 53.4% (n = 591) of these hospitalizations were for alcohol only diagnoses and 46.6% (n = 515) were drug-related. Witnessing ≥3 traumatic events on 9/11 was significantly associated with having a drug-related hospitalization (AOR 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]). PTSD was significantly associated with both having a drug-related hospitalization as well as an alcohol only-related hospitalization. (AOR 2.6, 95% CI = [2.0, 3.3], AOR 1.8, 95% CI = [1.4, 2.3], respectively). Witnessing traumatic events and having PTSD were independently associated with substance use-related hospitalizations. Targeting people who witnessed traumatic events on 9/11 and/or who have PTSD for substance use- treatment could reduce alcohol and drug-related hospitalizations connected to 9/11. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  11. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution.

  12. Organizational factors and office workers' health after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks: long-term physical symptoms, psychological distress, and work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinubi, Omowunmi Y O; Gandhi, Sampada K; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Boglarsky, Cheryl; Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Robson, Mark

    2008-02-01

    To assess if organizational factors are predictors of workers' health and productivity after the World Trade Center attacks. We conducted a survey of 750 workers and compared those who had direct exposures to the World Trade Center attacks (south of Canal Street workers; primary victims) with those less directly exposed (north of Canal Street workers; other victims and non-victims). South of Canal Street workers reported headache more frequently than north of Canal Street workers did (P = 0.0202). Primary victims reported headache and cough more frequently than did other victims and non-victims (P = 0.0086 and 0.0043, respectively). Defensive organizational culture was an independent predictor of cough and job stress, and job stress was an independent predictor of on-the-job productivity losses. Organizational variables may modify health and productivity outcomes after a large-scale traumatic event in the workplace.

  13. Forensic Archaeological Recovery of a Large-Scale Mass Disaster Scene: Lessons Learned from Two Complex Recovery Operations at the World Trade Center Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnasch, Scott C

    2016-05-01

    In 2006, unexpected discoveries of buried World Trade Center (WTC) debris and human remains were made at the World Trade Center mass disaster site. New York City's Office of Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) was given the task of systematically searching the site for any remaining victims' remains. The subsequent OCME assessment and archaeological excavation conducted from 2006 until 2013, resulted in the recovery of over 1,900 victims' remains. In addition, this operation demonstrated the essential skills archaeologists can provide in a mass disaster recovery operation. The OCME excavation data illustrates some of the challenges encountered during the original recovery effort of 2001/2002. It suggests that when understood within the larger site recovery context, certain fundamental components of the original recovery effort, such as operational priorities and activities in effect during the original recovery, directly or indirectly resulted in unsearched deposits that contained human remains. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  15. Modelling the Common Agricultural Policy with the Modular Agricultural GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET). Effects of the 2014-2020 CAP financial agreement on welfare, trade, factor and product markets

    OpenAIRE

    BOULANGER PIERRE; PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE

    2013-01-01

    This JRC report presents methodological development of the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, for representing the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Using original data on European Union (EU) domestic support, it examines some likely macroeconomic effects of the expected CAP budget over the period 2014-2020. Results suggest that agreed budget cuts, in constant price, have limited impacts on EU and world markets, given the br...

  16. Penerapan Prinsip Non Discrimination Dalam World Trade Organization Terhadap Kebijakan Tenaga Kerja Asing Di Indonesia (Studi Kasus : Tenaga Kerja Asing Tiongkok Di Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    -, VERA NURUL HAYATI

    2016-01-01

    2016 Vera Nurul Hayati (B 111 12 117),The Application of Non Discrimination Principle of World Trade Organization Against Foreign Workers in Indonesia (Case Study : China Foreign Workers in Indonesia), led by Muhammad Ashri dan Laode Abdul Gani. Writing aims to determine 1) Implementation of Non Discrimination principle on policy regulation against Foreign labor in Indonesia. 2) Enforcement of non discrimination principle against Tiongkok foreign labor in Indonesia. ...

  17. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  18. Studies on the application of ionizing radiation for the advanced quarantine management of agricultural commodities for export and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Kwang Youll; Choi, Yeong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    {Omicron} Quarantine waste of agricultural goods for export are 50 billion won per year in Korea. The major reason of quarantine waste were inspected of quarantine regulated pest or detected of pesticide residues during importation or exportation clearance. {Omicron} According to the Montreal protocol, reduce the using of chemical fumigant(Methyl Bromide) and required alternative quarantine treatment {Omicron} It is necessary for commercialization project that to practice evaluation and development of quarantine management system using irradiation as a phytosanitary measure for exportation agricultural commodities.

  19. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M.; Van Velthuizen, H.

    2002-08-01

    After the introduction Chapter 2 presents details of the ecological-economic analysis based on the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zones (AEZ) approach for evaluation of biophysical limitations and agricultural production potentials, and IIASA's Basic Linked System (BLS) for analyzing the world's food economy and trade system. The BLS is a global general equilibrium model system for analyzing agricultural policies and food system prospects in an international setting. BLS views national agricultural systems as embedded in national economies, which interact with each other through trade at the international level. The combination of AEZ and BLS provides an integrated ecological-economic framework for the assessment of the impact of climate change. We consider climate scenarios based on experiments with four General Circulation Models (GCM), and we assess the four basic socioeconomic development pathways and emission scenarios as formulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report. Chapter 3 presents the main AEZ results of the impact of climate change on agriculture. Results comprise environmental constraints to crop agriculture; climate variability and the variability of rain-fed cereal production; changes in potential agricultural land; changes in crop-production patterns; and the impact of climate change on cereal-production potential. Chapter 4 discusses the AEZ-BLS integrated ecological-economic analysis of climate change on the world food system. This includes quantification of scale and location of hunger, international agricultural trade, prices, production, land use, etc. It assesses trends in food production, trade, and consumption, and the impact on poverty and hunger of alternative development pathways and varying levels of climate change. Chapter 5 presents the main conclusions and policy implications of this study

  1. From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM at Versailles, France, in 1972 set organic food and farming on a strong future trajectory. It was an initiative of France’s Nature et Progrès, and driven by its then President, Roland Chevriot. IFOAM was founded with the support of a small cluster of kindred organisations: Rodale Press of the USA; the Soil Association of the UK; the Soil Association of South Africa; and the Swedish Biodynamic Association. None of these five organisations bore the term ‘organic’ in their title, nevertheless, the choice of name acknowledged ‘organic’ as the term to signify their common cause. It secured ‘organic’ as the core narrative element and as the international descriptor of what is now a clearly identifiable and differentiated segment of the global food and farming sector. From the outset ‘biodynamic’ was accepted as a special case of ‘organic’. The formation of IFOAM created an entity which united the aspirations, the philosophies and the hopes of disparate groups each with roles primarily restricted to national advocacy. IFOAM has grown to a federation of 804 organisations from 111 counties. Organic production statistics are now reported by IFOAM from 154 countries and organic sector retail sales are reported to be US$51b annually. IFOAM is based in Bonn, Germany, and as the global umbrella advocacy group for the organic sector it is without peer.

