Scott, James Matthew
Constructing multilateral rules to govern trade in agricultural goods has been notoriously difficult. What success there has been relied on linking liberalization in agriculture to broader deals involving multiple sectors through the principle of the single undertaking, but the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Nairobi ministerial conference of 2015 has abandoned that principle, shifting the multilateral trade system onto a new trajectory. Using the broad body of political economy theory, this...
Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and-in the case of farm products-by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted economic growth and reduced poverty globally, especially in Asia. The first but maybe not the second of these drivers will continue in coming decades. World food prices will depend also on whether (and if so by how much) farm productivity growth continues to outpace demand growth and to what extent diets in emerging economies move towards livestock and horticultural products at the expense of staples. Demand in turn will be driven not only by population and income growth, but also by crude oil prices if they remain at current historically high levels, since that will affect biofuel demand. Climate change mitigation policies and adaptation, water market developments and market access standards particularly for transgenic foods will add to future production, price and trade uncertainties.
Recent globalization has been characterized by a decline in the costs of cross-border trade in farm and other products. It has been driven primarily by the information and communication technology revolution and—in the case of farm products—by reductions in governmental distortions to agricultural production, consumption and trade. Both have boosted economic growth and reduced poverty globally, especially in Asia. The first but maybe not the second of these drivers will continue in coming decades. World food prices will depend also on whether (and if so by how much) farm productivity growth continues to outpace demand growth and to what extent diets in emerging economies move towards livestock and horticultural products at the expense of staples. Demand in turn will be driven not only by population and income growth, but also by crude oil prices if they remain at current historically high levels, since that will affect biofuel demand. Climate change mitigation policies and adaptation, water market developments and market access standards particularly for transgenic foods will add to future production, price and trade uncertainties. PMID:20713399
A major issue on the agenda of the ongoing Doha Round of multilateral negotiations by members of the World Trade Organization concerns how and to what extent policies that affect agricultural trade should be liberalized...
Michail Ivanovich Maslennikov
Full Text Available This paper analyses common and specific problems of international trade in Russia and its regions in agricultural sector, specific situation and methods of reformation, adaptation and modernization of the national and regional agricultural complexes, its resources base on the way to globalization processes in the world, including such forms of international trade of agricultural products and formation on this base of an industrial agricultural economics plus rate of the international agricultural trade expansion. Regions of Russia are quickly developing territories with very active integration into world economy system, having high tempo of economic rate growth and adaptation of the economy to specific situation and methods of diversification of the agricultural base resources; the analysis is made on agricultural production of international trade in such countries as China, the USA, the European Union, Argentina, Canada, India and Brazil while searching for new economic partners on international agricultural market.
Huang, Jikun; Ruifa, Hu; Meijl, van H.; Tongeren, van F.W.
This paper analyses the impact of adopting non-food genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in China on production, trade and welfare. On the one hand the paper focuses on the productivity enhancing impact of GMOs and on the other hand it treats the consequences of some form of restrictions on Chinese
Raúl Serrano; Vicente Pinilla
The objective of the present study is to analyse the causes of the growth of international agricultural and food trade in volume terms from 1951 to 2000. The results suggest that income growth has been the principal reason for this expansion, while exchange rate stability and the real price of agricultural products played only a minor role. Multilateral trade liberalisation and trade costs, given their long-term stability, are not elements which could have stimulated their growth. Finally, th...
J. van Zyl
Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.
Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron
This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...
Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest
Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno
This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...
Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.
of the current rules of WTO that reinforce the disadvantages faced by developing economies. This essay deals with these unfair trade rules and disadvantages inherent in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system by .... also expand their exports given the comparative advantage they have in respect of those national ...
Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH has an observer status in World Trade Organisation (WTO with an expectation to become a member of this organisation under a developing country’s status. BiH has experienced a large deficit in trade in agri-food products. Domestic agriculture and the food sector have experienced diffi culties to cope with the increased competition at international and domestic markets. Under the deteriorating agri-food trade patterns, there are growing political pressures by agricultural interest groups against agricultural and food trade liberalisation. This causes confl ict of interests in a strategy for completion of the negotiation process with WTO. As some countries in the region already successfully completed the entry into WTO (e.g. Croatia or both the entry into WTO and into EU (e.g. Slovenia, we underline these two country experiences. The paper draws attention to opportunities in this BiH path to WTO on a way to EU membership.
Full Text Available Changes in the perception of economic growth within the context of sustainable development lead to the broadly defined concept of further development of all industries, while agriculture plays qualitatively new role in this concept. Agriculture is not any more viewed only as an industry ensuring nutrition of population, but also its non-production benefit has growing importance. There is growing importance of the concept of multifunctionality of agriculture both in the Czech Republic and in the whole European Union, where agriculture historically played an important role in landscape formation and determined the development of social structures, while these aspects have growing importance for formulating of agricultural policies. Multifunctionality reflects the fact, that agriculture produces many food and non-food commodities, while some of them have the character of externalities and public goods.One of important conditions of efficient conception of agricultural policy is the answer on the question, what is the impact of growing trade liberalization on social welfare, respectively welfare of producers and consumers, if there are positive agricultural externalities. The analysis brings comparison in welfare development when externalities are internalized and when they are not. There are important consequences for social welfare, if state does not evaluate extra-production benefit of agriculture in a proper way.For the distribution analysis of benefits and costs of agricultural trade liberalization in presence of positive externalities connected with agricultural production, e.g. the analysis of impacts on consumers, producers and social welfare, is used traditional international trade model.Under the present tendency to liberalization of world agricultural markets there should be an effort of policy makers to internalise agricultural externalities. If there are agricultural industries, which are net exporters and at the same time produce
Fergusson, Ian F
The World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations resumed in 2007 after being suspended in July 2006 after key negotiating groups failed to break a deadlock on agricultural tariffs and subsidies...
Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.
Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that
Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen
Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.
The tables in this bulletin provide aggregate economic and agricultural growth, performance, production, and trade indicators for the world, 14 geographic regions, the Economic Community, Central Europe, and for 141 countries. These countries account for over 99 percent of the world population, agricultural production, and trade. The indicators cover such topics as population, macroeconomic indicators, food consumption, factors of production, commodity production, trade, and efficiency of res...
This paper examines the role and impact of road transportation on the economy of southwestern Nigeria after World War II. The focus is on how road transportation promoted agriculture and trade. The study of the post. World War II period is important because it enables us to examine two crucial elements in the economic ...
Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted
This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....
van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes
Agricultural land abandonment is a policy challenge, especially for areas with unfavorable conditions for agriculture and remote and mountainous areas. Agricultural abandonment is an important land use process in many world regions and one of the dominant land use change processes in Europe.
Trade and globalization have brought many benefits to countries and their citizens because they allow countries access to more efficient production, increased labor productivity, supported extending the knowledge and new technologies planetary scale, and rich assortment of products to which population access. Also, through the multilateral trading system has been a significant reduction of customs protectionism, have mitigated the effects of non-tariff barriers, trade policy measures have bec...
The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.
The author assesses these claims from a human rights perspective and explores the relationship between trade, human rights and development. The article sketches the history and functions of the WTO, discusses the linkages between trade liberalisation, human rights and development, and assesses the human rights ...
According to World Bank statistics, agricultural activities contribute about 33 per cent of the East African Community's Gross Domestic Product, and up to 80 per cent of the populace depends on agriculture directly and indirectly for food, employment and income, while about 40 million people in EAC suffer from hunger.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural trade or business. 404.1095... Income § 404.1095 Agricultural trade or business. (a) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on entirely by employees, the major portion of the services...
Veysel Avsar; Umut Unal
This study analyzes the trading effects of FIFA World Cup in two dimensions. First, focusing on the host countries' trade and estimating both static OLS and dynamic panel estimations, we show that participating in the World Cup significantly increases exports from the participant countries to the host countries, relative to a control group of non-participants. We also obtain the same pattern for the exports originating from the host countries to the articipants. Second, we demonstrate that tr...
Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower
Full Text Available The United States-S. Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA became effective in 2012 and is expected to create new opportunities and improve access for one another’s markets. It is expected to benefit the US agricultural sector particularly as S. Korea maintains high trade barriers for agricultural imports. This paper analyses the impact of KORUS FTA on the agricultural exports from the US with an example of table grapes. The results obtained by using the Import demand estimation method show that table grape exports will become more competitive in S. Korea due to the KORUS FTA. The paper also calculates preference indices for various agricultural imports from the US and rest of the world before and after the free trade agreement in S. Korean agricultural markets. This will help in understanding the implications of KORUS FTA not only on the US-S. Korean agricultural trade, but also between S. Korea and the rest of the world.
Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.
The paper includes overview of the current state of the EU-CIS and the EU-Russia trade flows with particular attention to trade in agricultural commodities, as well as contemporary tendencies in agricultural production and foreign trade in agricultural commodities and food in Russia. The paper
Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development
... universities, pioneering entrepreneurs, and productive workers, we have met a global demand for goods and services designed and produced by Americans. During World Trade Week, we reaffirm the essential role exports play in creating jobs and growing our economy. Two years ago, my Administration launched the...
ABSTRACT. This article examines the experiences of least developing countries (LDCs) acceded to World Trade Organisation (WTO) in relation to their accession process, terms of accession and implementation of commitments with a view to drawing lessons which could be relevant to Ethiopia to devise successful ...
P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)
textabstractThis paper analyses drivers of imports during the major world trade collapses of the Great Depression (1930s; 34 countries) and the Great Recession (1930s; 173 countries). The analysis deals with the first year of these episodes and develops a small empirical model that shows a
Colin A. Carter; Caroline Gunning-Trant
We study U.S. agricultural antidumping and countervailing duty cases from 1980 to 2005, and gauge the effectiveness of trade remedy law as a form of protection. The purpose is to measure the resulting investigation and trade diversion effects. Previous research on trade in manufactured products has shown that the domestic protection offered by AD and CV duties is largely offset by trade diversion. In contrast, we find that for agriculture, trade diversion is relatively unimportant. So AD and ...
Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.
This report evaluates the world rice industry for the 1998-2010 period by using the World Rice Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on a series of assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, the weather, and technological change. This report evaluates three scenarios: the base scenario, the partial trade liberalization scenario in Japan and South Korea, and the full trade liberalization scenario. The partial trade liberalization scenario includes a partial...
Kennedy, P. Lynn; Hughes, Karol W.
Agricultural trade liberalization among the three North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) signatories is modeled using a political preference function. The model distinguishes among Canada, Mexico, the United States, and a politically passive rest of the world. Through the use of intracountry compensation, the analysis shows that, from an agricultural perspective, economic integration is in the best interest of the group as a whole, although not in the best interest of individual countrie...
This paper is an analysis of Nigeria's trade policy in tackling the issue of agricultural subsidies. This took the form of an in-depth assessment of the impact of agricultural subsidies, drawing from the experiences of other African countries and qualitative analysis of Nigeria's present trade policy. This revealed a lack of ...
Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative ...
Dr.Sc. Biljana Ciglovska; Dr.Sc. Armend Kadriu
The disputes in the international agricultural trade are inevit-able occurrence due to the frequent abuse and violation of the rules regulating the international agricultural trade, which are provided within the international trading system. It is important to note that most frequent violators of these rules and regulations are the most developed countries, that despite their statements for respecting them, consistently, transparently or not they violate the rules and principles of the intern...
Roberts, Donna; Josling, Timothy E.; Orden, David
Technical trade barriers are increasingly important in the international trade of agricultural products. Designing technical trade measures that can satisfy the growing demand for food safety, product differentiation, environmental amenities, and product information at the lowest cost to the consumer and to the international trading system requires an understanding of the complex economics of regulatory import barriers. This report proposes a definition and classification scheme to frame disc...
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to
On Sunday 6 September, the World Trade Organization will open its doors to the public. Throughout the day there will be guided tours of the building, which will reveal the many works of art donated by countries over the years; on the main terrace, food stands will give visitors a flavour of the worldwide membership of the WTO and provide the opportunity to sample regional specialities; and children can have fun with face painting, a bouncy castle and a drawing contest on the theme "Draw me globalization" and/or "Draw me the WTO". The full programme of activities
... Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and the WTO. The STDF supports developing countries in building... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES...
García-Pérez, Guillermo; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles
Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distances incorporate the different dimensions that affect international trade, beyond mere geography. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat, but hyperbolic. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; th...
This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization on Agricultural exports in Nigeria. It was observed that the policy had tremendous effects on the level and value of exports in agricultural sub-sector. A regression analysis relating the total value of agricultural produce and the aggregated domestic prices, and other ...
National food security is one of the main justifications used to oppose agricultural trade liberalization in Japan. Opponents of agricultural trade liberalization argue that because food supply is subject to various uncertainties, importation of cheap foods is too risky a policy. We used a Monte Carlo simulation to perform a computable general equilibrium analysis and investigated the impact of trade liberalization on national food security with random productivity shocks in four major crop m...
Brosig, Stephan; Glauben, Thomas; Levkovych, Inna
We introduce a special feature on the functioning of international agricultural markets. This feature is motivated by the increased interest in the functioning of commodity markets raised by unprecedented price turbulences since 2008, major structural changes through changed roles of emerging eco...... and transition countries. A synthesis of the articles included in the special feature is provided by highlighting the selection of topics that span a topical range covering price formation on world and domestic markets, market power and trade policy modelling.......We introduce a special feature on the functioning of international agricultural markets. This feature is motivated by the increased interest in the functioning of commodity markets raised by unprecedented price turbulences since 2008, major structural changes through changed roles of emerging...... economies and related concerns regarding food security. We argue that the delineation of non-functioning markets from markets that adequately adjusted to adverse framework conditions lacks theoretical foundation. We discuss the relevance of some results on institutions for agricultural markets in emerging...
Based on the data related to the Chinese and world agricultural production and trade from 1986 to 2011, this paper uses the principal component analysis, cointegration and vector error correction model to perform the empirical analysis of the impact of processing, import and export of agricultural products on the agricultural modernization in China. The results show that the processing and export of agricultural products play a role in promoting the agricultural modernization in China, while ...
Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.
Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear
Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
Using the United Nations COMTRADE database [United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database, available at: http://comtrade.un.org/db/. Accessed November (2014)] we construct the Google matrix G of multiproduct world trade between the UN countries and analyze the properties of trade flows on this network for years 1962-2010. This construction, based on Markov chains, treats all countries on equal democratic grounds independently of their richness and at the same time it considers the contributions of trade products proportionally to their trade volume. We consider the trade with 61 products for up to 227 countries. The obtained results show that the trade contribution of products is asymmetric: some of them are export oriented while others are import oriented even if the ranking by their trade volume is symmetric in respect to export and import after averaging over all world countries. The construction of the Google matrix allows to investigate the sensitivity of trade balance in respect to price variations of products, e.g. petroleum and gas, taking into account the world connectivity of trade links. The trade balance based on PageRank and CheiRank probabilities highlights the leading role of China and other BRICS countries in the world trade in recent years. We also show that the eigenstates of G with large eigenvalues select specific trade communities.
Sampson, Gary P
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Gary P. Sampson 1 LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS OF A FAIR AND FREE WORLD TRADE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Kofi Annan 2 BALANCING COMPETING...
Full Text Available This article focuses on the provisions of the WTO agreements regulating the use of subsidies in the agricultural sector by the member-states. It analyzes current practices of the WTO member-states’ in subsidizing their agricultural production. It also outlines the main trends in improving the practices of subsidizing agricultural producers in the leading countries of the world. The article also describes the major coalitions within the WTO that actively participate in the development and improvement of international trade rules in agricultural produce. In the current context whereby Ukraine seeks WTO accession, the structure of domestic measures in support of agriculture pursuant to the requirements of this international organization is given special attention. The article also considers the prospects for further liberalization of international trade in agricultural produce.
García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles
Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649
Satyanarayana, Vidyashankara; Wilson, William W.; Johnson, D. Demcey; Dooley, Frank J.
Recent trends in production marketing, trade, and policies affecting world malting barley and malt sector are examined. A spatial equilibrium model of production and trade is used to assess the effects of alternative levels of supply, demand, and policy variables on composition and direction of malting barley and malt trade flows.
The trade performance of Nigeria was based on world ginger export characteristics, value of trade and quantity traded from 2008 to 2012 assessed on yearly and ... program be sustained so as to boost local production and activate the ginger value chain for greater production, processing and marketing efficiency.
However, whether there is any link between EAC's regional trade and the region's economic growth remain unknown. ... Impulse response analysis on trade and economic growth were performed using panel data from UNCOMTRADE, International Financial Statistics and World Development Indicators for the period 2000 ...
This paper outlines the global food regulation regime and its institutions, focussing upon the way in which these address organic food trade. While the WTO agreements have rules for scientifically based policy measures adopted to protect human, animal or plant health or life, there is some...... disagreement on whether the WTO's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (addresses food labelling) covers production standards based on ethical values such as those defining organic food standards. Another problem is that two sets of international standards for organic food exist—the Codex Alimentarius...... to these private organisations. It is concluded that this current state of affairs entails that organic food standards can potentially be used by governments as technical barriers to trade to protect their domestic organic producers from international competition. In the concluding section, the potential...
Farajzadeh, Zakariya; Zhu, Xueqin; Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad
We developed a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to study the potential welfare and environmental impacts of Iran's trade reform for accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Our results show that removing trade barriers not only results in higher welfare and GDP as well as lower
“the expectation of increased market access for agricultural products and textiles, and … the fear that if they did not agree ... powers”. See Correa CM Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights: A Commentary on the ...... to adopt domestic trade policies that are consistent with human rights.187 All of these issues ...
... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton... the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees (ATAC) for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and... Steffon Brown. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction The ATACs are authorized by sections 135(c)(1) and...
The subject that is studied in this paper is a complex issue of legal relations, namely interaction between the multilateral trade system of international trade within the WTO and the system of international multilateral agreements in the field of environmental protection. The status of environmental protection in the WTO shows the enhancing trend thanks to raising of awareness on seriousness of the global ecological crisis. Despite of that, it is still unsatisfactory, in particular in the sp...
South Asian agricultural trade depends on few sectors in the economy and it exports primary products for limited number of countries. It shows regional outward orientation and thus there is still gaining in agricultural trade in South Asian region. Reinforcement of trade relationships within South Asia will be a solution for that and the study is focused on analyzing agriculture trade intensities in South Asia. Trade intensity measures the level of trade relationships between two nations. The...
Human activity is greatly constituted by transactions and exchange that can impoverish primary producers while unfairly making others rich in an inequitable manner. Integration of agriculture into international trade is always thought and assumed to bring greater income benefit to farmers, but is this really the case, ...
Mil, van H.G.J.; Foegeding, E.A.; Windhab, E.J.; Perrot, N.; Linden, van der E.
The quality and amount of the world food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on world economy, international trade, and global political stability. The choice of land used for agriculture, and
, the producers have to start from scratch in what concerns culture, law, brands, markets, organisations, practical experience etc. In these years, the Danish producers of OLP are establishing regional networks as well as a national organisation aimed to span the gap between tourism, agriculture and business...... the producers with enormous tasks. In line with previous findings, this study shows that, at the national level, actors seek to address three major issues, namely (1) marketing of OLP in large urban areas in Denmark, (2) establishment of an advisory/experience exchange system among producers and (3) common...... lobbyism strategies at national and regional levels. At the local level, marketing seems to be the sole focal point at the moment. Concluding remarks: The OLP approach relates to the destination literature in tourism research. The networks under study do however not include traditional tourism operators...
Full Text Available The aims of this article are, on the one hand, to carry out a reconsideration of the workings of the commercial system since the Bretton Woods agreements and, on the other hand, to make some reflections regarding the function that the World Trade Organizationmust carry out in the future in a world divided, probably just like now, in regional areas of free trade. In order to achieve these aims the following are specified: the bases on which the liberalization of trade has been founded after the Second World War, the causes whichprovoked the wave of protectionism in the Eighties, the reasons which have brought about the division of the world into trading blocks as well as the need for an organization which encourages inter-regional trade and reduces the commercial wars between these blocks.
Dr Tanya du Plessis
WTO should be seen as an organisation that facilitates the reduction of trade barriers and pursues equality in market access between members.10. 8 Emphasis added. Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization,. United Nations Treaty Series, 33 International Legal Materials 1125 (1994), entered into.
15 déc. 2009 ... Elle est l'auteure de Peace through Trade: Building the World Trade Organization (2004) et a codirigé la publication de Law in the Service of Human Dignity: Essays in Honour of Florentino Feliciano (2005). ... AUCC-IDRC Partnership Grant 2011-2013: New Models of Partnership for Internationalization.
Veeman, Michele M.
The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA) and the subsequent North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have contributed to increasing concentration of agricultural trade between the United States and Canada. This has heightened bilateral trade tensions and trade conflicts for numbers of Canadian farm products. These conflicts, and the need to accommodate domestic marketing policies to the obligations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the Wor...
Hawkes, C; Thow, A. M.; Jones, A; Ali, I.; Labonte, R
Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organ...
Antonelli, M; Tamea, S; Yang, H
The development of approaches to tackle the European Union (EU) water-related challenges and shift towards sustainable water management and use is one of the main objectives of Horizon 2020, the EU strategy to lead a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The EU is an increasingly water challenged area and is a major agricultural trader. As agricultural trade entails an exchange of water embodied in goods as a factor of production, this study investigates the region's water-food-trade nexus by analysing intra-regional virtual water trade (VWT) in agricultural products. The analysed period (1993-2011) comprises the enactment of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Aspects of the VWT that are relevant for the WFD are explored. The EU is a net importer of virtual water (VW) from the rest of the world, but intra-regional VWT represents 46% of total imports and 75% of total exports. Five countries account for 60% of total VW imports (Germany, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium) and 65% of total VW exports (The Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium and Spain). Intra-EU VWT more than doubled over the period considered, while trade with extra-EU countries did not show such a marked trend. In the same period, blue VWT increased significantly within the region and net import from the rest of the world slightly decreased. Water scarce countries, such as Spain and Italy, are major exporters of blue water in the region. The traded volumes of VW have been increasing almost monotonically over the years, and with a substantial increase after 2000. The overall trend in changes in VWT does not seem to be in accordance with the WFD goals. This study demonstrated that VWT analyses can help evaluate intertwining effects of water, agriculture and trade policies which are often made separately in respective sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anderson, P. J.; Daniels, E. J.
Descriptions of LNG projects make it evident that significant activity is continuing on the development of base-load LNG projects to serve all three major gas markets: Europe, Japan, and the United States. These activities have resulted in the development of an international LNG trade of approximately 48.2 billion m/sup 3//y. This represents nearly one-third of the current level of pipeline import/exports of natural gas. By 1982, when all of the projects considered to be firm or under construction are implemented, LNG trade will have grown to a level of 53.7 billion m/sup 3//y. With the implementation of the probable projects by the mid-1980's, this level could increase to more than 112.55 billion m/sup 3//y. Assuming that the 102.2 billion m/sup 3//y of pipeline import/export projects currently proposed and under construction are implemented in the same period, LNG's relatively more rapid growth will have increased to 48% of the amount of natural gas traded by pipeline.
Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Sahota, Amarjit
The World of Organic Agriculture 2017 www.organic-world.net Presentations at the Session "The World of Organic Agriculture" - Organic Agriculture Worldwide 2017: Current Statistics (Dr. Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Dr. Helga Willer) - Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2017 (Beate Huber) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update & Challenges (Amarjit Sahota)
Yu, Wusheng; Frandsen, Søren E.
results depend critically on correctly representing the more complex policy measures, such as the tariff rate quotas. The negative output effects on Chinese agriculture can be alleviated/reversed if the rich OECD countries commit to reform their agriculture policies. The present paper concludes that trade...... general equilibrium simulation results show that China’s WTO commitments will lead to increased agricultural imports and slightly declined outputs in China. The resulting efficiency gains will be negated by terms-of-trade losses, leading to quantitatively small welfare impacts. Furthermore, sectoral...... liberalization should be carried out in both developing and developed countries. Reforming the latter will be particularly helpful in easing the problems facing those developing countries that are carrying out ambitious trade reforms....
Full Text Available The subject that is studied in this paper is a complex issue of legal relations, namely interaction between the multilateral trade system of international trade within the WTO and the system of international multilateral agreements in the field of environmental protection. The status of environmental protection in the WTO shows the enhancing trend thanks to raising of awareness on seriousness of the global ecological crisis. Despite of that, it is still unsatisfactory, in particular in the sphere of treatment and legal significance of multilateral agreements in the field of environmental protection in the WTO. In compliance with the expressed needs, instead of declarative approach, it is necessary to enhance their formal-legal status and create a new global normative architecture of these relations. Due to these reasons, we advocate a long-term system solution, which implies changes in the WTO law, in particular in the segment of GATT via including international ecological agreements in its set of exemptions, with an appropriate use of transitional solutions. This is the only possible way to establish a stable and predictable system of coherence between these two spheres.
... times. As we recover from a historic economic recession, enterprising commercial leaders continue to... services. Millions of jobs in the United States are tied to exports, and our world continues to grow more... growth. Through this effort, we can help even more American companies grow, compete, and thrive in global...
Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael
Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm
At the Ninth Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) held in Bali on 3–6 December 2013, the ministers agreed upon the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation (ATF). This paper assesses the level of ambition of the ATF from two angles. First, the use of softening language in each provision is examined. Second, the final agreement is compared against the draft text prepared before the Bali conference. Then, the paper considers the likely legal, economic, capacity-building, and ...
Sterian Maria Gabriela
Full Text Available The failure of Doha Round is a serious step backward for the WTO and the multilateral trading system. Some analysts already discussed in their research about the round as being already closed and they propose the developing of a new program within the organization. WTO still remains a very important institution due to its proven role in encouraging states not to take protectionist measures during the recent economic crisis, but the global trade governance reform must reflect all the changes and realities. The transition is being made toward a more regionalized and preferential global trade and the emergence of strong developing countries shape the whole multilateral trade negotiations. The important growth rates in emerging countries are translated also in strong demand for representation in global trade governance. Objectives: This paper aims to underline the role of multilateralism as form of international cooperation, the link with global economic governance and what concerns academic community in terms of having a reform of it. Prior Work: It has been tried to emphasizing the concepts already developed by known researchers in the field. Approach: The approach is a more theoretic one done in a comparative manner with emphasis on results and future research. The critical method approach is done with qualitative results. Results: The key results are related to pros and cons of reforming the World Trade Organization, as well as presenting the criticisms and proposals for having a second World Trade Organization. Implications: The implications are varied in terms of studying the concepts and addresses researchers in the field, but also lecturers and students. Value: The main added value is the compared approach of the traditional WTO as it derived from General Agreement on Tariff and Trade and the proposal for a new one and its formal relationship with the global economic governance.
Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-
9. augustil esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest
The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the ...
The study examined the perception of cocoa farmers of the effect of the standards of the World Trade Organisation on cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select farmers in the area covered by the project and primary data were collected through the use of a structured ...
Full Text Available Highly dynamic and large scale structural changes are currently reshaping the world economy and international trade. When compared to other similar experiences in the past, astonishing is not only the fast pace of global transformations, but also their wide scope affecting virtually the entire world. At the core of these changes is, undoubtedly, the shift of economic power from the industrialized economies towards the major emerging economies, particularly China and India. The forces underlying these transformations have altered the hierarchy of countries in terms of their contribution to global GDP, reversed the centres of economic growth worldwide, affected the location of manufacturing and changed dramatically the patterns of international trade. The weak and uneven economic recovery following the deepest recession in the postwar period has further accelerated the structural shifts at work in the world economy. Relying on available statistics and insights from economic literature, the present paper addresses the main trends shaping international trade over the last two decades. It takes a look at the major changes occurred in the dynamics, geographical distribution and structure of trade flows and highlights the consequences through the lens of developed and developing/emerging economies. In tackling the major forces driving structural changes in world trade, it stresses the importance of the close interaction between the dynamic expansion of global production networks operated by TNCs and the increasing integration of developing/emerging economies into these networks. While the increasing spread of global production networks is not a new phenomenon, the intensity with which it shapes the current economic reality has substantially increased in recent years. The implications of the ongoing geopolitical and economic changes are profound and manyfold both for traditional production processes and trade flows and social structures, and raise major
Willer, Helga; Sahota, Amarjit; Huber, Beate
The Powerpoint presentations summarize three key chapters of the 2009 edition of 'The World of Organic Agriculture' - Results of the global survey on organic agriculture - The global market for organic food and drink - Standards and legislation update
Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald
Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chen, P. (Coal Chemistry Research Institute, Beijing (China))
By the year 2000, coal production will increase at a slow rate, and because supply is greater than demand, it will be a buyer's market. In general, prices will not rise steeply in the international markets, and Europe and Asia will continue to be the major trading centres. World exports may reach 510 Mt; Australia and the USA will continue to be the major producers. Although China is an important coal producing country, its exports form just 4-5% of global trade volume. 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Full Text Available Trade of agricultural commodities has grown significantly in most Latin American countries (LAC over the last two decades. However, after the international food price surges in 2006-08 and 2011-12 concerns about food access of the poor arose. Within a panel framework containing six LAC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, we used a single equation error correction model to identify possible cointegrating relationships between the food consumer price index (CPI and a set of trade related and domestic variables. The main focus of the study was to examine how different levels of trade openness impact international food price transmission to domestic markets. Our results confirm that deeper market integration increases global price transmission elasticities. In other words, more agricultural trade openness proves to elevate food CPIs during global price spikes. Thus, for poor consumers world price shocks can be deteriorating in the short-run and domestic food prices will slowly converge to a higher long-run equilibrium. Especially in increasingly integrated economies, effective policies to buffer food price shocks should be put in place, but must be carefully planned with the required budget readily available. We also found that exchange rate appreciations can buffer price shocks to a certain extent and that monetary policies seem to be an appropriate means for stabilizing food prices to safeguard food access of the poor population.
Full Text Available This paper analyses the world merchandise trade structure and the structure of Serbian merchandise exports. The analysis shows that the prominent characteristic of post-World War II world trade is more dynamic growth in the volume of manufactured goods as compared to agricultural goods. Due to the lessening share of agricultural products world merchandise trade has decreased and rapid industrialization has been fostered in developing countries. An increased share for developing countries followed the developed countries' decreasing share in world manufacturing trade. The developing countries' increased share was strongest in telecom and office equipment exports. These sectors are characterized by production fragmentation, which is being realized by transnational companies. Serbia, like the other South East European countries, has not yet managed to significantly integrate into international production networks. Serbia's most important exports are manufactured products with a low level of added value . In addition, Serbia still has a high share of primary products in its exports. A higher share of exports of goods and services in the gross domestic products (GDP cannot be achieved without increasing imports of new technologies and equipment, i.e. without a higher investment share of the GDP. The main conclusion of this article is that the creation of a favorable investment climate and an increase in Serbia's international credit rating are the preconditions for stronger foreign direct investment (FDI, which would be the main channel for restructuring in the real sector. Creation of new small and medium enterprises (SMEs through greenfield investment and their integration into the international production networks is the starting point for the restructuring of Serbian industrial production and merchandise export, i.e. the way of increasing the share of merchandise exports in the GDP.
Zaks, D.; Foley, J.
In the age of globalization, many crops and animal products are transported across the long distances for consumption elsewhere. The alteration of water, soil and climate systems from agricultural practices can be attributed to both exporting and importing countries. Quantities of water, carbon and nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus) can be tracked throughout the production process and be aggregated from field to table. The synthesis of this data can be used to inform markets to appropriately price the most ecologically efficient production.While agricultural land is undergoing changes around the world, the Brazilian Amazon has seen a dramatic conversion of forest and grassland due to the expanding agricultural frontier, and intense growth in the future has been predicted in the region. As a proof of concept, I plan to study the flow of ecosystem services from the Amazon rainforest basin to the world market. Cattle and soybeans are the two main agricultural products of the region and are produced for both internal consumption and for export. This work quantifies agricultural production and its associated ecosystem services using socio-economic and commodity trade data, numerical ecosystem models and remote sensing products.
Tatiana E. Gvarliani
Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.
This thesis examines the effects that containerisation had on the growth in world trade between the years 1962 and 1990. Containerisation is a technological change that arises from shipping goods via containers rather than through the traditional break-bulk method which characterised international shipping since antiquity. This thesis makes many contributions to the literature. This is the first quantitative and econometric study into the effects of containerisation in economics. We collect d...
Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.
Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.
Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Wusheng
Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade f...... employment effects do not lend support to the popular notion that increased agricultural trade would help increase farm employment and have important implications for evaluating current and future trade policy in China and elsewhere.......Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade...... flows and use these estimates to compute the farm employment effects. Findings – The authors find that China's agricultural trade has indeed generally developed along its widely believed comparative advantages and disadvantages; however, the farm employment “creation” effect due to labor...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory... Health and Human Services. The CDC is soliciting nominations for membership on the World Trade Center...
World Development Report : Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction. The World Development Report, flagship publication of the World Bank, provides an annual in-depth review of a specific theme that is deemed important and topical within the current development agenda. The Report is widely read and used to inform ...
