Street, Tamara D; Thomas, Drew L
Rates of overweight and obese Australians are high and continue to rise, putting a large proportion of the population at risk of chronic illness. Examining characteristics associated with preference for a work-based weight-loss program will enable employers to better target programs to increase enrolment and benefit employees' health and fitness for work. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at two Australian mining sites. The survey collected information on employee demographics, health characteristics, work characteristics, stages of behavior change, and preference for workplace assistance with reaching a healthy weight. A total of 897 employees participated; 73.7% were male, and 68% had a body mass index in the overweight or obese range. Employees at risk of developing obesity-related chronic illnesses (based on high body mass index) were more likely to report preference for weight management assistance than lower risk employees. This indicates that, even in the absence of workplace promotion for weight management, some at risk employees want workplace assistance. Employees who were not aware of a need to change their current nutrition or physical activity behaviors were less likely to seek assistance. This indicates that practitioners need to communicate the negative effects of excess weight and promote the benefits of a healthy lifestyle to increase the likelihood of weight management. Weight management programs should provide information, motivation. and trouble-shooting assistance to meet the needs of at-risk mining employees, including those who are attempting to change and maintain behaviors to achieve a healthy weight and be suitably fit for work.
Street, Tamara D.; Thomas, Drew L.
Background: Rates of overweight and obese Australians are high and continue to rise, putting a large proportion of the population at risk of chronic illness. Examining characteristics associated with preference for a work-based weight-loss program will enable employers to better target programs to increase enrolment and benefit employees' health and fitness for work. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at two Australian mining sites. The survey collected information on employe...
Harold Andrew Patrick
Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.
Tamara D. Street
Conclusion: Weight management programs should provide information, motivation. and trouble-shooting assistance to meet the needs of at-risk mining employees, including those who are attempting to change and maintain behaviors to achieve a healthy weight and be suitably fit for work.
Roemer, Enid C; Liss-Levinson, Rivka C; Samoly, Daniel K; Guy, Gery P; Tabrizi, Maryam J; Beckowski, Meghan S; Pei, Xiaofei; Goetzel, Ron Z
The study aim was to determine the utility of and satisfaction with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Web-based employer tool, CDC's LEAN Works!, which provides evidence-based recommendations and promising practices for obesity prevention and control at worksites. This study examined employers' natural usage (i.e., without any study parameters on how, when, or how much to use the Web site and its resources) and impressions of the Web site. Employers of varying sizes, industry types, and levels of maturity in offering obesity management programs and from both private and public sectors were recruited to participate in the study. A convenience sample of 29 employers enrolled to participate. Participants were followed over a 12-month period. First impressions, bimonthly use of the Web site, and final assessments were collected using self-report surveys and individual interviews. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Almost all (96%) of participants reported a positive experience with the Web site, noting it provided a wealth of information. Most reported they planned to continue to use the Web site to develop (77%), implement (92%), and evaluate (85%) their obesity management programs. Aspects of the Web site that employers found valuable included a step-by-step implementation process, templates and toolkits, specific recommendations, and promising practices. CDC's LEAN Works! is a useful resource for employers wishing to develop and implement evidence-based workplace obesity prevention programs.
Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Mounting pressures to reduce staffing levels and improve productivity will almost certainly increase the level of conflict in the hospital setting in the coming months and years. The most effective managers will be those who can handle it constructively.
Hasfazilah Hassan; Azimawati Ahmad; Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S M Ghazi; Hairul Nizam Idris
Failure to ensure health and safety environment at workplace will cause an accident involving loss to the time, human resource, finance and for the worse case effect the moral value of an organization. If we go through to the cause of the accident, it is impossible to have a totally safety workplace. It is because every process in work activities has it own hazard elements. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the best action to prevent from the hazard with a comprehensive and effectiveness hazard management. Hazard management is the one of the pro-active hazard control. With this we manage to identify and evaluate the hazard and control the hazard risk. Therefore, hazard management should be screened constantly and continuously to make sure work hazard always in control. (Author)
Harold Andrew Patrick; Vincent Raj Kumar
Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requ...
Finkelstein, Eric A; DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Burgess, Somali M; Hale, Brent C
To quantify per capita and aggregate medical expenditures and the value of lost productivity, including absenteeism and presenteeism, because of overweight, and grade I, II, and III obesity among U.S. employees. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2008 National Health and Wellness Survey. Among men, estimates range from -$322 for overweight to $6087 for grade III obese men. For women, estimates range from $797 for overweight to $6694 for grade III. In aggregate, the annual cost attributable to obesity among full-time employees is $73.1 billion. Individuals with a body mass index >35 represent 37% of the obese population but are responsible for 61% of excess costs. Successful efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity, especially among those with a body mass index >35, could result in significant savings to employers.