  2. Trade in Educational Services: An Overview of GATS and Policy Implications for Higher Agricultural Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, S. K.; Sastry, R. Kalpana; Rashmi, H. B.

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is a service that contributes to national development, integration and regional cohesion. Agricultural education in particular has been viewed in many developing countries as a significant contributor to sustainable development and poverty alleviation. In view of its public mandate, higher education in most countries is regulated…

  3. Toward an inclusive and a little bit ethical world trading system : listening to the voices of the people in LDCs

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Kan Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Many specialists in international trade have started saying that the era of a mega FTA is approaching. If the three poles of the global economy, namely East Asia, EU and the United States, form mega FTAs, most of the volume of global trade will be covered. That may be fine, but there will be many countries left out of the mega FTA, most of which will be the least developed countries (LDCs). \

  4. Trauma-Focused Smoking Cessation for Smokers Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Friedberg, Fred; Li, Xiaotong; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bromet, Evelyn J; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Vujanovic, Anka A; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-session, group-based comprehensive smoking cessation and trauma management (CSC-T) treatment among daily smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster with elevated WTC-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to CSC-T (N = 44; 63.6% white; 27.3% female; mean age = 51.32 ± 7.87) or comprehensive smoking cessation (CSC) alone (N = 46; 71.7% white; 28.3% female; mean age = 48.74 ± 10.66), which was comparable in length and time. Assessments included a diagnostic clinical interview and self-report measures of PTSD and respiratory symptoms, and smoking behavior, and biologically confirmed smoking abstinence. Evaluations occurred at a baseline visit, each treatment session, and at 1-, 2-, 4-, 12-, and 26-weeks post-treatment. The two treatments did not differ in regard to PTSD symptom improvement. After quit day (week 6), the two groups had similar 7-day (~15%) and 6-month (~20%) abstinence rates as well as average number of cigarettes smoked, and PTSD and respiratory symptoms. It is possible that the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy skills specific to quitting smoking, group-based support, and degree of therapist contact, that were available in both treatments may have played a role in equalizing the abstinence rates between the two conditions. Although the current study found no evidence that the CSC-T was superior to the CSC alone treatment, the abstinence rates observed were high relative to previous trials of smokers with diagnosed PTSD. Further development of smoking cessation programs tailored to the needs of smokers with PTSD symptoms continues to be needed. This study suggests that a CSC program aids in smoking abstinence for smokers with PTSD symptoms and that incorporating trauma management skills, may not add additional benefits for abstinence and PTSD and respiratory symptom relief. Further work is needed to

  5. 75 FR 23227 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. The Administrator, Foreign Agricultural... be obtained at the Web site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is http...

  6. Bio fuels in the framework of law of the World Trade Organization under special consideration of their ecologically relevant properties; Biokraftstoffe im Rechtsregime der WTO unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung ihrer umweltrelevanten Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Hartmut

    2008-07-01

    The increasing world market for bio fuels urgently needs a framework of law which regulates the conflict potentials of the cultivation of energy plant. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the trade with bio fuels in the World Trade Organization and discusses the legal negotiability of sustainability criteria for the production of bio fuel. Apart from the creation of a specific duty nomenclature for the new product line, straight in the agrarian sector the regulations of the world trade law for national subsidies are to be considered. With bio fuels from non-ecologic production, the contract texts permit import-controlling and marketing-adjusting measures to the World Trade Organization while the extraterritorial employment of the genetic engineering only is limited controllable by according to commercial law instruments. The mutual obligations of some members of the World Trade Organization also can play a role in the public procurement department if bio fuels become the criterion with the national placing of orders. For developing countries, the World Trade Organization law plans some special arrangements which facilitate their participation in the bio fuel trade. The contribution under consideration is addressed to lawyers, decision makers and advisors in politics and authority practice.

  7. From biophysical to social-ecological trade-offs: integrating biodiversity conservation and agricultural production in the Argentine Dry Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias E. Mastrangelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification in rural areas of developing countries compromises the provision of ecosystem services. Social conflict arises among landholders with different preferences for ecosystem services and land-use practices in agricultural frontiers of the Argentine Dry Chaco. We explored policy and management options by assessing the actual and potential outcomes of alternative land-use systems and scenarios. We first constructed the efficiency frontier for avian habitat and agricultural productivity to analyze the combinations of ecosystem services that can be achieved under different land-use intensities. A nonlinear, concave efficiency frontier indicated opportunities to achieve large gains for production with small losses for conservation, for instance, by transitioning from low- to intermediate-intensity systems. Second, we projected production and conservation outcomes, which can be achieved through the implementation of five alternative policy options. The land sharing with conservation scenario, 70% of the landscape covered by intermediate-intensity systems and 30% by undisturbed forests, yielded the higher combination of avian habitat and agricultural productivity. Third, we constructed indifference curves of three landholder groups, i.e., preproductivist, multifunctional, and productivist, by assessing their intentions (proxies for preferences to conserve and convert remnant forests in their landholdings. Multifunctional landholders showed balanced preferences for conserving and converting forests in their landholdings, and maintaining intermediate-intensity systems. A general willingness to conserve forests coexisted in preproductivist landholders with the intention to clear some portions of the landholding and intensify landuse, indicating the potential of an endogenously motivated transition toward a multifunctional regime. Such transition may increase their productivity by 35-65% without compromising avian habitat

  8. SPS measures and possible market access implications for agricultural trade in the Doha Round: An analysis of systemic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Murali Kallummal

    2012-01-01

    Even as the Doha Round seeks to address tariff liberalization issues in a comprehensive manner, the imbalance in the outcome of market access for developing country exporters will be particularly glaring in the case of fresh agricultural and processed food products. There is growing evidence that protectionism from the usage of non-tariff barriers such as SPS measures has increased tremendously in the recent past. This paper discusses an analysis of the SPS notifications made by WTO Member co...

  9. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  10. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...

  11. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  12. AGRICULTURAL CHOICES IN THE WAR ON DRUGS: Pay or Play?

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Illegal drugs have enormous significance for world trade, consumer safety, and the social and natural environment. Thus, drug policy is one of the principal policy choices society faces as the new century approaches. Numerous skirmishes in the War on Drugs are being fought on an agricultural battlefield. But the combat strategies for these skirmishes lack tactical support from the scientific agricultural establishment even though agriculture's unique perspective could contribute new weapons a...