Full Text Available World trade in 2009 was dominated by the worst financial and economic crisis in decades. Global output shrank. So did the volume of international trade. Despite bearing no responsibility for the crisis, the poorer developing countries have fared the worst. China, Brazil and India saw exports drop by between a fifth and a third in the second half of 2008, but countries not belonging to the top 20 developing country exporters were hit even harder. Trade and GDP growth have started to pick up again, but some economists fear a “double-dip” recession. If unemployment continues to grow, it may become harder for governments to resist protectionist pressures. In terms of the WTO negotiations, the crisis cuts both ways. Governments are preoccupied with more immediate concerns. But the crisis has shattered the sense that protectionism was unthinkable, making a trade deal seem more valuable. The G-20 major economies have called for concluding the Doha Round in 2010, but it remains to be seen whether this pledge will amount to anything. The number of bilateral trade deals continues to grow, with Switzerland an enthusiastic participant. Some of these deals have been criticised for “WTO-plus” obligations, particularly regarding intellectual property. Meanwhile, there are real grounds for arguing that the Doha Round agenda does not reflect many current problems, especially climate change. With the US and the EU threatening to impose tariffs on exports from emerging economies with no hard emissions caps, it is clear that governments need to find some way of discussing the new challenges confronting the global economy.
The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential
The percentage of the agriculture in the greenhouse-gas emissions in Germany amounts 7.1% in the year 2010. Despite its importance, climate protection instruments in the area of the German agriculture are still not developed. There are hardly special regulatory, informational or market-based instruments for the climate protection in the agriculture. The question arises whether the emission trading can be a suitable instrument for climate protection in the agriculture. Thus, the opportunities of the emission trading in the agriculture are investigated. Moreover, alternative and additional instruments of climate protection are considered with respect to the agriculture.
This paper describes the World Trade Model, a linear program that determines world prices, scarcity rents, and international trade flows based on comparative advantage in a world economy with m regions, n goods, and k factors. Major properties of the model are demonstrated, including the sources of the gains from trade for the world as a whole and for individual regions. Preliminary empirical results are reported for a 10-region, 8-good, 3-factor model of the world economy. The new model gene...
Bakhyt, Arnabol; Nurgazina, Gulmira
Interpretation of globalization and internalization influence on the world food and agricultural product markets is examined in the article. Moreover, the global problem of food safety is also examined.
Mangstl, Anton; R. Judy, Joseph; Le Hunte Ward, Fynvola
The specific components which make up the World Agricultural Information Centre at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), are described in this paper. WAICENT comprises three principal elements which are interactive and complementary: FAOSTAT, for the storage and dissemination of statistical information, FAOINFO, which covers hypermedia information, and FAOSIS which covers very specialised information systems.
Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…
Cepeda, Fredy; Gamboa, Freddy; Leon Rincon, Carlos; Rincon, Hernan
This paper employs network analysis to study world trade from 1995 to 2014. We focus on the main connective features of the world trade network (WTN) and their dynamics. Results suggest that countries’ efforts to attain the benefits of trade have resulted in an intertwined network that is
Mercedes Gema López Limón
Full Text Available The infants salaried labor existing in the exporting farming of the Mexicali Valley, is part of the macroeconomic processes linked to the free trade politics and to the economy’s globalization. We are analyzing it as a result of the damage of life and conditions of work of the country families, in a labor market that looks for cheap labor, in this concrete area of the world market. Nevertheless this job is centered at the Mexicali Valley, we are presenting some figures from the San Quintín Valley, another Baja California farming center where infants job appear. We will analyze the role of infant jobs within the economy, the environment where it is developed, and the consequences that it brings to them, such as their exclusion from school, for example, in their future. We will also review the domestic and international legal frame about minors who are working, as well as the eventual proposals to eradicate it, since infants jobs, already well known as poverty producer, affecting not only these children personal destiny, but also affecting the destiny of this region and Mexico as a nation.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the country-specific determinants of intra-industry trade between Poland and its European Union trading partners in agricultural and food products during the time period 2002-2011. An econometric model for panel data is applied for the analysis of the factors determining Polish bilateral intra-industry trade with European Union countries. The research leads to the formulation of a statement that the intensity of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products is positively influenced by the intensity of trade with EU countries and the level of economic development of the member countries (as measured by the size of their GDP per capita. Increase in intra-trade turnover is also facilitated by EU membership and by the fact that Poland’s trade partners use similar Slavic-based languages. Relative differences in the size of the economies and relative differences in Poland’s and its trading partners’ levels of economic development have a negative impact. The degree of the imbalance of trade turnover between trading partners also negatively influences the intensity of intra-trade exchange. The research confirms that the impact of all of the identified factors determining intra-industry trade is consistent with the predictions of the theory.
International Trade (IT) plays a fundamental role in today's economy: by connecting world countries production and consumption processes, it radically contributes in shaping their economy and development path. Although its evolving structure and determinants have been widely analyzed in the literature, much less has been done to understand its interplay with other complex phenomena. The aim of this work is, precisely in this direction, to study the relations of IT with International Migration (IM) and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). In both cases the procedure used is to first approach the problem in a multiple-networks perspective and than deepen the analysis by using ad hoc econometrics techniques. With respect to IM, a general positive correlation with IT is highlighted and product categories for which this effect is stronger are identified and cross-checked with previous classifications. Next, employing spatial econometric techniques and proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most ...
Das, Sujit (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
The Middle East (ME) will continue to be the dominant supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to supply-demand forecasts published by the U.S. DOE. This analysis suggests that interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe (EE). EE will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the ME and its refined product exports will come to the U.S. and Latin America (LA) besides Western Europe (WE). A reduction in the net imports of WE and a better match between the crude quality and refinery configuration will cause some portion of FSU petroleum exports to come to North America. Much uncertainty remains about the level of future FSU crude oil production. (author)
The World Trade Center attack of 9/11/01 and the response brought major attention to GIS as a valuable tool for supporting emergency management and response. That attention led to the allocation of considerable resources to the enhancement of GIS. This paper is intended to provide a look back at the events prior to and immediately following the attack, review of GIS in the response and recovery efforts, explore the emergence of GIS in Emergency Management from the impetus generated in the NYC experience and explore the challenges yet facing the use of GIS in emergency management. The author participated in the WTC response as a member of the Emergency Mapping and Data Center component of the Emergency Operations Center through which the response was managed.
Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.
Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the impacts of the economic crisis on the world trade in order to highlight the mutual interdependence of the development of the world output and trade. The paper observes mutual correlation in development of the world trade and output. The results of the analysis indicate that changes in the value of world GDP and world trade are correlated by more than 90%. It is important to mention that in the years 2000–2009, the value of world trade and world output increased significantly (although in 2009, a significant decline in both value and volume of global production and trade was recorded due to the crisis. In relation to the world trade, it should be noted that its commodity structure is dominated by trade in manufactures. The crisis that occurred in the period 2008–2009 greatly affected the world economy and trade in particular. In this respect it should be pointed out that the crisis mainly affected trade in manufactures and then trade in fuels and mining outputs in terms of both absolute and relative indicators. Agrarian trade dealt with the crisis the best and the impact of the crisis on development of its values and volume was the least significant. This verifies the fact that agrarian and food products tend to be the most resistant to the crisis (on contrary, in times of global economic growth or reconstruction, the trade in agrarian and food products shows lower degree of elasticity in relation to the global GDP growth in comparison to other segments of commodities trade.
Content: (1) Reynolds, Kara M. "Dumping on Agriculture: Are There Biases in Antidumping Regulations?" (pp. 135-154); (2) Abler, David. "Approaches to Measuring the Effects of Trade on Agreements." (pp. 155-172); (3) Walsh, Keith, Martina Brockmeier, and Alan Matthews. "Implications of Domestic Support Disciplines for Further Agricultural Trade Liberalization." (pp. 173-198); (4) Nganje, William, Bruce Dahl, William Wilson, Mounir Siaplay, and Andrew Lewis. "Valuing Private Sector Incentives t...
Content: Abler, David. "Introduction: Modeling Global Food and Agricultural Markets." (pp. v); (1) Sheldon, Ian. "Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 1-32); (2) Abbott, Phillip. "Comment on: Monopolistic Competition and Trade: Does the Theory Carry any Empirical Weight?" (pp. 33-38); (3) Sarker, Rakhal and Yves Surry. "Product Differentiation and Trade in Agri-Food Products: Taking Stock and Looking Forward." (pp. 39-78); (4) Alston, Julian M....
Goewie, E A
The world population grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is an agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of poverty. This problem will not be solved by gene technology based agricultural production. This article explains the basic principles of mainstream and organic farming. Literature shows that the production potentials of both kinds of farming are, by far most, not yet exhausted. Gene technology is therefore unnecessary.
... direct investment policies, and pricing and marketing regimes; (3) An overview of China's participation... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports AGENCY: United...
Full Text Available We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.
Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.
This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse
Full Text Available In this study, impact of the real effective exchange rate (REER and its volatility (REERV on Turkey's agricultural foreign trade was investigated. 25importantcountries in agricultural trade of Turkey and 1990-2012 periods were examined, and panel data analysis was used in this research. IGARCH model was applied to obtain for the REERV. Influence of the REER and REERV on Turkey's agricultural trade was analyzed whit FMOLS model both individual country and groups panel. According to the results of FMOLS model; It was determined that Turkey agricultural import (7.61% and export (2.24% were increased when the REER was risen about 1%. The agricultural import was decreased 18.83% in case the REERV was increased 1%. On the other hand, when the REERV was increased around 1%, there was no significantly relationship between agricultural export and REERV. As a result, it can be stated that REER and REERV were caused an imbalance on Turkey's agricultural foreign trade. Agricultural producers and industrialists are often adversely affected by the REERV. For these reasons, it is important to take protective measures for them.
This study tries to address the impact of trade on poverty through of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP). Thus, we employed a Sequential Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Model linked to a Micro Simulation Model. We also used an econometric model to estimate the agricultural TFP of Ethiopia to create ...
France's protectionist position regarding agricultural trade is often claimed to result from French farm lobby influence. This article challenges such established claims, based on an analysis of French decision-making on the agricultural chapter of the GATT Uruguay Round. Farm lobby pressure cannot
I A Rodionova
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of dynamics of foreign trade of the Peoples Republic of China, shifts in geographical and commodity structure of export and import since 1995 until present. Their influence on change of country's position in world economy and international trade is revealed. Analyzing the statistical data, authors come to a conclusion that modernization and transparency of economy, expansion of foreign economic relations, considering direct correlation of rates of gross domestic product (GDP and rates of development of foreign trade of the country, have led to essential strengthening of China's position in world production of manufacturing industry, in world economy, and international trade.
Srinivasa Konduru; Tae Hun Kim.; Mechel Paggi
The United States-S. Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) became effective in 2012 and is expected to create new opportunities and improve access for one anotherâ€™s markets. It is expected to benefit the US agricultural sector particularly as S. Korea maintains high trade barriers for agricultural imports. This paper analyses the impact of KORUS FTA on the agricultural exports from the US with an example of table grapes. The results obtained by using the Import demand estimation method sho...
Rutten, M.M.; Shutes, L.J.; Meijerink, G.W.
This paper analyses the impacts of trade policy responses to rising world food prices by carrying out a series of stylised experiments in the wheat market using a world trade model, GTAP. The sequence of events that is modelled comprises a negative wheat supply shock and subsequent implementation of
... establishment of the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee. The WTC... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Establishment Pursuant to Public Law 111-347 (The James...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) and the name of the Committee should read World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory...
Full Text Available The accession to the European Union (EU has brought a lot of advantages for all the new member states (NMS. The general and wide range implementation of economic integration gave the hope of economic prosperity and macroeconomic stability for all the new member states. In the case of foreign trade of agricultural products the possibility of expansion has opened after EU integration. The chance to build and stabilize new trading relations was especially important for the small countries with an open economy. In general, it can be concluded from the analysis of EU membership that the trade among new member countries has substantially expanded as a result of increasing trading activities in relation to member states which integrated into the EU in 2004 and also due to the elimination of former trading barriers and a growing common internal market. Starting from this, the examination of trading of goods between particular countries is also justified. The important aspects in considering the possible solutions for the consequences of the economic crisis in 2008 are: the strengthening of regional markets, the utilization of geographical conditions and the increasing role of comparative advantages. The present study details how the Hungarian-Romanian agricultural trade has changed in the frames of bilateral trading activities due to the second wave of Eastern expansion and what tendencies can be observed. In regards to trading of goods, it is reviewed which products show concentration and which products can be characterized with comparative advantages.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of the Uruguay Round (UR implementation on world agriculture using a multi-regional general equilibrium model and the mapping function of the Geographic Information System (GIS. The results of this study show that the Uruguay Round has had a negative impact on world agriculture in the light of total food production and food distribution. For commodities such as grains, while grain production rises in exporting countries, the effect is not sufficient to cover the fall in production in importing countries. In particular, the impact is serious on food security in importing countries of agricultural products. The negative impact is almost concentrated in importing countries, particularly Japan, the European Union (EU and South Korea. As is clearly visible on the maps produced by the GIS function, the real state of world agriculture as well as the results evaluated by this Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model has changed negatively in major importing countries and particularly the Least Developed Countries (LDCs, Sub-Saharan Africa following the Uruguay Round.
.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction The ATACs are authorized by sections 135(c)(1) and (2) of the Trade Act..., Oilseeds and Planting Seeds. Tobacco, Cotton and Peanuts. These ATACs are being reorganized by removing representation of the planting seeds industry from the Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds (TCPPS) ATAC...
van Mil, H G J; Windhab, E J; Perrot, N; van der Linden, E
World food supply is crucial to the well-being of every human on the planet in the basic sense that we need food to live. It also has a profound impact on the world economy, international trade and global political stability. Furthermore, consumption of certain types and amounts foods can affect health, and the choice of livestock and plants for food production can impact sustainable use of global resources. There are communities where insufficient food causes nutritional deficiencies, and at the same time other communities eating too much food leading to obesity and accompanying diseases. These aspects reflect the utmost importance of agricultural production and conversion of commodities to food products. Moreover, all factors contributing to the food supply are interdependent, and they are an integrative part of the continuously changing, adaptive and interdependent systems in the world around us. The properties of such interdependent systems usually cannot be inferred from the properties of its parts. In a...
Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei
The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Industrial Education, 1974
Three building trades projects are described: Students who have designed and built their new vocational education classroom; on-the-job experience with various local firms; and cooperation between five building trades areas in the design and construction of a press box for their school's football stadium. (SA)
Landrigan, Philip J; Lioy, Paul J; Thurston, George; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Chen, L C; Chillrud, Steven N; Gavett, Stephen H; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Geyh, Alison S; Levin, Stephen; Perera, Frederica; Rappaport, Stephen M; Small, Christopher
The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyses of outdoor and indoor settled dust; high-altitude imaging and modeling of the atmospheric plume; inhalation studies of WTC dust in mice; and clinical examinations, community surveys, and prospective epidemiologic studies of exposed populations. WTC dust was found to consist predominantly (95%) of coarse particles and contained pulverized cement, glass fibers, asbestos, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated furans and dioxins. Airborne particulate levels were highest immediately after the attack and declined thereafter. Particulate levels decreased sharply with distance from the WTC. Dust pH was highly alkaline (pH 9.0-11.0). Mice exposed to WTC dust showed only moderate pulmonary inflammation but marked bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 10,116 firefighters showed exposure-related increases in cough and bronchial hyperreactivity. Evaluation of 183 cleanup workers showed new-onset cough (33%), wheeze (18%), and phlegm production (24%). Increased frequency of new-onset cough, wheeze, and shortness of breath were also observed in community residents. Follow-up of 182 pregnant women who were either inside or near the WTC on 11 September showed a 2-fold increase in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. In summary, environmental exposures after the WTC disaster were associated with significant adverse effects on health. The high alkalinity of WTC dust produced bronchial hyperreactivity, persistent cough, and increased risk of asthma. Plausible causes of the observed increase in SGA infants include maternal exposures to PAH and particulates. Future risk of mesothelioma may be increased, particularly among workers and
Full Text Available Syrian agricultural policy should be characterized by a high level of government intervention, including fixed prices, government monopoly in strategic crop marketing, government distribution of industrial fertilizers, significant barriers on food and agricultural commodities import and so on. Although there were certain changes and liberalization in this area during several last years, the Syrian agriculture remains as the most regulated sector of national economy in Near east and northern Africa.On the other hand, we may state the fact that Syrian governmental agriculture policy was successful considering so called strategic crops most of all in achieving self-sufficiency in wheat production, also an essential increase of cotton production volume which represents most important export crop of this near east country, took a part. Besides this progress there was restriction of disparity development in countryside and municipal household’s incomes, which is partial reason for slowing down of Syrian countryside poverty. These positive outcomes were reached at the expense of increasing governmental expenses and worsening of resources efficiency usage both in agriculture production and energy sectors. Considering forecasted spend of oil sources, the Syrian government will be necessarily forced to search for alternative resources of economic growth and government budget incomes in near future.The last five year country plan presumes consequental delimitation of grants and implication of value added tax. There is to be a quite large liberalisation in agriculture sector, which should lead to consequential down of wheat production, sugar beet and cotton and increase of barley, lentil and chickpea production.
Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.
With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428
Full Text Available The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA Agreement between Ukraine and the EU has led to the following question: What new opportunities are unveiled for the agricultural sector? The aim of this article is to determine the promising trends in Ukrainian agriculture’s export potential considering the potential adverse effects from highly competitive markets. The authors’ gravity model is based on the research of the Ukraine–EU free trade area operating conditions. The paper provides a forecast on the volumes of trade flows of agricultural food products between the participants of the Agreement and determines advantages and disadvantages of trade and overall economic relationship liberalization. Finally, the ways to improve bilateral relations for Ukraine are proposed.
populace depends on agriculture directly and indirectly for food, employment and income, ... Several bi-variate Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) and Vector Error Correction .... a motivating factor of economic growth where the integrating states had ... separately to capture for the effect of the 2008/2009 financial global crisis.
The objecti e of this study is to increase our understanding of the specification and estimation of agricultural commodity trade models as well as to provide instruments for trade policy analysis. More specifically,the aim is to build a set of dynamic,theory-based econometric models which are able to capture both short-run and long-run effects of income and price changes,and which can be used for prediction and policy simulation under alternati e assumed conditions.A relati ely unrestricted,d...
Full Text Available From an agricultural point of view, the question if the earth can feed adequately not only its current population of 7 billion people, but also the expected population of 9 billion people to 10 billion people by 2050, is currently answered in two opposing ways. Some believe modern agriculture should increase productivity by implementing technological innovation and eliminating subsistence agriculture. Others believe industrialised agriculture is out of tune with the ecology and sufficient healthy food may be produced by an agriculture that recognises ecological and biological limits (known as ecological intensification. On the basis of a theoretical framework derived from reformational philosophy and in particular the concept of enkapsis, this article supports ecological intensification, especially if it forms part of a cultural development guided by Schuurman’s metaphor of a garden-city. However, it is still a marginal activity within a culture directed by a belief in progress. High rates of economic growth, based on technological innovation, appears to validate such faith, but human and environmental costs are insufficiently acknowledged (metaphor: the earth is a machine. A break with technicism and economism becomes a pre-condition for feeding adequately both the present and the projected population of the world.
Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.
Biofuels is booming in recent years due to its potential contributions to energy sustainability, environmental improvement and economic opportunities. Production of biofuels not only competes for land and water with food production, but also directly pushes up food prices when crops such as maize and sugarcane are used as biofuels feedstock. Meanwhile, international trade of agricultural commodities exports and imports water and land resources in a virtual form among different regions, balances overall water and land demands and resource endowment, and provides a promising solution to the increasingly severe food-energy competition. This study investigates how to optimize water and land resources uses for overall welfare at global scale in the framework of 'virtual resources'. In contrast to partial equilibrium models that usually simulate trades year-by-year, this optimization model explores the ideal world where malnourishment is minimized with optimal resources uses and trade flows. Comparing the optimal production and trade patterns with historical data can provide meaningful implications regarding how to utilize water and land resources more efficiently and how the trade flows would be changed for overall welfare at global scale. Valuable insights are obtained in terms of the interactions among food, water and bioenergy systems. A global hydro-economic optimization model is developed, integrating agricultural production, market demands (food, feed, fuel and other), and resource and environmental constraints. Preliminary results show that with the 'free market' mechanism and land as well as water resources use optimization, the malnourished population can be reduced by as much as 65%, compared to the 2000 historical value. Expected results include: 1) optimal trade paths to achieve global malnourishment minimization, 2) how water and land resources constrain local supply, 3) how policy affects the trade pattern as well as resource uses. Furthermore, impacts of
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh‟s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific.
Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra
Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.
... lease-purchase contract (including lease-to-ownership, or lease-with-option-to purchase) is covered by... WTO GPA or an FTA. (c) Purchase restriction. (1) Under the Trade Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 2512), in... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition...
Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun
With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna
The transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) dispute settlement proceedings to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) represented a notable instance of judicialization within international economic governance. Since it began ruling...... on trade conflicts in 1995, the DSM has enjoyed significantly greater independence from direct government control than its GATT predecessors. It has also exercised a greater degree of interpretive autonomy than initially intended by WTO member governments (Members). This development largely stems from...
This paper assesses the economic impacts of linking the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) to emerging schemes beyond Europe, in the presence of a post-Kyoto agreement in 2020. Simulations with a numerical multi-country model of the world carbon market show that linking the European ETS induces only marginal economic benefits: As trading is restricted to energy-intensive industries that are assigned generous initial emissions, the major compliance burden is carried by non-trading industries exc...
Baker, J. S.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Jackson, R. B.
This study analyzes the interactions of land conservation policy with biofuel expansion using an economic model of the U.S. forest and agricultural sectors. The world agricultural industry is changing rapidly under emerging market and policy-based pressures. An important driver in the U.S. is the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), which mandates significant expansion in biofuels production (up to 36 billion gallons/year by 2022). Traditional land conservation practices such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) are at risk in this changing agricultural climate, as the opportunity costs of reverting to cropland continue to rise. Large- scale reversion of CRP acreage is likely to lead to substantial losses in soil carbon, biodiversity, soil erosion protection, and water quality. However, given the increased competition for land resources, continued efforts to maintain the CRP could induce land use change (LUC) and agricultural development from even more sensitive ecosystems, including native grasslands and forests. This study uses economic modeling to study CRP reversion and LUC under multiple scenarios, including: 1) Baseline assumptions of growth in world agricultural demand and energy prices, with and without CRP reversion; 2) Implementation of the RFS while maintaining the CRP; and 3) RFS with CRP reversion allowed. The study is done using the FASOMGHG model (Lee, McCarl et al, 2008), which is well suited for this analysis as it: 1) Depicts land use competition between crops, pasture, CRP, and forestry over a 100 year period 2) Contains comprehensive GHG accounting across the sectors, 3) Allows land in the CRP to revert to cultivation at an economically optimal rate as land values increase, and 4) Extensively models biofuel and conventional agricultural production possibilities. Results generated to date show significant reversion to cultivation, even under the baseline (36% of the total CRP stock by 2020). Implementing the RFS further pressures conservation
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... Committee is to review scientific and medical evidence and to make recommendations to the World Trade Center... Act established within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the World Trade Center (WTC...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... scientific and medical evidence and to make recommendations to the World Trade Center (WTC) Program... within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program, to...
Full Text Available The key objective of agricultural protectionism is reflected in the protection and developing of agriculture sector. Integrated parts of this policy in the European Union are the initial model of agricultural protectionism and a new strategy of agricultural policy, which emerged as a response to the shortcomings of previously existing model. The paper presents the key reforms of agricultural policy, conditioned to internal problems and pressures in the negotiations of trade liberalization of agricultural and food products. Reform solutions for the period of 2014 to the 2020 will have similar goals. The priority will be to develop sustainable food production and sustainable management of natural resources. There is a widespread awareness of sustainable development that includes not only the economic component (which is reflected in the increase in productivity and production efficiency, but also an environmental component (the need to preserve the environment, as well as the social component of sustainable development (integrated rural development. Conducting negotiations in the framework of liberalization of agricultural and food products, there was a gradual reduction of restrictive measures in the field of domestic agriculture protection. However, the European food market is still highly protected from foreign competition because of the many features of the agricultural production sector and the importance of agriculture for the entire society. It is certain that the CAP will lose its narrow agricultural character.
Agricultural TFP in Ethiopia: A Sequential Dynamic. Computable ... Ethiopia. Tel: +251 913317493; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com .... between Morocco and EU, and those of Egypt and EU. They found that trade induced TFP contributes a lot in the reduction of poverty in Morocco and. Egypt.
Erokhin, V.; Ivolga, A.; Heijman, W.J.M.
The paper aims at the overview of the main approaches of state support implemented by developed and developing countries and the assessment of their distorting influences on the trade with agricultural commodities. The current state of state support is analyzed on the examples of EU-27, the USA and
Hoy, John C.
New England is experiencing globalization at a rapid pace, including enrollment of foreign college and university students. If the area is to reap the economic and cultural advantages of foreign enrollment, it must maintain a hospitable climate for both foreign trade and foreign students. This process can be enhanced by the admissions and alumni…
Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen
Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…
This paper describes how the global financial crisis of 2007-2010 impacted trade both globally and more specifically for the European emerging economies, which in terms of GDP decline, were the most negatively impacted economies in the world. Just as with GDP, the trade of the European emerging economies was more severely impacted by the crisis than the trade for other regions of the world; exports for over one half of these economies declined by more than 50 per cent between the third quarte...
Full Text Available The objecti e of this study is to increase our understanding of the specification and estimation of agricultural commodity trade models as well as to provide instruments for trade policy analysis. More specifically,the aim is to build a set of dynamic,theory-based econometric models which are able to capture both short-run and long-run effects of income and price changes,and which can be used for prediction and policy simulation under alternati e assumed conditions.A relati ely unrestricted,data determined,econometric modelling approach based on the error correction mechanism is used,in order to emphasise the importance of dynamics of trade functions.Econometric models are constructed for se en agricultural commodities cassa a,cocoa,coconut oil,palm oil,pepper, rubber,and tea exported from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANto the European Union (EU.With the aim of providing broad commodity co erage,the intent is to explore whether the chosen modelling approach is able to catch the essentials of the behavioural relationships underlying the specialised nature of each commodity market. The import demand analysis of the study examines two key features:(1the response of EU s agricultural commodity imports to income and price changes,and (2the length of time required for this response to occur.The estimations of the export demand relationships provide tests whether the exporters market shares are influenced by the le el of relati e export price,and whether exports are affected by ariations in the rate of growth of imports.The export supply analysis examines the relati e influence of real price and some non-price factors in stimulating the supply of exports.The lag distribution (the shape and length of the lagis found to be ery critical in export supply relationships,since the effects of price changes usually take a long time to work themselves through and since the transmission of the price effects can be complex.The set of
model includes 3 regions: Iran, ECO and CIS countries as commercial partners of Iran, and the rest of the world, 5 production factors: land, skilled labor, unskilled labor, capital, and natural resources, and finally, 3 production sectors: agriculture, industry, and services. Two scenarios are simulated in this study: first, 50 percent imports value tariff reduction, and zero import tax target rate on intermediate goods for agriculture production in Iran is been considering. For the second scenario, we set a zero target rate for all cases mentioned above. It should be noted that according to Social Accounting Matrix gathered for Iran currently, the average tariff rate on imports of agricultural products from selected commercial partners is 27.67 percent and 7.82 percent from Iran to these countries. Results and Discussion: Results showed that 50 percent reduction in tariffs, increases social welfare, while full elimination of agricultural tariffs leads to a loss in welfare. The welfare analysis illustrated that the efficiency of resource allocation in agriculture sector increased in the first scenario, while in the second scenario, the share of efficient allocation of resources in welfare was negative. Despite equal reduction in tariff rate on the value of imports from these countries to Iran and vice versa, trade balance of Iran has been worse, while it was beneficial for trade balance of her commercial partners. However, agricultural sector had positive share in trade balance of Iran, but the negative effect of industrial sector on trade balance, totally, reduced trade balance of Iran in large quantities. The first scenario increased agricultural production, but increased production was lower in the second scenario..However, the industrial sector production was slightly reduced. On the other hand, more production in agriculture lead more production factors demand, such as skilled and unskilled labors, and capital using in this sector. Moreover, price of production
Cai, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, T.
Global food security is constrained by local and regional land and water availability, as well as other agricultural input limitations and inappropriate national and global regulations. In a theoretical context, this study assumes that optimal water and land uses in local food production to maximize food security and social welfare at the global level can be driven by global trade. It follows the context of "virtual resources trade", i.e., utilizing international trade of agricultural commodities to reduce dependency on local resources, and achieves land and water savings in the world. An optimization model based on the partial equilibrium of agriculture is developed for the analysis, including local commodity production and land and water resources constraints, demand by country, and global food market. Through the model, the marginal values (MVs) of social welfare for water and land at the level of so-called food production units (i.e., sub-basins with similar agricultural production conditions) are derived and mapped in the world. In this personation, we will introduce the model structure, explain the meaning of MVs at the local level and their distribution around the world, and discuss the policy implications for global communities to enhance global food security. In particular, we will examine the economic values of water and land under different world targets of food security (e.g., number of malnourished population or children in a future year). In addition, we will also discuss the opportunities on data to improve such global modeling exercises.
Myong Keun Eor
Full Text Available Agricultural production factors, productivity and trade structures of China, Japan and Korea were analyzed. Their agriculture has mutual complementarity arising from differences in factor endowments as well as mutual competitiveness caused by similarities in production structure. Although agriculture of the three countries can be characterized by small-scale farming in common, the capital/labor ratio and the labor/land ratios are much different by country. As a result, Japan and Korea have advantages in producing labor saving and capital intensive products while China has advantages in labor intensive and capital saving products. Since agricultural productivity of factors such as labor, land and capital showed huge differences by country, mutually beneficiary development might be possible through the agricultural cooperation in the Northeast Asian region. Agricultural products of China, Japan and Korea can be classified into two groups of mutually competitive and complementary products. Regional cooperation in agriculture can be vitalized by combining production of mutually competitive products at certain levels in each country with internalizing trade of mutually complementary products. Unfortunately, however, agricultural exports are more and more competitive as the export similarity indices are high and degree of export competition is increasing in the region. For the regional agriculture, sharing markets in the region through establishing complementary systems of utilizing production factors would be better than seeking monopolistic rent or market domination through unlimited competition with each other. Price competition based on the concept of comparative advantage assumes production specialization. However, such kind of competitive advantage is likely to disappear when relative factor prices change as the national economy grows. Consequently, agricultural markets in the region might be dominated by any competitor outside the region. China
Laís Forti Thomaz
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.
MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.
Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.
Full Text Available Financial support, agriculture loan and insurance are the main funding modes for the development of agriculture. This study firstly uses software eviews6.0 to make an analysis of the current state of the Trade between Guangxi and CAFTA, and then makes a study of the data of the funds and the trading volume of Guangxi-ASEAN, and comes to the conclusion that the funds involved has an effect on the trade volume. Generally, government fiscal support curbs the trade while the agricultural loan and the agricultural insurance promote it; however, the case in Guangxi seems the opposite. The trade volume is promoted by government financial support while curbed by loan and insurance.
Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.
The future world market for US-manufactured agricultural aircraft was studied and the technology needs for foreign markets were identified. Special emphasis was placed on the developing country market, but the developed countries and the communist group were also included in the forecasts. Aircraft needs were projected to the year 2000 by a method which accounted for field size, crop production, treated area, productivity, and attrition of the fleet. A special scenario involving a significant shift toward aerial fertilization was also considered. An operations analysis was conducted to compare the relative application costs of various existing and hypothetical future aircraft. A case study was made of Colombia as an example of a developing country in which aviation is emerging as an important industry.
Saracco, Fabio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano
Within the last fifteen years, network theory has been successfully applied both to natural sciences and to socioeconomic disciplines. In particular, bipartite networks have been recognized to provide a particularly insightful representation of many systems, ranging from mutualistic networks in ecology to trade networks in economy, whence the need of a pattern detection-oriented analysis in order to identify statistically-significant structural properties. Such an analysis rests upon the definition of suitable null models, i.e. upon the choice of the portion of network structure to be preserved while randomizing everything else. However, quite surprisingly, little work has been done so far to define null models for real bipartite networks. The aim of the present work is to fill this gap, extending a recently-proposed method to randomize monopartite networks to bipartite networks. While the proposed formalism is perfectly general, we apply our method to the binary, undirected, bipartite representation of the W...
Harrison, D. E.
Multidecadal time series of surface winds from central tropical Pacific islands are used to compute trends in the trade winds between the end of WWII and 1985. Over this period, averaged over the whole region, there is no statistically significant trend in speed or zonal or meridional wind (or pseudostress). However, there is some tendency, within a few degrees of the equator, toward weakening of the easterlies and increased meridional flow toward the equator. Anomalous conditions subsequent to the 1972-73 ENSO event make a considerable contribution to the long-term trends. The period 1974-80 has been noted previously to have been anomalous, and trends over that period are sharply greater than those over the longer records.
Roberts, Peter B.
There is an established framework of international standards for food irradiation covering human health, plant protection, labelling, dose delivery, quality assurance and facility management. Approximately 60 countries permit irradiation of one or more food or food classes. National regulations are briefly reviewed. Decontamination of spices, herbs and condiments remains the single largest application of irradiation. However, in recent years the market for irradiated fresh and processed meat has become firmly established in several countries including China and the USA. At least 10 countries have recently established bi-lateral agreements for trade in irradiated fresh fruits and vegetables using phytosanitary irradiation. Irradiated fresh produce volumes now exceed 20,000 t per year. Rationalization and greater consistency in labelling regulations would be advantageous to the future growth of applications of food irradiation.