Full Text Available Diversity is a phenomenon which is increasingly manifesting itself in the globalized society; therefore, it is observable in various areas of human activity, and thus also in the labour market and work teams. Age, sex, ethnicity and nationality, creed or disabilities are among the parameters of diversity. The aim of the article is to identify and evaluate the implementation of Diversity Management in workplaces, whilst bearing in mind researched factors of diversity. The results were gained by conducting a primary survey by questionnaire in organizations (n = 315. The results showed that a total of 41.9% of selected organizations operating in the Czech Republic implement Diversity Management. The largest part of organizations operate in the tertiary sector (69.7%. The survey results show the situation concerning Diversity Management in the selected organizations and support the oppinion that Diversity Management is a current global matter and its concerns all organizations. The research parameters influenced the application of Diversity Management in organizations (Cramer’s V is from 0.176 to 0.430. One of the recommendations for organizations is that they devote more attention to this phenomenon, as qualified human resources is on the decline and adequate attention will once again need to be devoted to groups of potential workers who have hitherto been overlooked. Diversity Management represents a new opportunity for organizations to build the employer’s good brand and attract knowledge workers.
The cultural acceptance of workplace violence is changing. Management has become more educated on regulatory issues around its tolerance of workplace violence. Events around the country in a variety of settings have aided in raising awareness of this issue. Healthcare professionals are not immune to workplace violence, including those working in the imaging profession. Healthcare workers, historically, have given care despite the demeanor of patients, often putting up with aggressive behavior including sexual harassment and physical assault. Management needs to take all possible measures to ensure employees feel safe at work. It is essential to have well thought out policies and procedures to mitigate workplace violence; keeping in mind that a goal of eliminating workplace violence is unrealistic.
The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising f...
Lance, Teresa S.; Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.
The purpose of this study was to advance measurement of sexual identity management for lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Psychometric properties of a revised version of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; Anderson, Croteau, Chung, & DiStefano, 2001) were examined on a sample of 64 predominantly White K-12 teachers.…
Duong, Thuong Thi; Skitmore, Martin
This article examines the extent to which challenges in the workplace may cause female project managers to be in a significantly small minority. A survey of members of the Australian Institute of Project Management in Queensland is described. This compares the experiences and observations of both men and women on various issues related to technical and gender aspects in project management workplaces. The results show that although female project managers experience many problems, male project managers also experience most of the same problems. Likewise, there are also few differences between more and less experience, the level of management, and types of industries. The differences that do occur involve discrimination against women in general, differences in project management styles, and support from other project managers.
Managing Workplace Conflict in the School Environment: Challenges, ... Annals of Humanities and Development Studies ... in a working environment, differences in opinion, attitudes and beliefs are bound to ... Conflict, if constructively handled, can be very helpful in making necessary changes within the work environment.
Are workplaces with a high percentage of women in management run differently?. This paper uses data from the British 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS98) to analyze empirically the relationship between the percentage of female workplace managers and people-management practices. The results show that workplace management teams with a higher proportion of women monitor employee feedback and development more intensely. Such teams also tend to promote more interpersonal c...
Goldie, Christine; Brown, Jenny
Obesity is a complex problem and often difficult to tackle in primary care. A year-long pilot of a practice nurse-led scheme that used a holistic approach towards self-care in obesity management was set up to reduce the cardiovascular risk of patients who were obese and improve their quality of life. This person-centred approach may offer an important tool in the management of these patients in the GP surgery.
Shrestha, Nipun; Pedisic, Zeljko; Neil-Sztramko, Sarah; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina T; Hermans, Veerle
This narrative review summarized findings from previous reviews and the most recently published studies, regarding the following: (1) the association between two occupational risk factors-shift work and sedentary work-and obesity, (2) the effects of obesity on workplace productivity and (3) the effectiveness of workplace interventions aimed at preventing or reducing obesity. Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is convincing evidence that shift work increases the risk of obesity, while most studies did not show a significant association between sedentary work and obesity. Overweight and obesity were found to be associated with absenteeism, disability pension and overall work impairment, whilst evidence of their relationship with presenteeism, unemployment and early retirement was not consistent. Due to the vast heterogeneity in the types of workplace-based interventions to prevent or treat obesity, no sound conclusions can as yet be drawn about their overall effectiveness and best practice recommendations for their implementation.
those employed by private contractors or intermediaries providing waste management services to local .... Tension both within this coalition and between the coalition and the ruling ANC has at times been high. 12 A lifeline tariff (also called a ...
K. Ortlepp; X. Hloma
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopt...