  13. Regulatory on the corporate social responsibility in the context of sustainable development by mandatory in the world trade organization law perspective (case study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. M. Hum. TAUFIQURRAHMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR by mandatory in Indonesia as stipulated in Article 74 of Law No. 40/2007 on the Limited Liability Company (hereafter the Company Law raises a contradiction. Those who agree argue that the company is not solely for profit, but more than that are participating in social issues and the preservation of the environment within the framework of sustainable development. Conversely, those who disagree view that social issues and the environment are the full responsibility of state. The involvement of a corporation in social and environmental activities is voluntary. Verdict of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in case no. 53/PUU-VI / / 2008 dated 13 April 2009 which rejected a requesting of material test of the Article 74 paragraph (1, (2 and (3 of the Company Law confirms the existence of the CSR by mandatory in international trade traffic today. The analytical results indicates that mandatory CSR regulation in the Company Law is not a form of a state intervention to the private activities. In addition, the arrangement is not contrary to the principles of free trade within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT / World Trade Organization (WTO.

  14. International Product Differentiation through a Country Brand: An Economic Analysis of National Branding as a Marketing Strategy for Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Brian G.; Kerr, William A.; Hobbs, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    Trade policy initiatives of developed country governments are in flux. Governments’ need for new trade policy measures has arisen partly because of constraints imposed on the use of export subsidies by the Agreement on Agriculture reached as part of the Uruguay Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1994. Further disciplines on export subsidies and other policy measures may be agreed on in the Doha Round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, accentuating the need for new...

  15. [International experience in the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the world trade organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnyk, Olena V; Hendel, Nataliia V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The development of international legal cooperation in the field of health has largely been driven by the trade interests of states. The aim: The article analyzes the legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. Materials and methods: Using the historical legal method has allowed to analyze the genesis of legal regulation of the circulation of medicines through the prism of the law of the World Trade Organization. The dialectical method is widely used, in particular, when it comes to the issue of the ratio of market regulation of medicines circulation and public health protection, the formal logic method, in particular, in formulating the general principles, principles and methods of legal regulation in the field of medicines, as well as the systemic method, in particular, in defining the institutional component of legal regulation in the field of medicines. Review: The activities of the WTO include several areas related to health protection: international control over infectious diseases, international legal regulation of food safety (food security), tobacco control, environmental protection, international legal aspects of access and treatment of medicinal and pharmaceutical products, international legal regulation of medical services provision. Conclusions: It is proved that the right to health is a right to access to medicines. However, for many developing countries, it is problematic to obtain patents for the production of necessary medicines or to pay a license fee, which creates a barrier to the realization of the right to health.

  16. Trade-offs between cattle production and bird conservation in an agricultural frontier of the Gran Chaco of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Matias E; Gavin, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Intensification of food production in tropical landscapes in the absence of land-use planning can pose a major threat to biological diversity. Decisions on whether to spatially integrate or segregate lands for production and conservation depend in part on the functional relations between biological diversity and agricultural productivity. We measured diversity, density, and species composition of birds along a gradient of production intensification on an agricultural frontier of the Argentine Chaco, where dry tropical forests are cleared for cattle production. Bird species diversity in intact forests was higher than in any type of cattle-production system. Bird species richness decreased nonlinearly as cattle yield increased. Intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems, those in which forest understory is selectively cleared to grow pastures of non-native plants beneath the tree canopy, produced 80% of the mean cattle yield obtained in pastures on cleared areas and were occupied by 70-90% of the number of bird species present in the nearest forest fragments. Densities of >50% of bird species were significantly lower in open pastures than in silvopastoral systems. Therefore, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems may have the greatest potential to sustain cattle yield and conserve a large percentage of bird species. However, compared with low-intensity production systems, in which forest structure and extent were intact, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems supported significantly fewer forest-restricted bird species and fewer frugivorous birds. These data suggest that the integration of production and conservation through intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems combined with the protection of forest fragments may be required to maintain cattle yield, bird diversity, and conservation of forest-restricted species in this agricultural frontier. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Coal demand and trade - growth and structural change in a competitive world market; Popyt i handel weglem - wzrost i zmiany strukturalne na konkurencyjnym rynku swiatowym

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copley, C. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The article presents an overview of global demand and trade in hard coal (steam and coking). Coal demand has grown steadily over the past thirty years but coal trade has and will continue to grow at a faster rate. Transport contributes a relatively high proportion to the final price. Demand growth is strongest in countries with limited resources while production is declining in some countries with mature mining industries. There is a shift to demand in Asian markets. Spot contracts and tender transactions are replacing long-term contracts and e-commerce is developing. Prices are expected to remain stable, relative to those of oil and gas. China is expected to remain the world's second longest supplier of coal. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  19. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  20. Unification of roles of the World Trade Organization (WTO and International Financial Institutions (IFIs in Education: The maintenance of global neoliberal hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Trisnawati Abbott

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is viewed as an instrument for development. Therein lies the importance of education for social change. It is education that makes people aware of the situation around them. Yet, in a different way, education is also an instrument to maintain hegemony. At the international level, the institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs, such as the World Bank (WB, and International Monetary Fund (IMF are crucial to the determination of the real meaning of education; whether or not education is an instrument for development for maintaining hegemony. The WTO system is arguably more than simply an international institution, but rather it is a center of hegemonic power. The emergence of neoliberalism has been accompanied by the coercion of hegemonic power that results in deleterious effects on human life. In the education sector, through the provision of the WTO General Agreement of Trade and Services (GATS, trade barriers in education are eliminated. Not only education is becoming globalized but also increasingly becoming a competitive commodity. Thus, the commodification of education means that education serves those who can afford to pay. The controversies surrounding the role of the WTO in the trade of education are significant to the debates about Neoliberal ideology and the problems of governance in the realm of globalization. These debates arise not only because of the actions of the WTO, which is deeply informed by Neoliberal ideology, but also because of the diverse beliefs about world economic governance. Not only the WTO, but also the roles of International Financial Institutions in global education revealed controversies. State intervention, for instance is minimized. Government spending in the education sector is reduced. Privatization and commercialization are encouraged. Social injustice seems to be the source of the presupposition of these controversies. This research

  1. The impact of the joining of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for World Trade Organization (WTO on local marketing of national products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Hassan Salamah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is one of the wealthiest nations per capita in the world, as well as an economic power through possession of a large share of global oil resources. This study has been carried out to identify the benefits, which are likely to be enjoyed by Saudi Arabia after its accession into World Trade Organization. A total of 15 entrepreneurs filled out the questionnaires, which were designed on the basis of Likert scale. In order to analyze the outcomes, descriptive statistics technique has been applied after data collection from the respondents. Most of the participants consider the joining of Saudi Arabia into World Trade Organization as a beneficial decision for the Saudi market. This accession is advantageous as it helps to enhance the marketing and investment opportunities, as a consequence of which the economy of Saudi Arabia flourishes and the population rises. The marketing techniques are required to be established and adopted to manufacture high-quality products. The study outcomes are helpful for the policymakers and Saudi companies to emphasize on the production of high-quality products, as well as to implement the strategies for better marketing of their products in local market.