Rhodes, Christopher J
The study of soil is a mature science, whereas related practical methods of regenerative agriculture and permaculture are not. However, despite a paucity of detailed peer reviewed research published on these topics, there is overwhelming evidence both that the methods work and they may offer the means to address a number of prevailing environmental challenges, e.g. peak oil, climate change, carbon capture, unsustainable agriculture and food shortages, peak phosphorus (phosphate), water shortages, environmental pollution, desert reclamation, and soil degradation. What is lacking is a proper scientific study, made in hand with actual development projects. By elucidating the scientific basis of these remarkable phenomena, we may obtain the means for solving some of the otherwise insurmountable problems confronting humanity, simply by observing, and working with, the patterns and forces of nature. This article is intended as a call to arms to make serious investment in researching and actualising these methods on a global scale. Despite claims that peak oil is no longer a threat because vast resources of gas and shale oil (tight oil) can now be recovered by fracking (hydraulic fracturing) combined with horizontal drilling, the reality is that proven actual reserves are only adequate to delay the peak by a few years. Furthermore, because of the rapid depletion rates of flow from gas wells and oil wells that are accessed by fracking, it will be necessary to drill continuously and relentlessly to maintain output, and there are material limits of equipment, technology and trained personnel to do this. Moreover, to make any sensible difference to the liquid fuel crisis, which is the most immediate consequence of peak oil, it would be necessary to convert the worlds one billion vehicles to run on natural gas rather than liquid fuels refined from crude oil, and this would take some considerable time and effort. The loss of widespread personalised transportation is thus
Arbenz, Markus; Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Amarjit, Sahota
The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015) Presentations - Introduction (Markus Arbenz) - Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics (Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - The World of Organic Agriculture: Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2015 (Beate Huber, Christiane Mannigel) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Helga Willer) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update...
Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.
China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?
Blanchard, Julia L; Watson, Reg A; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Cottrell, Richard S; Nash, Kirsty L; Bryndum-Buchholz, Andrea; Büchner, Matthias; Carozza, David A; Cheung, William W L; Elliott, Joshua; Davidson, Lindsay N K; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Dunne, John P; Eddy, Tyler D; Galbraith, Eric; Lotze, Heike K; Maury, Olivier; Müller, Christoph; Tittensor, Derek P; Jennings, Simon
Fisheries and aquaculture make a crucial contribution to global food security, nutrition and livelihoods. However, the UN Sustainable Development Goals separate marine and terrestrial food production sectors and ecosystems. To sustainably meet increasing global demands for fish, the interlinkages among goals within and across fisheries, aquaculture and agriculture sectors must be recognized and addressed along with their changing nature. Here, we assess and highlight development challenges for fisheries-dependent countries based on analyses of interactions and trade-offs between goals focusing on food, biodiversity and climate change. We demonstrate that some countries are likely to face double jeopardies in both fisheries and agriculture sectors under climate change. The strategies to mitigate these risks will be context-dependent, and will need to directly address the trade-offs among Sustainable Development Goals, such as halting biodiversity loss and reducing poverty. Countries with low adaptive capacity but increasing demand for food require greater support and capacity building to transition towards reconciling trade-offs. Necessary actions are context-dependent and include effective governance, improved management and conservation, maximizing societal and environmental benefits from trade, increased equitability of distribution and innovation in food production, including continued development of low input and low impact aquaculture.
Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades
Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna
The transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade dispute settlement proceedings to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) of the World Trade Organization represented a notable instance of judicialization within international economic governance, in that it significantly increased...... the independence of the DSM from direct government control. Since they began ruling on trade conflicts in 1995, the WTO’s adjudicative bodies have enjoyed a greater degree of interpretive autonomy than initially intended by states parties. This development largely stems from deadlock within the political organs...
Full Text Available Recent agricultural policy and trade discussions have given increasing attention to “multifunctionality”, the notion, that agriculture provides multiple outputs that include public goods (such as landscape amenities as well as privately traded commodities. A frequent point of contention is also whether payment for the provision of non-commodity outputs distorts trade by giving domestic farmers a competitive advantage over foreign competitors. The paper reviews some requirements for environmental policy design and the role of property rights for the justification of the development of compensation programs targeted to landscape protection. The second part of the paper illustrates the possibilities, how to use results of Contingent Valuation (CV study of landscape amenity benefits of agriculture to prove eligibility for agri-environmental payments in the case of the Protected Landscape Area White Carpathians (Bílé Karpaty. It is documented in the paper, that Contingent Valuation can provide useful information about genuine concern and overall efficiency of compensation programs as well as people’s views about alternative ethical ends, besides human well-being, that policy makers should take in consideration.
Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.
Johnson, M. S.; Speratti, A. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Couto, E. G.
The Amazon region is globally connected through agricultural exports, with the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso in particular emerging as a key node in the global virtual water trade network in recent years, based largely on rainfed agriculture. The anticipated growth in the world's population suggests that virtual water trade will only become more important to global food security. In this presentation we will evaluate strategies for improving the resilience of rainfed agriculture in the region, particularly for the nearly 12 million hectares of sandy soil with low water holding capacity within Mato Grosso that has largely been converted to agricultural use. We will review land use change trajectories and present results from soil water balance modeling and carbon fluxes for a range of future scenarios, including continued agricultural extensification, potential strategies for agricultural intensification, and novel water and carbon management strategies including biochar use in sandy soils to improve soil water holding capacities and soil carbon sequestration. We will also consider the role that irrigation might play in the future in the Amazon for improving agricultural resilience to climate change and feedbacks between irrigation and land use change pressures, noting that groundwater resources in the region are presently among the least exploited on the planet.
Fagiolo, Giorgio; Reyes, Javier; Schiavo, Stefano
This paper studies the statistical properties of the web of import-export relationships among world countries using a weighted-network approach. We analyze how the distributions of the most important network statistics measuring connectivity, assortativity, clustering, and centrality have coevolved over time. We show that all node-statistic distributions and their correlation structure have remained surprisingly stable in the last 20years —and are likely to do so in the future. Conversely, the distribution of (positive) link weights is slowly moving from a log-normal density towards a power law. We also characterize the autoregressive properties of network-statistics dynamics. We find that network-statistics growth rates are well-proxied by fat-tailed densities like the Laplace or the asymmetric exponential power. Finally, we find that all our results are reasonably robust to a few alternative, economically meaningful, weighting schemes.
Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s food prices have been on an upward trend. In the first months of 2011, agricultural commodity prices reached an all-time high, fuelling fears about the imminent outbreak of a new food crisis, similar to the 1973/74 and 2006/08 ones. Behind concerns about increased price levels and volatility in international agricultural commodity markets lie concerns about food security. Hence, the international community is now under pressure to urgently find solutions for tempering strong upward fluctuations in prices for many major food commodities. Trade policy changes are increasingly discussed as a major contributing factor to food price surges. This paper addresses some issues related to the recurrent global food crises from the perspective of trade policy, specifically export restrictions. After a brief review of the fundamental drivers of the upward trend in real food prices (rising global population and income, climate change, high oil prices, increasing cereal use for biofuel production, and financial speculation, it examines the upsurge in agricultural export restrictions over the recent years. Relying on WTO's trade policy monitoring exercise, it highlights typology, motivations and effects of the newly introduced export restrictions, and finds that a major factor behind their recent proliferation is the lack of effective and binding multilateral rules concerning these trade policy instruments. The paper argues that strenghtening and improving WTO's rules and disciplines is essential for mitigating increased price pressure and volatility as well as the associated food security risks. While the issue of export restrictions is currently the topic of discussions under the Doha Round, trade negotiations are in impasse since 2008. Hence, urgent and successful conclusion of the round would be an essential step. In the meanwhile, a closer regular monitoring of all forms of export restrictions would help to provide at least more
Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.; Pradhan, G.C.
in the hinterland. This paper details the excavationfindings such as amphorae, bullion, coins, lamps, pottery, glass 216 Sila Tripati et al. beads from port sites and trade centres of ancient Odisha and theircontacts with the Roman world. Attempts have also been...
Saracco, Fabio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano
In the present paper we employ the theoretical tools developed in network theory, in order to shed light on the response of world wide trade to the financial crisis of 2007. In particular, we have explored the evolution of the bipartite country-product World Trade Web across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behaviour of the system both before and after 2007. Remarkably, our results indicate that, from 2003 on, the abundances of a recently-defined class of bipartite motifs assume values progressively closer to the ones predicted by a null model which preserves only basic features of the observed structure, completely randomizing the rest. In other words, as 2007 approaches the World Trade Web becomes more and more compatible with the picture of a bipartite network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the trends characterizing the z-scores of the considered family of motifs suggest that the most evident modification in the structure of the world trade network ca...
Although footage of the first plane's crash into World Trade Center did not become publicly available until later, the memory of having seen it on September 11, 2001, seem as pervasive as it is obviously false. In the scientific literature, this error has already been documented in several American...
Bejarano Jesús Antonio
Full Text Available This article analyzes the possibilities and characteristics of an
agricultural trade policy for transition, that is, of a policy which
would allow a transition from an agriculture which is protected and isolated from international price signals to an open agriculture capable of competing in the world market. Although trade policy affects all agricultural activity, the emphasis is placed on importable products, which were very protected over several decades and on which the adverse effects of the trade opening have fallen.En este artículo se analizan las probabilidades y características de una política comercial agrícola de transición, es decir, de una política que permita pasar de una agricultura protegida y aislada de las señales de precios internacionales a una agricultura abierta capaz de competir en el mercado mundial. Aunque la política comercial afecta al conjunto de actividad agrícola, el énfasis se centra en los productos importables, que estuvieron protegidos durante varias décadas y sobre los que recayeron los efectos adversos de la apertura comercial.
Bonneuil, Christophe; Levidow, Les
The World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement procedure is a key arena for establishing global legal norms for what counts as relevant knowledge. As a high-profile case, the WTO trade dispute on GMOs mobilized scientific expertise in somewhat novel ways. Early on, the Panel put the dispute under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement through a new legal ontology; it classified transgenes as potential pests and limited all environmental issues to the 'plant and animal health' category. The selection of scientific experts sought a multi-party consensus through a fast adversarial process, reflecting a specific legal epistemology. For the SPS framing, focusing on the defendant's regulatory procedures, the Panel staged scientific expertise in specific ways that set up how experts were questioned, the answers they would give, their specific role in the legal arena, and the way their statements would complement the Panel's findings. In these ways, the dispute settlement procedure co-produced legal and scientific expertise within the Panel's SPS framework. Moreover, the Panel operated a procedural turn in WTO jurisprudence by representing its findings as a purely legal-administrative judgement on whether the EC's regulatory procedures violated the SPS Agreement, while keeping implicit its own judgements on substantive risk issues. As this case illustrates, the WTO settlement procedure mobilizes scientific expertise for sophisticated, multiple aims: it recruits a source of credibility from the scientific arena, thus reinforcing the standard narrative of 'science-based trade discipline', while also constructing new scientific expertise for the main task--namely, challenging trade restrictions for being unduly cautious.
Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel
Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.
Muller, Adrian; Schader, Christian; El-Hage Scialabba, Nadia; Brüggemann, Judith; Isensee, Anne; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Pete; Klocke, Peter; Leiber, Florian; Stolze, Matthias; Niggli, Urs
Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Here we show that a 100% conversion to organic agriculture needs more land than conventional agriculture but reduces N-surplus and pesticide use. However, in combination with reductions of food wastage and food-competing feed from arable land, with correspondingly reduced production and consumption of animal products, land use under organic agriculture remains below the reference scenario. Other indicators such as greenhouse gas emissions also improve, but adequate nitrogen supply is challenging. Besides focusing on production, sustainable food systems need to address waste, crop-grass-livestock interdependencies and human consumption. None of the corresponding strategies needs full implementation and their combined partial implementation delivers a more sustainable food future.
Huanqin, Wu; Yasheng, Jin; Yugang, Dai
Under the current situation where Internet technology develops rapidly, mobile E-commerce technology has brought great convenience to our life. Now, the graphical user interface (GUI) of most E-commerce platforms only supports Chinese. Thus, the development of Android client of E-commerce that supports ethnic languages owns a great prospect. The principle that combines front end design and database technology is adopted in this paper to construct the Android client system of E-commerce platforms that supports ethnic languages, which realizes the displaying, browsing, querying, searching, trading and other functions of ethnic characteristic agricultural products on android platforms.
Hoppe, K.; Rodgers, G. J.
Previous studies have suggested that the world-trade network belongs to the class of static hidden variable models. In this article we investigate the microscopic structure of the world trade network, that is the hidden variable correlation matrix of the network. The hidden variable is defined as a rank ordering of gross domestic products. This choice significantly reduces the noise in the statistical analysis found in previous studies. The hidden variable correlation matrix, that expresses the probability that a trade relationship between two countries of given fitness exists, suggests an attachment kernel that at least partially favours trading pairs or dissimilar fitness rather than the purely multiplicative one found previously. Additionally, we provide an in-depth look at the data source and reveal that first-order results, such as the degree distribution, exhibit significant qualitative differences depending on the data provider. Furthermore, we shed light on the intertemporal activity of international trade and point out that fluctuations occur mostly between countries with strong dissimilarities of fitness and connectivity.
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific.... Purpose: The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to review scientific and medical evidence and to make recommendations to the World Trade Center (WTC) Program Administrator regarding additional WTC Health Program...
... Serve on the World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (the STAC or the... soliciting nominations for membership on the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program Scientific/Technical... Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (STAC). The STAC is governed by the provisions of the Federal...
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific... at 42 U.S.C. 300mm-300mm-61. Purpose: The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to review scientific and medical evidence and to make recommendations to the World Trade Center (WTC) Program Administrator...
Heijman, Wim; Gardebroek, Koos; Os, van Wouter
We study the economic impact of world trade on the throughput in the Port of Rotterdam and the regional economy of Rotterdam-Rijnmond. We use a two-step approach. In the first step we analyze the relationship between world trade and the port's throughput. In the second step we deal with the
... disruption, as a 9/11 exposure, could be associated with breast cancer.\\3\\ For that reason, the Administrator... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 88 World Trade Center Health Program; Certification of Breast Cancer in WTC... Federal Register adding certain types of cancer to the List of World Trade Center (WTC)-Related Health...
Dalin, C.; Wada, Y.; Kastner, T.; Puma, M. J.
Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming groundwater depletion over the world. This is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but the connections with their main driver, global food consumption, have not yet been explored. We provide the first quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world's food trade by combining unique global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction with international food trade. We show that approximately ten percent of non-renewable groundwater irrigation use is embedded in food trade, of which two thirds are exported by Pakistan, the United States and India alone. A vast majority of the world's population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting unsustainablility of global food production and water use. Groups of countries are found particularly exposed to decreased food supply as they both produce and import food irrigated from quickly depleting aquifers. Figure caption: Embedded groundwater depletion in international trade of crop commodities in 2010 (km3/y). Large importing nations are shown in bold, italic font and large exporters in bold, underlined font. Ribbons' colors indicate the country of export. Note that, for clarity, we only display the links with a weight of at least 1% that of the largest link.
Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander
An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.
Luis R Carrasco
Full Text Available Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.
Carrasco, Luis R; Webb, Edward L; Symes, William S; Koh, Lian P; Sodhi, Navjot S
Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs) and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.
Sarah P. Church
Full Text Available The Midwestern United States experienced a devastating drought in 2012, leading to reduced corn and soybean yields and increased instances of pests and disease. Climate change induced weather variability and extremes are expected to increase in the future, and have and will continue to impact the agricultural sector. This study investigated how agricultural trade publications portrayed the 2012 U.S. Midwestern drought, whether climate change was associated with drought, and whether these publications laid out transformative adaptation measures farmers could undertake in order to increase their adaptive capacity for future climate uncertainty. We performed a content analysis of 1000 media reports between April 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014, sampled from ten agricultural trade publications. The results lead us to suggest that trade publications’ 2012 U.S. Midwestern drought discussion lacked information that would allow farmers and agricultural advisors to assess climate change risk and subsequent potential adaptive management strategies. Agricultural risk from climate change is very real, and farmers will need to adapt. The agricultural trade publications studied missed an opportunity to convey risk from climate change and the transformative adaptation practices necessary for a sustainable and resilient agricultural system.
Biesecker, Leslie G; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Ballantyne, Jack; Baum, Howard; Bieber, Frederick R; Brenner, Charles; Budowle, Bruce; Butler, John M; Carmody, George; Conneally, P Michael; Duceman, Barry; Eisenberg, Arthur; Forman, Lisa; Kidd, Kenneth K; Leclair, Benoit; Niezgoda, Steven; Parsons, Thomas J; Pugh, Elizabeth; Shaler, Robert; Sherry, Stephen T; Sozer, Amanda; Walsh, Anne
The attack on the World Trade Center on 9/11/2001 challenged current approaches to forensic DNA typing methods. The large number of victims and the extreme thermal and physical conditions of the site necessitated special approaches to the DNA-based identification. Because of these and many additional challenges, new procedures were created or modified from routine forensic protocols. This effort facilitated the identification of 1594 of the 2749 victims. In this Policy Forum, the authors, who were were members of the World Trade Center Kinship and Data Analysis Panel, review the lessons of the attack response from the perspective of DNA forensic identification and suggest policies and procedures for future mass disasters or large-scale terrorist attacks.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of two nowadays existing global regulatory systems of the world maritime transport sector on international shipping industry and global trade development. The author has focused on the characterization of the autonomous regulatory system represented in this sector by freight market with typical for it mechanism as well as on public regulatory system expressed in form of the existing international regulatory scheme introduced by IMO and other international organizations. Both regulatory mechanisms has been analyzed and viewed in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of their influence upon shipping industry and global commodity markets. At the end, the results of functioning of both regulatory subsystems have been assessed with the aim to indicate how they are able to create growth potential for the world maritime transport and trade sector as well as the global economy.
Gross, Raz; Neria, Yuval; Tao, Xuguang Grant; Massa, Jennifer; Ashwell, Leslie; Davis, Kathleen; Geyh, Alison
We assessed the health of workers exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) site and of a comparison group of unexposed workers, by means of a mail survey. Exposed workers reported higher frequency of symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and other psychological problems, approximately 20 months after the disaster. PTSD was positively associated with traumatic on-site experiences and with respiratory problems. These findings may have important clinical and public health implications.
The statistical addendum to the main review document (Energy/WP.1/GE.2/R.5) contains data on figures for demand, production, imports and exports of coal received from coal-producing countries in response to questionnaires. It presents tables of compiled data for world coal trade up to the year 2010 on consumption, production, imports, exports and demand by country and by regions. Finally, data for production, consumption, imports and exports are given. 11 figs., 13 tabs.
Eagar, Thomas W.; Musso, Christopher
There have been numerous reports detailing the cause of the World Trade Center Tower collapse on September 11, 2001. Most have provided qualitative explanations; however, simple quantitative analyses show that some common conclusions are incorrect; for example, the steel could not melt in these flames and there was more structural damage than merely softening of the steel at elevated temperatures. Some guidelines for improvements in future structures are presented.
Gershon, Robyn R M; Rubin, Marcie S; Qureshi, Kristine A; Canton, Allison N; Matzner, Frederick J
Participatory action research (PAR) methodology is an effective tool in identifying and implementing risk-reduction interventions. It has been used extensively in occupational health research, but not, to our knowledge, in disaster research. A PAR framework was incorporated into the World Trade Center evacuation study, which was designed to identify the individual, organizational, and structural (environmental) factors that affected evacuation from the World Trade Center Towers 1 and 2 on September 11, 2001. PAR teams-comprising World Trade Center evacuees, study investigators, and expert consultants-worked collaboratively to develop a set of recommendations designed to facilitate evacuation from high-rise office buildings and reduce risk of injury among evacuees. Two PAR teams worked first separately and then collectively to identify data-driven strategies for improvement of high-rise building evacuation. The teams identified interventions targeting individual, organizational, and structural (environmental) barriers to safe and rapid evacuation. PAR teams were effective in identifying numerous feasible and cost-effective strategies for improvement of high-rise emergency preparedness and evacuation. This approach may have utility in other workplace disaster prevention planning and response programs.
Huyck, Charles K.; Adams, Beverley J.; Kehrlein, David I.
Remote sensing technology has been widely recognized for contributing to emergency response efforts after the World Trade Center attack on September 11th, 2001. The need to coordinate activities in the midst of a dense, yet relatively small area, made the combination of imagery and mapped data strategically useful. This paper reviews the role played by aerial photography, satellite imagery, and LIDAR data at Ground Zero. It examines how emergency managers utilized these datasets, and identifies significant problems that were encountered. It goes on to explore additional ways in which imagery could have been used, while presenting recommendations for more effective use in future disasters and Homeland Security applications. To plan adequately for future events, it was important to capture knowledge from individuals who responded to the World Trade Center attack. In recognition, interviews with key emergency management and geographic information system (GIS) personnel provide the basis of this paper. Successful techniques should not be forgotten, or serious problems dismissed. Although widely used after September 11th, it is important to recognize that with better planning, remote sensing and GIS could have played an even greater role. Together with a data acquisition timeline, an expanded discussion of these issues is available in the MCEER/NSF report “Emergency Response in the Wake of the World Trade Center Attack; The Remote Sensing Perspective” (Huyck and Adams, 2002)
This study examines agricultural trade flows around the Mediterranean basin and gives insights on the likely impacts of agricultural policy reforms on the Mediterranean agriculture. Currently trade relationships are characterised by complexity due to the numerous bilateral regional trade agreements between the Mediterranean countries. The most important of them are the Euro-Med Agreements also known also as Barcelona Agreement an initiative of the EU which started in 1995 and aims to esta...
Rochin, Refugio I.
Argues that Hispanic-Americans can find reason for pride and positive self-images in their cultural heritage and contributions to California agriculture. Traces history of foods and plant propagation in Mesoamerica. Discusses corn, vanilla, chocolate, chiles, tomatoes, and other foods significant for their culinary legacy. (CH)
The model of intensification that is deeply rooted in the mind of scientists from the green revolution generation is obsolete. We need to think outside the box. Agriculture needs knowledge-intensive management systems to improve food security and incomes in the South, and to reduce the dependence on
Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Lei, Jiaqiang; Sun, Huaiwei; Zeng, Fanjiang; Feng, Xinlong
Agriculture and the eco-environment are increasingly competing for water. The extension of intensive farmland for ensuring food security has resulted in excessive water exploitation by agriculture. Consequently, this has led to a lack of water supply in natural ecosystems. This paper proposes a trade-off framework to coordinate the water-use conflict between agriculture and the eco-environment, based on economic compensation for irrigation stakeholders. A hybrid Bayesian network (HBN) is developed to implement the framework, including: (a) agricultural water shortage assessments after meeting environmental flows; (b) water-use tradeoff analysis between agricultural irrigation and environmental flows using the HBN; and (c) quantification of the agricultural economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The constructed HBN is computed by dynamic discretization, which is a more robust and accurate propagation algorithm than general static discretization. A case study of the Qira oasis area in Northwest China demonstrates that the water trade-off based on economic compensation depends on the available water supply and environmental flows at different levels. Agricultural irrigation water extracted for grain crops should be preferentially guaranteed to ensure food security, in spite of higher economic compensation in other cash crops' irrigation for water coordination. Updating water-saving engineering and adopting drip irrigation technology in agricultural facilities after satisfying environmental flows would greatly relieve agricultural water shortage and save the economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The approach in this study can be easily applied in water-stressed areas worldwide for dealing with water competition.
M. SADIK ACAR
Full Text Available There has been a controversy between the theses of “liberalism” and “interventionism” in the history. Although the original aim was liberalism, the final outcome of today’s globalism is the interventionism. Since the theories grounded on the existence of liberalism, interventionism was assumed to be an exceptional circumstance. In today’s terminology, the term of liberalisation is replaced by globalisation. While liberalism base on the grounds of free movement of goods and services, “globalisation” is commonly used to address the ability of free movement of “financial capital”. Trade, in the history, has had a role in shaping countries’ foreign policy. Recent developments in today’s world are the evidence of this fact. The main reason of the USA’s ongoing insistance on the Iraq issue is the accumulation of the rents in the hands of Far East countries. This is due to the fact that the trade activities in the field of Atlantic Ocean reduced, while trade within the Pasific Ocean countries increased. Thus, Europe wishes to approach to trade in the Far East via the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The USA on the other hand tries to control those regions for the same reason. Turkey, here, has an importance arising from her geographical situation.
Full Text Available The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.
Dmitry S. Kudryavtsev
Full Text Available This article consideres influence on small and medium enterprises of membership of the Russian Federation in the World Trade Organization. SWOT matrix is offered as the tool of the analysis risk.
Chiarucci, Riccardo; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Loffredo, Maria I.
In a spatially embedded network, that is a network where nodes can be uniquely determined in a system of coordinates, links’ weights might be affected by metric distances coupling every pair of nodes (dyads). In order to assess to what extent metric distances affect relationships (link’s weights) in a spatially embedded network, we propose a methodology based on DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis). DFA is a well developed methodology to evaluate autocorrelations and estimate long-range behavior in time series. We argue it can be further extended to spatially ordered series in order to assess autocorrelations in values. A scaling exponent of 0.5 (uncorrelated data) would thereby signal a perfect homogeneous space embedding the network. We apply the proposed methodology to the World Trade Web (WTW) during the years 1949-2000 and we find, in some contrast with predictions of gravity models, a declining influence of distances on trading relationships.
Chiarucci, Riccardo; Loffredo, Maria
In a spatially embedded network, that is a network where nodes can be uniquely determined in a system of coordinates, links' weights might be affected by metric distances coupling every pair of nodes (dyads). In order to assess to what extent metric distances affect relationships (link's weights) in a spatially embedded network, we propose a methodology based on DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis). DFA is a well developed methodology to evaluate autocorrelations and estimate long-range behaviour in time series. We argue it can be further extended to spatially ordered series in order to assess autocorrelations in values. A scaling exponent of 0.5 (uncorrelated data) would thereby signal a perfect homogeneous space embedding the network. We apply the proposed methodology to the World Trade Web (WTW) during the years 1949-2000 and we find, in some contrast with predictions of gravity models, a declining influence of distances on trading relationships.
The expected growth of world coal demand during the next 15 years will be weaker than earlier anticipated. Europe`s import demand will also decrease, despite declining coal production in Europe. European hard coal demand is estimated to rise by about 70 million tonnes (Mt) in the 20 years 1990-2010, while hard coal production is likely to fall by 220 Mt. The reasons are mainly due to industrial restructuring, technological changes implying increased energy efficiency and a continuous switch to other fuels such as gas and oil. The economic transition in central and eastern European countries will also lead to restructuring of their production towards industries with less coal input. Asia will probably replace Europe as the world`s largest coal consuming and importing region, its increasing demand will be met by own production, trade within Asia and imports mainly from Australia. By 2000, global coal trade is expected to reach 515 Mt; until 2010 it may grow to 566 Mt as compared to 400 Mt in 1990. 21 refs., 1 tab.
Difede, JoAnn; Hoffman, Hunter G
Done properly by experienced therapists, re-exposure to memories of traumatic events via imaginal exposure therapy can lead to a reduction of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Exposure helps the patient process and habituate to memories and strong emotions associated with the traumatic event: memories and emotions they have been carefully avoiding. But many patients are unwilling or unable to self-generate and re-experience painful emotional images. The present case study describes the treatment of a survivor of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack of 9-11-01 who had developed acute PTSD. After she failed to improve with traditional imaginal exposure therapy, we sought to increase emotional engagement and treatment success using virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy. Over the course of six 1-h VR exposure therapy sessions, we gradually and systematically exposed the PTSD patient to virtual planes flying over the World Trade Center, jets crashing into the World Trade Center with animated explosions and sound effects, virtual people jumping to their deaths from the burning buildings, towers collapsing, and dust clouds. VR graded exposure therapy was successful for reducing acute PTSD symptoms. Depression and PTSD symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale indicated a large (83%) reduction in depression, and large (90%) reduction in PTSD symptoms after completing VR exposure therapy. Although case reports are scientifically inconclusive by nature, these strong preliminary results suggest that VR exposure therapy is a promising new medium for treating acute PTSD. This study may be examined in more detail at www.vrpain.com.
V. S. Shlik
Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of the China’s membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO. The advantages and disadvantages of WTO joining and also prospects and unforeseen difficulties are given in the paper. The People’s Republic of China has already been a full-member of WTO for 6 years. The Chinese Government has mainly fulfilled all the conditions which were imposed for WTO joining. They concerned customs legislation that presupposed a considerable reduction of custom duties, an access to the service market for foreign investors, an increase of responsibility for violation of intellectual property rights. Many of these conditions have been fulfilled in advance.
Tinghui, Xin; Wegener, Malcolm K.; O'Shea, Michael; Deling, Ma
Neem is regarded as a promising tree species which can be utilized in various ways to benefit agricultural communities throughout the world. Scientists and entrepreneurs are paying considerable attention to its potential value as a source of biopesticides through extracts from neem seeds, bark, and wood. Azadiraction the most important active compound from neem seeds and other plant parts has natural insecticidal properties and may be a potential substitute for synthetic pesticides which are ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Agriculture as one of old sectors of economy has been important role in the supply food for peoples and raw materials. Globalization causes rapid growth of world trade and reduces information and communications costs. Globalization and rapid growth of trade increases the potential benefits of trade for agriculture from various aspects. The potential benefits of trade for agriculture increases from three aspects. Direct increase in the domain of agricultural sector activities for competition in the global market results in the benefits of access to global markets. This is especially true in cases where there is comparative advantage and the indirect effects of increased global trade on non-agricultural sectors that cause the domestic demand for food change from qualitative and quantitative aspects, are the benefits of this event. However, during the process of globalization, how to influence prices in different markets, including the impact of world prices on domestic prices is an important issue in trade policy analysis. During this process domestic prices are directly related to world prices. With this approach, the main objective of this study is to examine the effect of world price transfers to domestic markets for sensitive and certain agricultural products in Iran during 1360-91. Materials and Methods: To achieve this goal in this study, the Armington and the foreign currency elasticity of ten selected agricultural products in Iran including wheat, barley, rice, corn, soybean meal, vegetable oil (soybean and sunflower, sugar, eggs, poultry and beef, have been estimated and examined using Autoregressive Distribution lag Model (ARDL. In order to investigate speed of adjustment or in other words the speed of movement towards equilibrium, typically the error correction model (ECM is used. Existence of cointegration or in other words, long term relationship between a set of economic variables provide the basis for the use of error
Full Text Available The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF or the World Bank. This does not mean, however, that the WTO has no autonomous powers at all. This contribution attempts to make clear what these activities are and how they may affect the protection of human rights. The implementation of good governance principles in international organisations can be considered a sine qua non for the realisation of human rights. Therefore, it will be examined what role the principles of good governance plays within the WTO. More specifically, the focus will be on how the good governance principles of transparency and participation can contribute to sensitising the organisation for human rights considerations.
McCabe, B.; Kovach, J.; Carpenter, C.; Blair, D.
In response to the attack of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) National Hazmat Program (OENHP) assembled and deployed a HAZMAT Emergency Management Team (Team) to the disaster site (Site). The response team consisted of a Certified Industrial Hygienist and a rotating team of industrial hygienists, safety professionals, and certified HAZMAT instructors. Through research funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the IUOE conducted human factors assessments on baseline and innovative technologies during real-world conditions and served as an advocate at the WTC disaster site to identify opportunities for the use and evaluation of DOE technologies. From this work, it is clear that opportunities exist for more DOE technologies to be made readily available for use in future emergencies.
Deguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Katsuhide; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako
We investigate the economic hubs and authorities of the world trade network (WTN) from to , an era of rapid economic globalization. Using a well-defined weighted hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS) algorithm, we can calculate the values of the weighted HITS hub and authority for each country in a conjugate way. In the context of the WTN, authority values are large for countries with significant imports from large hub countries, and hub values are large for countries with significant exports to high-authority countries. The United States was the largest economic authority in the WTN from to . The authority value of the United States has declined since , and China has now become the largest hub in the WTN. At the same time, China's authority value has grown as China is transforming itself from the “factory of the world” to the “market of the world.” European countries show a tendency to trade mostly within the European Union, which has decreased Europe's hub and authority values. Japan's authority value has increased slowly, while its hub value has declined. These changes are consistent with Japan's transition from being an export-driven economy in its high economic growth era in the latter half of the twentieth century to being a more mature, economically balanced nation. PMID:25050940
Saracco, Fabio; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano
Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008–2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995–2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles. PMID:27461469
Saracco, Fabio; di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano
Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008-2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles.
Stein, Cheryl R; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Shapiro, Moshe; Hashim, Dana; Moline, Jacqueline M; Udasin, Iris; Crane, Michael A; Luft, Benjamin J; Lucchini, Roberto G; Holden, William L
Rescue and recovery workers responding to the 2001 collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) sustained exposures to toxic chemicals and have elevated rates of multiple morbidities. Using data from the World Trade Center Health Program and the National Death Index for 2002-2011, we examined standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR) with indirect standardization for age, sex, race, and calendar year to the U.S. general population, as well as associations between WTC-related environmental exposures and all-cause mortality. We identified 330 deaths among 28,918 responders (SMR 0.43, 95%CI 0.39-0.48). No cause-specific SMRs were meaningfully elevated. PCMRs were elevated for neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (PCMR 1.76, 95%CI 1.06-2.75). Mortality hazard ratios showed no linear trend with exposure. Consistent with a healthy worker effect, all-cause mortality among responders was not elevated. There was no clear association between intensity and duration of exposure and mortality. Surveillance is needed to monitor the proportionally higher cancer mortality attributed to lymphatic/hematopoietic neoplasms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stein, Cheryl R; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Shapiro, Moshe; Hashim, Dana; Moline, Jacqueline M; Udasin, Iris; Crane, Michael A; Luft, Benjamin J; Lucchini, Roberto G; Holden, William L
Background Rescue and recovery workers responding to the 2001 collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) sustained exposures to toxic chemicals and have elevated rates of multiple morbidities. Methods Using data from the World Trade Center Health Program and the National Death Index for 2002 – 2011, we examined standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and proportional cancer mortality ratios (PCMR) with indirect standardization for age, sex, race, and calendar year to the U.S. general population, as well as associations between WTC-related environmental exposures and all-cause mortality. Results We identified 330 deaths among 28,918 responders (SMR 0.43, 95% CI 0.39 – 0.48). No cause-specific SMRs were meaningfully elevated. PCMRs were elevated for neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (PCMR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06 – 2.75). Mortality hazard ratios showed no linear trend with exposure. Conclusions Consistent with a healthy worker effect, all-cause mortality among responders was not elevated. There was no clear association between intensity and duration of exposure and mortality. Surveillance is needed to monitor the proportionally higher cancer mortality attributed to lymphatic/hematopoietic neoplasms. PMID:26727695
The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.
Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operating in Africa and Asia, especially in India, Uganda and Mexico. In 2010, organic food sales accounted for Euro 44.5 Billions of which 50 % in Europe. In the same year, the organic agriculture area increased by 20 % in the EU-27 and reached 9.01 million ha and continues to grow, representing 5.10 % of agricultural land. The larges areas in organic agriculture are in Spain, Italy, Germany and France. In the EU-27 there are 219,290 organic producers of which 40 % in Italy, Spain, Germany and Austria. In 2010, Romania’s area in organic agriculture was 300,205 ha, 2 times higher than in 2006. A number of 10,253 organic operators were registered in 2010, representing 4.67 %, of the EU number. The main organic products are cereals, vegetables, wine, honey, dairy products, representing a chance for Romania’s export on the EU market.
This paper argues that to reconcile the objectives of free trade and environmental protection, limited reforms of international trade law are required. There is a need to guarantee, first, that universally accepted international environmental agreements that mandate trade-restrictions remain compatible with international trade law, in particular with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Second, it is necessary to ensure that the interests of small and vulnerable states are protected against environmental unilateralism of the major trading nations. This reform agenda could be realized, it is argued, through an authoritative interpretation of international trade law by the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This interpretation should stipulate that environmentally-motivated trade restrictions which are related to processes and production methods, and which are intended to protect environmental goods outside the importing country, be compatible with WTO law, but only if mandated by international environmental agreements that have been previously accepted by the Ministerial Conference. This paper outlines the rationale for such authoritative interpretation and offers a possible legal draft. This clarification of the relationship between international environmental and international trade law would protect the sovereign right of smaller trading nations, particularly developing countries, to enact their own environmental standards as may be appropriate and feasible according to their specific situation. It would also maintain the supremacy of multilateralism in both international trade and environmental policies, as opposed to unilateral action. The principle of international co-operation and the rule of law would be strengthened, and attempts to use the international trade system for the enforcement of unilaterally decided environmental standards would be precluded. (orig.)
Budde, Michael E.; Rowland, James; Funk, Christopher C.
For one-sixth of the world’s population - roughly 1 billion children, women and men - growing, buying or receiving adequate, affordable food to eat is a daily uncertainty. The World Monetary Fund reports that food prices worldwide increased 43 percent in 2007-2008, and unpredictable growing conditions make subsistence farming, on which many depend, a risky business. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are part of a network of both private and government institutions that monitor food security in many of the poorest nations in the world.
Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests.
Rahatesa, Queenta; Pahlawan, Indra
World Trade Organization (WTO) is an International organization that specializes in trade between countries. In 2007, the Australian government had stopped importing New Zealand apples because they had some harmful bacteria there upon New Zealand reported it to the WTO organization.The method used in this research is qualitative research. The data obtained comes from books, journals, theses, documents, articles, internet sites and other sources related to this research. The research accentuat...
programs are proving beneficial. Programs such as GSP, the Andean Trade Preference Act, and the Carribean Basin Initiative may protect and promote the ...Order Code RL34106 U.S. Clothing and Textile Trade with China and the World: Trends Since the End of Quotas July 10, 2007 Michael F. Martin Analyst... the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data
Brückner, G K
The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.
Kim, Hyun; Baron, Sherry; Baidwan, Navneet K; Schwartz, Adam; Moline, Jacqueline
Despite the high rates, the consequences of new onset asthma among the World Trade Center (WTC) responders in terms of the change in job status have not been studied. This study consists of a cohort of 8132 WTC responders out of the total 25 787 responders who held a full-time job at the baseline visit, and participated in at least one follow-up visit. Overall, 34% of the study cohort changed their job status from full-time at a follow-up visit. Multivariable models showed that asthmatics were respectively 27% and 47% more likely to have any job status change and get retired, and twice as likely to become disabled as compared to non-asthmatics. With asthma incidence from WTC exposure, negative job status change should be considered as a potential long-term consequence of WTC exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meeker, Gregory P.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Lowers, Heather; Bern, Amy M.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Clark, Roger N.; Gent, Carol A.
The major inorganic components of the dusts generated from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings on September 11, 2001 were concrete materials, gypsum, and man-made vitreous fibers. These components were likely derived from lightweight Portland cement concrete floors, gypsum wallboard, and spray-on fireproofing and ceiling tiles, respectively. All of the 36 samples collected by the USGS team had these materials as the three major inorganic components of the dust. Components found at minor and trace levels include chrysotile asbestos, lead, crystalline silica, and particles of iron and zinc oxides. Other heavy metals, such as lead, bismuth, copper, molybdenum, chromium, and nickel, were present at much lower levels occurring in a variety of chemical forms. Several of these materials have health implications based on their chemical composition, morphology, and bioaccessibility.
Hoven, Christina W; Duarte, Cristiane S; Mandell, Donald J
This paper summarizes the results of systematic studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1999 to 2002 addressing post-traumatic stress reactions in children after mass disasters. Children's post-traumatic reactions are considered in five different contexts--natural disasters, large-scale human-induced accidents, spree shootings, war, and terrorism. Association of these reactions with gender and age, as well as longitudinal course, is addressed. Other post-traumatic reactions in children after a mass disaster, as well as the comorbidity of these with stress reactions, are reported. With this as background, the most relevant epidemiologic investigations conducted after the World Trade Center attacks are then described. It is expected that new knowledge in the area of children's post-traumatic reactions to disasters will result from the research initiatives launched after September 11, 2001.
London, Douglas S; Stoll, Andrew L; Manning, Bruce B
Modernization of agricultural systems to increase output causes changes to the nutritional content of food entire populations consume. Human nutritional needs differ from their "food", thus producing healthy agricultural products is not equivalent to providing agricultural products that are healthy for humans. Inclusion of the food production system as a factor in the increase of neuropsychiatric disorders and other chronic diseases helps explain negative trends in modern chronic diseases that remain unchecked despite stunning advances in modern medicine. Diseases in which our own technology plays a significant role include obesity and resulting disorders, such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and arthritis. Modernization's lure leads to importation of modern agricultural practices into a nutritionally vulnerable, malnourished and sometimes starving developing world. Wealthier nations hedge their food portfolio by having access to a wider variety of foods. The developing world's reliance on staple foods means even a minor widespread nutritional modification of one key food can have profound effects. New agricultural techniques may improve or exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders through nutritional modification in regions where populations walk a nutritional tightrope with little margin for error. In most of the developing world western psychiatric interventions have failed to make inroads. People's consumption of fish has a demonstrated beneficial effect on their mental health and the omega-3 fatty acid content is a significant factor. Epidemiological, biological and agricultural studies implicate a lack of dietary omega-3s as a factor in certain mental disorders. Replenishing omega-3s has improved mental illnesses in controlled clinical trials. This article's detailed tilapia fish-farming model demonstrates how aquaculture/agriculture techniques can function as a public health intervention by increasing dietary omega-3s through creation of
Full Text Available In modern conditions, characterized by the growing importance of foreign trade between the countries, relations of a country with international environment play an increasingly important role in economic development. Over the last decade the process of economic integration through the removal of barriers for the free movement of goods, services, money and people has improved job creation and economic growth. From economic cooperation with foreign countries should expect positive effects on the economy of the state if the external economic factor used in accordance with the plans and programs of economic development of a country. Thereto, there are social forces that can decide relatively independently to all elements of internal development and cooperation with foreign countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the CEFTA 2006 on the foreign trade of agricultural products in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this respect it may be noted that foreign trade of agricultural products has an impact on the agricultural sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Paris Agreement implies that comprehensive policies aimed at climate smart agriculture, i.e., reducing emissions from agriculture, increasing sequestration through agriculture and land use, and increasing resilience of the agricultural sector need to be developed and implemented soon. This
Khoi, Nguyen; THUY LE THI THANH
Green barriers can produce both positive and negative impact on international trade. However, the number of these barriers keeps growing without any monitoring system. This research will analyse the impacts of green trade barriers on Vietnam and European Union trade relationship. The study presents an important observation: the requirements to upgrade technology to meet exactly the technical regulations and expenditure for conformity assessment actually increase the production costs for small...
Jadin, Isaline; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Zamora Pereira, Juan; Lambin, Eric
International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry ...
Jansen, K.; Brouwer, R.
In Third World agricultural research of household-managed production units, the systems approach is applied in the form of Farming Systems Research (FSR). Several authors reviewed here have criticized the way in which this is done. It appears that most of them neglect the fact that most FSR belongs
Wolf, Edward C.
After 20 years, the "green revolution" is generally referred to as a milestone in the international agricultural movement. The introduction of new varieties of wheat and rice, along with fertilizers, pesticides, and mechanized farm equipment has produced a dramatic increase in world food production. This paper assesses the successes of…
Living germplasm collections representing world diversity of pear (Pyrus L.) are maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Flow cytometry was performed on young leaf tissue from 1,284 genebank accessions to assess p...
Williams, Gary W.
Historical events have set the stage for the current U.S. agricultural export performance. Agricultural exports in the early 1990s were as large or larger relative to the size of the agricultural sector than at any time since. A dramatic decrease in net farm income was caused by the Great Depression (1929-1932). Following passage of the…
Ramirez Nunez, Humberto; Robledo Vera, Humberto [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
In conforming the project of measuring the electric power for the World Trade Center of Mexico City, the use of top technology has been considered that in its field represents the application for the first time in our country the automatic reading of the electric energy meters. In this paper the network for the supply of electric power to the World Trade Center is described as well as the measuring systems of this building and mention is made of the characteristics of the system components and the advantages of remote reading. General data is provided on this collection of buildings, the connections in its tower and a feeding one line diagram of the tower itself [Espanol] En la conformacion del proyecto de medicion de la energia electrica para el edificio World Trade Center de la Ciudad de Mexico, se ha considerado el uso de tecnologia de punta que en su campo representa la aplicacion por primera vez en nuestro pais de la lectura automatica de medidores de energia electrica. En esta ponencia se describen la red de suministro al World Trade Center, los sistemas de medicion de este edificio y se mencionan las caracteristicas de los componentes del sistema y las ventajas de las lecturas remotas. Se proporciona datos generales sobre el conjunto de este edificio, las derivaciones en su torre y un diagrama unifilar de alimentacion de la torre del mismo
Villa, Daniel L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The World Water and Agriculture Model has been used to simulate water, hydropower, and food sector effects in Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia during the filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This unique capability allows tradeoffs to be made between filling policies for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam reservoir. This Nile River Basin study is presented to illustrate the capacity to use the World Water and Agriculture Model to simulate regional food security issues while keeping a global perspective. The study uses runoff data from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 and information from the literature in order to establish a reasonable set of hydrological initial conditions. Gross Domestic Product and population growth are modelled exogenously based on a composite projection of United Nations and World Bank data. The effects of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam under various percentages of water withheld are presented.
Kanter, David R.; Musumba, Mark; Wood, Sylvia L.R.; Palm, Cheryl; Antle, John; Balvanera, Patricia; Dale, Virginia H.; Havlik, Petr; Kline, Keith L.; Scholes, R.J.; Thornton, Philip; Tittonell, Pablo; Andelman, Sandy
A vibrant, resilient and productive agricultural sector is fundamental to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Bringing about such a transformation requires optimizing a range of agronomic, environmental and socioeconomic outcomes from agricultural systems – from crop yields, to
Rita María Del Río-Chanona
Full Text Available The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.
Del Río-Chanona, Rita María; Grujić, Jelena; Jeldtoft Jensen, Henrik
The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree) and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.
In 2005, the Economic Union of West African States (ECOWAS) decided to create a common agricultural policy (ECOWAP), with food sovereignty and the promotion of efficient family farms as its main aims. The structure and instruments of the policy still have to be elaborated. Because the ECOWAS
Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; deJeu, Richard; Kempler, Steve
The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. The goal of the current project is to improve WAOB estimates by integrating NASA satellite precipitation and soil moisture observations into WAOB's decision making environment. Precipitation (Level 3 gridded) is from the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). Soil moisture (Level 2 swath and Level 3 gridded) is generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and operationally produced by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GBS DISC). A root zone soil moisture (RZSM) product is also generated, via assimilation of the Level 3 LPRM data by a land surface model (part of a related project). Data services to be available for these products include GeoTIFF, GDS (GrADS Data Server), WMS (Web Map Service), WCS (Web Coverage Service), and NASA Giovanni. Project benchmarking is based on retrospective analyses of WAOB analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns and estimated crop yields. An analog index (AI) was developed to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. Results thus far show that crop yield estimates derived from TMPA precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface-based precipitation measurements. Work is continuing to include LPRM surface soil moisture data and model-assimilated RZSM.
This research is to establish a baseline and on-going measurement of border crossing times and : delay by measuring travel times for commercial trucks crossing the port of entry (POE) from : Mexico into Texas at the Laredo World Trade Bridge and the ...
Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark
We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.
Following the collapse of the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2001, New York State and Federal agencies initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the ongoing impact of emissions from the disaster. This report focuses on these air measurement da...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory Committee), National Institute for Occupational Safety...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention World Trade Center Health Program Scientific/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP STAC or Advisory Committee), National Institute for Occupational Safety...
Labour Education, 1975
The background, achievements, problems, and future plans of various workers' organizations in agriculture are discussed: International Federation of Plantation, Agricultural, and Allied Workers; Trade Union International of Agricultural, Forestry, and Plantation Workers; World Federation of Agricultural Workers; and the Asian Trade Union College.…
Full Text Available The main objective of this research is based on the importance of wholesale markets as special market institutions in trade in agro-industrial products. Based on communication knowledge about the retail market operations (wholesale gross markets, on the domestic market, as well as the importance given to wholesale markets in the developed countries from the aspect of trade, it is concluded that even domestic trade can increase selling these type of products at wholesale markets. The subject of research of this paper is concept of building wholesale markets as a substitute for retail trade (quantitative or wholesale gross markets for agro-industrial products. This paper aims to achieve such a level of knowledge that will enable making quality decisions starting from the interests of businesses, traders and customers (consumers.
Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette
Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.
Rodarmel, Craig; Scott, Lawrence; Simerlink, Deborah A.; Walker, Jeffrey
The immense size and scope of the rescue and clean-up of the World Trade Center site created a need for data that would provide a total overview of the disaster area. To fulfill this need, the New York State Office for Technology (NYSOFT) contracted with EarthData International to collect airborne remote sensing data over Ground Zero with an airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensor, a high-resolution digital camera, and a thermal camera. The LIDAR data provided a three-dimensional elevation model of the ground surface that was used for volumetric calculations and also in the orthorectification of the digital images. The digital camera provided high-resolution imagery over the site to aide the rescuers in placement of equipment and other assets. In addition, the digital imagery was used to georeference the thermal imagery and also provided the visual background for the thermal data. The thermal camera aided in the location and tracking of underground fires. The combination of data from these three sensors provided the emergency crews with a timely, accurate overview containing a wealth of information of the rapidly changing disaster site. Because of the dynamic nature of the site, the data was acquired on a daily basis, processed, and turned over to NYSOFT within twelve hours of the collection. During processing, the three datasets were combined and georeferenced to allow them to be inserted into the client's geographic information systems.
AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU
Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze world production and trade for fresh silk cocoons and raw silk using FAO Stat data for the period 2007-2010. The use of index, share and comparison methods allowed to identify the major trends in the analyzed period. Silk decline was determined by the increased importance of cotton and artificial fibres in textile and clothing industry. Important changes are taking place on silk cocoons and silk market. While, the European market decreased, the Asian market has mainly developed fresh cocoons and raw silk, while the European market became more interested of clothes. Silk consumption declined because of consumer’s preference for synthetic fibres, except traditional consumers from Asia. China is the main producer and exporter of fresh and dry cocoons, while raw silk is produced and exported by China, Brazil and Italy and imported by India, Japan and Italy. In Europe, Bulgaria is the top producer of fresh cocoons and raw silk and Italy is the main raw silk importer and the top producer and exporter of textile and fashion clothes. Silk will remain an important raw material for producing high quality and luxury clothes.
The consequences of modern farming methods on both industrialized and developing countries are examined, and the continued transfer of agricultural technology is challenged as inappropriate and counterproductive. Private business and government have both supported the export of mechanization, resource exploitation at the expense of farm land, and the use of chemicals to Third World countries. The victims in this country have been small farmers, consumers, and the land as the cost of productivity gains became the loss of farm income and soil fertility. Modern agriculture introduced energy-intensive techniques for economic reasons, ignoring environmental and human considerations. These considerations must be granted to the developing countries which are not able to bear the costs of technological farming. Appropriate husbandry indicates a need to separate economic forces from agricultural development. 1102 references, 10 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)
Cox, T J; Rutherford, J C; Kerr, S C; Smeaton, D C; Palliser, C C
Nitrogen loads to several New Zealand lakes are dominated by nonpoint runoff from pastoral farmland which adversely affects lake water quality. A 'cap and trade' scheme is being considered to help meet targets set for nitrogen loads to Lake Rotorua, and a numerical model, NTRADER, has been developed to simulate and compare alternative schemes. NTRADER models both the geophysics of nitrogen generation and transport, including groundwater lag times, and the economics of 'cap and trade' schemes. It integrates the output from several existing models, including a farm-scale nitrogen leaching and abatement model, a farm-scale management economic model, and a catchment-scale nitrogen transport model. This paper details modeling methods and compares possible trading program design features for the Lake Rotorua catchment. Model simulations demonstrate how a cap and trade program could be used to effectively achieve challenging environmental goals in the targeted catchment. However, results also show that, due to complex hydrogeology, satisfactory environmental outcomes may be not achieved unless groundwater lag times are incorporated into the regulatory scheme. One way to do this, as demonstrated here, would be to explicitly include lag times in the cap and trade program. The utility of the model is further demonstrated by quantifying relative differences in abatement costs across potential regulatory schemes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emiliano Magrini; Pierluigi Montalbano; Silvia Nenci; Luca Salvatici
The aim of this paper is to assess the causal impact of trade policy distortions on food security. The added value of this work is twofold: i) its use of a non-parametric matching technique with continuous treatment, namely the Generalised Propensity Score (GPS) to address the self selection bias; ii) its analysis of heterogeneity in treatment (by commodities) as well as in outcome (i.e. different dimensions of food security). The results of our estimates clearly show that trade policy distor...
van Uhm, D.P.
This book is based on four years of PhD research on the illegal trade in wildlife by the criminologist Daan van Uhm. In this study the author explores the nature of the illegal wildlife trade. Wildlife confiscations over a ten-year period in the European Union were analysed and presented by graphics
Gargano, Lisa M.; Thomas, Pauline A.; Stellman, Steven D.
Background: Little is known about asthma control in adolescents who were exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001 and diagnosed with asthma after 9/11. This report examines asthma and asthma control 10–11 y after 9/11 among exposed adolescents. Methods: The WTC Health Registry adolescent Wave 3 survey (2011–2012) collected data on asthma diagnosed by a physician after 11 September 2001, extent of asthma control based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, probable mental health conditions, and behavior problems. Parents reported healthcare needs and 9/11-exposures. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between asthma and level of asthma control and 9/11-exposure, mental health and behavioral problems, and unmet healthcare needs. Results: Poorly/very poorly controlled asthma was significantly associated with a household income of ≤$75,000 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–8.8), having unmet healthcare needs (AOR: 6.2; 95% CI: 1.4–27.1), and screening positive for at least one mental health condition (AOR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.4–17.7), but not with behavioral problems. The impact of having at least one mental health condition on the level of asthma control was substantially greater in females than in males. Conclusions: Comprehensive care of post-9/11 asthma in adolescents should include management of mental health-related comorbidities. PMID:27656769
Mauer, Matthew P; Hoen, Rebecca; Jourd'heuil, David
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether underlying respiratory disease may be revealed by offline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) testing among a cohort of New York State (NYS) World Trade Center (WTC) responders in comparison with a control group of similar but unexposed NYS employees, 6 years post-9/11. Participants (92 exposed, 141 unexposed) provided two breath samples that were collected in Mylar bags and sent to a central laboratory for FE(NO) testing. Participants also completed a brief questionnaire. Ambient air pollution was characterized using particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and ozone concentration data from the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation air-monitoring sites closest to each testing site for each day of sample collection. WTC exposure did not appear to be associated with elevated FE(NO) concentrations. FE(NO) concentrations were higher on days with elevated levels of PM(2.5) (≥ 35 μg/m³) and ozone (≥ 0.08 ppm). FE(NO) concentrations were higher in men and lower in smokers. Our results do not suggest an association between WTC exposure and elevated FE(NO) concentrations, 6 years post-9/11, in this moderately exposed cohort of responders. Results do suggest that FE(NO) concentrations were elevated in relation to higher levels of ambient air pollutants. Our results also offer useful reference values for future research involving FE(NO) testing. This study demonstrates that offline FE(NO) testing is a useful method for epidemiological studies requiring collection of samples in the field, potentially over a broad geographic area.
Weiden, Michael D; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Cho, Soo Jung; Comfort, Ashley L; Prezant, David J; Rom, William N; Nolan, Anna
Pulmonary vascular loss is an early feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of inflammation and of metabolic syndrome predict loss of lung function in World Trade Center (WTC) lung injury (LI). We investigated if other cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers also predicted WTC-LI. This nested case-cohort study used 801 never-smoker, WTC-exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March 2008. A representative subcohort of 124 out of 801 subjects with serum drawn within 6 months of 9/11 defined CVD biomarker distribution. Post-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at defined cases were as follows: susceptible WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ≤77% predicted (66 out of 801) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ≥107% predicted (68 out of 801). All models were adjusted for WTC exposure intensity, body mass index at SPE, age on 9/11 and pre-9/11 FEV1. Susceptible WTC-LI cases had higher levels of apolipoprotein-AII, C-reactive protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-4 with significant relative risks (RRs) of 3.85, 3.93 and 0.26, respectively, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.858. Resistant WTC-LI cases had significantly higher soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and lower myeloperoxidase, with RRs of 2.24 and 2.89, respectively (AUC 0.830). Biomarkers of CVD in serum 6 months post-9/11 predicted either susceptibility or resistance to WTC-LI. These biomarkers may define pathways either producing or protecting subjects from pulmonary vascular disease and associated loss of lung function after an irritant exposure.
Lippmann, Morton; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Lung-Chi
The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings' huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80-90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from ∼2.5 μm upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air currents. High concentrations of coarse and supercoarse WTC Dust were inhaled and deposited in the conductive airways in the head and lungs, and subsequently swallowed, causing both physical and chemical irritation to the respiratory and gastroesophageal epithelia. There were both acute and chronic adverse health effects in rescue/recovery workers; cleanup workers; residents; and office workers, especially in those lacking effective personal respiratory protective equipment. The numerous health effects in these people were not those associated with the monitored PM2.5 toxicants, which were present at low concentrations, that is, asbestos fibers, transition and heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and dioxins. Attention was never directed at the very high concentrations of the larger-sized and highly alkaline WTC Dust particles that, in retrospect, contained the more likely causal toxicants. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the air quality monitoring and guidance on exposure prevention programs on low-concentration components was never revised. Public agencies need to be better prepared to provide reliable guidance to the public on more appropriate means of exposure assessment, risk assessment, and preventive measures.
Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian
for irrigation can already be documented. Due to drier summers induced by climate change, this phenomenon is expected to gain more importance in the future. Related to water quantity and quality it is crucial to think about the diverging interests between the supply of the population with national agricultural products and the preservation of the water bodies, their ecological value and their other ecosystem services (e.g. drinking water supply). The project AProWa attempts to elucidate trade-offs of national goals for water protection and agricultural production in Switzerland by involving stakeholders from agricultural administration (Federal Office for Agriculture, FOAG), agricultural research (Agroscope), water research (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag) and environmental protection (Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN). This is done by applying multi-criteria decision analysis facilitating consensus regarding goals and possible activities and alternatives to reach these goals. This is followed by an evaluation of main conflicts and prioritized research gaps. We present preliminary results from workshops and interdisciplinary discussion groups that encompass an objectives hierarchy reflecting agricultural production and water conservation goals. Furthermore, an inventory of agricultural practices and water protection measures is presented, enabling their evaluation for the provision of agricultural production while sustaining aquatic ecosystems.
In this work, the autoregressive vectors are used to know dynamics of the Agricultural export and import, and the real effective exchange rate (REER). In order to analyze the interactions, the impulse- response function is used in decomposition of variance, causality of Granger as well as the methodology of Johansen to know the relations co integration. The REER causes agricultural export and import in the sense of Granger. The influence displays the innovations of the RE...
Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts & Nevis , Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South...St Kitts and Nevis , St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania...Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St Kitts and Nevis , St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname
Paulus, Moritz; Trueby, Johannes; Growitsch, Christian
We explore the hypothesis that export policies and trade patterns of national players in the steam coal market are consistent with non-competitive market behavior. We test this hypothesis by developing an equilibrium model which is able to model coal producing nations as strategic players. We explicitly account for integrated seaborne trade and domestic markets. The global steam coal market is simulated under several imperfect market structure setups. We find that trade and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best and that real Chinese export quotas in 2008 were consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. (orig.)
Over recent years, it has become increasingly more apparent that ornamental fish form an important export item in the trade figures of many developing countries and all the available evidence points...
Environmental literature has largely neglected macroeconomic considerations, especially open economy ones. This paper develops a small country framework that seeks to address these issues. Medium- and long-run aspects are explored using standard trade and portfolio balance models, modified to incorporate trade in claims on non-renewable resources (environmental assets). In the medium-run, changes in environmental regulations, saving behavior, and other variables affect the current account, in...
Soriano, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Novo, Paula
Increasing pressure to expand agriculture production is giving rise to renewed interest to obtain access to land and water resources in the world. Water footprint evaluations show the importance of green water in global food trade and production. Green water and land are almost inseparable resources. In this work we analyse the role of foreign direct investment and cooperation programmes from developed countries in developing counties, focusing on virtual water trade and associated resources. We develop econometric models with the aim to explain observed trends in virtual water exports from developing countries as explained by the inverse flow of investments and cooperation programmes. We analyse the main 19 emerging food exporters, from Africa, Asia and America, using 15 years of data. Results show that land per capita availability and foreign direct investments explain observed flows of virtual water exports. However, there is no causality with these and flows cooperation investments. Our analysis sheds light on the underlying forces explaining the phenomenon of land grab, which is the appropriation of land access in developing countries by food-importers.
Breysse, Patrick N; Williams, D'Ann L; Herbstman, Julie B; Symons, J Morel; Chillrud, Steve N; Ross, James; Henshaw, Shannon; Rees, Katherine; Watson, Mike; Geyh, Alison S
This article presents results of asbestos air sampling conducted to assess the exposure to truck drivers working at the World Trade Center site. Sampling consisted of a combination of area and personal monitoring of 49 truck drivers and included optical and electron microscopic analyses. Three sampling periods were conducted: October 1-7, 2001, October 17-26, 2001, and April 13-23, 2002. Area sample locations were selected to estimate airborne concentrations around the perimeter of the site, on top of the pile, and in the pit. Air samples were collected using a 50-mm conductive cowl and a 25-mm mixed cellulose ester filter at flow rates ranging from 0.5-2 L/min. Samples were analyzed using a combination of phase contrast microscopy (PCM) NIOSH method 7400, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) NIOSH method 7402, and the direct method specified under the Asbestos Hazardous Emergency Response Act. Sample times and flow rates were adjusted to prevent overloading while maximizing sample volume. Personal sampling results suggest that asbestos fiber exposures to truck drivers at the site were low. Exposures based on TEM results generally ranged from less than detectable to 0.1 structures per cubic centimeter (s/cm(3)). TEM-based results further indicate that the majority of asbestos fibers were chrysotile and less than 5 microm in length. PCM-based estimates were generally higher than the TEM results. This is likely due to the counting of nonasbestos fibers. This conclusion is supported by the NIOSH 7402 TEM results, which did not detect asbestos fibers longer than 5 micro m. Area sample results were generally less than the personal results (except for the sample collected on top of the rubble pile) and decreased over the course of the cleanup. Our results show low airborne asbestos concentrations and a predominance of short fibers. Given these low concentrations, evidence of short fibers, and the short duration of the exposure (less than 10 months to complete the
Perritt, Kara R; Herbert, Robin; Levin, Stephen M; Moline, Jacqueline
In 2002, the Mount Sinai Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, with support from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), began coordinating the World Trade Center (WTC) Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program (MSP) to monitor the health of qualified WTC responders. Enrolled participants were offered a clinical examination; interviewed to collect medical, mental health, and exposure information; and requested to complete a self-administered medical questionnaire. The objective of this study was to better understand work-related injuries and illnesses sustained on-site by WTC responders. A descriptive analysis of select data from the MSP self-administered medical questionnaire was conducted. Data collected July 2002 through April 2004 from MSP participants enrolled at the Mount Sinai clinic were reviewed using univariate statistical techniques. Records from 7,810 participants were analyzed, with most participants associated with either the construction industry (n = 2,623, 34%) or law enforcement (n = 2,036, 26%). Approximately a third of the participants (n = 2,486, 32%) reported at least one injury or illness requiring medical treatment that was sustained during WTC work/volunteer activities. Of the total 4,768 injuries/illnesses reported by these participants, respiratory complaints were most common (n = 1,350, 28%), followed by traumatic injuries excluding eye injuries (n = 961, 20%), eye injuries/ailments (n = 709, 15%), chest pain (n = 375, 8%), headaches (n = 359, 8%), skin conditions (n = 178, 4%), and digestive system conditions (n = 163, 3%). Participants reported that 36% of injuries/illnesses were treated off-site and 29% were treated on-site, with the remaining not specifying treatment location. Off-site treatment was prevalent for respiratory complaints, psychological stress, and chest pain. On-site treatment was predominate for eye injuries/ailments and traumatic injuries excluding eye injuries. Study
Leclair, Benoît; Shaler, Robert; Carmody, George R; Eliason, Kristilyn; Hendrickson, Brant C; Judkins, Thad; Norton, Michael J; Sears, Christopher; Scholl, Tom
Victim identification initiatives undertaken in the wake of Mass Fatality Incidents (MFIs) where high-body fragmentation has been sustained are often dependent on DNA typing technologies to complete their mandate. The success of these endeavors is linked to the choice of DNA typing methods and the bioinformatic tools required to make the necessary associations. Several bioinformatic tools were developed to assist with the identification of the victims of the World Trade Center attacks, one of the most complex incidents to date. This report describes one of these tools, the Mass Disaster Kinship Analysis Program (MDKAP), a pair-wise comparison software designed to handle large numbers of complete or partial Short Tandem Repeats (STR) genotypes, and infer identity of, or biological relationships between tested samples. The software performs all functions required to take full advantage of the information content of processed genotypic data sets from large-scale MFIs, including the collapse of victims data sets, remains re-association, virtual genotype generation through gap-filling, parentage trio searching, and a consistency check of reported/inferred biological relationships within families. Although very few WTC victims were genetically related, the software can detect parentage trios from within a victim's genotype data set through a nontriangulated approach that screens all possible parentage trios. All software-inferred relationships from WTC data were confirmed by independent statistical analysis. With a 13 STR loci complement, a fortuitous parentage trio (FPT) involving nonrelated individuals was detected. Additional STR loci would be required to reduce the risk of an FPT going undetected in large-scale MFIs involving related individuals among the victims. Kinship analysis has proven successful in this incident but its continued success in larger scale MFIs is contingent on the use of a sufficient number of STR loci to reduce the risk of undetected FPTs, the
Dibden, Jacqui; Potter, Clive; Cocklin, Chris
The liberalisation of agricultural trade is strongly contested as an international policy project. In the context of the current World Trade Organisation (WTO) Doha trade round, concerns revolve around the implications of freer trade for rural livelihoods and environments. Analysis of this complex and morally charged issue offers important…
Govindarajan, V S
Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II.
O'Donoghue, Jim; Roantree, Mark; McCarren, Andrew
Agri-analytics is an emerging sector which uses data mining to inform decision making in the agricultural sector. Machine learning is used to accomplish data mining tasks such as prediction, known as predictive analytics in the commercial context. Similar to other domains, hidden trends and events in agri-data can be difficult to detect with traditional machine learning approaches. Deep learning uses architectures made up of many levels of non-linear operations to construct a more holistic mo...
Struik, P.C.; Kuijper, T.W.M.