Cultural diversity is a strength of the American work force. Due to the increasing cultural diversity in the workplace, organizations find it in their best interest to move beyond affirmative action to effective management to achieve higher employee retention and develops an employee cultural mix that better matches the mix of the available labor force and customer base. To manage a diverse work force, managers need to have the proper tools, training and evaluation and monitoring programs. Important initiatives to successful management of cultural diversity include eliciting support and commitment from the board of directors, the CEO and other top management; organizing subcommittees to research and monitor demographic changes to determine what the organization's goals should be and to decide what changes are to be made. Employees must be trained to be aware of prejudices and how to manage their own actions.
Davidhizar, R; Dowd, S; Newman Giger, J
Cultural diversity is increasing in the United States as increasing numbers of minorities enter the United States from abroad, and cultural diversity is especially prevalent in the health care workplace. In fact, the health care professions are particularly interested in the presence of minorities among caregivers because this often enhances the cultural competence of care delivery. Nevertheless, subtle discrimination can still be found, and managers must be alert that such behavior is not tolerated. Use of the Giger-Davidhizar Cultural Assessment Model can provide managers with information needed to respond to diversity among staff appropriately.
Plijter, EB; van der Voordt, Theo; Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.
Purpose: to provide a better insight into the role of national cultures on the management and design of workplaces of multinationals in different countries.
Design/methodology/approach: This explorative study is based on an extensive literature review of dimensions of national culture in
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the
Raines, Susan S
"Raines masterfully blends the latest empirical research on workplace conflict with practical knowledge, skills, and tools to effectively manage and prevent a wide range of conflict episodes. This is a highly applicable 'top shelf book' that will assist anyone from the aspiring manager to top level management and leadership in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. It will also be a fast favorite of professors, trainers, and students of business and conflict management."- Brian Polkinghorn, Distinguished Professor, Center for Conflict Resolution, Salisbury University. "With her broad dis
Workplace safety management as correlates of wellbeing among factory ... working in manufacturing firms do not enjoy the desirable level of wellbeing ... Keywords: employees' wellbeing, safety management, workers safety training, design of ...
Annette Sonia Chetan; Deekshitha
Globalisation has led to different and varied outcomes in the modern days business by fierce competition, rapid change, emerging market trends and adoption of new technologies. A global workplace is a borderless workplace, which facilitate facing new challenges and compete in changing work culture. Today’s buzz words are ‘Manage change or perish’. The demographics and size of the workplace are changing considerably since 21st century. Hence the organizations are trying to cope with the chang...
Kristensen, Michael S
Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...
Trudel, Jeannie; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.
The workforce of the 21st century is dealing with rapid changes and increased competition across industries. Such changes place stress on management and workers alike, increasing the potential for workplace conflict and deviant workplace behaviors, including incivility. The importance of effective conflict management in the workplace has been…
Background: A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials of workplace weight management interventions, including trials with dietary, physical activity, environmental, behavioral and incentive based components. Main outcomes were defined as change in weight-related measures. Methods: Key w...
Lindy, Cheryl; Schaefer, Florence
To discover nurse managers' perception of negative workplace behaviours (bullying) encountered by staff on their unit. Background Negative workplace behaviour is a worldwide phenomenon happening in all types of work settings. Absent from the literature were studies specific to the nurse managers' perception on this topic. A phenomenological qualitative research methodology was used to gain insight into the perceptions of nurse managers about negative workplace behaviours that they have observed or addressed. Nurse Managers described their perceptions of, and experiences pertaining to, instances of negative workplace behaviour. Six themes emerged from the data analysis: 'that's just how she is', 'they just take it', 'a lot of things going on', 'old baggage', 'three sides to a story' and 'a management perspective'. Nurse Managers had observed, experienced and/or had received reports of negative workplace behaviours. While some felt comfortable addressing the behaviour, others experienced ethical dilemmas when trying to treat all fairly. The results of the present study provide guidance for nurse managers to address negative workplace behaviours occurring on their units.