  2. Trade and commerce in improved crops and food: an essay on food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershen, Drew L

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have significant implications for the food security of the nations of the world. By food security, one should understand not just the available supply of food, but also the quality of the food and the environmental impact of agricultural production systems. These specialized regimes for transgenic crops can either encourage or hinder the adoption of agricultural biotechnology as a sustainable intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers hope for agronomic improvements for agricultural production, socio-economic betterment for farmers and environmental benefits for societies. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers particular hope for the poorest farmers of the world because agricultural biotechnology is a technology in the seed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Free trade – a priority issue of G-20 summits after the world economy went into recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Alina-Petronela Haller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The world economy has been greatly affected by the current recession. All countries have suffered regardless of their level of development. Given that global problems require global solutions, world powers have met at summits of the G-20 forum, in order to determine the causes of the recession and adopt the most relevant measures to overcome the crisis and to correct other imbalances (e.g. environmental issues, hunger existing in the world.

  4. Glyphosate and AMPA, "pseudo-persistent" pollutants under real-world agricultural management practices in the Mesopotamic Pampas agroecosystem, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primost, Jezabel E; Marino, Damián J G; Aparicio, Virginia C; Costa, José Luis; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2017-10-01

    In the Pampas, public concern has strongly risen because of the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control and fallow associated with biotech crops. The present study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of the herbicide and its main metabolite (AMPA) in soil and other environmental compartments of the mentioned agroecosystem, including groundwater, in relation to real-world agricultural management practices in the region. Occurrence was almost ubiquitous in solid matrices (83-100%) with maximum concentrations among the higher reported in the world (soil: 8105 and 38939; sediment: 3294 and 7219; suspended particulate matter (SPM): 584 and 475 μg/kg of glyphosate and AMPA). Lower detection frequency was observed in surface water (27-55%) with maximum concentrations in whole water of 1.80 and 1.90 μg/L of glyphosate and AMPA, indicating that SPM analysis would be more sensitive for detection in the aquatic ecosystem. No detectable concentrations of glyphosate or AMPA were observed in groundwater. Glyphosate soil concentrations were better correlated with the total cumulative dose and total number of applications than the last spraying event dose, and an increment of 1 mg glyphosate/kg soil every 5 spraying events was estimated. Findings allow to infer that, under current practices, application rates are higher than dissipation rates. Hence, glyphosate and AMPA should be considered "pseudo-persistent" pollutants and a revisions of management procedures, monitoring programs, and ecological risk for soil and sediments should be also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  6. Between liberalization and protection: Four long-term scenarios for trade, poverty and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Eickhout, B.; Meijl, van, H.; Tabeau, A.A.; Zeijts, van, H.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of globalization on poverty and the environment was a central issue during the Doha development round table and the mass demonstrations on the streets of Cancun. This paper deals with the complex interaction between agricultural trade regimes, poverty and the environment given two key uncertainties. First, a world where Doha succeeds and globalization proceeds versus a world that moves to regionalism with a stronger orientation toward bilateral and regional trade agreements. Second...

  7. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts: linking N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture to population growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Christy L. van; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Schils, Rene L.M.; Verhagen, Jan; Kuikman, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present. These are mainly developing countries and countries in transition, the so-called non-Annex I countries of the UNFCCC. However, intensification of agricultural production systems is currently closely linked to high emissions of greenhouse gases notably nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ). In this paper the relations between population growth, agricultural development and emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 were assessed for 10 non-Annex I countries, viz. China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We combined FAO data on agricultural production levels, CENSUS data on population statistics and EDGAR data on N 2 O and CH 4 emissions. The projected trends in agricultural production indicate that emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years and will level off from 2040 onwards. The results confirm the positive relation between population increase and increased emissions from agricultural activities for most countries. However, for some countries (South Africa, China and Mexico) this relation was weak or absent. Although numerous factors (e.g. changes in international trade) may have scattered the relation and we were unable to explain this decoupling, it suggests that population growth can be possible without additional emissions. The variation between the different countries and farming systems is however large and mitigation measures at farm-level should be tailored to the wide diversity in environmental conditions, regional customs and farming systems.

  8. Workers of the world unite (or not?) The effect of ethnic diversity on the participation in trade unions

    OpenAIRE

    Benos, Nikos; Kammas, Pantelis

    2018-01-01

    This paper advances the hypothesis that workers participate less in trade unions in more ethnically fragmented societies. This hypothesis dates back at least to Marx and Engels who first suggested that increased ethnic and racial antipathies among workers undermine class consciousness and weaken the unity of the working class in the United States. Building on a set of innovative instruments derived from biogeography and more precisely the parasite-stress theory of values and sociality (Finche...

  9. Trade Policies in Central Asia after EU Enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and Integration into the world economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pomfret

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements which the Central Asian countries have signed have had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for the Central Asian countries of Chinese and Russian WTO membership and the consequences of the current Central Asian applicants’ (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbeki...

  10. World Bank Development Sector Adjustment Operation Life Line to Nigerian Universities: Impact on Information Demand and Supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozowa, Vincent Nnamdi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rationale behind the World Bank credit line to Nigerian universities and examines the impact of the credit facility on the information demand and supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library (Nigeria). Discusses problems, such as poor quantity and quality of books and journals, lack of equipment, and lack of…

  11. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Caylor, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit `infrastructure sharing' across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tends to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  12. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  13. The plights of African resources patenting through the lenses of the World Trade Organisation: an assessment of South Africa's rooibos tea's labyrith journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusan, Lere

    2014-01-01

    Just as developing states are blessed with natural resources capable of transforming their economies into a positive direction, the imposed World Trade Organisation's (WTO) mores continue to relegate them to the status of underdevelopment. The consequences of this on investment, trade and finance in Third World States (TWSs), especially Africa, are disarticulation of the economy, exploitation, disinvestment, unemployment, political instability and unavailability of relevant technology to move TWSs forward, among others. This gives rise to the politics behind Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) patenting (a medicinal plant found only in South Africa) by various multinational corporations (MNCs). This study adopted political economy approach with emphasis on both primary and secondary sources of data collection using content analysis. There is need to adhere strictly to the issues of intellectual property rights (IPRs), geographical indications (GIs), prior informed consent (PIC), and access and sharing benefits (ASB). These have not been observed by the western states because of their economic of neo-imperialism to the disadvantage of developing states. This paper recommends that there is need for a regional regime such as African Regional Intellectual Property Organisation (ARIPO), on indigenous knowledge (IK) to patent the continental biodiversity resources.