Agriculture puts an enormous pressure on available resources. This is likely to increase further due to the growing human population, increasing per capita consumption, and changes in diets. Agriculture itself is very sensitive to degradation of the resource base. It is mandatory that this pressure
Full Text Available An old traditional form of foreign economic relations is represented by foreign trade. Republic of Moldova,Featuring a geographical position that represents the area of intersection the numerous trade routes and regionalconnotation communications, should use these advantages in order to extend the export-import relations; there for,Republic of Moldova follows to use the internal potential in intensive and effective way. Competitiveness of externaltrade with agricultural food products has a particularly important role which is steadily increasing, it determine theincreasing or decreasing of the national income produced outside depending upon the ratio between the nationaland international amount of goods. Ensuring the economic efficiency of production requires a certain minimumvolume of its. If the volume exceeds the absorption capacity of the internal market, ensuring efficient productionrequires a call to the external market. On the other hand, certain products can not be obtained either domesticproduction or isn’t justified from the economic point of view can be obtained only from the external market.
Ramirez-Vallejo, J; Rogers, P
The linkages between agricultural trade and water resources need to be identified and analyzed to better understand the potential impacts that a full liberalization, or lack thereof, will have on water resources. This paper examines trade of virtual water embodied in agricultural products for most countries of the world. The main purpose of the paper, however, is to examine the impact of trade liberalization on virtual-water trade in the future. Based on a simulation of global agricultural trade, a scenario of full liberalization of agriculture was used to assess the net effect of virtual water flows from the relocation of meat and cereals' trade. The paper also identifies the main reasons behind the changes in the magnitude and direction of the net virtual water trade over time, and shows that virtual water trade flows are independent of water resource endowments, contrary to what the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem states. Finally, based on a formal model, some input demand functions at the country level are estimated. The estimates of the income and agricultural support elasticities of demand for import of virtual water have the expected sign, and are statistically significant. Variables found to have some explanatory power of the variance of virtual water imports are average income; population; agriculture as value added; irrigated area, and exports of goods and services.
Platais, K W; Collinson, M P
Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect
This paper examines the social effects of fair trade transactions emerging from policies to expand the market around the globe. Focusing on the case of coffee farmers in Guatemala, it examines tensions that are created in local organisational networks linked to production, processing and
The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.
Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energy production is seen as an appropriate way to mitigate climate change. Renewable energies are not free of negative external effects on humans and the natural environment. We analyzed the conflict between wind power production and bird protection through the example of one of the most sensitive species, the red kite (Milvus milvus in West Saxony, Germany. We investigated a large number of potential land use scenarios, defined by whether or not each potential site contained a wind turbine (WT. Based on meteorological and ornithological data, we evaluated the land use scenarios for their annual energy supply and impact on the red kite. We identified the efficient land use scenarios that maximized energy supply for a given ecological impact. Within the scope of our analysis, the current allocation of WTs in the study region was considered inefficient. The set of efficient scenarios allowed us to draw conclusions on the trade-offs involved. We developed an indicator that measures the severity of the conflict between wind power production and bird protection. Increasing the minimum distance of WTs to settlements beyond the legal requirements in order to minimize the impact on humans further intensifies the conflict. Our results can support planning authorities in their development of long-term regional plans by identifying areas that are most suitable for wind power production from an integrated point of view.
Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.
In this article we review findings from the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) Outcomes Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,368 New York City (NYC) adults funded by the National Institutes of Health after the September 11 attacks. The findings reported were based on a baseline survey conducted one year after the disaster and a follow-up conducted two years post-disaster. One of the goals of this research was to assess the effectiveness of post-disaster treatments received by NYC residents ...
In this pilot project, the climate effects of the conversion from conventional to organic cultivation of peanuts are evaluated. We could aim at voluntary carbon credits that do not comply with the CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) rules, but we try to meet the CDM rules by combining it with a agroforestry component. However, in the example of Tanzania meeting the CDM rules was a problem. The agricultural system in Tanzania consists of a rotation of several years cultivation and several years fallow. This fallow of grass, shrubs and trees could be considered as 'forest'. Taking fallow land into cultivation would then be deforestation, which would make the planting of trees no longer eligible under CDM. This is a shame because the traditional 'slash and burn' system emits a lot of greenhouse gases.
Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan; Tröger, Josephine; Muñoz, Katherine; Frör, Oliver; Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen
Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers
, qualitative as well as quantitative, of how such an ethnic enclave economy of scale operates, how it reproduced itself and how it met the challenges, be it political, demographical or others. Results: The study showed, that in spite of major political turbulence in Iran since 1979, the spreading of state...... controlled trading companies inside and outside of Iran and increasing international market pressure due to the growth of copying production of Persian carpets in other countries, the Tehran-Hamburg axis remains the core of this trade-with private Iranian traders occupying the dominant position on both sides......, entrance into mainstream economy which required both more than common national and ethnic background. The challenge for this economy is how to dissolve from strong ties to more loose organization based on rationally structured mode of organization. So far, however, the limited group of traders stick...
This paper documents recent external sector liberalization in developing countries, evaluates what is behind it, and assesses whether it is likely to persist, accelerate or reverse itself. It draws heavily upon material collected during a recent Ford Foundation-supported research project on developing countries and the global trading system (see Whalley (1989)) covering eleven developing countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, The Philippines, Republic ...
Full Text Available The rationale for the existence of the WTO is the assumption that international trade is beneficial to all parties. The theoretical justification for this assumption is the theory of comparative advantage. The WTO may also be credited with a contribution to peacekeeping and has strong doctrinal and philosophical foundations. The WTO is often accused of a bias towards exporters and failure to provide appropriate protection to other market participants. Other conflicting powers within the Organization are the supporters of free trade and fair trades. The third doctrinal tension is between the legislative and judicial powers. The Ministerial Conferences are ever more unable to make decisions and reform the WTO. At the same time a very effective dispute settlement mechanism is beginning to fill the gaps in legal texts. The WTO is often presented as an example of the ongoing process of constitutionalization of international law. The concept is difficult to define and each scholar distinguishes different characteristics. It is arguable whether the WTO is undergoing the process of constitutionalization and also whether it can be perceived as a self-contained régime. The contribution of the WTO to global governance in comparison to that of the GATT is another issue under discussion.
Steinmetz, Zacharias; Wollmann, Claudia; Schaefer, Miriam; Buchmann, Christian; David, Jan [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Tröger, Josephine [Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Muñoz, Katherine [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Interdisciplinary Research Group on Environmental Issues, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Frör, Oliver [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental Economics, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Group of Environmental and Soil Chemistry, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)
Plastic mulching has become a globally applied agricultural practice for its instant economic benefits such as higher yields, earlier harvests, improved fruit quality and increased water-use efficiency. However, knowledge of the sustainability of plastic mulching remains vague in terms of both an environmental and agronomic perspective. This review critically discusses the current understanding of the environmental impact of plastic mulch use by linking knowledge of agricultural benefits and research on the life cycle of plastic mulches with direct and indirect implications for long-term soil quality and ecosystem services. Adverse effects may arise from plastic additives, enhanced pesticide runoff and plastic residues likely to fragment into microplastics but remaining chemically intact and accumulating in soil where they can successively sorb agrochemicals. The quantification of microplastics in soil remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate analytical techniques. The cost and effort of recovering and recycling used mulching films may offset the aforementioned benefits in the long term. However, comparative and long-term agronomic assessments have not yet been conducted. Furthermore, plastic mulches have the potential to alter soil quality by shifting the edaphic biocoenosis (e.g. towards mycotoxigenic fungi), accelerate C/N metabolism eventually depleting soil organic matter stocks, increase soil water repellency and favour the release of greenhouse gases. A substantial process understanding of the interactions between the soil microclimate, water supply and biological activity under plastic mulches is still lacking but required to estimate potential risks for long-term soil quality. Currently, farmers mostly base their decision to apply plastic mulches rather on expected short-term benefits than on the consideration of long-term consequences. Future interdisciplinary research should therefore gain a deeper understanding of the incentives for farmers
Б. В. Духницький; Т. В. Сіліфонов
Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the w...
This review updates the position and outlook in global coal trade since the last '1990' study. Data is drawn from the United Nations, the OECD/IEA, IEA Coal Research and many commercial sources. The assumptions underlying the current and 1990 review are laid down. An assessment is presented of the present and forecast demand for coking coal (primarily for steel production) and for steam coal (for electricity generation, industrial and domestic needs). Effects of inter-fuel competition are mentioned. Forecasted coal production, imports and exports by ECE countries and non-ECE countries are discussed. Annex I presents data on which the review is based. It tabulates coal consumption, production, imports and exports from countries of Western and Eastern Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia, Africa, Australia and New Zealand. The review is supplemented by a separate document of analytical tables and grades. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 1 app.
Mega-sport events have the capacity to deliver significant benefits – both tangible such as additional expenditure by visitors and intangible such as the influence on a nation's pride, sport profile and participation. The 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup hosted by South Africa was expected to present enormous material and ...
The craft industry derives major benefits from the growth in the number of tourists visiting South Africa (SA). The recent sport mega event, the FIFA World Cup TM, created market access and business growth opportunities for the craft businesses since more international tourists visited the country in year 2010 than before.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on analysis of return on speculative operations with futures contracts from the view of participators not undertaking and undertaking the currency risk. The currency risk is determined by unexpected change of relevant exchange rate (currency denomination of futures contracts / domestic currency of participator. The paper analyses the basic factors influencing the profitability of these operations such as relative change of futures contract value, leverage incidence and relative change of relevant exchange rate. The paper is focused on futures contracts of the world most important agricultural commodities. The conclusion of the paper for participators not undertaking the currency risk is following: The relative change of futures contract is main factor for the calculation of return on speculative operation. This change is multiplied by leverage incidence finally. The conclusion of the paper for participators undertaking the currency risk is following: The relative change of relevant exchange rate is not usually relevant for the calculation of return on speculative operation. Main factor is the relative change of futures contract because this change is multiplied by leverage incidence finally but the relative change of relevant exchange rate isn’t.Neverthless the conclusions of this paper are not valid only for futures contracts of agricultural commodities but generally also for other commodity futures contracts and futures contracts where underlying assets are not commodities but for example financial assets.
Full Text Available In the shadow of World War II’s end, unprecedented discourse regarding international human rights was birthed from knowledge regarding the gross abuses that took place and subsequent shock that the civilized world had no international legislation in place to counter similar, future atrocities. In 1948, the International Labour Organization (ILO adopted the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention while, in the same year, the United Nations (UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [Swepston 1998, p.169]. The comparatively younger World Trade Organization (WTO has been both condemned and heralded for its handling, and lack thereof, of human rights violations. In the formidable wake of globalisation, all three organizations have had to bind their human rights policies to economics, thereby enhancing the interconnectivity of the entities and, by extension, international policy. The following, critical comment explores the history and current state of UN, ILO, and WTO human rights’ approaches to market policy, affording particular attention to recommendations for amending the policies in order to foster greater cohesion and address one of the most pressing human rights issues of the twenty-first century.
Full Text Available One of the topics of the studies on the pre-Islamic history includes the reasons and the trend of development of the culture of ignorance in Hejaz, especially in Mecca, as the center of the Abrahamic religion. Muslim historians’ accounts of this evolution are mainly the product of the analysis of events and interpretation of Quran verses rather than the stories and myths that reflect the method of this evolution. The present research, which was carried out based on references and textbooks using the descriptive and analytical method, aimed to explain the reason and the method of rejection of Islam by the habitants of Mecca in spite of their long history of worshiping Allah and believing in the values of the Hanif religion. According to the research findings, ignorance does not seem to have been an intellectual leap or depression influenced by regional changes. It has been rather driven by international changes, especially the growth of world trade, which has turned Arabia into an isolated safe country in charge of the relationship between eastern and western trade centers. This new role has played down monotheistic values by stressing new values.
Large regions of the world are heavily dependent upon groundwater for domestic water and irrigation. The impacts of climate change, including modified climate variability, on groundwater resources, soil water, agriculture, and human life are relatively unknown in most areas, and key sensitivities n...
Johnson, Sara B; Langlieb, Alan M; Teret, Stephen P; Gross, Raz; Schwab, Margo; Massa, Jennifer; Ashwell, Leslie; Geyh, Alison S
We sought to describe the physical and mental health effects of the cleanup and recovery effort on workers at the World Trade Center disaster site. A mailed survey was sent to truck drivers, heavy equipment operators, laborers, and carpenters. It assessed work-related exposures and somatic and mental health symptoms. In one open-ended question, respondents shared any aspect of their experiences they wished; these 332 narrative responses were analyzed using qualitative techniques. Respondents reported suffering debilitating consequences of their work, including depression, drug use, and posttraumatic stress disorder. They felt poorly prepared to work in a disaster, lacked protective equipment and training, and felt overwhelmed by the devastation they faced. These workers' experiences were qualitatively similar to the experiences of the first responders. To protect workers in the future, the focus on preparing "first" responders should be reconsidered more broadly.
Liu, Mengling; Qian, Meng; Cheng, Qinyi; Berger, Kenneth I.; Shao, Yongzhao; Turetz, Meredith; Kazeros, Angeliki; Parsia, Sam; Goldring, Roberta M.; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Marmor, Michael; Reibman, Joan
Objective The course of lung function in community members exposed to World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes remains undefined. We studied longitudinal spirometry among patients in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTCEHC) treatment program. Methods Observational study of 946 WTCEHC patients with repeated spirometry measures analyzed on the population as a whole and stratified by smoking status, initial spirometry pattern and WTC-related exposure category. Results Improvement in forced expiratory volume (FVC; 54.4 ml/year; 95% CI: 45.0-63.8) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; 36.8 ml/year; 95% CI: 29.3-44.3) was noted for the population as a whole. Heavy smokers did not improve. Spirometry changes differed depending on initial spirometry pattern and exposure category. Conclusions These data demonstrate spirometry improvement in select populations suggesting reversibility in airway injury and reinforcing the importance of continued treatment. PMID:22995806
Svendsen, Erik R; Runkle, Jennifer R; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A; Bennett, Charles
Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.
Maslow, Carey B; Caramanica, Kimberly; Welch, Alice E; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M; Farfel, Mark R
The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over 8-9 years was examined among 16,488 rescue and recovery workers who responded to the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) at the World Trade Center (WTC; New York, NY), and were enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Latent class growth analysis identified 5 groups of rescue and recovery workers with similar score trajectories at 3 administrations of the PTSD Checklist (PCL): low-stable (53.3%), moderate- stable (28.7%), moderate-increasing (6.4%), high-decreasing (7.7%), and high-stable (4.0%). Relative to the low-stable group, membership in higher risk groups was associated with 9/11-related exposures including duration of WTC work, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 2.0, witnessing of horrific events (range = 1.3 to 2.1), being injured (range = 1.4 to 2.3), perceiving threat to life or safety (range = 2.2 to 5.2), bereavement (range = 1.6 to 4.8), and job loss due to 9/11 (range = 2.4 to 15.8). Within groups, higher PCL scores were associated with adverse social circumstances including lower social support, with B coefficients ranging from 0.2 to 0.6, divorce, separation, or widowhood (range = 0.4-0.7), and unemployment (range = 0.4-0.5). Given baseline, exposure-related, and contextual influences that affect divergent PTSD trajectories, screening for both PTSD and adverse circumstances should occur immediately, and at regular intervals postdisaster. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Full Text Available L'abondance des ressources gazières mondiales et l'excellence des qualités du gaz naturel, comme combustible et matière première pétrochimique, devraient lui permettre d'accroître sa pénétration sur les marchés énergétiques internationaux. Toutefois, la répartition géographique de ses réserves prouvées coïncide de moins en moins avec celle de sa consommation. En conséquence, la croissance du commerce international de gaz naturel apparaît comme une nécessité de plus en plus vitale du développement mondial de ses marchés. A partir d'une étude prospective menée au sein de l'Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, le présent mémoire se propose d'analyser les perspectives des échanges gaziers internationaux d'ici l'horizon 2000. The abundance of the world reserves of natural gas and the excellence of its qualities as a fuel and a petrochemical feedstock should enable natural gas to increase its penetration on international energy markets. However the geographic distribution of its proved reserves coincides less and less with the distribution of its consumption. Therefore, the increase in international gas trade appears more and more to be of vital necessity for the world development of its markets. On the basis of a study carried out within the Association Technique de l'industrie du Gaz en France (ATG, the present paper will attempt to analyse the outlook for international gas trade between now and the year 2000.
Alper, Howard E; Yu, Shengchao; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M
The World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 in New York City (9/11) exposed thousands of people to intense concentrations of hazardous materials that have resulted in reports of increased levels of asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases along with psychological illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have discriminated between health consequences of immediate (short-term or acute) intense exposures versus chronic residential or workplace exposures. We used proportional hazards methods to determine adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for associations between several components of acute exposures (e.g., injury, immersion in the dust cloud) and four chronic disease outcomes: asthma, other non-neoplastic lung diseases, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, in 8701 persons free of those conditions prior to exposure and who were physically present during or immediately after the World Trade Center attacks. Participants were followed prospectively up to 11 years post-9/11. Heart disease exhibited a dose-response association with sustaining injury (1 injury type: AHR =2.0, 95% CI (Confidence Interval) 1.1-3.6; 2 injury types: AHR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.2-7.9; 3 or more injury types: AHR = 6.8, 95% CI 2.0-22.6), while asthma and other lung diseases were both significantly associated with dust cloud exposure (AHR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Diabetes was not associated with any of the predictors assessed in this study. In this study we demonstrated that the acute exposures of injury and dust cloud that were sustained on 9/11/2001 had significant associations with later heart and respiratory diseases. Continued monitoring of 9/11 exposed persons' health by medical providers is warranted for the foreseeable future.
Graham A. Davis
This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...
Sustainability by means of processes in the world trade law. Environmental testing and sustainability impact testing; Nachhaltigkeit durch Verfahren im Welthandelsrecht. Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitspruefungen und die WTO
The author of the contribution under consideration analyzes the correlation between commercial law and sustainable development. The author arranges the new instrument of environmental testing and sustainability impact testing of trade regulations into legal aspects and analyzes the compatibility with legal principles of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as their transferability on the WTO. Especially, the environmental protection and sustainability are described as elements of the precautionary principle in the world trade. The process component of the precautionary principle in the WTO law is to the fore. Furthermore, other principles are discussed such as the transparency principle and the differentiated and favoured treatment of developing countries in the WTO law. As an example, the Canadian Environmental Assessment of Trade Negotiations, the Environmental Review of Trade Agreement in the United States of America, the Environmental Assessment in the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) as well as the Sustainability Impact Assessment of the European Union are explained and evaluated legally. Furthermore, the author discusses the opportunities and the boundaries of the negotiability of the environmental testing and sustainability impact testing to the WTO. The author suggests a coordination mechanism at the WTO for national environmental and sustainability impact testing.
Cock, M.J.W.; Jacobus C Biesmeijer; Cannon, R.J.C.; Gerard, Philippa J.; Gillespie, Dave; Jiménez, Juan J.; Lavelle, Patrick; Suresh K. Raina
[EN] Terrestrial invertebrate species play a dominant role in the trophic dynamics of agricultural ecosystems. Subtle changes in the composition of communities and species interactions at different trophic levels, and role of ecosystem engineers can dramatically modify the effects of invertebrates on plant productivity in agricultural systems. The effect of climate change on relevant invertebrates in agricultural systems, and their potential to adapt or move is discussed. All terrestrial syst...
Hertel, T. W.; Steinbuks, J.
The number of people which the world must feed is expected to increase by another 3 billion people by 2100. When coupled with significant nutritional improvements for the 2.1 billion people currently living on less than $2/day, this translates into a very substantial rise in the demand for agricultural production. At the same time, the growing use of biomass for energy generation has introduced an important new source of industrial demand in agricultural markets. To compound matters, water, a key input into agricultural production, is rapidly diminishing in availability in large parts of the world and many soils are degrading. In addition, agriculture and forestry are increasingly envisioned as key sectors for climate change mitigation policy. Any serious attempt to reduce land-based emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on the expansion of farming - particularly in the tropics, where most of the agricultural land conversion has come at the expense of forests, either directly, or indirectly via a cascading of land use requirements with crops moving into pasture and pasture into forest. Finally, agriculture and forestry are likely to be the economic sectors whose productivity is most sharply affected by climate change. In light of these challenges facing the global farm and food system, this paper will review the main sources of supply and demand for the world's cropland, and then provide a quantitative assessment of the impact of these forces on global land use over the coming century. The model incorporates forward looking behavior and examines competition between land used for ecosystem services, forestry, food and fuel. Explicit account is taken of emissions associated with both the intensive and extensive margins of agricultural expansion, as well as carbon sequestration and energy combustion. Key findings include: (a) energy prices and environmental policies will be increasingly important drivers of land use
This report focuses on growing trade in food staples in the Southern and Eastern African region of Africa as one of the largest growth opportunities available to African farmers. This paper examines the impact of regional trade in food staples, both for maintaining farmer incentives in surplus food production zones and for moderating price spikes in deficit areas. The paper begins by ident...
... of WTC-Related Health Conditions; 2. Information or published studies about the type of welding that... June 13, 2012 Part IV Department of Health and Human Services 42 CFR Part 88 World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of Certain Types of Cancer to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions; Proposed Rule...
Ekenga, Christine C; Scheu, Katherine E; Cone, James E; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark R
Few studies have documented the experiences of individuals who participated in the recovery and cleanup efforts at the World Trade Center Recovery Operation at Fresh Kills Landfill, on debris loading piers, and on transport barges after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of workers and volunteers from the World Trade Center Health Registry. Qualitative methods were used to analyze the narratives. Twenty workers and volunteers were interviewed. They described the transport of debris to the Landfill via barges, the tasks and responsibilities associated with their post-9/11 work at the Landfill, and their reflections on their post-9/11 experiences. Tasks included sorting through debris, recovering human remains, searching for evidence from the terrorist attacks, and providing food and counseling services. Exposures mentioned included dust, fumes, and odors. Eight years after the World Trade Center disaster, workers expressed frustration about poor risk communication during recovery and cleanup work. Though proud of their contributions in the months after 9/11, some participants were concerned about long-term health outcomes. This qualitative study provided unique insight into the experiences, exposures, and concerns of understudied groups of 9/11 recovery and cleanup workers. The findings are being used to inform the development of subsequent World Trade Center Health Registry exposure and health assessments.
World coal trade will increase from 375 mt in 1988 to 505 mt in the year 2000 and will reach 662 mt by 2010, according to the annual report recently issued by the US Department of Energy in Washington. 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Gargano, Lisa M; Gershon, Robyn R; Brackbill, Robert M
A number of studies published by the World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) document the prevalence of injuries sustained by victims of the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) on 9/11. Injury occurrence during or in the immediate aftermath of this event has been shown to be a risk factor for long-term adverse physical and mental health status. More recent reports of ongoing physical health and mental health problems and overall poor quality of life among survivors led us to undertake this qualitative study to explore the long-term impact of having both disaster-related injuries and peri-event traumatic exposure on quality of life in disaster survivors. Methods: Semi-structured, in-depth individual telephone interviews were conducted with 33 Registry enrollees who reported being injured on 9/11/01. Topics included: extent and circumstance of the injury(ies), description of medical treatment for injury, current health and functional status, and lifestyle changes resulting from the WTCD. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and inductively open-coded for thematic analysis. Six themes emerged with respect to long term recovery and quality of life: concurrent experience of injury with exposure to peri-event traumatic exposure (e.g., witnessing death or destruction, perceived life threat, etc.); sub-optimal quality and timeliness of short- and long-term medical care for the injury reported and mental health care; poor ongoing health status, functional limitations, and disabilities; adverse impact on lifestyle; lack of social support; and adverse economic impact. Many study participants, especially those reporting more serious injuries, also reported self-imposed social isolation, an inability to participate in or take enjoyment from previously enjoyable leisure and social activities and greatly diminished overall quality of life. This study provided unique insight into the long-term impact of disasters on survivors. Long after physical injuries have healed
Herbstman, Julie B; Frank, Robert; Schwab, Margo; Williams, D'Ann L; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Geyh, Alison S
During December 2001 we conducted a field study of 183 clean-up and recovery workers at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site to assess respiratory health effects potentially resulting from their work at the site. On site, we administered a respiratory health questionnaire designed to assess upper respiratory symptoms and lower respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, and wheeze, as well as indices of exposure, including number of days worked at the site and job category. Spirometry was conducted for 175 workers. Sixty-five percent of the workers surveyed arrived at the site without lower respiratory symptoms. Of this group, 34% developed cough, 24% developed phlegm, and 19% developed wheeze. Prevalence rates of these symptoms were related to the number of days spent working at the WTC, but not job category. The mean percentage predicted FEV(1) and FVC were 6% and 5% lower, respectively, for workers who developed new lower respiratory symptoms compared to those who remained symptom free. While the development of new wheeze suggested the presence of airway obstruction, the near-normal distribution of age-adjusted FEV(1)/FVC ratios suggested that the degree of obstruction was mild. The prevalence rates of upper airway symptoms (nasal congestion, sore throat, hoarse throat) exceeded those of lower respiratory symptoms, however, it was not determined whether symptoms pre-dated arrival at the WTC site.
Timothy A. Mousseau
Full Text Available Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA. Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.
Boscarino, Joseph A; Adams, Richard E
In this article we review findings from the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) Outcomes Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,368 New York City (NYC) adults funded by the National Institutes of Health after the September 11 attacks. The findings reported were based on a baseline survey conducted one year after the disaster and a follow-up conducted two years post-disaster. One of the goals of this research was to assess the effectiveness of post-disaster treatments received by NYC residents following the attacks. Among the major findings of this study were the relatively small increase in mental health service utilization and the fact that only brief worksite interventions seemed to be an effective post-disaster treatment intervention. Specifically, those who received more conventional post-disaster interventions, such as formal psychotherapy sessions and/or psychotropic medicines, seemed to have poorer outcomes. Since this study was designed to assess treatment outcomes, use advanced measurement techniques, and incorporate propensity score matching to control for bias, these treatment findings were unexpected and raised clinical questions. Additional findings were also discussed related to minority group members, alcohol abuse, the onset and course of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster and other findings. Future research is recommended to resolve the issues raised by this important study, especially as this relates to treatment outcomes.
Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun
The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411
Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Morse, Dale; Hwang, Syni-An
We investigated whether residents living near the World Trade Center (WTC) continued to experience respiratory problems several years after September 11, 2001 (9/11). Residents living within one mile of the WTC surveyed after 9/11 responded two and four years later to follow-up surveys that asked about lower respiratory symptoms (LRS), medical history, psychological stress, and indoor environmental characteristics. There were declines in the proportion of residents reporting LRS, new lower respiratory diagnoses, unplanned medical visits, and asthma medication use. However, the proportion of residents reporting any LRS in the affected area at follow-up remained higher than the original proportion in the control area; residents with multiple sources of potential 9/11-related exposures were at greatest risk for LRS at follow-up. Psychological stress, dust/odors, and moisture were significantly associated with LRS at follow-up. These data demonstrate that LRS continue to burden residents living in the areas affected by the WTC disaster.
Welch, Alice E; Jasek, John P; Caramanica, Kimberly; Chiles, Mariana C; Johns, Michael
Numerous studies have observed higher rates of smoking among adults with mental health conditions. We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking over a 7-9year period among adults with firsthand exposure to the 9/11 attacks enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Data were collected at three waves: W1 (2003-04), W2 (2006-07), and W3 (2011-12). Enrollees aged ≥25 at W1 and who completed all three waves (n=34,458) were categorized by smoker-type: non-smoker, non-daily (smoked some days in last 30days), light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)), or heavy (11+ CPD). Enrollees who smoked at W1 but not W3 were considered to have quit. PTSD was defined as a score of ≥44 on the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Smoking declined significantly from W1 (12.6%) to W3 (9.2%). Smoking prevalence was higher among enrollees with PTSD. In multivariable models, odds of quitting were 25-39% lower among heavy, light, and non-daily smokers with PTSD compared to those without. PTSD was associated with reduced odds of quitting regardless of smoker-type. Disaster-exposed smokers with PTSD are likely in need of more supportive services in order to abstain from smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mullett-Hume, Elizabeth; Anshel, Daphne; Guevara, Vivianne; Cloitre, Marylene
Two and one-half years after the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center attack, 204 middle school students in an immigrant community located near Ground Zero were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as influenced by "dose" of exposure to the attack and accumulated lifetime traumas. Ninety percent of students reported at least one traumatic event other than 9/11 (e.g., community violence) with an average of 4 lifetime events reported. An interaction was obtained such that the dose-response effect depended on presence of other traumas. Among students with the lowest number of additional traumas, the usual dose-response pattern of increasing PTSD symptoms with increasing 9/11 exposure was observed; among those with medium to high cumulative life trauma, PTSD symptoms were substantially higher and uniformly so regardless of 9/11 exposure dose. Results suggest that traumas that precede or follow mass violence often have as much as if not greater impact on long-term symptom severity than high-dose exposure to the event. Implications regarding the presence of continuing or previous trauma exposure for postdisaster and early intervention policies are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Tran, Duy Vu; North, Carol S
Anger is a prominent and common emotion in postdisaster settings. However, there has been little systematic investigation of the association of anger with psychopathology or other individual characteristics in disaster survivors. This study examined anger responses reported by disaster survivors and correlates of that anger. Structured interviews were conducted with a volunteer sample of 379 employees of 7 agencies that were highly affected by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City. Individuals were asked about their level of anger toward various entities and their coping methods after the disaster. Assessments were made for disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Specifics of disaster trauma exposure were assessed using the Disaster Supplement. Anger was prevalent but was not associated with disaster trauma exposure. Anger was generally associated with lower level of education, younger age, and racial minority group membership, and was more prominent in survivors with indicators of post-disaster mental health problems. Anger may serve as an identifier of individuals at risk for psychopathology or who are at least highly distressed. There are potential implications for risk communication to address anger in the post-disaster setting.
Lin, Shao; Jones, Rena; Reibman, Joan; Bowers, James; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An
This study investigated whether self-reported damage, dust, and odors in homes near the World Trade Center (WTC) after September 11, 2001, were related to increased rates of respiratory symptoms among residents and if multiple sources of exposure were associated with greater health risk. We mailed questionnaires to homes within 1.5 km of the WTC site (affected area) and in upper Manhattan (control area). Surveys asked about respiratory symptoms, unplanned medical visits, physician diagnoses, medication use, and conditions in the home after 9/11. Adverse home conditions were associated with new-onset (i.e., began after 9/11) and persistent (i.e., remained 1 year after 9/11) upper and lower respiratory symptoms in the affected area (Cumulative Incidence Ratios [CIRs] 1.20-1.71). Residents reporting longer duration of dust/odors or multiple sources of exposure had greater risk for symptoms compared to those reporting shorter duration and fewer sources. These data suggest that WTC-related contamination in the home after 9/11 was associated with new and persistent respiratory symptoms among residents living near the site. While we cannot eliminate potential biases related to self-reported data, we took strategies to minimize their impact, and the observed effects are biologically plausible.
Moline, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Mary Ann; Sawit, Simonette T; Maceda, Cynara; Croft, Lori B; Goldman, Martin E; Garcia, Mario J; Iyengar, Rupa L; Woodward, Mark
Law enforcement officers (LEOs) experience high rates of cardiovascular events compared with the general US population. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data regarding MetS among LEOs are limited. We sought to determine the prevalence of MetS and its associated risk factors as well as gender differences among LEOs who participated in the World Trade Center (WTC) Law Enforcement Cardiovascular Screening (LECS) Program from 2008 to 2010. We evaluated a total of 2,497 participants, 40 years and older, who responded to the 9/11 WTC attacks. The prevalence of MetS was 27%, with abdominal obesity and hypertension being the most frequently occurring risk factors. MetS and its risk factors were significantly higher among male compared to female LEOs, except for reduced HDL-cholesterol levels. MetS is a rising epidemic in the United States, and importantly, approximately one in four LEOs who worked at the WTC site after 9/11 are affected. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:752-760, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lowers, Heather A; Meeker, Gregory P; Lioy, Paul J; Lippmann, Morton
The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001, caused lower Manhattan and adjacent areas to be covered in millimeters to centimeters of dust. WTC dust penetrated into indoor spaces, and public health concerns remain regarding exposure to possible residual dust in the affected areas. The goal of the studies outlined in this review was to determine which, if any, components of the bulk WTC dust are sufficiently above typical background dust levels in New York City to develop an analytical method to screen for the component(s). Components of the concrete, man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs), silica, lead, chrysotile asbestos, and other materials. Slag wool was the most common WTC MMVF, whereas soda-lime glass and rock wool were minor to trace constituents. Most background samples also contained gypsum, phases compatible with concrete, and MMVF. However, the proportions of the various MMVF in background samples are typically unlike those characteristic of bulk WTC dust. Results indicate that slag wool can be used as a signature marker to identify areas that contain potential residual WTC dust contamination at concentrations that are less than average background levels for the material.
Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.
Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.
de la Hoz, Rafael E; Hill, Scottie; Chasan, Rachel; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Wilk-Rivard, Elizabeth; Herbert, Robin
This article reviews the experience of a unique occupational group of World Trade Center (WTC) workers: immigrant workers. This group is comprised largely of men, laborers, who are first-generation immigrants. The majority of these workers are from Latin America (predominantly from Ecuador and Colombia) or from Eastern Europe (predominantly from Poland). Our data shows that the disease profile observed in these workers was what we have previously reported for WTC working population as a whole. Recent reports have begun to document the disproportionate burden of occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses experienced by immigrant workers in the United States. The WTC experience of immigrants exemplified this burden but, additionally, highlighted that this burden is exacerbated by limitations in access to appropriate health care, disability and compensation benefits, and vocational rehabilitation services. A clinical program that was designed to address the complex medical and psychosocial needs of these workers in a comprehensive manner was successfully established. Full justice for these workers depends on larger societal changes.