  14. What is the appropriate counterfactual when estimating effects of multilateral trade policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe

    2016-01-01

    the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...... of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...

  15. Can the Prices of the World Crude Oil as a Proxy Cost Transportation in Trade in Asean-3?

    OpenAIRE

    Adi, Lumadya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of crude oil prices, GDPimporter, and GDPexporter on trade in three ASEAN includes: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.Analysis tools are: Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and the Fixed Effects Model (FEM). In addition to the three countries within ASEAN, researchers include two countries outside ASEAN, namely the USA and Japan. This type of data is the Panel Data with 60 observations.The results of data analysis based on FEM is:For Indonesia: GDP...

  16. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  17. Effects of climate change on agriculture particularly in semi-arid tropics of the world with some examples of Ethiopian condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demessie, Almaz

    2004-01-01

    Today climate change is a burning issue all over the world because of its global nature. Fears have arisen that, climate may be changing for the worse and its impact may be felt on agricultural production, which will reduce the supply of food to growing population, especially in developing countries. Climate change would affect various human activities. Agriculture is one of the activities, which can be seriously affected by climate change. Due to high inter-annual variability and uneven distribution of rainfall during the rainy season, recurrent droughts have been observed in semi-arid tropics of the world over the last three decades. As White (1996) pointed out rain fed agriculture in the semi-arid tropics is limited mostly by high climatic variability with principal limiting factor being rainfall. The main crops of traditional rain fed agriculture are sorghum, millet, maize, cowpea, pulses and sesame. There is a suggestion that increased CO 2 will benefit temperate and humid tropical agriculture more than that in the semi-arid tropics. During the process of photosynthesis plant species with the C 3 photosynthetic pathway tend to respond positively to increased CO 2 while the C 4 have a poor response. Since C 4 plants are mostly tropical crops, the situation will be worst over the areas (Parry, 1990). Climate change will alter the nature of occurrence of agricultural pests in terms of area. Warmer temperatures shorten the generation time; increase the development rate of epidemic. For example, assessment of the effect of global warming on the distribution of livestock disease suggests that pests at present limited to tropical countries may spread into other parts of the world, which have different climatic condition (ibid).(Author)

  18. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... hemisphere, and to a high degree in Europe, while processing and production of fur garments now more and more takes place in Asia. The objective of this paper is to analyze, quantify and explain trade patterns and international specialization within fur skin and fur garments focusing on Europa and Asia...... trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export...

  19. A theoretical model of water and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Lin, Xiaowen; Zeng, Ruijie

    2016-03-01

    Water is an essential input for agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of agricultural commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that emphasizes four tradeoffs involving water-use decision-making that are important yet not always considered in a consistent framework. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different economic sectors. A second tradeoff examines the possibility that certain types of agricultural investments can offset water use. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using commodities. The fourth tradeoff concerns how variability in water supplies influences farmer decision-making. We show conditions under which trade liberalization affect water use. Two policy scenarios to reduce water use are evaluated. First, we derive a target tax that reduces water use without offsetting the gains from trade liberalization, although important tradeoffs exist between economic performance and resource use. Second, we show how subsidization of water-saving technologies can allow producers to use less water without reducing agricultural production, making such subsidization an indirect means of influencing water use decision-making. Finally, we outline conditions under which riskiness of water availability affects water use. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.

  20. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes. By...

  1. 78 FR 22794 - World Trade Center Health Program; Certification of Breast Cancer in WTC Responders and Survivors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... breast cancer for individuals with exposures to PCBs.\\5\\ \\4\\ Lauby-Secretan B, Loomis D, Grosse Y, El...; Certification of Breast Cancer in WTC Responders and Survivors Exposed to PCBs AGENCY: Centers for Disease..., HHS published a final rule in the Federal Register adding certain types of cancer to the List of World...

  2. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  3. Comparing Global Influence: China’s and U.S. Diplomacy, Foreign Aid, Trade, and Investment in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    decade, China has cultivated goodwill in Southeast Asia by refraining from devaluing its currency and by contributing to the International Monetary Fund...nations, such as Indonesia or Nigeria , who are in the ascendant and who feel that their time has been too long in coming. The concern over rising...succeeded while those who followed American advice or underwent World Bank or International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) discipline have failed in many of their basic

  4. Meaning reconstruction in the face of terror: An examination of recovery and posttraumatic growth among victims of the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n=118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth.

  5. The Role of Theory-Specific Techniques and Therapeutic Alliance in Promoting Positive Outcomes: Integrative Psychotherapy for World Trade Center Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Peter Tejas; Werth, Aditi Sinha; Foster, Alyce Lauren; Owen, Jesse

    2016-12-01

    World Trade Center responders demonstrate high symptom burden, underscoring the importance of refining treatment approaches for this cohort. One method is examining the impact of therapy techniques on outcomes, and the interactions between technique and alliance on outcomes. This study a) examined the interaction of early treatment techniques on integrative psychotherapy outcomes and b) explored whether associations differed at varying levels of alliance. Twenty-nine adult responders diagnosed with partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder received outpatient psychotherapy and completed weekly measures of alliance, technique, and symptom distress. Analyses indicated significant interactions between 1) alliance and psychodynamic interventions on outcomes and 2) alliance and cognitive behavioral (CB) interventions on outcomes. Clients with high alliance had better outcomes when their therapist used fewer CB techniques. No meaningful differences were found between technique and outcomes for clients with lower alliance. These findings reiterate the critical roles technique and responsiveness to the alliance play in engendering successful outcomes.

  6. Epidemiologic research on man-made disasters: strategies and implications of cohort definition for World Trade Center worker and volunteer surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, David A; Oxman, Rachael T; Metzger, Kristina B; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Stein, Diane; Moline, Jacqueline M; Herbert, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Studies of long-term health consequences of disasters face unique methodologic challenges. The authors focused on studies of the health of cleanup and recovery workers, who are often poorly enumerated at the outset and difficult to follow over time. Comparison of the experience at the World Trade Center disaster with 4 past incidents of chemical and radiation releases at Seveso, Italy; Bhopal, India; Chernobyl, Ukraine; and Three Mile Island, USA, provided useful contrasts. Each event had methodologic advantages and disadvantages that depended on the nature of the disaster and the availability of records on area residents, and the emergency-response and cleanup protocol. The World Trade Center Worker Monitoring Program has well-defined eligibility criteria but lacks information on the universe of eligible workers to characterize response proportions or the potential for distortion of reported health effects. Nonparticipation may result from lack of interest, lack of awareness of the program, availability of another source of medical care, medical conditions precluding participation, inability to take time off from work, moving out of the area, death, or shift from initially ineligible to eligible status. Some of these considerations suggest selective participation by the sickest individuals, whereas others favor participation by the healthiest. The greatest concern with the validity of inferences regarding elevated health risks relative to external populations is the potential for selective enrollment among those who are affected. If there were a large pool of nonparticipating workers and those who suffered ill health were most motivated to enroll, the rates of disease among participants would be substantially higher than among all those eligible for the program. Future disaster follow-up studies would benefit substantially by having access to accurate estimates of the number of workers and information on the individuals who contributed to the cleanup and recovery

  7. Adolescent behavior and PTSD 6–7 years after the World Trade Center terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2–3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11–18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5–12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1–28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners. PMID:28229007

  8. DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder among World Trade Center responders 11-13 years after the disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, E J; Hobbs, M J; Clouston, S A P; Gonzalez, A; Kotov, R; Luft, B J

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being. Master's-level psychologists administered sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool to 3231 responders monitored at the Stony Brook University World Trade Center Health Program. The PTSD Checklist (PCL) and current medical symptoms were obtained at each visit. In all, 9.7% had current, 7.9% remitted, and 5.9% partial WTC-PTSD. Among those with active PTSD, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were most commonly, and flashbacks least commonly, reported. Trajectories of symptom severity across monitoring visits showed a modestly increasing slope for active and decelerating slope for remitted PTSD. WTC exposures, especially death and human remains, were strongly associated with PTSD. After adjusting for exposure and critical risk factors, including hazardous drinking and co-morbid depression, PTSD was strongly associated with health and well-being, especially dissatisfaction with life. This is the first study to demonstrate the extent and correlates of long-term DSM-IV PTSD among responders. Although most proved resilient, there remains a sizable subgroup in need of continued treatment in the second decade after 9/11.

  9. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.22 Trade demand. (a) Inshell. The quantity of merchantable inshell...

  10. Will improved access to capital dampen the need for more agricultural land? A CGE analysis of agricultural capital markets and world-wide biofuel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.; Rothe, A.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of enhanced biofuel production in regions and countries of the world that have announced plans to implement or expand on biofuel policies. The analysis considers biofuel policies implemented as binding blending targets for transportation fuels. The chosen

  11. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.): Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Dickson, Gillian; Ghazali, Muhammad; Ogden, Rob; Brown, Rafe; Auliya, Mark

    2017-01-01

    As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1) prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%); (2) Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3) individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  12. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.: Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Murray-Dickson

    Full Text Available As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp. are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1 prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%; (2 Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3 individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  13. Benzidine-based dyes: effects of industrial practices, regulations, and world trade on the biological stains market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, R W

    2009-06-01

    One of the most sweeping changes in the dye industry since the advent of synthetic dyes grew out of the health risks associated with benzidine. Dyes made from benzidine and its derivatives were used around the world until adverse health effects become incontrovertible. Workers and family members of workers involved in production and use of benzidine-based dyes had a high incidence of bladder cancer. Following publication of several reports documenting this health hazard, dye makers in the USA, Europe, and Japan phased these dyes out of production in the 1970s. Government regulations lent legal support for these voluntary initiatives. Two strategies subsequently evolved to compensate: developed nations brought alternative substances to market while emerging countries increased production of carcinogenic dyes and sold them at discount prices around the world. Nearly all dye manufacturing now has moved away from nations whose costs of production and compliance rendered them unable to compete. The purpose of this brief review is to publicize the health risks associated with dyes made from benzidine and its congeners, and to alert all companies and end users handling these dyes for biomedical applications that composition of the product and lot-to-lot variability may be problematic because of the manufacturing and distribution practices of the countries where they are produced.

  14. Assessing Agricultural Intensification Strategies with a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Davidson, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the growing global demand for food and bioenergy, agricultural production must nearly double by 2050, placing additional pressures on the environment and the society. Thus, how to efficiently use limited land, water, and nutrient resources to produce more food with low pollution (MoFoLoPo) is clearly one of the major challenges of this century. The increasingly interconnected global market provides a great opportunity for reallocating crop production to the countries and regions that use natural resources more efficiently. For example, it is estimated that optimizing the allocation of crop production around the world can mitigate 41% of nitrogen lost to the environment. However, higher efficiency in nutrients use does not necessarily lead to higher efficiency in land use or water use. In addition, the increasing share of international trade in food supply may introduce additional systemic risk and affect the resilience of global food system. Using the data/indicator from a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix and an international trade matrix, we developed a simple model to assess the trade-offs of international trade considering resource use efficiencies (including water, land, nitrogen, and phosphorus), economic costs and benefits, and the resilience of food system.

  15. Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity And Growth On Safta (South Asian Free Trade Agreement And Its Imact On Economy Of Pakistan By Using CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed GOPANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTAand its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations revealsthat current demand for Pakistani Basmati Rice and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The export of Rice, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i.e. when normal trading relations between Pakistan and India will be restored and when there will be a free trade between Pakistan and India in the presence of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA. Results based on this research reveal that on SAFTA, grounds, there will be net export benefi ts in Pakistan’s economy.

  16. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials ... The agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, .... their fathers and mothers' occupation were majorly trading (43.3%) and trading.

  17. Wealth of the world's richest publicly traded companies per industry and per employee: Gamma, Log-normal and Pareto power-law as universal distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Campirán-Chávez, I.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Forbes Magazine published its list of leading or strongest publicly-traded two thousand companies in the world (G-2000) based on four independent metrics: sales or revenues, profits, assets and market value. Every one of these wealth metrics yields particular information on the corporate size or wealth size of each firm. The G-2000 cumulative probability wealth distribution per employee (per capita) for all four metrics exhibits a two-class structure: quasi-exponential in the lower part, and a Pareto power-law in the higher part. These two-class structure per capita distributions are qualitatively similar to income and wealth distributions in many countries of the world, but the fraction of firms per employee within the high-class Pareto is about 49% in sales per employee, and 33% after averaging on the four metrics, whereas in countries the fraction of rich agents in the Pareto zone is less than 10%. The quasi-exponential zone can be adjusted by Gamma or Log-normal distributions. On the other hand, Forbes classifies the G-2000 firms in 82 different industries or economic activities. Within each industry, the wealth distribution per employee also follows a two-class structure, but when the aggregate wealth of firms in each industry for the four metrics is divided by the total number of employees in that industry, then the 82 points of the aggregate wealth distribution by industry per employee can be well adjusted by quasi-exponential curves for the four metrics.

  18. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, H.