Stein, Cheryl R; Lee, David J; Flamme, Gregory A; Cone, James E
To examine the association between 9/11-related exposures and self-reported hearing problems among 16,579 rescue/recovery workers in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry. Using Registry Waves 1 (2003 to 2004) and 2 (2006 to 2007), we modeled the association between two metrics of 9/11-related exposures and hearing difficulties. The prevalence of incident, persistent hearing problems was 4.4%. In a fully adjusted model, workers with higher environmental hazards scores were twice as likely (interquartile range OR 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 2.5) to report hearing problems. Based on the same fully adjusted model, workers unable to hear in the dust cloud were 2.3 (95% CI 1.8, 3.0) times more likely to report hearing problems as compared with workers not in the dust cloud. We observed a consistent association between WTC-related exposures and self-reported hearing problems among rescue/recovery workers.
Sustainable development in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is highly dependent on the agricultural sector, and on exports to overseas markets. This trade in turn depends on compliance with strict plant health and safety standards established by the World Trade Organization (WTO). An important ...
Evers, Kasper Grønlund
This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...
Rivas, David; Willaarts, Barbara; García, Ángel de Miguel; Tarquis, Ana Maria
This study explores the water and agricultural tradeoffs linked to three different rural development scenarios in the Cega-Eresma-Adaja basin (CEA) in Central Spain. Agriculture is a key socioeconomic activity in CEA, and nearly 44% of the basin is devoted to croplands and pastures. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 12% of the cropland area and is currently using over 84% of available water resources. To define the three scenarios for CEA, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders to infer how contrasting evolutions of EU agricultural, water and environmental policies could affect the local land use and agricultural management using participatory mapping techniques. The three scenarios reflect 1) a business as usual (BAU) rural development; 2) a land sharing strategy (LSH); and 3) a land sparing (LSP) situation. The integrated Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the changes in water use (hm^3/year) and agricultural productivity (ton/year) under each scenario. To account for changes in agricultural land use and management, the model integrates a large set of agricultural patterns obtained from combining high resolution remote sensing images (20m x 20m) for the years 2011-2015, agricultural productivity from survey by municipality and land use information obtained from the national map SIOSE2011 (1:50.000). Model calibration and sensitivity analysis were performed using SWAT-CUP/SUFI2 The period of the years 2005 to 2008 were used for parameter calibration and validation period extending between 2009 and 2014. The predicted daily streamflow presents a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and a NS coefficient of 0.81. The preliminary results reveal that under a BAU and a LSP scenario agricultural production and water demand will increase significantly (>25%) despite the improvements in water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. Under these scenarios, allocated water is likely to exceed the natural renewable water resources compromising the
Yakovleva, S.; Irion, K.
The article focuses on the interplay between European Union (EU) law on privacy and data protection and international trade law, in particular the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the WTO dispute settlement system. The argument distinguishes between the effects of international
Styring, Amy K; Charles, Michael; Fantone, Federica; Hald, Mette Marie; McMahon, Augusta; Meadow, Richard H; Nicholls, Geoff K; Patel, Ajita K; Pitre, Mindy C; Smith, Alexia; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Stein, Gil; Weber, Jill A; Weiss, Harvey; Bogaard, Amy
This study sheds light on the agricultural economy that underpinned the emergence of the first urban centres in northern Mesopotamia. Using δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of crop remains from the sites of Tell Sabi Abyad, Tell Zeidan, Hamoukar, Tell Brak and Tell Leilan (6500-2000 cal bc), we reveal that labour-intensive practices such as manuring/middening and water management formed an integral part of the agricultural strategy from the seventh millennium bc. Increased agricultural production to support growing urban populations was achieved by cultivation of larger areas of land, entailing lower manure/midden inputs per unit area-extensification. Our findings paint a nuanced picture of the role of agricultural production in new forms of political centralization. The shift towards lower-input farming most plausibly developed gradually at a household level, but the increased importance of land-based wealth constituted a key potential source of political power, providing the possibility for greater bureaucratic control and contributing to the wider societal changes that accompanied urbanization.
In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Some centers also grew seed, ornamental, and war crops. Evacuees raised and consumed five types of livestock and sixty-one produce varieties, including many traditional foods. Seasonal surpluses were preserved, shipped to other centers, or sold on the open market. Short growing seasons, poor soils, initially undeveloped lands, pests, equipment shortages, and labor issues hampered operations. However, imprisoned evacuee farmers proved that diverse agricultural programs could succeed in the harsh settings primarily because of labor-intensive farming methods, ingenuity, and the large markets provided by the centers. These agricultural programs played major roles in feeding, providing meaningful employment, and preparing evacuees for life outside the centers, and readied lands for post-war "homesteaders."
Hawkesworth, Sophie; Dangour, Alan D; Johnston, Deborah; Lock, Karen; Poole, Nigel; Rushton, Jonathan; Uauy, Ricardo; Waage, Jeff
Agricultural production, food systems and population health are intimately linked. While there is a strong evidence base to inform our knowledge of what constitutes a healthy human diet, we know little about actual food production or consumption in many populations and how developments in the food and agricultural system will affect dietary intake patterns and health. The paucity of information on food production and consumption is arguably most acute in low- and middle-income countries, where it is most urgently needed to monitor levels of under-nutrition, the health impacts of rapid dietary transition and the increasing 'double burden' of nutrition-related disease. Food availability statistics based on food commodity production data are currently widely used as a proxy measure of national-level food consumption, but using data from the UK and Mexico we highlight the potential pitfalls of this approach. Despite limited resources for data collection, better systems of measurement are possible. Important drivers to improve collection systems may include efforts to meet international development goals and partnership with the private sector. A clearer understanding of the links between the agriculture and food system and population health will ensure that health becomes a critical driver of agricultural change.
Research at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands Research Laboratory is focused on development and delivery of improved technologies, strategies, and planning tools for integrated crop-forage-livestock systems under variable climate, energy, and market conditions. The GRL research p...
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, (FiBL)
Presentations: - The role of sustainability standards in economic development cooperation in Switzerland (Dr. Barbara Jäggin, SECO) - Latest data on organic agriculture worldwide (Dr. Helga Willer, FiBL Switzerland) - Voluntary Sustainability Standards (Julia Lernoud, FiBL Switzerland) - Standards and regulations (Beate Huber, FiBL Switzerland) - The global market for organic food (Amarjit Sahota, Organic Monitor, UK)
Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan
The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attach s, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Historically, these analog years are visually identified; however, the qualitative nature of this method sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. Thus, one goal of this study is to derive a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years, based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). A second goal is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data).
Farfel, Mark; DiGrande, Laura; Brackbill, Robert; Prann, Angela; Cone, James; Friedman, Stephen; Walker, Deborah J; Pezeshki, Grant; Thomas, Pauline; Galea, Sandro; Williamson, David; Frieden, Thomas R; Thorpe, Lorna
To date, health effects of exposure to the September 11, 2001 disaster in New York City have been studied in specific groups, but no studies have estimated its impact across the different exposed populations. This report provides an overview of the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) enrollees, their exposures, and their respiratory and mental health outcomes 2-3 years post-9/11. Results are extrapolated to the estimated universe of people eligible to enroll in the WTCHR to determine magnitude of impact. Building occupants, persons on the street or in transit in lower Manhattan on 9/11, local residents, rescue and recovery workers/volunteers, and area school children and staff were interviewed and enrolled in the WTCHR between September 2003 and November 2004. A total of 71,437 people enrolled in the WTCHR, for 17.4% coverage of the estimated eligible exposed population (nearly 410,000); 30% were recruited from lists, and 70% were self-identified. Many reported being in the dust cloud from the collapsing WTC Towers (51%), witnessing traumatic events (70%), or sustaining an injury (13%). After 9/11, 67% of adult enrollees reported new or worsening respiratory symptoms, 3% reported newly diagnosed asthma, 16% screened positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 8% for serious psychological distress (SPD). Newly diagnosed asthma was most common among rescue and recovery workers who worked on the debris pile (4.1%). PTSD was higher among those who reported Hispanic ethnicity (30%), household income < $25,000 (31%), or being injured (35%). Using previously published estimates of the total number of exposed people per WTCHR eligibility criteria, we estimate between 3,800 and 12,600 adults experienced newly diagnosed asthma and 34,600-70,200 adults experienced PTSD following the attacks, suggesting extensive adverse health impacts beyond the immediate deaths and injuries from the acute event.
Jordan, Hannah T; Friedman, Stephen M; Reibman, Joan; Goldring, Roberta M; Miller Archie, Sara A; Ortega, Felix; Alper, Howard; Shao, Yongzhao; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Berger, Kenneth I
Objectives We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12–13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008–2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013–2014). Peripheral airway function was assessed with impulse oscillometry measures of R5 and R5-20. Probable PTSD was a PTSD checklist score ≥44 on a 2006–2007 questionnaire. Results Of 785 exam 1 participants, 545 (69%) completed exam 2. Most (321, 59%) were asymptomatic at all assessments. Among 192 participants with initial LRS, symptoms resolved for 110 (57%) by exam 2, 55 (29%) had persistent LRS and 27 (14%) had other patterns. The proportion with normal spirometry increased from 65% at exam 1 to 85% at exam 2 in the persistent LRS group (p<0.01) and was stable among asymptomatic participants and those with resolved LRS. By exam 2, spirometry results did not differ across symptom groups; however, R5 and R5-20 abnormalities were more common among participants with persistent LRS (56% and 46%, respectively) than among participants with resolved LRS (30%, p<0.01; 27%, p=0.03) or asymptomatic participants (20%, p<0.001; 8.2%, p<0.001). PTSD, R5 at exam 1, and R5-20 at exam 1 were each independently associated with persistent LRS. Conclusions Peripheral airway dysfunction and PTSD may contribute to LRS persistence. Assessment of peripheral airway function detected pulmonary damage not evident on spirometry. Mental and physical healthcare for survivors of complex environmental disasters should be coordinated carefully. PMID:28341697
Pietrzak, R H; Feder, A; Singh, R; Schechter, C B; Bromet, E J; Katz, C L; Reissman, D B; Ozbay, F; Sharma, V; Crane, M; Harrison, D; Herbert, R; Levin, S M; Luft, B J; Moline, J M; Stellman, J M; Udasin, I G; Landrigan, P J; Southwick, S M
Longitudinal symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterized by heterogeneous trajectories, which may have unique pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. To date, however, no study has evaluated the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of PTSD symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders. A total of 10835 WTC responders, including 4035 professional police responders and 6800 non-traditional responders (e.g. construction workers) who participated in the WTC Health Program (WTC-HP), were evaluated an average of 3, 6 and 8 years after the WTC attacks. Among police responders, longitudinal PTSD symptoms were best characterized by four classes, with the majority (77.8%) in a resistant/resilient trajectory and the remainder exhibiting chronic (5.3%), recovering (8.4%) or delayed-onset (8.5%) symptom trajectories. Among non-traditional responders, a six-class solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a resistant/resilient trajectory (58.0%) and the remainder exhibiting recovering (12.3%), severe chronic (9.5%), subsyndromal increasing (7.3%), delayed-onset (6.7%) and moderate chronic (6.2%) trajectories. Prior psychiatric history, Hispanic ethnicity, severity of WTC exposure and WTC-related medical conditions were most strongly associated with symptomatic trajectories of PTSD symptoms in both groups of responders, whereas greater education and family and work support while working at the WTC site were protective against several of these trajectories. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms in WTC responders are heterogeneous and associated uniquely with pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. Police responders were more likely than non-traditional responders to exhibit a resistant/resilient trajectory. These results underscore the importance of prevention, screening and treatment efforts that target high-risk disaster responders, particularly those with prior psychiatric history, high levels of
McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.
On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.
Ye, Fen; Hall, Charles B.; Webber, Mayris P.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Dinkels, Michael; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.
Background: Few longitudinal studies characterize firefighters’ pulmonary function. We sought to determine whether firefighters have excessive FEV1 decline rates compared with control subjects. Methods: We examined serial measurements of FEV1 from about 6 months prehire to about 5 years posthire in newly hired male, never smoking, non-Hispanic black and white firefighters, hired between 2003 and 2006, without prior respiratory disease or World Trade Center exposure. Similarly defined Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers served as control subjects. Results: Through June 30, 2011, 940 firefighters (82%) and 97 EMS workers (72%) who met study criteria had four or more acceptable posthire spirometries. Prehire FEV1% averaged higher for firefighters than EMS workers (99% vs 95%), reflecting more stringent job entry criteria. FEV1 (adjusted for baseline age and height) declined by an average of 45 mL/y both for firefighters and EMS workers, with Fire − EMS decline rate differences averaging 0.2 mL/y (CI, −9.2 to 9.6). Four percent of each group had FEV1 less than the lower limit of normal before hire, increasing to 7% for firefighters and 17.5% for EMS workers, but similar percentages of both groups had adjusted FEV1 decline rates ≥ 10%. Mixed effects modeling showed a significant influence of weight gain but not baseline weight: FEV1 declined by about 8 mL/kg gained for both groups. Adjusting for weight change, FEV1 decline averaged 38 mL/y for firefighters and 34 mL/y for EMS workers. Conclusions: During the first 5 years of duty, firefighters do not show greater longitudinal FEV1 decline than EMS control subjects, and fewer of them develop abnormal lung function. Weight gain is associated with a small loss of lung function, of questionable clinical relevance in this fit and active population. PMID:23188136
Perez Dominguez, I.; Britz, W.; Holm-Muller, K.
A rational negotiation strategy for coming multilateral negotiations regarding climate change requires knowledge about possible social, economic and environmental effects of policy instruments for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. With this purpose, an agricultural sector model is expanded
David Oscar YAWSON
Full Text Available Virtual water has been proposed as a mechanism with potential to reduce the effects of water scarcity on food security. To evaluate the role of virtual water in reducing the effect of water scarcity on food security, all components of the available water resource in agricultural areas must be quantified to provide a basis for evaluating food imports driven by water scarcity. We refer to this situation as ‘agri-compatible connections’ among water scarcity, virtual water, and food security. To date, this has not been captured in the literature on water scarcity, virtual water flows and food security. The lack of agri-compatibility has rendered the virtual water concept seemingly inconsistent with trade theories and water-food security policy needs. We propose two requirements for achieving agri-compatible connections: (i the limit of crop production imposed by water scarcity should be captured by quantifying all components of the water available to satisfy specific crop water requirement in the importing economy, and (ii food import should satisfy ‘water-dependent food security’ need, which is the actual or potential food security gap created by insufficient available water from all sources for crop production (all other things being equal. Further, we propose that agri-compatible water scarcity should capture three key elements: (i a reflection of aridity or drought potential, (ii quantification of all the components of water resource available to a given crop at a given locality and time, and (iii use of crop- and catchment-specific water scarcity factors to evaluate the effect of crop production and virtual water on water scarcity. In this paper, we show the conceptual outlines for the proposed agri-compatible connections. Achieving agri-compatible connections among water scarcity, virtual water and food security will enhance the analysis and understanding of the role of virtual water for food security in the importing economy and water
-, VERA NURUL HAYATI
2016 Vera Nurul Hayati (B 111 12 117),The Application of Non Discrimination Principle of World Trade Organization Against Foreign Workers in Indonesia (Case Study : China Foreign Workers in Indonesia), led by Muhammad Ashri dan Laode Abdul Gani. Writing aims to determine 1) Implementation of Non Discrimination principle on policy regulation against Foreign labor in Indonesia. 2) Enforcement of non discrimination principle against Tiongkok foreign labor in Indonesia. ...
Lioy, Paul J.; Weisel, Clifford P.; Millette, James R.; Eisenreich, Steven; Vallero, Daniel; Offenberg, John; Buckley, Brian; Turpin, Barbara; Zhong, Mianhua; Cohen, Mitchell D.; Prophete, Colette; Yang, Ill; Stiles, Robert; Chee, Glen; Johnson, Willie
The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol plume impacting many workers, residents, and commuters during the first few days after 11 September 2001. Three bulk samples of the total settled dust and smoke were collected at weather-protected locations east of the WTC on 16 and 17 September 2001; these samples are representative of the generated material that settled immediately after the explosion and fire and the concurrent coll...
Full Text Available The impact of changes in agricultural land use and practices as a controlling driver of hydrologic response and as a source of diffuse pollution, are studied in the Joumine River basin, discharging into the Ichkeul Lake, northern Tunisia, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979. The lake is characterized by a very specific hydrological functioning based on a seasonal alternation of water levels and salinity through its link to the Mediterranean Sea. Three Landsat images, in situ surveys and SWAT modelling were used to simulate and assess streamflows and nitrate loads under retrospective land uses.
Jeunnette, Mark N.; Hart, Douglas P.
A parameterized numerical model is constructed to compare platform options for collecting aerial imagery to support agriculture electronic information services in developing countries like India. A sensitivity analysis shows that when Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs, are limited in flight altitude by regulations, the velocity and altitude available to manned aircraft lead to a lower cost of operation at altitudes greater than 2000ft above ground level, AGL. If, however, the UAVs are allowed to fly higher, they become cost-competitive once again at approximately 1000ft AGL or higher. Examination of assumptions in the model highlights two areas for additional technology development: baseline-dependent feature-based image registration to enable wider area coverage, and reflectance reconstruction for ratio-based agriculture indices.
Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; Mladenova, Iliana; Fang, Fan
A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by coordinating monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main goal of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE (See diagram below). Soil moisture is currently a primary data gap at WAOB.
Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.
Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a
Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.
Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must
Kavallari, Aikaterini; RAU Marie-Luise; Rutten, Martine
This report presents the simulations of deeper economic integration in the Euro-Mediterranean area by applying the general equilibrium model MAGNET. The scenarios are conducted in order to provide insight about how growth in North Africa, specifically Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, could potentially be promoted. The focus is on the agri-food sectors, which are investigated in the context of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, framed within the negotiations of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Ag...
Garfinkel, Michelle R; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos
.... Depending on world prices, free trade can intensify arming to such an extent that the additional security costs it brings swamp the traditional gains from trade and thus render autarky more desirable...
Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing
Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.
Yip, Jennifer; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Webber, Mayris P; Kablanian, Andrea; Hall, Charles B; Vossbrinck, Madeline; Liu, Xiaoxue; Weakley, Jessica; Schwartz, Theresa; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J
To describe the health burden among Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) emergency medical service (EMS) workers and examine its association with work at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site. In this observational cohort study, we used FDNY physician diagnoses to estimate the cumulative incidence of physical health conditions including rhinosinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obstructive airways disease (OAD) and cancer among EMS workers and demographically similar firefighters who were active on 11 September 2001 (9/11). Validated screening instruments were used to estimate the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression and probable harmful alcohol use. We also analysed the association between health conditions and WTC-exposure. Among 2281 EMS workers, the 12-year post-9/11 cumulative incidence (11 September 2001 to 31 December 2013) of rhinosinusitis was 10.6%; GERD 12.1%; OAD 11.8%; cancer 3.1%. The prevalence of probable PTSD up to 12 years after exposure was 7%; probable depression 16.7%; and probable harmful alcohol use 3%. Compared with unexposed, EMS workers who arrived earliest at the site had higher adjusted relative risks (aRR) for most conditions, including rhinosinusitis (aRR=3.7; 95% CI 2.2 to 6.0); GERD (aRR=3.8; 95% CI 2.4 to 6.1); OAD (aRR=2.4: 95% CI 1.7 to 3.6); probable PTSD (aRR=7.0; 95% CI 3.6 to 13.5); and, probable depression (aRR=2.3; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.1). In this 12-year study, we documented a high burden of health conditions associated with WTC-exposure among FDNY EMS workers. These findings underscore the importance of continued monitoring and treatment of this workforce. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Jordan, Hannah T; Friedman, Stephen M; Reibman, Joan; Goldring, Roberta M; Miller Archie, Sara A; Ortega, Felix; Alper, Howard; Shao, Yongzhao; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Berger, Kenneth I
We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12-13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008-2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013-2014). Peripheral airway function was assessed with impulse oscillometry measures of R5 and R5-20. Probable PTSD was a PTSD checklist score ≥44 on a 2006-2007 questionnaire. Of 785 exam 1 participants, 545 (69%) completed exam 2. Most (321, 59%) were asymptomatic at all assessments. Among 192 participants with initial LRS, symptoms resolved for 110 (57%) by exam 2, 55 (29%) had persistent LRS and 27 (14%) had other patterns. The proportion with normal spirometry increased from 65% at exam 1 to 85% at exam 2 in the persistent LRS group (p<0.01) and was stable among asymptomatic participants and those with resolved LRS. By exam 2, spirometry results did not differ across symptom groups; however, R5 and R5-20 abnormalities were more common among participants with persistent LRS (56% and 46%, respectively) than among participants with resolved LRS (30%, p<0.01; 27%, p=0.03) or asymptomatic participants (20%, p<0.001; 8.2%, p<0.001). PTSD, R5 at exam 1, and R5-20 at exam 1 were each independently associated with persistent LRS. Peripheral airway dysfunction and PTSD may contribute to LRS persistence. Assessment of peripheral airway function detected pulmonary damage not evident on spirometry. Mental and physical healthcare for survivors of complex environmental disasters should be coordinated carefully. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly
Gonzalez, Adam; Friedberg, Fred; Li, Xiaotong; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bromet, Evelyn J; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Vujanovic, Anka A; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman
The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-session, group-based comprehensive smoking cessation and trauma management (CSC-T) treatment among daily smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster with elevated WTC-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to CSC-T (N = 44; 63.6% white; 27.3% female; mean age = 51.32 ± 7.87) or comprehensive smoking cessation (CSC) alone (N = 46; 71.7% white; 28.3% female; mean age = 48.74 ± 10.66), which was comparable in length and time. Assessments included a diagnostic clinical interview and self-report measures of PTSD and respiratory symptoms, and smoking behavior, and biologically confirmed smoking abstinence. Evaluations occurred at a baseline visit, each treatment session, and at 1-, 2-, 4-, 12-, and 26-weeks post-treatment. The two treatments did not differ in regard to PTSD symptom improvement. After quit day (week 6), the two groups had similar 7-day (~15%) and 6-month (~20%) abstinence rates as well as average number of cigarettes smoked, and PTSD and respiratory symptoms. It is possible that the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy skills specific to quitting smoking, group-based support, and degree of therapist contact, that were available in both treatments may have played a role in equalizing the abstinence rates between the two conditions. Although the current study found no evidence that the CSC-T was superior to the CSC alone treatment, the abstinence rates observed were high relative to previous trials of smokers with diagnosed PTSD. Further development of smoking cessation programs tailored to the needs of smokers with PTSD symptoms continues to be needed. This study suggests that a CSC program aids in smoking abstinence for smokers with PTSD symptoms and that incorporating trauma management skills, may not add additional benefits for abstinence and PTSD and respiratory symptom relief. Further work is needed to
Kwon, Sophia; Putman, Barbara; Weakley, Jessica; Hall, Charles B; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Schwartz, Theresa; Olivieri, Brianne; Singh, Ankura; Huie, Maryann; Morrison, Debra; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Hillel W; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K; Nolan, Anna; Prezant, David J; Shohet, Michael R; Weiden, Michael D
The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse generated caustic airborne particulates that caused chronic rhinosinusitis in exposed Fire Department of New York firefighters. Surgery was performed when symptoms remained uncontrolled despite medical management. To identify predictors of surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis in firefighters exposed to airborne irritants at the WTC collapse site. We assessed in 8,227 firefighters with WTC exposure between September 11, 2001 (9/11), and September 25, 2001, including WTC-site arrival time, months of rescue and recovery work, and eosinophil concentration measured between 9/11 and March 10, 2003. We assessed the association of serum cytokines and immunoglobulins with eosinophil concentration and surgery for rhinosinusitis in 112 surgical cases and 376 control subjects with serum available from the first 6 months after exposure to the WTC collapse site. Between 9/11 and March 10, 2015, the surgery rate was 0.47 cases per 100 person-years. In the first 18 months post-9/11, surgical patients had higher mean blood eosinophil levels than study cohort patients (219 ± 155 vs. 191 ± 134; P < 0.0001). Increased surgery risk was associated with increasing blood eosinophil counts (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12 per 100 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.17; P < 0.001); arriving at the WTC site on 9/11 or September 12, 2001 (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99; P = 0.03); and working 6 months or longer at the WTC site (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93; P < 0.01). Median blood eosinophil levels for surgical patients were above levels for the cohort in all 18-month intervals March 11, 2000, through March 10, 2015, using 51,163 measurements representing 97,733 person-years of observation. Increasing age, increasing IL-17A, and low IgA in serum from 2001 to 2002 predicted blood eosinophil concentration in surgical patients but not in control subjects (R(2) = 0.26, P < 0.0001; vs. R(2) = 0.008, P = 0
Full Text Available Taking into consideration the specification of the sector, distinct tendencies in FDI flows can be expected both in the short and long term. The aforementioned assumption constituted the basis for the research the aiming at of which the presentation of the level, dynamics and structure of cross-border mergers and acquisitions in agricultural-food industry and exploration, on their basis, of the tendencies and directions in which they are going to change as well as to specify the place and role of agriculture and food industry in global flows of FDI. In order to reach the aforementioned goal, ex-post empiric analysis of capital flows in the form of mergers and acquisitions was applied (1990-2012 together with chosen statistical methods (measurements of placement and variation and with indicators of structure and dynamics. The results of the analysis showed that M&As, in the long term, was specified by a relatively high cyclical nature as well as by a growing trend with short-term fluctuations around the trend distinct from those specifying other sectors. Moreover, the research proved that mergers and acquisitions constituted an important form of FDI flows and their implementation had a marginal meaning when considering the whole sector.
Brown, L R
1) The worldwide demand for food will continue to be strong in the coming decades. Two forces-rapidly growing population and, in much of the world, rapidly rising incomes-are expected to result in increases in the demand for food even more rapid than those that have occurred during the past. 2) Conventional agriculture has assured an adequate food supply for the economically advanced one-third of the world. The challenge now is to assure an adequate food supply for the remaining two-thirds, where population is now increasing at the rate of 1 million people per week and where malnutrition is already widespread. 3) Economically feasible prospects for significantly expanding the world's area of cultivated land in the 1960's and 1970's are limited and largely confined to sub-Saharan Africa and the Amazon Basin. Even here, agronomic problems will limit the rate of expansion. When the cost of desalting seawater is substantially reduced-probably not before the late 1970's or early 1980's at best-it may become feasible to irrigate large areas of desert. 4) Given the limited possibilities for expanding the area of land under cultivation, most of the increases in world food needs must be met, for the foreseeable future, by raising the productivity of land already under cultivation. Food output per acre, rather static throughout most of history, has begun to increase rapidly in some of the more advanced countries in recent decades. All of the increases in food production over the past quarter century in North America, western Europe, and Japan have come from increasing the productivity of land already under cultivation. The area under cultivation has actually declined. 5) Achieving dramatic gains in land productivity requires a massive investment of capital and the widespread adoption of new technology. A similar effort must now be made in the less-developed nations if these nations are to feed their people. The most important single factor influencing this rate of investment
Díaz Álvarez, M. C.; Saa Requejo, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Garcia Moreno, R.
The 4th World Congress of Agronomists and Professionals in Agronomy was held in Madrid between 28th and 31st October 2008 with the motto: "The Agronomist as technical and scientific nexus for conserving the Environment on the basis of rural development and food demand". The Congress was organised by the Spanish Association of Agronomists, the General Council of Spanish Agronomist Associations and the World Association of Agronomists, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs, and with the support of numerous institutions and national and international companies. The objective was to analyse and discuss the achievement of food security in a context of environmental sustainability, rural development and a shortage of water and energy, as well as the role played by agronomists and other agronomy professionals, both now and in the future all over the world. The papers dealt with numerous aspects of the Agronomy profession related to food security, sustainability and rural development, with specific analyses relating to education and the professional role in the different fields in the actual changing context. As was to be expected in a field of activity as broad as that in which Agronomists and other Agronomy professionals work, the papers and presentations covered a very wide range of topics. The main conclusion was that Agricultural Engineers and other Agronomy professionals have played a very important role in the development of agriculture and agroindustry, after analysed all the successful achievements, for that reason the main recommendation was that Professional Associations and the educational Institutions must ensure the continuous capacity, professionalism and commitment of their members as a guarantee for the society.
SH. M. Hum. TAUFIQURRAHMAN
Full Text Available Regulatory on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR by mandatory in Indonesia as stipulated in Article 74 of Law No. 40/2007 on the Limited Liability Company (hereafter the Company Law raises a contradiction. Those who agree argue that the company is not solely for profit, but more than that are participating in social issues and the preservation of the environment within the framework of sustainable development. Conversely, those who disagree view that social issues and the environment are the full responsibility of state. The involvement of a corporation in social and environmental activities is voluntary. Verdict of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in case no. 53/PUU-VI / / 2008 dated 13 April 2009 which rejected a requesting of material test of the Article 74 paragraph (1, (2 and (3 of the Company Law confirms the existence of the CSR by mandatory in international trade traffic today. The analytical results indicates that mandatory CSR regulation in the Company Law is not a form of a state intervention to the private activities. In addition, the arrangement is not contrary to the principles of free trade within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT / World Trade Organization (WTO.
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... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...
Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.
The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.
This paper builds a small-open-economy, non-scale-growth model with negative population growth and investigates the relationship between trade patterns and per capita consumption growth. Under free trade, if the population growth rate is negative and its absolute value is small, the home country becomes an agricultural country. Then, the long-run growth rate of per capita consumption is positive and depends on the world population growth rate. On other hand, if the population growth rate is n...
Matias E. Mastrangelo
Full Text Available Agricultural intensification in rural areas of developing countries compromises the provision of ecosystem services. Social conflict arises among landholders with different preferences for ecosystem services and land-use practices in agricultural frontiers of the Argentine Dry Chaco. We explored policy and management options by assessing the actual and potential outcomes of alternative land-use systems and scenarios. We first constructed the efficiency frontier for avian habitat and agricultural productivity to analyze the combinations of ecosystem services that can be achieved under different land-use intensities. A nonlinear, concave efficiency frontier indicated opportunities to achieve large gains for production with small losses for conservation, for instance, by transitioning from low- to intermediate-intensity systems. Second, we projected production and conservation outcomes, which can be achieved through the implementation of five alternative policy options. The land sharing with conservation scenario, 70% of the landscape covered by intermediate-intensity systems and 30% by undisturbed forests, yielded the higher combination of avian habitat and agricultural productivity. Third, we constructed indifference curves of three landholder groups, i.e., preproductivist, multifunctional, and productivist, by assessing their intentions (proxies for preferences to conserve and convert remnant forests in their landholdings. Multifunctional landholders showed balanced preferences for conserving and converting forests in their landholdings, and maintaining intermediate-intensity systems. A general willingness to conserve forests coexisted in preproductivist landholders with the intention to clear some portions of the landholding and intensify landuse, indicating the potential of an endogenously motivated transition toward a multifunctional regime. Such transition may increase their productivity by 35-65% without compromising avian habitat
Copley, C. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)
The article presents an overview of global demand and trade in hard coal (steam and coking). Coal demand has grown steadily over the past thirty years but coal trade has and will continue to grow at a faster rate. Transport contributes a relatively high proportion to the final price. Demand growth is strongest in countries with limited resources while production is declining in some countries with mature mining industries. There is a shift to demand in Asian markets. Spot contracts and tender transactions are replacing long-term contracts and e-commerce is developing. Prices are expected to remain stable, relative to those of oil and gas. China is expected to remain the world's second longest supplier of coal. 9 refs., 13 figs.
Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.
Veniamin Vasil'evich Drokin
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of foreign economic grocery relations on the state of self-development and self-regulation in the agrarian sector of the country and regions. A definition of the concept of «self-regulation of the agrarian sector in the region» is given. The characteristic of long-term trends in food independence is given. In this regard, the current state of food self-sufficiency in the regions of Russia on essential grocery is analyzed. It is concluded that the majority of regions are characterized by low levels of selfsufficiency in grocery. The main trends of Russian food exports in recent years are shown. The reasons for the sharp growth in grain exports are analyzed. The estimation of the possibilities for further increase of exports of these products in connection with the planned growth of consumption and production of staple food as predicted by the Russian government is made. In general, the authors believe that low levels of food self-sufficiency of the country may be not only at significant food imports, but also at low volumes of imports, coupled with the high volume of agricultural exports. Accordingly, in both cases the possibility of selfdevelopment of the regional agrarian scope is undermined because of the influence of external factors (low levels of food self-sufficiency in the country.
Anita Trisnawati Abbott
Full Text Available Education is viewed as an instrument for development. Therein lies the importance of education for social change. It is education that makes people aware of the situation around them. Yet, in a different way, education is also an instrument to maintain hegemony. At the international level, the institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs, such as the World Bank (WB, and International Monetary Fund (IMF are crucial to the determination of the real meaning of education; whether or not education is an instrument for development for maintaining hegemony. The WTO system is arguably more than simply an international institution, but rather it is a center of hegemonic power. The emergence of neoliberalism has been accompanied by the coercion of hegemonic power that results in deleterious effects on human life. In the education sector, through the provision of the WTO General Agreement of Trade and Services (GATS, trade barriers in education are eliminated. Not only education is becoming globalized but also increasingly becoming a competitive commodity. Thus, the commodification of education means that education serves those who can afford to pay. The controversies surrounding the role of the WTO in the trade of education are significant to the debates about Neoliberal ideology and the problems of governance in the realm of globalization. These debates arise not only because of the actions of the WTO, which is deeply informed by Neoliberal ideology, but also because of the diverse beliefs about world economic governance. Not only the WTO, but also the roles of International Financial Institutions in global education revealed controversies. State intervention, for instance is minimized. Government spending in the education sector is reduced. Privatization and commercialization are encouraged. Social injustice seems to be the source of the presupposition of these controversies. This research
Najah Hassan Salamah
Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is one of the wealthiest nations per capita in the world, as well as an economic power through possession of a large share of global oil resources. This study has been carried out to identify the benefits, which are likely to be enjoyed by Saudi Arabia after its accession into World Trade Organization. A total of 15 entrepreneurs filled out the questionnaires, which were designed on the basis of Likert scale. In order to analyze the outcomes, descriptive statistics technique has been applied after data collection from the respondents. Most of the participants consider the joining of Saudi Arabia into World Trade Organization as a beneficial decision for the Saudi market. This accession is advantageous as it helps to enhance the marketing and investment opportunities, as a consequence of which the economy of Saudi Arabia flourishes and the population rises. The marketing techniques are required to be established and adopted to manufacture high-quality products. The study outcomes are helpful for the policymakers and Saudi companies to emphasize on the production of high-quality products, as well as to implement the strategies for better marketing of their products in local market.
(Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan))
It is necessary to promote structural adjustments on a world wide scale to take measures to meet the advanced relation of interdependencies in the world economy. As every one in every field made efforts to overcome depression caused by high yen-rate, Japanese economy is now expanding. However, the business conditions of the field based on exports are still unfavorable. Basic targets of international trade and industry policies in the fiscal year 1989 are to contribute actively to the world economy, to actualize such trades, investments and industrial structures to harmonize with the international economic society, and to construct the base for autonomous development toward the 21st century. As a result of investigating the necessary policies toward the 1990's, followings are considered requested to cope with the expected unstable supply of petroleum and the tight relation between supply and demand of petroleum; to promote all-round energy policy, to mitigate regulations and to strenghten the constitution of petroleum industry, to take measures for security, to develop and introduce the energy which substitutes for petroleum, to promote energy conservation to secure stable supply of rare metal and non-ferrous metal materials, and lastly to promote the steady development and utilization of atomic energy.
Mastrangelo, Matias E; Gavin, Michael C
Intensification of food production in tropical landscapes in the absence of land-use planning can pose a major threat to biological diversity. Decisions on whether to spatially integrate or segregate lands for production and conservation depend in part on the functional relations between biological diversity and agricultural productivity. We measured diversity, density, and species composition of birds along a gradient of production intensification on an agricultural frontier of the Argentine Chaco, where dry tropical forests are cleared for cattle production. Bird species diversity in intact forests was higher than in any type of cattle-production system. Bird species richness decreased nonlinearly as cattle yield increased. Intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems, those in which forest understory is selectively cleared to grow pastures of non-native plants beneath the tree canopy, produced 80% of the mean cattle yield obtained in pastures on cleared areas and were occupied by 70-90% of the number of bird species present in the nearest forest fragments. Densities of >50% of bird species were significantly lower in open pastures than in silvopastoral systems. Therefore, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems may have the greatest potential to sustain cattle yield and conserve a large percentage of bird species. However, compared with low-intensity production systems, in which forest structure and extent were intact, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems supported significantly fewer forest-restricted bird species and fewer frugivorous birds. These data suggest that the integration of production and conservation through intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems combined with the protection of forest fragments may be required to maintain cattle yield, bird diversity, and conservation of forest-restricted species in this agricultural frontier. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.
Ph. D. Alina-Petronela Haller
Full Text Available The world economy has been greatly affected by the current recession. All countries have suffered regardless of their level of development. Given that global problems require global solutions, world powers have met at summits of the G-20 forum, in order to determine the causes of the recession and adopt the most relevant measures to overcome the crisis and to correct other imbalances (e.g. environmental issues, hunger existing in the world.
Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.
Teng, W. L.; Shannon, H. D.
The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attachés, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly impact crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Although, historically, these analog years are identified through visual inspection, the qualitative nature of this methodology sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. One goal of this study is to introduce a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years. This approach is based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). The derivation of AI will be described. Another goal of this study is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data). Five study areas and six growing seasons of data were analyzed (2003-2007 as potential analog years and 2008 as the target year). Results thus far show that, for all five areas, crop yield estimates derived from satellite-based precipitation data are closer to measured yields than are estimates derived from surface
Kershen, Drew L
Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have significant implications for the food security of the nations of the world. By food security, one should understand not just the available supply of food, but also the quality of the food and the environmental impact of agricultural production systems. These specialized regimes for transgenic crops can either encourage or hinder the adoption of agricultural biotechnology as a sustainable intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers hope for agronomic improvements for agricultural production, socio-economic betterment for farmers and environmental benefits for societies. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers particular hope for the poorest farmers of the world because agricultural biotechnology is a technology in the seed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gargano, Lisa M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Sisco, Sarah; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D
In a population with prior exposure to the World Trade Center disaster, this study sought to determine the subsequent level of preparedness for a new disaster and how preparedness varied with population characteristics that are both disaster-related and non-disaster-related. The sample included 4496 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed the Wave 3 (2011-2012) and Hurricane Sandy (2013) surveys. Participants were considered prepared if they reported possessing at least 7 of 8 standard preparedness items. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between preparedness and demographic and medical factors, 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessed at Wave 3, 9/11 exposure, and social support. Over one-third (37.5%) of participants were prepared with 18.8% possessing all 8 items. The item most often missing was an evacuation plan (69.8%). Higher levels of social support were associated with being prepared. High levels of 9/11 exposure were associated with being prepared in both the PTSD and non-PTSD subgroups. Our findings indicate that prior 9/11 exposure favorably impacted Hurricane Sandy preparedness. Future preparedness messaging should target people with low social support networks. Communications should include information on evacuation zones and where to find information about how to evacuate.
Just as developing states are blessed with natural resources capable of transforming their economies into a positive direction, the imposed World Trade Organisation's (WTO) mores continue to relegate them to the status of underdevelopment. The consequences of this on investment, trade and finance in Third World States (TWSs), especially Africa, are disarticulation of the economy, exploitation, disinvestment, unemployment, political instability and unavailability of relevant technology to move TWSs forward, among others. This gives rise to the politics behind Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) patenting (a medicinal plant found only in South Africa) by various multinational corporations (MNCs). This study adopted political economy approach with emphasis on both primary and secondary sources of data collection using content analysis. There is need to adhere strictly to the issues of intellectual property rights (IPRs), geographical indications (GIs), prior informed consent (PIC), and access and sharing benefits (ASB). These have not been observed by the western states because of their economic of neo-imperialism to the disadvantage of developing states. This paper recommends that there is need for a regional regime such as African Regional Intellectual Property Organisation (ARIPO), on indigenous knowledge (IK) to patent the continental biodiversity resources.
Lupien, John R
International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.
Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe
of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...... the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...
Primost, Jezabel E; Marino, Damián J G; Aparicio, Virginia C; Costa, José Luis; Carriquiriborde, Pedro
In the Pampas, public concern has strongly risen because of the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control and fallow associated with biotech crops. The present study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of the herbicide and its main metabolite (AMPA) in soil and other environmental compartments of the mentioned agroecosystem, including groundwater, in relation to real-world agricultural management practices in the region. Occurrence was almost ubiquitous in solid matrices (83-100%) with maximum concentrations among the higher reported in the world (soil: 8105 and 38939; sediment: 3294 and 7219; suspended particulate matter (SPM): 584 and 475 μg/kg of glyphosate and AMPA). Lower detection frequency was observed in surface water (27-55%) with maximum concentrations in whole water of 1.80 and 1.90 μg/L of glyphosate and AMPA, indicating that SPM analysis would be more sensitive for detection in the aquatic ecosystem. No detectable concentrations of glyphosate or AMPA were observed in groundwater. Glyphosate soil concentrations were better correlated with the total cumulative dose and total number of applications than the last spraying event dose, and an increment of 1 mg glyphosate/kg soil every 5 spraying events was estimated. Findings allow to infer that, under current practices, application rates are higher than dissipation rates. Hence, glyphosate and AMPA should be considered "pseudo-persistent" pollutants and a revisions of management procedures, monitoring programs, and ecological risk for soil and sediments should be also recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
González Esteban, Ángel Luis
[eng] This thesis is concerned with the world wheat economy between 1939 and 2010, which may seem somewhat surprising for several reasons. First, the history of wheat is inextricably tied up with the evolution of world agriculture and, as is well-known, the relative importance of agriculture has declined significantly as a consequence of structural change. Second, we are particularly interested in studying the evolution of the international wheat trade, yet it is also well-known that there h...
The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.
Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W
The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.
Morway, E. D.; Niswonger, R. G.; Triana, E.
In irrigated agricultural regions supplied by both surface-water and groundwater, increased reliance on groundwater during sustained drought leads to long-term water table drawdown and subsequent surface-water losses. This, in turn, may threaten the sustainability of the irrigation project. To help offset groundwater resource losses and restore water supply reliability, an alternative management strategy commonly referred to as managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in agricultural regions helps mitigate long-term aquifer drawdown and provides additional water for subsequent withdraw. Sources of MAR in this investigation are limited to late winter runoff in years with above average precipitation (i.e., above average snowpack). However, where winter MAR results in an elevated water table, non-beneficial consumptive use may increase from evapotranspiration in adjacent and down-gradient fallow and naturally vegetated lands. To rigorously explore this trade-off, the recently published MODSIM-MODFLOW model was applied to quantify both the benefits and unintended consequences of MAR. MODSIM-MODFLOW is a generalized modeling tool capable of exploring the effects of altered river operations within an integrated groundwater and surface-water (GW-SW) model. Thus, the MODSIM-MODFLOW model provides a modeling platform capable of simulating MAR in amounts and duration consistent with other senior water rights in the river system (e.g., minimum in-stream flow requirements). Increases in non-beneficial consumptive use resulting from winter MAR are evaluated for a hypothetical model patterned after alluvial aquifers common in arid and semi-arid areas of the western United States. Study results highlight (1) the benefit of an implicitly-coupled river operations and hydrologic modeling tool, (2) the balance between winter MAR and the potential increase in non-beneficial consumptive use, and (3) conditions where MAR may or may not be an appropriate management option, such as the availability
Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Lin, Xiaowen; Zeng, Ruijie
Water is an essential input for agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of agricultural commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that emphasizes four tradeoffs involving water-use decision-making that are important yet not always considered in a consistent framework. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different economic sectors. A second tradeoff examines the possibility that certain types of agricultural investments can offset water use. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using commodities. The fourth tradeoff concerns how variability in water supplies influences farmer decision-making. We show conditions under which trade liberalization affect water use. Two policy scenarios to reduce water use are evaluated. First, we derive a target tax that reduces water use without offsetting the gains from trade liberalization, although important tradeoffs exist between economic performance and resource use. Second, we show how subsidization of water-saving technologies can allow producers to use less water without reducing agricultural production, making such subsidization an indirect means of influencing water use decision-making. Finally, we outline conditions under which riskiness of water availability affects water use. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.
The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...
human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized. ..... to copy technologies developed in economically advanced countries ... will be accepted for reasons of international standards such as safety and packaging which for.
Tao, Xuguang Grant; Massa, Jennifer; Ashwell, Leslie; Davis, Kathleen; Schwab, Margo; Geyh, Alison
Respiratory health among cleanup workers at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site was evaluated approximately 20 months after the initial exposure to assess the risk of lower respiratory symptoms. In 2003 a self-administered questionnaire requesting information about site experience, current respiratory and historical health, and smoking was sent to 4,546 workers employed at the site (response 25%), and 2103 workers who were never at the WTC (response 12%). As compared with those never at the site, WTC workers were more than three times as likely to report any lower respiratory symptoms (rate ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval: 2.33-4.94). These results suggest an impact on respiratory health related to work experience at the WTC and indicate further monitoring to address potential long-term effects.
Haugen, Peter Tejas; Werth, Aditi Sinha; Foster, Alyce Lauren; Owen, Jesse
World Trade Center responders demonstrate high symptom burden, underscoring the importance of refining treatment approaches for this cohort. One method is examining the impact of therapy techniques on outcomes, and the interactions between technique and alliance on outcomes. This study a) examined the interaction of early treatment techniques on integrative psychotherapy outcomes and b) explored whether associations differed at varying levels of alliance. Twenty-nine adult responders diagnosed with partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder received outpatient psychotherapy and completed weekly measures of alliance, technique, and symptom distress. Analyses indicated significant interactions between 1) alliance and psychodynamic interventions on outcomes and 2) alliance and cognitive behavioral (CB) interventions on outcomes. Clients with high alliance had better outcomes when their therapist used fewer CB techniques. No meaningful differences were found between technique and outcomes for clients with lower alliance. These findings reiterate the critical roles technique and responsiveness to the alliance play in engendering successful outcomes.
North, Carol S; Adinoff, Bryon; Pollio, David E; Kinge, Sagar; Downs, Dana L; Pfefferbaum, Betty
Research on the relationship of alcohol and disasters has yielded mixed conclusions. Some studies investigate alcohol consumption but others examine alcohol use disorders in relation to disaster. Alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have not be studied concurrently in relation to specific disaster trauma exposures. A volunteer sample of 379 individuals from New York City agencies affected by the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks on World Trade Center were assessed approximately 3years postdisaster for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders relative to specific disaster exposures. Increases in alcohol consumption were relatively small, eventually returning to pre-9/11 levels, with few cases of new alcohol use disorders or alcohol relapse. The findings suggest that postdisaster alcohol use has negligible clinical relevance for most of the population. Scarce disaster resources should be focused on those at identified risk of excessive alcohol use, that is, those with pre-existing alcohol or other psychiatric disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Richardson, Katherine M
This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n=118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth.
An implementation study of cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) was conducted for traumatized youth in a postdisaster context. Headed by the New York State Office of Mental Health, the study targeted youth (N = 306) ages 5-21 affected by the World Trade Center disaster. They received either trauma-specific CBT or brief CBT skills depending upon the severity of trauma symptoms. Clinicians were trained to deliver these interventions and received monthly consultation. A regression discontinuity design was used to assess optimal strategies for matching need to service intensity. At 6-months postbaseline, both groups had improved. Rate of change was similar despite differences in severity of need. The implications for the implementation of evidence-based treatments postdisaster are discussed. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Mann, Mana; Li, Jiehui; Farfel, Mark R; Maslow, Carey B; Osahan, Sukhminder; Stellman, Steven D
Behavioral problems and psychopathologies were reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in New York City within 2–3 y post-disaster. Little is known of subsequent 9/11 related behavioral and emotional problems. We assessed risk factors for behavioral difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 489 adolescent enrollees ages 11–18 y of age in the World Trade Center Health Registry cohort using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and DISC Predictive Scales (DPS), respectively, as reported by the adolescents. Associations between parental PTSD and adolescent PTSD and behavioral problems were studied in a subset of 166 adolescent-parent pairs in which the parent was also a Registry enrollee. Nearly one-fifth (17.4%) of the adolescents, all of whom were 5–12 y old at the time of the attacks, scored in the abnormal (5.7%) or borderline (11.7%) range of total SDQ. Problems were more frequent in minority, low-income, and single-parent adolescents. Abnormal and borderline SDQ scores were significantly associated with direct WTC exposures and with WTC-related injury or death of a family member. Adolescent PTSD was significantly associated with WTC exposure and with fear of one's own injury or death, and with PTSD in the parent (OR = 5.6; 95% CI 1.1–28.4). This adolescent population should be monitored for persistence or worsening of these problems. Co-occurrence of parent and child mental health symptoms following a disaster may have implications for healthcare practitioners and for disaster response planners. PMID:28229007
Bromet, E J; Hobbs, M J; Clouston, S A P; Gonzalez, A; Kotov, R; Luft, B J
Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being. Master's-level psychologists administered sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool to 3231 responders monitored at the Stony Brook University World Trade Center Health Program. The PTSD Checklist (PCL) and current medical symptoms were obtained at each visit. In all, 9.7% had current, 7.9% remitted, and 5.9% partial WTC-PTSD. Among those with active PTSD, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were most commonly, and flashbacks least commonly, reported. Trajectories of symptom severity across monitoring visits showed a modestly increasing slope for active and decelerating slope for remitted PTSD. WTC exposures, especially death and human remains, were strongly associated with PTSD. After adjusting for exposure and critical risk factors, including hazardous drinking and co-morbid depression, PTSD was strongly associated with health and well-being, especially dissatisfaction with life. This is the first study to demonstrate the extent and correlates of long-term DSM-IV PTSD among responders. Although most proved resilient, there remains a sizable subgroup in need of continued treatment in the second decade after 9/11.
Savitz, David A; Oxman, Rachael T; Metzger, Kristina B; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Stein, Diane; Moline, Jacqueline M; Herbert, Robin
Studies of long-term health consequences of disasters face unique methodologic challenges. The authors focused on studies of the health of cleanup and recovery workers, who are often poorly enumerated at the outset and difficult to follow over time. Comparison of the experience at the World Trade Center disaster with 4 past incidents of chemical and radiation releases at Seveso, Italy; Bhopal, India; Chernobyl, Ukraine; and Three Mile Island, USA, provided useful contrasts. Each event had methodologic advantages and disadvantages that depended on the nature of the disaster and the availability of records on area residents, and the emergency-response and cleanup protocol. The World Trade Center Worker Monitoring Program has well-defined eligibility criteria but lacks information on the universe of eligible workers to characterize response proportions or the potential for distortion of reported health effects. Nonparticipation may result from lack of interest, lack of awareness of the program, availability of another source of medical care, medical conditions precluding participation, inability to take time off from work, moving out of the area, death, or shift from initially ineligible to eligible status. Some of these considerations suggest selective participation by the sickest individuals, whereas others favor participation by the healthiest. The greatest concern with the validity of inferences regarding elevated health risks relative to external populations is the potential for selective enrollment among those who are affected. If there were a large pool of nonparticipating workers and those who suffered ill health were most motivated to enroll, the rates of disease among participants would be substantially higher than among all those eligible for the program. Future disaster follow-up studies would benefit substantially by having access to accurate estimates of the number of workers and information on the individuals who contributed to the cleanup and recovery
Full Text Available In this research, agricultural information structure and emerging trends are visualised with social network analysis from 1996 to 2011; similarities and differences between the researches of agricultural research institutions (universities abroad and in Turkey are detected. Moreover, whether agricultural research policies determined by these institutions, councils and scholars had effects on the researches carried out in agricultural researches were determined. Comparing the agricultural policies in Turkey through the subjects of the publications in Web of Science (WoS, some priorities in agricultural research policies have increased in time. Especially, the water resources (2-3% increase out of natural resources, biotechnology (4% increase and environmental sciences (4% increase more often take place in agricultural policies and alike, number of publications on these subjects has gradually increased. While there is a significant percentage of publication on biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics and heredity, microbiology and cell biology in agricultural faculties in other countries, the percentage of the publications in these fields is much lower in Turkey. According to the subject category, while the researches on agriculture, plant and food science in Turkey gradually decreased, the ones on chemistry, environmental sciences, biochemistry, biotechnology and molecular biology increased. This shows that more special and different subjects on agricultural researches started to be carried out.
Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan
Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rain-fed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in the region. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community and trade with other regions increases, it is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how food trade (regional and extra-regional) can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine global hydrological model simulations with international food trade data to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic changes and climatic variability on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during this period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water use but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly stressed water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production. In a context of regional and global integration, our results highlight opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food supply via trade.
Harold J. Berman
Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.
Full Text Available As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp. are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1 prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%; (2 Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3 individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.
Dapson, R W
One of the most sweeping changes in the dye industry since the advent of synthetic dyes grew out of the health risks associated with benzidine. Dyes made from benzidine and its derivatives were used around the world until adverse health effects become incontrovertible. Workers and family members of workers involved in production and use of benzidine-based dyes had a high incidence of bladder cancer. Following publication of several reports documenting this health hazard, dye makers in the USA, Europe, and Japan phased these dyes out of production in the 1970s. Government regulations lent legal support for these voluntary initiatives. Two strategies subsequently evolved to compensate: developed nations brought alternative substances to market while emerging countries increased production of carcinogenic dyes and sold them at discount prices around the world. Nearly all dye manufacturing now has moved away from nations whose costs of production and compliance rendered them unable to compete. The purpose of this brief review is to publicize the health risks associated with dyes made from benzidine and its congeners, and to alert all companies and end users handling these dyes for biomedical applications that composition of the product and lot-to-lot variability may be problematic because of the manufacturing and distribution practices of the countries where they are produced.
Soriano-Hernández, P.; del Castillo-Mussot, M.; Campirán-Chávez, I.; Montemayor-Aldrete, J. A.
Forbes Magazine published its list of leading or strongest publicly-traded two thousand companies in the world (G-2000) based on four independent metrics: sales or revenues, profits, assets and market value. Every one of these wealth metrics yields particular information on the corporate size or wealth size of each firm. The G-2000 cumulative probability wealth distribution per employee (per capita) for all four metrics exhibits a two-class structure: quasi-exponential in the lower part, and a Pareto power-law in the higher part. These two-class structure per capita distributions are qualitatively similar to income and wealth distributions in many countries of the world, but the fraction of firms per employee within the high-class Pareto is about 49% in sales per employee, and 33% after averaging on the four metrics, whereas in countries the fraction of rich agents in the Pareto zone is less than 10%. The quasi-exponential zone can be adjusted by Gamma or Log-normal distributions. On the other hand, Forbes classifies the G-2000 firms in 82 different industries or economic activities. Within each industry, the wealth distribution per employee also follows a two-class structure, but when the aggregate wealth of firms in each industry for the four metrics is divided by the total number of employees in that industry, then the 82 points of the aggregate wealth distribution by industry per employee can be well adjusted by quasi-exponential curves for the four metrics.
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 993.21b Section 993.21b Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.21b Trade demand. (a) Domestic trade demand. The quantity of...
Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim
The average topological overlap of two graphs of two consecutive time steps measures the amount of changes in the edge configuration between the two snapshots. This value has to be zero if the edge configuration changes completely and one if the two consecutive graphs are identical. Current methods depend on the number of nodes in the network or on the maximal number of connected nodes in the consecutive time steps. In the first case, this methodology breaks down if there are nodes with no edges. In the second case, it fails if the maximal number of active nodes is larger than the maximal number of connected nodes. In the following, an adaption of the calculation of the temporal correlation coefficient and of the topological overlap of the graph between two consecutive time steps is presented, which shows the expected behaviour mentioned above. The newly proposed adaption uses the maximal number of active nodes, i.e. the number of nodes with at least one edge, for the calculation of the topological overlap. The three methods were compared with the help of vivid example networks to reveal the differences between the proposed notations. Furthermore, these three calculation methods were applied to a real-world network of animal movements in order to detect influences of the network structure on the outcome of the different methods.
Hazell, Peter; Wood, Stanley
As a result of agricultural intensification, more food is produced today than needed to feed the entire world population and at prices that have never been so low. Yet despite this success and the impact of globalization and increasing world trade in agriculture, there remain large, persistent and, in some cases, worsening spatial differences in the ability of societies to both feed themselves and protect the long-term productive capacity of their natural resources. This paper explores these differences and develops a countryxfarming systems typology for exploring the linkages between human needs, agriculture and the environment, and for assessing options for addressing future food security, land use and ecosystem service challenges facing different societies around the world.
... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the... trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture...
Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.
The Peru – Agriculture Products case presents an issue of first impression for the relationship between Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its substantive rules. While the provisions of the covered agreements cited by the complainant, Guatemala, were not
Yu, Shengchao; Brackbill, Robert M; Locke, Sean; Stellman, Steven D; Gargano, Lisa M
The economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks has rarely been studied. We examined the association between 9/11-related chronic health conditions with or without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and one important aspect of the economic impact, retirement, and job loss before age 60. A total of 7,662 workers who participated in the World Trade Center Health Registry surveys were studied. Logistic regression models examined the association of 9/11-related health and labor force exit. Workers with chronic conditions were more likely to experience early retirement and job loss, and the association was stronger in the presence of PTSD comorbidity: the odds ratios for reporting early retirement or job loss were increased considerably when chronic conditions were comorbid with PTSD. Disaster-related health burden directly impacts premature labor force exit and income. Future evaluation of disaster outcome should include its long-term impact on labor force. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:731-741, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Caramanica, Kimberly; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim; Stellman, Steven D
Many studies report elevated prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster compared to those unexposed; few have evaluated long-term PTSD with comorbid depression. We examined prevalence and risk factors for probable PTSD, probable depression, and both conditions 10-11 years post-9/11 among 29,486 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who completed surveys at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2 (2006-2007), and Wave 3 (2011-2012). Enrollees reporting physician diagnosed pre-9/11 PTSD or depression were excluded. PTSD was defined as scoring ≥ 44 on the PTSD Checklist and depression as scoring ≥ 10 on the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We examined 4 groups: comorbid PTSD and depression, PTSD only, depression only, and neither. Among enrollees, 15.2% reported symptoms indicative of PTSD at Wave 3, 14.9% of depression, and 10.1% of both. Comorbid PTSD and depression was associated with high 9/11 exposures, low social integration, health-related unemployment, and experiencing ≥ 1 traumatic life event post-9/11. Comorbid persons experienced poorer outcomes on all PTSD-related impairment measures, life satisfaction, overall health, and unmet mental health care need compared to those with only a single condition. These findings highlight the importance of ongoing screening and treatment for both conditions, particularly among those at risk for mental health comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Cone, James E; Li, Jiehui; Kornblith, Erica; Gocheva, Vihra; Stellman, Steven D; Shaikh, Annum; Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M
Police enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) demonstrated increased probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the terrorist attack of 9/11/2001. Police enrollees without pre-9/11 PTSD were studied. Probable PTSD was assessed by Posttraumatic Stress Check List (PCL). Risk factors for chronic, new onset or resolved PTSD were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Half of police with probable PTSD in 2003-2007 continued to have probable PTSD in 2011-2012. Women had higher prevalence of PTSD than men (15.5% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.008). Risk factors for chronic PTSD included decreased social support, unemployment, 2+ life stressors in last 12 months, 2+ life-threatening events since 9/11, 2+ injuries during the 9/11 attacks, and unmet mental health needs. Police responders to the WTC attacks continue to bear a high mental health burden. Improved early access to mental health treatment for police exposed to disasters may be needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Perlman, Sharon E; Walker, Deborah J; Farfel, Mark R
Mental health service utilization several years following a man-made or natural disaster can be lower than expected, despite a high prevalence of mental health disorders among those exposed. This study focused on factors associated with subjective unmet mental health care need (UMHCN) and its relationship to a combination of diagnostic history and current mental health symptoms, 5-6 years after the 9-11-01 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster in New York City, USA. Two survey waves of the WTC Health Registry, after exclusions, provided a sample of 36,625 enrollees for this analysis. Important differences were found among enrollees who were categorized according to the presence or absence of a self-reported mental health diagnosis and symptoms indicative of post-traumatic stress disorder or serious psychological distress. Persons with diagnoses and symptoms had the highest levels of UMHCN, poor mental health days, and mental health service use. Those with symptoms only were a vulnerable group much less likely to use mental health services yet reporting UMHCN and poor mental health days. Implications for delivering mental health services include recognizing that many persons with undiagnosed but symptomatic mental health symptoms are not using mental health services, despite having perceived need for mental health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maslow, Carey B; Caramanica, Kimberly; Li, Jiehui; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M
To estimate associations between exposure to the events of September 11, 2001, (9/11) and low birth weight (LBW), preterm delivery (PD), and small size for gestational age (SGA). We matched birth certificates filed in New York City for singleton births between 9/11 and the end of 2010 to 9/11-related exposure data provided by mothers who were World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees. Generalized estimating equations estimated associations between exposures and LBW, PD, and SGA. Among 3360 births, 5.8% were LBW, 6.5% were PD, and 9% were SGA. Having incurred at least 2 of 4 exposures, having performed rescue or recovery work, and probable 9/11-related posttraumatic stress disorder 2 to 3 years after 9/11 were associated with PD and LBW during the early study period. Disasters on the magnitude of 9/11 may exert effects on reproductive outcomes for several years. Women who are pregnant during and after a disaster should be closely monitored for physical and psychological sequelae. In utero and maternal disaster exposure may affect birth outcomes. Researchers studying effects of individual disasters should identify commonalities that may inform postdisaster responses to minimize disaster-related adverse birth outcomes.
Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J
Among individuals exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms are both common and associated with increased cigarette smoking and body mass. However, there is little information on the specific processes underlying the relationship of PTSD symptoms with body mass. The current study is an initial exploratory test of anxiety sensitivity, the fear of internal bodily sensations, as a possible mechanism linking PTSD symptom severity and body mass index (BMI). Participants were 147 adult daily smokers (34.0% female) exposed to the WTC disaster (via rescue/recovery work or direct witness). The direct and indirect associations between PTSD symptom severity and BMI via anxiety sensitivity (total score and subscales of physical, cognitive, and social concerns) were examined. PTSD symptom severity was related to BMI indirectly via anxiety sensitivity; this effect was specific to physical concerns about the meaning of bodily sensations. Interventions focusing on anxiety sensitivity reduction (specifically addressing physical concerns about bodily sensations) may be useful in addressing elevated BMI among trauma-exposed persons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim S; Qiao, Baozhen; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Hadler, James L; Kahn, Amy R; Konty, Kevin J; Stayner, Leslie T; Stellman, Steven D
Cancer incidence in exposed rescue/recovery workers (RRWs) and civilians (non-RRWs) was previously reported through 2008. We studied occurrence of first primary cancer among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees through 2011 using adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and the WTC-exposure-cancer association, using Cox proportional hazards models. All-cancer SIR was 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.20) in RRWs, and 1.08 (95% CI 1.02-1.15) in non-RRWs. Prostate cancer and skin melanoma were significantly elevated in both populations. Thyroid cancer was significantly elevated only in RRWs while breast cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were significantly elevated only in non-RRWs. There was a significant exposure dose-response for bladder cancer among RRWs, and for skin melanoma among non-RRWs. We observed excesses of total and specific cancers in both populations, although the strength of the evidence for causal relationships to WTC exposures is somewhat limited. Continued monitoring of this population is indicated. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:709-721, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wu, Kai; Li, Lingzhi; Thakur, Chitra; Lu, Yongju; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yi, Zhengping; Chen, Fei
Several epidemiological studies suggested an increased incidence rate of multiple myeloma (MM) among first responders and other individuals who exposed to World Trade Center (WTC) dust. In this report, we provided evidence showing that WTC dust is potent in inducing mdig protein and/or mRNA in bronchial epithelial cells, B cells and MM cell lines. An increased mdig expression in MM bone marrow was observed, which is associated with the disease progression and prognosis of the MM patients. Through integrative genomics and proteomics approaches, we further demonstrated that mdig directly interacts with c-myc and JAK1 in MM cell lines, which contributes to hyperactivation of the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 signaling important for the pathogenesis of MM. Genetic silencing of mdig reduced activity of the major downstream effectors in the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that WTC dust may be one of the key etiological factors for those who had been exposed for the development of MM by activating mdig and c-myc signaling circuit linked to the IL-6-JAK-STAT3 pathway essential for the tumorigenesis of the malignant plasma cells.
Jan 18, 2011 ... international economic system, and the obvious concomitant administrative inadequacies that profusely characterized GATT, another body known as the. World Trade Organization (WTO) came into existence in 1995, to officiate as the recognized international organization on trade and trade relations. The.
Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping
In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.
Nam kwon Mun
Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.
consider the systemic implications of the agreements for the multilateral trading ..... addition, when dealing with intra-SADC trade, Member States shall adopt policies ..... systematic exclusion of any major sectors such as agriculture or textile.
Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan
Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)
The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.
Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted
The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...... outcome from all three are likely to be cumulative and generate very large gains to Africa. The overall results from especially time-in-transit costs support the current emphasis on projects such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) infrastructural supports to Africa. In addition, the World Bank...
Teng, W. L.; Shannon, H.
The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) coordinates the development of the monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Given the significant effect of weather on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments in the Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). Because the timing of the precipitation is often as important as the amount, in their effects on crop production, WAOB frequently examines precipitation time series to estimate crop productivity. An effective method for such assessment is the use of analog year comparisons, where precipitation time series, based on surface weather stations, from several historical years are compared with the time series from the current year. Once analog years are identified, crop yields can be estimated for the current season based on observed yields from the analog years, because of the similarities in the precipitation patterns. In this study, NASA satellite precipitation and soil moisture time series are used to identify analog years. Given that soil moisture often has a more direct effect than does precipitation on crop water availability, the time series of soil moisture could be more effective than that of precipitation, in identifying those years with similar crop yields. Retrospective analyses of analogs will be conducted to determine any reduction in the level of uncertainty in identifying analog years, and any reduction in false negatives or false positives. The comparison of analog years could potentially be improved by quantifying the selection of analogs, instead of the current visual inspection method. Various approaches to quantifying are currently being evaluated. This study is part of a larger effort to improve WAOB estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE, including (1) the integration of the Land
Agricultural trade holds potential for the development of African agriculture. Notwithstanding the different perspectives about the relationship between trade and development, trade and environment, there is consensus on the need to integrate environmental concerns into trade policy design. In the absence of strong ...
Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H
The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). 95th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI values exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geyh, Alison S; Chillrud, Steven; Williams, D'Ann L; Herbstman, Julie; Symons, J Morel; Rees, Katherine; Ross, James; Kim, Sung Roul; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara; Breysse, Patrick
The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on September 11, 2001, created a 16-acre debris field composed of pulverized and burning material significantly impacting air quality. Site cleanup began almost immediately. Cleanup workers were potentially exposed to airborne contaminants, including particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and asbestos, at elevated concentrations. This article presents the results of the exposure assessment of one important group of WTC workers, truck drivers, as well as area monitoring that was conducted directly on site during October 2001 and April 2002. In cooperation with a local labor union, 54 drivers (October) and 15 drivers (April) were recruited on site to wear two monitors during their 12-hour work shifts. In addition, drivers were administered a questionnaire asking for information ranging from "first day at the site" to respirator use. Area monitoring was conducted at four perimeter locations during October and three perimeter locations during April. During both months, monitoring was also conducted at one location in the middle of the rubble. Contaminants monitored for included total dust (TD), PM10, PM2.5, and volatile organic compounds. Particle samples were analyzed for mass, as well as elemental and organic carbon content. During October, the median personal exposure to TD was 346 microg/m3. The maximum area concentration, 1742 microg/m3, was found in middle of the debris. The maximum TD concentration found at the perimeter was 392 microg/m3 implying a strong concentration gradient from the middle of debris outward. PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged from 23% to 100% suggesting significant fire activity during some of the sampled shifts. During April, the median personal exposure to TD was 144 microg/m3, and the highest area concentration, 195 microg/m3, was found at the perimeter. During both months, volatile organic compounds concentrations were low.
Anxiety sensitivity mediates the association between post-traumatic stress symptom severity and interoceptive threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies among World Trade Center disaster-exposed smokers.
Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J
Anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal anxiety-relevant bodily sensations) is an individual difference variable that is associated with the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is also involved in the maintenance/relapse of smoking. Abstinence expectancies are crucial to smoking maintenance, yet, past work has not explored how PTSD symptom severity and anxiety sensitivity contribute to them. Participants were 122 treatment-seeking daily smokers (36.1% female; Mage=49.2, SD=9.7; cigarettes per day: M=18.3, SD=15.2) who were exposed to the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001 and responded to an advertisement for a clinical smoking cessation trial. The indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity was tested in terms of the effect of PTSD symptom severity on smoking abstinence expectancies (i.e., anxiety sensitivity as a statistical mediator). PTSD symptom severity was positively associated with interoceptive threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies: expecting harmful consequences (β=.33, pseverity was also significantly associated with anxiety sensitivity (β=.27, p=.003). Anxiety sensitivity mediated the association between PTSD symptom severity and expectancies about the harmful consequences (β=.09, CI95%=.02-.21; ΔR(2)=.076) and somatic symptoms (β=.11, CI95%=.02-.24; ΔR(2)=.123) from smoking abstinence, with medium effect sizes (Κ(2)=.08 and .10, respectively). These data document the role of PTSD symptoms in threat-based expectancies about smoking abstinence and suggest anxiety sensitivity may underlie the associations between PTSD symptom severity and abstinence expectancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chemtob, Claude M; Nomura, Yoko; Abramovitz, Robert A
To examine the long-term behavioral consequences of exposure to the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks in preschool children and to evaluate whether conjoined exposure to disaster and to other traumatic events has additive effects. Retrospective cohort study. Lower Manhattan, New York. A total of 116 preschool children directly exposed to the WTC attacks. Main Exposures High-intensity WTC attack-related trauma exposure indexed by the child experiencing 1 or more of the following: seeing people jumping out of the towers, seeing dead bodies, seeing injured people, witnessing the towers collapsing, and lifetime history of other trauma exposure. Main Outcome Measure Clinically significant behavioral problems as measured using the Child Behavioral Checklist. Preschool children exposed to high-intensity WTC attack-related events were at increased risk for the sleep problems and anxious/depressed behavioral symptom clusters. Conjoined exposure to high-intensity WTC attack-related events and to other trauma was associated with clinically significant emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, and sleep-related behavioral problems. Children without a conjoined lifetime history of other trauma did not differ from nonexposed children. Risk of emotionally reactive, anxious/depressed, and attention problems in preschool children exposed to conjoined high-intensity WTC attack-related events and other trauma increased synergistically. Conjoined other trauma exposure seems to amplify the impact of high-intensity WTC attack-related events on behavioral problems. Preschool children exposed to high-intensity events who had no other trauma exposure did not have increased clinically significant behavioral problems. The additive effects of trauma exposure are consistent with an allostatic load hypothesis of stress. More vigorous outreach to trauma-exposed preschool children should become a postdisaster public health priority.
Welch, Alice E.; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Background Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Methods Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003–2004) and Wave 2 (2006–2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0–1), medium (2–3), high (4–5) and very high (6+). Results Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. PMID:24831753
Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.
Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137
Welch, Alice E; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Keyes, Katherine M; Stellman, Steven D; Hasin, Deborah S
Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003-2004) and Wave 2 (2006-2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0-1), medium (2-3), high (4-5) and very high (6+). Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
North, Carol S; Pollio, David E; Hong, Barry A; Pandya, Anand; Smith, Rebecca P; Pfefferbaum, Betty
Studies of survivors of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City suggest that postdisaster depressive disorders may be at least as prevalent, or even more prevalent, than posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unlike findings from most other disaster studies. The relative prevalence and incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and PTSD were examined after the 9/11 attacks relative to trauma exposures. This study used full diagnostic assessment methods and careful categorization of exposure groups based on DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD to examine 373 employees of 9/11-affected New York City workplaces. Postdisaster new MDD episode (26%) in the entire sample was significantly more prevalent (p9/11-related PTSD (14%). Limiting the comparison to participants with 9/11 trauma exposures, the prevalence of postdisaster new MDD episode and 9/11-related PTSD did not differ (p=.446). The only 9/11 trauma exposure group with a significant difference in relative prevalence of MDD and PTSD were those with a 9/11 trauma-exposed close associate, for whom postdisaster new MDD episode (45%) was more prevalent (p=.046) than 9/11-related PTSD (31%). Because of the conditional definition of PTSD requiring trauma exposure that is not part of MDD criteria, prevalence comparisons of these two disorders must be limited to groups with qualifying trauma exposures to be meaningful. Findings from this study suggest distinct mechanisms underlying these two disorders that differentially relate to direct exposure to trauma vs. the magnitude of the disaster and personal connectedness to disaster and community-wide effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jordan, Hannah T; Stellman, Steven D; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R; Brackbill, Robert M; Friedman, Stephen M; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E
To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003-2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011-2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011-2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities.
Jacobson, Melanie H; Norman, Christina; Nguyen, Angela; Brackbill, Robert M
Exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks has been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid PTSD and depression up to 10-11 years post-disaster. However, little is known about the longitudinal predictors of mental health conditions over time. We examined longitudinal determinants of depression within strata of PTSD among 21,258 enrollees of the World Trade Center Health Registry who completed four questionnaires over 14 years of follow-up (Wave 1 in 2003-04; Wave 2 in 2005-06; Wave 3 in 2011-12; and Wave 4 in 2015-16). PTSD status was measured using the PTSD checklist on all four waves and defined as a score of ≥ 44; depression was assessed using the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire at Waves 3 and 4 and defined as a score of ≥ 10. Across Waves 3 and 4, 18.6% experienced depression, and it was more common among those who ever had PTSD (56.1%) compared with those who had not (5.6%). Across PTSD strata, predictors of depression included low income, unemployment, low social integration and support, post-9/11 traumatic life events, and chronic physical illness. These factors also decreased the likelihood of recovering from depression. Depression symptoms were not measured at Waves 1 and 2; data was self-reported. These findings highlight the substantial burden of depression in a trauma-exposed population 14-15 years post-disaster, especially among those with PTSD. Similar life stressors predicted the course of depression among those with and without PTSD which may inform public health and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe
This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...
Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.
With falling tariff levels, it is probably not surprising that the non-tariff area and trade facilitation, in particular, are receiving growing attention. Apart from the World Trade Organization (WTO), trade facilitation is a subject of substance within a wide range of international organizations including several United Nations (UN)-type bodies, the World Customs Organization (WCO) as well as those concerned with economic development, supply chain security, and sector-specific issues such as...
Rana Ejaz Ali Khan
Full Text Available Trade stimulates economic growth as well as create employment. The basic principles (of the WTO make the system economically more efficient and cut the production and marketing costs. It gives consumers more choice, and a broader range of qualities to choose from. These are the basic benefits of world trading given by the WTO (WTO 2003. A number of studies have explained implications of the WTO with reference to developed and developing countries. How much trade has been increased by nations after the implementation of the WTO remained an ambiguous estimation. The increase in trade can result into benefits of the WTO. Generally, it is taken that developing economies have taken lesser tranche of the global trading. By applying the before-after approach we have tried to estimate that how much trade is increased in South Asian counties. How much the agriculture and industrial sectors were contributing in boosting the trade of the nations before the WTO and how it is doing after the WTO. It concluded that trade of the South Asian nations has not been increased up to the expectations that results in to low gaining of benefits from world trade.
Andersen, M. S.; Gyldenkærne, S.
In this paper we investigate the possible effects of differences in manure control regulations on the competitiveness of dairy cattle producers, and hence to what extent environmental regulations might influence free trade in this market. We understand environmental regulations somewhat narrowly...
Andersen, Mikael Skou
In this paper we investigate the possible effects of differences in pollution control on the competitiveness of intensive livestock producers of pork, and hence to what extent environmental regulations might distort free trade in this market. We understand environmental regulations somewhat...
Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian
The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes....... By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...... argues that case outcomes should be expected to be largely the product of domestic political institutions and policy processes, and how these intersect with developments in the WTO dispute settlement system. Brief studies of the Australian government's dispute settlement strategy and two high-profile WTO...
Binder Claudia R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently
Seal, Susan D.
With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…
Loos, Gregory P
The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health.
Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark R; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Friedman, Stephen; Walker, Deborah J; Thorpe, Lorna E; Cone, James
Excess gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was reported in several populations exposed to the September 11 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). We examined new onset gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) since 9/11 and persisting up to 5-6 years in relation to 9/11-related exposures among the WTC Health Registry enrollees, and potential associations with comorbid asthma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is a retrospective analysis of 37,118 adult enrollees (i.e., rescue/recovery workers, local residents, area workers, and passersby in lower Manhattan on 9/11) who reported no pre-9/11 GERS and who participated in two Registry surveys 2-3 and 5-6 years after 9/11. Post-9/11 GERS (new onset since 9/11) reported at first survey, and persistent GERS (post-9/11 GERS reported at both surveys) were analyzed using log-binomial regression. Cumulative incidence was 20% for post-9/11 GERS and 13% for persistent GERS. Persistent GERS occurred more often among those with comorbid PTSD (24%), asthma (13%), or both (36%) compared with neither of the comorbid conditions (8%). Among enrollees with neither asthma nor PTSD, the adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for persistent GERS was elevated among: workers arriving at the WTC pile on 9/11 (aRR=1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1) or working at the WTC site > 90 days (aRR=1.6; 1.4-2.0); residents exposed to the intense dust cloud on 9/11 (aRR=1.5; 1.0-2.3), or who did not evacuate their homes (aRR=1.7; 1.2-2.3); and area workers exposed to the intense dust cloud (aRR=1.5; 1.2-1.8). Disaster-related environmental exposures may contribute to the development of GERS. GERS may be accentuated in the presence of asthma or PTSD.
Vossbrinck, Madeline; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B; Schwartz, Theresa; Moir, William; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Hillel W; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K; Prezant, David J
To determine whether lung function trajectories after 9/11/2001 (9/11) differed by sex or race/ethnicity in World Trade Center-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York emergency medical service (EMS) workers. Serial cross-sectional study of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) taken between 9/11 and 9/10/2015. We used data from routine PFTs (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1% predicted), conducted at 12-18 month intervals. FEV1 and FEV1% predicted were assessed over time, stratified by sex, and race/ethnicity. We also assessed FEV1 and FEV1% predicted in current, former and never-smokers. Among 1817 EMS workers, 334 (18.4%) were women, 979 (53.9%) self-identified as white and 939 (51.6%) were never-smokers. The median follow-up was 13.1 years (IQR 10.5-13.6), and the median number of PFTs per person was 11 (IQR 7-13). After large declines associated with 9/11, there was no discernible recovery in lung function. In analyses limited to never-smokers, the trajectory of decline in adjusted FEV1 and FEV1% predicted was relatively parallel for men and women in the 3 racial/ethnic groups. Similarly, small differences in FEV1 annual decline between groups were not clinically meaningful. Analyses including ever-smokers were essentially the same. 14 years after 9/11, most EMS workers continued to demonstrate a lack of lung function recovery. The trajectories of lung function decline, however, were parallel by sex and by race/ethnicity. These findings support the use of routine, serial measures of lung function over time in first responders and demonstrate no sex or racial sensitivity to exposure-related lung function decline. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hill, Matthew N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Makotkine, Iouri; Golier, Julia A.; Galea, Sandro; McEwen, Bruce S.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Yehuda, Rachel
Endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been identified as a modulator of adaptation to stress, and is integral to basal and stress-induced glucocorticoid regulation. Furthermore, interactions between eCBs and glucocorticoids have been shown to be necessary for the regulation of emotional memories, suggesting that eCB function may relate to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To examine this, plasma eCBs were measured in a sample (n=46) drawn from a population-based cohort selected for physical proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) at the time of the 9/11 attacks. Participants received a structured diagnostic interview and were grouped according to whether they met diagnostic criteria for PTSD (no PTSD, n=22; lifetime diagnosis of PTSD = 24). eCB content (2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA)) and cortisol were measured from 8 a.m. plasma samples. Circulating 2-AG content was significantly reduced among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The effect of reduced 2-AG content in PTSD remained significant after controlling for the stress of exposure to the WTC collapse, gender, depression and alcohol abuse. There were no significant group differences for AEA or cortisol levels; however, across the whole sample AEA levels positively correlated with circulating cortisol, and AEA levels exhibited a negative relationship with the degree of intrusive symptoms within the PTSD sample. This report shows that PTSD is associated with a reduction in circulating levels of the eCB 2-AG. Given the role of 2-AG in the regulation of the stress response, these data support the hypothesis that deficient eCB signaling may be a component of the glucocorticoid dysregulation associated with PTSD. The negative association between AEA levels and intrusive symptoms is consistent with animal data indicating that reductions in AEA promote retention of aversive emotional memories. Future work will aim to replicate these findings and extend their
Ng, S. P.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.; Grossinho, A.; Chen, L. C.; Kendall, M.
On 11 September 2001, the explosion and the collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) Twin Towers in New York City (NYC), USA, generated a massive release of dust and inhalable toxic substances to the atmosphere as a result of the pulverization of various building materials, furniture, and computers. Many concerns were raised as Particulate Matter (PM) levels in Lower Manhattan might not meet the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (65 μg m -3). The current study aims to provide a first estimate of the scale of population exposures during this episode. Data collected from existing monitoring stations in September showed the occurrence of a series of high peaks of PM 2.5 registered in the Lower Manhattan area after the 11 September. An interpolation technique was used within a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environment to estimate outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations over NYC. Monthly average of 24 h outdoor PM 2.5 concentration of Lower Manhattan was 20.2 μg m -3 and did not exceed the NAAQS value. PM 2.5 concentrations in indoor micro-environments were simulated by a deterministic micro-environmental model (INTAIR) and linear regression equations. Three typical population groups were identified for the NYC area—home-makers, office/shop-workers, and students/children—and their 12 h nighttime and daytime exposures were estimated from 14 September until the end of September, either as mean exposure (daytime and nighttime) or as exposure weighted by residential population distribution (nighttime only). Average nighttime and daytime exposures of the Lower Manhattan population were calculated to be 37.3 and 23.6 μg m -3, respectively (daily average: 30.45 μg m -3), in which the various group movements and activities, smoking habits of individuals, and special population movements due to access restrictions and risk avoidance behaviors were considered. Within the study period, assuming the real nighttime population distribution followed the
Koopmann, Georg; Hoekstra, Ruth
The Aid for Trade (AfT) initiative has gained much popularity since its launch at the World Trade Organization's Ministerial Conference in 2005, and there are ongoing discussions on its effectiveness and potential to improve the integration of developing countries into the world economy. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing AfT in a political economy context. We find that the delivery of AfT is a precondition for trade reform in developing countries, as well as for trade liberali...
Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.
Lamers, P. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)
The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas - especially of large scale producers and traders - span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved. A recently published analysis by Ecofys and the Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, provided such an analysis. It evaluates how the interaction of domestic policies steered global trade streams towards different markets, in particular in connection to underlying trade policies and additional market forces, over the past decade. It provides robust data on international production and trade volumes which have already served as input to the recently published Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This market brochure was commissioned by UFOP to build upon the methodologies and findings of Lamers et al. and to provide a picture of the global biodiesel market in 2010/2011. It is structured in six sections: an overview of global production volumes (Section 2); developments of EU (Section 3) and other world (Section 4) markets and (trade) policies; global net trade volumes (Section 5); vegetable oil trade patterns and their link to biodiesel trade (Section 6); Conclusions and Outlook (Section 7)
Dang, Q.; Konar, M.; Reimer, J.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Lin, X.; Zeng, R.
Water is an essential factor of agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of food commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model of a small open economy that explicitly incorporates water resources. The model emphasizes three tradeoffs involving water decision-making that are important yet not always considered within the existing literature. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different sectors when there is a shock to one of the sectors only, such as trade liberalization and consequent higher demand for the product. A second tradeoff concerns the possibility that there may or may not be substitutes for water, such as increased use of sophisticated irrigation technology as a means to increase crop output in the absence of higher water availability. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using products. A number of propositions are proven. For example, while trade liberalization tends to increase water use, increased pressure on water supplies can be moderated by way of a tax that is derivable with observable economic phenomena. Another example is that increased riskiness of water availability tends to cause water users to use less water than would be the case under profit maximization. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.
Full Text Available Amid an increasing water scarcity in many parts of the world, virtual water trade as both a policy instrument and practical means to balance the local, national and global water budget has received much attention in recent years. Building upon the knowledge of virtual water accounting in the literature, this study assesses the efficiency of water use embodied in the international food trade from the perspectives of exporting and importing countries and at the global and country levels. The investigation reveals that the virtual water flows primarily from countries of high crop water productivity to countries of low crop water productivity, generating a global saving in water use. Meanwhile, the total virtual water trade is dominated by green virtual water, which constitutes a low opportunity cost of water use as opposed to blue virtual water. A sensitivity analysis, however, suggests high uncertainties in the virtual water accounting and the estimation of the scale of water saving. The study also raises awareness of the limited effect of water scarcity on the global virtual water trade and the negative implications of the global water saving for the water use efficiency and food security in importing countries and the environment in exporting countries. The analysis shows the complexity in evaluating the efficiency gains in the international virtual water trade. The findings of the study, nevertheless, call for a greater emphasis on rainfed agriculture to improve the global food security and environmental sustainability.
... acquisitions means the quantity of inshell hazelnuts acquired by the trade from all handlers during a marketing... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell trade acquisitions. 982.16 Section 982.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...
Demanboro, Antonio Carlos; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Three scenarios are elaborated denominated: 'tendency', 'sustainable development' and 'equilibrium'. The scenario 'tendency' tries to show how serious issues such as environmental, economic and social will be pushed to the limit, if current trends persist. The level of awareness of population, businesses and governments about the severity of current and future environmental problems does not change. In the 'sustainable development' scenario are introduced changes in economic, ecological and social developments seeking to reach the sustainable development in long term. There is a slow change in the current economic paradigm for the economic 'sustainable' and also the level of awareness of the population. The competitive paradigm gives way slowly to the place of community cooperation. Some of the technologies type 'end of pipe' and the substitution of dangerous technologies to the environment are introduced. In the 'equilibrium' scenario deep changes are proposed in the man's relationship with the nature and of man himself. The current economic paradigm is changed to the state stable in the medium term. The level of awareness of the population increases greatly, resulting in the reduction of waste, leading to demand for products with greater durability and repairability and agricultural products without pesticides. The competitive paradigm is changed to the community cooperation. The main conclusion is that it is necessary to do a strategic evaluation of the brazilian biofuels program.
Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.
Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B
Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.
Groot, J.C.J.; Jellema, A.; Rossing, W.A.H.
Spatial planning aimed at multifunctional agriculture can be seen as a negotiation process on environmental, social and economic aspects of land use. Complexity arises due to the high number of stakeholders and due to the limited knowledge, which is often organized along disciplinary divides. This
Bustamante, Mercedes; Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Harper, Richard; Mbow, Cheikh; Ravindranat, Nijavalli H; Sperling, Frank; Haberl, Helmut; Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira; Smith, Pete
The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector is responsible for approximately 25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation and agricultural emissions from livestock, soil and nutrient management. Mitigation from the sector is thus extremely important in meeting emission reduction targets. The sector offers a variety of cost-competitive mitigation options with most analyses indicating a decline in emissions largely due to decreasing deforestation rates. Sustainability criteria are needed to guide development and implementation of AFOLU mitigation measures with particular focus on multifunctional systems that allow the delivery of multiple services from land. It is striking that almost all of the positive and negative impacts, opportunities and barriers are context specific, precluding generic statements about which AFOLU mitigation measures have the greatest promise at a global scale. This finding underlines the importance of considering each mitigation strategy on a case-by-case basis, systemic effects when implementing mitigation options on the national scale, and suggests that policies need to be flexible enough to allow such assessments. National and international agricultural and forest (climate) policies have the potential to alter the opportunity costs of specific land uses in ways that increase opportunities or barriers for attaining climate change mitigation goals. Policies governing practices in agriculture and in forest conservation and management need to account for both effective mitigation and adaptation and can help to orient practices in agriculture and in forestry towards global sharing of innovative technologies for the efficient use of land resources. Different policy instruments, especially economic incentives and regulatory approaches, are currently being applied however, for its successful implementation it is critical to understand how land-use decisions are made and how new social, political and economic forces
Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano
This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on
Hoepping, Ulrike [E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Germany). Bereich Gesellschafts- und Finanzierungsrecht; Stuhlmacher, Gerd [E.ON Energy Trading SE, Duesseldorf (Germany); E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Germany)
At 28th December, 2011, the regulation on the integrity and transparency of the energy wholesale market became effective. Thus, insider trading and manipulations of the market on the energy wholesale markets of the European Union are forbidden. The draft law on the market transparency law provides that violations are avenged as a criminal act or as an administrative offence. Headlines from the financial industry cover the serious situation of the threatening sanctions. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the prohibition of the insider trading.
Melkonian, Tigran A.; Stanley R. Johnson
Strategic trade in international markets is important for agricultural and other basic commodities. State trading companies (STCs) and large private firms control most of the trade volume. In this study the authors use concepts of modern game theory to treat time inconsistency issues associated with strategic trade. The results are particularly applicable to trade in commodities with lengthy production periods, such as agriculture. The model considered here provides an important context for e...
Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond
This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.
Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust......The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...
New farming techniques, better food security. Since 1970, IDRC-supported research has introduced sustainable agricultural practices to farmers and communities across the devel- oping world. The result: higher productivity, less poverty, greater food security, and a healthier environment. Opportunities grow on trees in ...
Full Text Available The economic development in Yugoslavia (Serbia after the second world war has been conducted at the expense of agriculture because the industrialisation was in the forefront of the economic policy. It has an impact on the present position of the agriculture compared to the other sectors because the parity of product exchange is still retained at the expense of agriculture. Even under these circumstances agriculture is an industry with a positive foreign trade balance, important share in the national product and the unemployment rate reduction, and that has been analysed and shown in this paper. Many developed European countries are an example of the successful agricultural development as a carrier of the complete development. There are indisputably much wider possibilities for agriculture development in Serbia, and it could become a great comparative advantage of our economy in the developed markets in the world, with the appropriate macroeconomic policy.
Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)
This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan
Lewis, Lynne Y.
In the spring of 2001, Bates College Environmental Economics classes bought their first sulfur dioxide emissions allowance at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual auction, then conducted by the Chicago Board of Trade. In the spring of 2010, they bought their 22nd through 34th allowances. This article describes a three-part method for…
The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.
Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn
that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....
Chemical and Engineering News, 1972
The foreign trade of the United States chemical industry is reviewed in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data presented for: U.S. chemical trade, U.S. trade as per cent of world trade, total U.S. trade, chemical trade growth, and U.S. chemical trade partners. (PR)
Bjerre, Jacob Halvas
Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world...
Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst
Dalin, C.; Konar, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.
Water resources are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and climate change. Since agriculture is by far the most freshwater-consuming process, the international food trade may be a way of transferring water resources to water-scarce countries, and of saving water globally by encouraging trade from water-efficient countries to less water-efficient countries. We applied complex network theory to analyze the dynamics of the global virtual water trade network. Our goal was to assess how the properties of the virtual water trade network changed in time, and how these changes are related to national policies, economic and weather conditions or events. We found that, on average, the number of trade partners of each country in the network doubled from 1986 to 2007, while the volume of water associated with food trade tripled. Despite this growth of the network, we found that the shape of the network properties distributions remained similar: for all years studied, the degree distribution is well fitted by an exponential distribution and the strength distribution compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. Other global network structure characteristics, such as the power law relationship between node strength and node degree, dissasortative behavior and weighted rich club phenomenon were also stable through the 22 year-period. However, there are significant changes at the country and link scale of analysis. The USA has remained the world's top exporter of virtual water, while, since 2001, China has been the world's largest virtual water importer, a position formerly occupied by Russia and Japan. The sharp increase in China's virtual water imports is mostly due to its increased soybean imports, following a domestic policy shift regarding the soy trade in 2000 and 2001. Importantly, the food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over the last few
Bern, A.M.; Lowers, H.A.; Meeker, G.P.; Rosati, J.A.
The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001, sent dust and debris across much of Manhattan and in the surrounding areas. Indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected and characterized by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). From this characterization, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS developed a particulate screening method to determine the presence of residual World Trade Center dust in the indoor environment using slag wool as a primary "signature". The method describes a procedure that includes splitting, ashing, and sieving of collected dust. From one split, a 10 mg/mL dust/ isopropanol suspension was prepared and 10-30 ??L aliquots of the suspension placed on an SEM substrate. Analyses were performed using SEM/EDS manual point counting for slag wool fibers. Poisson regression was used to identify some of the sources of uncertainty, which are directly related to the small number of fibers present on each sample stub. Preliminary results indicate that the procedure is promising for screening urban background dust for the presence of WTC dust. Consistent sample preparation of reference materials and samples must be performed by each laboratory wishing to use this method to obtain meaningful and accurate results. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.
Б. В. Духницький
Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these products. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.
At the beginning of August, the Association of Coal Importers (VDKi) presented its statistics on hard coal production and trade for 2015 as well as forecasts for the current year. The emissions of hard coal and natural gas in the entire value-added chain were determined and also explained by the contracted consulting firm Poeyry. [German] Anfang August stellte der Verein der Kohlenimporteure (VDKi) seine Statistik ueber Steinkohlengewinnung und -handel fuer 2015 sowie Prognosen fuer das laufende Jahr vor. Dabei wurden auch die in seinem Auftrag vom Beratungsunternehmen Poeyry ermittelten Emissionen von Steinkohle und Erdgas in der gesamten Wertschoepfungskette erlaeutert.
Ribaudo, Marc; Ghosh, Gaurav S.; Shortle, James S.
The Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals while giving nonpoint sources a larger role in meeting those goals. Farms can create offsets or credits in a point/nonpoint trading program by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management, and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requ...
... immunoproliferative diseases ; multiple myeloma and malignant plasma cell neoplasms ; lymphoid leukemia ; myeloid..., lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma) Childhood cancers Rare cancers The Administrator developed a hierarchy of... Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization. The International Classification...
Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen
Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this
J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)
markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess main trends and changes in commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade in 2003-2006. Joining in the Common Market and adopting the Common Trade Policy rules caused the significant growth of Polish agri-food trade values and improvement in the positive trade balance. Taking into account loss or reduction of some cost advantages, as well as liberalization of world agricultural trade, next years can be much more difficult for Polish exporters. The highest export potential applies to trade in animal origin products. Considering commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade, it should be said that processed products dominate both in export and in import.
Kohl, Tristan; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Saucedo Accosta, Edgar J.
In this chapter the author presents a coding methodology to capture the heterogeneity of trade agreements and to facilitate quantitative analysis departing from qualitative legal differences in trade agreements. The coding is based on whether the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are
Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette
, about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... between agricultural science and ethics....
Beek, C.L.; Meerburg, B.G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Verhagen, J.; Kuikman, P.J.
The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present.
Effect of Trade Openness and Foreign Direct Investment on Industry ... impeded by trade openness, high lending rate of banks and to a lesser extent corporate tax. ... macroeconomic to reflect in lower lending rates, following agricultural sector ...
Full Text Available In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.
Suweis, S. S.
Recurrent or ephemeral water shortages are a crucial global challenge, in particular because of their impacts on food production. The global character of this challenge is reflected in the trade among nations of virtual water, i.e. the amount of water used to produce a given commodity. We build, analyze and model the network describing the transfer of virtual water between world nations for staple food products. We find that all the key features of the network are well described by a model, the fitness model, that reproduces both the topological and weighted properties of the global virtual water trade network, by assuming as sole controls each country's gross domestic product and yearly rainfall on agricultural areas. We capture and quantitatively describe the high degree of globalization of water trade and show that a small group of nations play a key role in the connectivity of the network and in the global redistribution of virtual water. Finally, we illustrate examples of prediction of the structure of the network under future political, economic and climatic scenarios, suggesting that the crucial importance of the countries that trade large volumes of water will be strengthened. Our results show the importance of incorporating a network framework in the study of virtual water trades and provide a model to study the structure and resilience of the GVWTN under future scenarios for social, economic and climate change.
Betts, Caroline; Giri, Rahul; Verma, Rubina
We develop a two country, three-sector model to quantify the effects of Korean trade policies for structural change from 1963 through 2000. The model features non-homothetic preferences, Armington trade, proportional import tariffs and export subsidies, and is calibrated to match sectoral value added data on Korean production and trade. Korea’s tariff liberalization increased imports and trade, especially agricultural imports, accelerating de-agriculturalization and intensifying industrializa...
Full Text Available The persistent slump in crude oil prices on the world market has drastically reduced government revenues, weakened currencies, and threatened growth and development of countries such as Nigeria that are heavily dependent on petroleum as a source of government earnings. Therefore, it has become imperative for the government to look beyond oil, notably agriculture to survive the present shocks. Given that agriculture is the largest non-oil export in Nigeria, this paper assesses the general performance of agriculture in the country. The article also verifies the relationship between trade, external financial flows and agricultural performance in the country, using Granger causality, IRF and VDA as well as descriptive approaches. The Granger test results reveal a unidirectional causality running from imports, openness, world prices of primary agrarian products, agricultural ODA to agricultural performance in Nigeria. The VDA results also show that a shock to agricultural exports, imports and openness can contribute to the fluctuation in the variance of agricultural performance in the country. The response of agricultural import to production records negative in almost all the periods investigated. This suggests that a substantial import in Nigeria might have hurt agricultural production in the country. The government of Nigeria should as a matter of urgency, invest heavily in agricultural production and encourage producers for domestic value added for local consumption and export. Also, more FDI and ODA should be channelled to agricultural related activities in the country. Domestic producers and exporters should be protected against foreign competitors in some commodities that can be produced cheaply at home.
Uday M. Apte; Hiranya K. Nath
Chapter 6 of The UCLA Anderson Business and Information Technologies (BIT) Project: A Global Study of Business Practice, Singapore: World Scientific Books, (2012). Trade in services has increased significantly and the United States has been a leader in services trade. The U.S. not only accounts for the largest share of world trade in private services but also runs a substantial amount of surplus in services trade. One important trend has been the rapid growth of U.S. trade in info...
Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David
This report provides insight into the dependence of the United States on foreign supply to meet the country’s mineral needs. When determining vulnerabilities to the U.S. supply, it is not enough to look solely at the mining source for each mineral to determine the potential impact that a supply disruption might have on the Nation’s economy. The tables that accompany this report help to illustrate the importance not only of the mining and processing of minerals but also the exporting countries and end uses. Understanding the total risks and costs of supply disruptions along the supply chain are beyond the scope of this report. However, this overview of mineral production, consumption, and trade highlights the importance of understanding what is happening at each point along the supply chain.
Blais, Pierre; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Mason, Elizabeth; Shaffer, Nathan; Lipa, Zuzanna; Baller, April; Rollins, Nigel
The government of Canada, through the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD) has supported global efforts to reduce the impact of the HIV pandemic. In 2012, WHO and DFATD launched an implementation research initiative to increase access to interventions that were known to be effective in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to learn how these could be successfully integrated with other essential services for mothers and children. In addition to facilitating the implementation research projects, DFATD and WHO promoted four approaches: (1) Country-specific implementation research prioritization exercises, (2) Ministry of Health involvement, (3) Country-led, innovative, high-quality research, and (4) Leveraging regional networks and learning opportunities. While no single aspect of INSPIRE is unique, the process endeavors to promote and support high-quality, rigorous, locally-led implementation research that will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of HIV-infected women and their children.