    1977-01-01

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP) [de

  19. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  20. The world market for soybeans: price transmission into Brazil and effects from the timing of crop and trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico A. Turolla

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the price transmission in the world market for soybeans using time series econometrics models. The theoretical model developed by Mundlack and Larson (1992 is based on the Law of the One Price, which assumes price equalization across all local markets in the long run and allows for deviations in the short run. The international market was characterized by three relevant soybean prices: Rotterdam Port, Argentina and the United States. The paper estimates the elasticity of transmission of these prices into soybean prices in Brazil. There were carried causality and cointegration tests in order to identify whether there is significant long-term relationship among these variables. There was also calculated the impulse-response function and forecast error variance decomposition to analyze the transmission of variations in the international prices over Brazilian prices. An exogeneity test was also carried out so as to check whether the variables respond to short term deviations from equilibrium values. Results validated the Law of the One Price in the long run. In line with many studies, this paper showed that Brazil and Argentina can be seen as price takers as long as the speed of their adjustment to shocks is faster than in the United States, the latter being a price maker.

  1. Adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient calculation for temporal networks (applied to a real-world pig trade network).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The average topological overlap of two graphs of two consecutive time steps measures the amount of changes in the edge configuration between the two snapshots. This value has to be zero if the edge configuration changes completely and one if the two consecutive graphs are identical. Current methods depend on the number of nodes in the network or on the maximal number of connected nodes in the consecutive time steps. In the first case, this methodology breaks down if there are nodes with no edges. In the second case, it fails if the maximal number of active nodes is larger than the maximal number of connected nodes. In the following, an adaption of the calculation of the temporal correlation coefficient and of the topological overlap of the graph between two consecutive time steps is presented, which shows the expected behaviour mentioned above. The newly proposed adaption uses the maximal number of active nodes, i.e. the number of nodes with at least one edge, for the calculation of the topological overlap. The three methods were compared with the help of vivid example networks to reveal the differences between the proposed notations. Furthermore, these three calculation methods were applied to a real-world network of animal movements in order to detect influences of the network structure on the outcome of the different methods.

  2. ‘Left out in the Cold: Village Women and Agricultural Labour in England and Wales during the First World War’.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The Women’s Land Army (WLA), formed in 1917, has featured prominently in recent academic and popular account of First World War Britain. This interest reflects the attention the WLA drew from politicians, government reporters and contemporary commentators during and immediately after the war itself. Yet, the WLA, which at its peak had 16,000 women working on the land, was just one strand of wartime female agricultural labour, an auxiliary to the thousands of village women who worked throughout the war. Whilst the WLA received numerous plaudits for their participation, village women were ‘left out in the cold’, as one correspondent to The Times put it, in recognition of their wartime service. This article will place the rural woman worker back to centre stage. It will revisit the often-contradictory wartime estimates of the number of women working in agriculture in England and Wales before moving on to examine how regional farming structures and seasonal demands for labour shaped the use of women workers. It will show that even at the very local level, here utilizing records from the Bedfordshire Women’s War Agricultural Committee, demand and supply issues produced a fractured pattern. It will show that concentrating exclusively on the WLA leads to a distorted picture of women’s work on the land during the First World War.

  3. Game theoretic analysis for carbon emission permits trading among multiple world regions with an optimizing global energy model; Saitekikagata sekai energy model ni motozuku tachiikikan CO2 haishutsu kyokasho torihiki no game ronteki bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, K.; Matsunaga, A.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon emissions which would cause global warming were agreed to be constrained at COP3 in Kyoto. In addition, carton emission permits trading was also approved to be introduced. The emission permits trading is expected to achieve efficient carbon emission reduction, equalizing the marginal costs of the emission reduction for the participating countries. In other words, the permits trading allows participants to reduce emissions where it is least expensive to do so. However, the inadequate introduction of the trading systems may impose unfairly greater burden on some countries, and therefore careful evaluation of the system would be indispensable for its implementation. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the emission permits trading. using the theory of cooperative games with a global energy model of optimization type. We assumed that seven world regions as players participate the permits trading system under the condition of the emission reduction target presented at COP3 and so on, and show the nucleolus of the grand coalition games, and the computational results of primary energy supplies and CO2 shadow prices. The insights of this research indicate that in order to stabilize the grand coalition, a noticeable amount of additional transfer of money would be needed besides the payments associated with the emission permits trading. 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Directions of U.S. Farm Programmes under a Freer Trade Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Luther G. Tweeten

    2001-01-01

    For the new round of WTO multilateral trade liberalisation negotiations to be successful, the world will need to be more enthusiastic and flexible about opening markets. Partisans will need to submerge their self-interests, and the U.S. will need to take the initiative for more open markets. This paper makes the case that only modest changes in the U.S. domestic grain, oilseed, and cotton programmes are needed for compatibility with global free trade. The Federal Agricultural Improvement and ...

  5. Services Trade: Past Liberalization and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Hufbauer; Sherry Stephenson

    2007-01-01

    Services trade has truly become an engine of world growth. Over the past two decades, international trade in services has grown faster than world merchandize trade, which in turn has grown faster than world output. A combination of policy liberalization and technological progress has facilitated trade in many previously untradable services. However, very little progress has been made towards new policy liberalization in the ongoing Doha Development Round. This article discusses trade in servi...

  6. Changing patterns of child labor around the world since 1950 : the roles of income growth, parental literacy, and agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Victoria; Orazem, Peter F.; Sedlacek, Guilherme

    2005-01-01

    Using country-level data, this report lays out the broad stylized facts regarding the relationship between child labor and per capita GDP, adult literacy, and the share of agriculture in the economy. The relationship between child labor force participation and per capita income is convex and stable over time. The implication is that as a country develops, child labor will decrease, but at a decreasing rate. At some point, further reductions in child labor may require more than just increasing...

  7. The long-run impact of energy prices on world agricultural markets: The role of macro-economic linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohin, A.; Chantret, F.

    2010-01-01

    The world prices of some food and energy products have followed similar large swings in recent years. We investigate the long-run relationship between these prices using a world Computable General Equilibrium model with detailed representations of food and energy markets. Particular attention is paid to specifying macro-economic linkages which have often been overlooked in recent analysis and debate. We find that the omission of these macro-economic linkages has a substantial bearing on this relationship. A positive relationship due to the cost push effect has been identified in most analysis, but we find that the introduction of the real income effect may indeed imply a negative relationship between world food and energy prices.

  8. Using exterior building surface films to assess human exposure and health risks from PCDD/Fs in New York City, USA, after the World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra

    2005-12-09

    Concentrations of tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in exterior window films from Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City (NYC), USA, 6 weeks after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001. High concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners (P(2378)CDD/Fs) were observed, at levels up to 6600 pg-TEQ g(-1) nearest the WTC site. An equilibrium partitioning model was developed to reconstruct total gas + particle-phase atmospheric concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs at each site. The reconstructed atmospheric and window film concentrations were subsequently used in a preliminary human health risk assessment to estimate the potential cancer and non-cancer risks posed to residents of lower Manhattan from these contaminants over the 6 week exposure period between the WTC attacks and sampling dates. Residents of lower Manhattan appear to have a slightly elevated cancer risk (up to 1.6% increase over background) and increased P(2378)CDD/F body burden (up to 8.0% increase over background) because of above-background exposure to high concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs produced from the WTC attacks during the short period between 11 September 2001, and window film sampling 6 weeks later.

  9. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and body mass index among World Trade Center disaster-exposed smokers: A preliminary examination of the role of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-30

    Among individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms are both common and associated with increased cigarette smoking and body mass. However, there is little information on the specific processes underlying the relationship of PTSD symptoms with body mass. The current study is an initial exploratory test of anxiety sensitivity, the fear of internal bodily sensations, as a possible mechanism linking PTSD symptom severity and body mass index (BMI). Participants were 147 adult daily smokers (34.0% female) exposed to the WTC disaster (via rescue/recovery work or direct witness). The direct and indirect associations between PTSD symptom severity and BMI via anxiety sensitivity (total score and subscales of physical, cognitive, and social concerns) were examined. PTSD symptom severity was related to BMI indirectly via anxiety sensitivity; this effect was specific to physical concerns about the meaning of bodily sensations. Interventions focusing on anxiety sensitivity reduction (specifically addressing physical concerns about bodily sensations) may be useful in addressing elevated BMI among trauma-exposed persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rhetoric and the law, or the law of rhetoric: How countries oppose novel tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald

    2016-09-01

    The tobacco industry has developed an extensive array of strategies and arguments to prevent or weaken government regulation. These strategies and arguments are well documented at the domestic level. However, there remains a need to examine how these arguments are reflected in the challenges waged by governments within the World Trade Organization (WTO). Decisions made at the WTO have the potential to shape how countries govern. Our analysis was conducted on two novel tobacco control measures: tobacco additives bans (Canada, United States and Brazil) and plain, standardized packaging of tobacco products (Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, EU and UK). We analyzed WTO documents (i.e. meeting minutes and submissions) (n = 62) in order to identify patterns of argumentation and compare these patterns with well-documented industry arguments. The pattern of these arguments reveal that despite the unique institutional structure of the WTO, country representatives opposing novel tobacco control measures use the same non-technical arguments as those that the tobacco industry continues to use to oppose these measures at the domestic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic probable PTSD in police responders in the world trade center health registry ten to eleven years after 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, James E; Li, Jiehui; Kornblith, Erica; Gocheva, Vihra; Stellman, Steven D; Shaikh, Annum; Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M

    2015-05-01

    Police enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) demonstrated increased probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the terrorist attack of 9/11/2001. Police enrollees without pre-9/11 PTSD were studied. Probable PTSD was assessed by Posttraumatic Stress Check List (PCL). Risk factors for chronic, new onset or resolved PTSD were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Half of police with probable PTSD in 2003-2007 continued to have probable PTSD in 2011-2012. Women had higher prevalence of PTSD than men (15.5% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.008). Risk factors for chronic PTSD included decreased social support, unemployment, 2+ life stressors in last 12 months, 2+ life-threatening events since 9/11, 2+ injuries during the 9/11 attacks, and unmet mental health needs. Police responders to the WTC attacks continue to bear a high mental health burden. Improved early access to mental health treatment for police exposed to disasters may be needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Reproductive Outcomes Following Maternal Exposure to the Events of September 11, 2001, at the World Trade Center, in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Caramanica, Kimberly; Li, Jiehui; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    To estimate associations between exposure to the events of September 11, 2001, (9/11) and low birth weight (LBW), preterm delivery (PD), and small size for gestational age (SGA). We matched birth certificates filed in New York City for singleton births between 9/11 and the end of 2010 to 9/11-related exposure data provided by mothers who were World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees. Generalized estimating equations estimated associations between exposures and LBW, PD, and SGA. Among 3360 births, 5.8% were LBW, 6.5% were PD, and 9% were SGA. Having incurred at least 2 of 4 exposures, having performed rescue or recovery work, and probable 9/11-related posttraumatic stress disorder 2 to 3 years after 9/11 were associated with PD and LBW during the early study period. Disasters on the magnitude of 9/11 may exert effects on reproductive outcomes for several years. Women who are pregnant during and after a disaster should be closely monitored for physical and psychological sequelae. In utero and maternal disaster exposure may affect birth outcomes. Researchers studying effects of individual disasters should identify commonalities that may inform postdisaster responses to minimize disaster-related adverse birth outcomes.

  13. Fair trade for coffee producing small-scale farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam kwon Mun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.

  14. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  15. Trade issues and area-wide pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    agriculture in this international economy is quickly evident, as we see enormous quantities of fresh and processed agricultural commodities racing across borders and seas to markets in the far corners of the globe where the availability of such products had been inconceivable only decades before. For every country in the world, the import and export of agricultural products are essential to the health of the economy as well as the population. Non-industrialised countries, in particular, rely upon agriculture as a cornerstone for commerce. Industrial countries rely upon trade in agricultural products to provide the quantity, quality and variety of goods demanded by modern consumers. However, more trade, faster trade, and the opening of new markets for agricultural products also offer greater opportunities for the movement of pests that can have deleterious consequences. This raises significant concerns in policy formulation, especially as measures for protection can affect the free movement of commodities in trade. On the one hand, countries need to be able to import, to meet their needs and market demands, and they have the reciprocal need to have their exports accepted by others. On the other hand, countries must exercise a certain amount of care to ensure that they do not unduly jeopardise their own resources by introducing harmful new pests. This must be considered against the corresponding need to ensure that they do not ship harmful pests to other countries. As a result, there emerges a strong need for a balanced, dynamic, multi-disciplinary approach to policies concerned with pest management - for both domestic and foreign pest management. These policies are increasingly based on international cooperation, sophisticated technologies, and the marriage of economic and biological analyses. We are currently experiencing this transition in practice based on a more holistic approach, as evidenced in part by the expanding interest in applications for area-wide pest management

  16. Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.

  17. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  18. Desplome Constructivo: World Trade Center

    OpenAIRE

    González Collado, María José

    2017-01-01

    Dieciséis años después del desplome de las Torres Gemelas, aún sigue siendo un tema que despierta dudas e incertidumbres entre la sociedad, saber qué pasó exactamente aquel día. Explicar lo ocurrido el 11 de septiembre de 2001 de una manera objetiva, cómo el impacto de los aviones Boeing 767 y el consiguiente incendio afectaron a la estructura de las torres provocando su colapso, así como el espontáneo desplome de ambas no ha sido una tarea fácil. Se propone este trabajo de investigación para...

  19. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder Claudia R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently

  20. Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development

    2009-01-01

    Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in susta...