Fang, Yaxuan; McDonald, Tracey
To investigate regarding workplace health and safety factors, and to identify strategies to preserve and promote a healthy nursing workplace. Data collected using the Delphi technique with input from 41 key informants across four participant categories drawn from a Chinese university and four hospitals were thematically analysed. Most respondents agreed on the importance of nurses' health and safety, and that nurse managers should act to protect nurses, but not enough on workplace safety. Hospital policies, staff disempowerment, workload and workplace conflicts are major obstacles. The reality of Chinese nurses' workplaces is that health and safety risks abound and relate to socio-cultural expectations of women. Self-management of risks is neccessary, gaps exist in understanding of workplace risks among different nursing groups and their perceptions of the professional status, and the value of nurses' contribution to ongoing risks in the hospital workplace. The Chinese hospital system must make these changes to produce a safer working environment for nurses. This research, based in China, presents an instructive tale for all countries that need support on the types and amounts of management for nurses working at the clinical interface, and on the consequences of management neglect of relevant policies and procedures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yen, Margaret; Trede, Franziska; Patterson, Carmel
Objective This research explores Nurse Managers' (NMs') influence on workplace learning. The facilitation of staff learning has implications for the role of NMs, who are responsible for the quality and safety of patient care. However, this aspect of their work is implicit and there is limited research in the area. Methods This paper discusses the findings from one hospital as part of a broader philosophical hermeneutic study conducted in two public hospitals over a 20-month timeframe. NMs participated in interviews, a period of observation, follow-up interviews and a focus group. Transcribed data was thematically analysed. Eraut's 'Two triangle theory of workplace learning' was used to interpret participants' accounts of how they facilitated workplace learning. Findings The analysis found that NMs worked to positively influence staff performance through learning in three domains: orientating new staff, assessing staff performance and managing underperformance. Conclusions This study purports that NMs influence workplace learning in ways that are seldom recognised. A more conscious understanding of the impact of their role can enable NMs to more purposefully influence workplace learning. Such understanding also has implications for the professional preparation of NMs for their role in the context of workplace learning, facilitating learning for change and enabling the advancement of quality and safety in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Studies exploring the influence of Nurse Managers in workplace learning have been limited to their role in the facilitation of formal learning. There is a paucity of research that examines their role in influencing informal learning. What does this paper add? The findings of this study draw on Eraut's 'Two triangle theory of workplace learning' to further define the interdependent relationship between management and educational practices. What are the implications for practitioners? NMs' awareness and deliberate use of
Clark, Kevin R
Today's workplace often includes workers from 4 distinct generations, and each generation brings a unique set of core values and characteristics to an organization. These generational differences can produce benefits, such as improved patient care, as well as challenges, such as conflict among employees. This article reviews current research on generational differences in educational settings and the workplace and discusses the implications of these findings for medical imaging and radiation therapy departments. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric
Kristensen, Michael S
Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory...
Kato, Takao; Kodama, Naomi
We review recent studies on management practices and their consequences for women in the workplace. First, the High Performance Work System (HPWS) is associated with greater gender diversity in the workplace while there is little evidence that the HPWS reduces the gender pay gap. Second, work-life balance practices with limited face-to-face interactions with coworkers may hamper women’s career advancement. Third, individual incentive linking pay to objective performance may enhance gender div...
Thorndike, Anne N
The worksite is ideal for implementing interventions to reduce obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Although worksite health promotion is not new, employer-sponsored wellness programs have become more widespread due to the rising prevalence and high cost of obesity. Over the past two decades, employers and researchers focused efforts on individual-based programs to change employees' nutrition and exercise behaviors, but more recently, the worksite environment has been targeted. Overall, there is good evidence that individual-based worksite programs can produce modest weight loss, but the evidence for effects on other risk factors and on long-term health outcomes and costs is inconsistent. There is less evidence for the benefit of environmental-based interventions, and more data will be needed to establish conclusions about the benefits of these types of interventions. A major challenge for employers and researchers in the future will be to find the balance between effectiveness and economic viability of worksite wellness programs.
Flint, Stuart W; Codreanu, Sonia C; Gomoiu, Amalia; Čadek, Martin; Ivić, Vanja; Zomer, Colene; Walton, Peter
The purpose of this study is to first identify whether obese people are discriminated against when hiring employees. Employees of workforces that vary due to the physical demand of their job, will rate hypothetical applicants on their suitability for employment using Likert-type responses to a range of questions. Applicants’ curriculum vitae will be manipulated by weight status and gender. Implicit and explicit attitud...
This article aims to highlight the issue of work-related stress within the district nursing workplace. It will acknowledge how the management of work-related stress has previously been discussed within nursing literature and will consider the emerging relationship between staff working conditions, staff wellbeing and quality of patient care. It will reintroduce the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) Management Standards approach to tackling work-related stress, which provides management support to reduce environmental work stressors and encourage enabling work environments and a positive workplace culture.
Westmorland, Muriel G; Williams, Renee M; Amick, Ben C; Shannon, Harry; Rasheed, Farah
The purpose of this study was to obtain employees' perceptions about disability management (DM) at their workplaces. Data were obtained from focus group interviews and individual telephone interviews with 58 employees who had sustained a work-related injury or disability in Ontario, Canada. Participants also completed a 22-item Organizational Policies and Practices (OPP) Questionnaire that asked questions about workplace DM practices. Respondents emphasized the need for job accommodation, the importance of open and clear communication and the necessity of job retraining. The provision of ergonomic modifications to their worksites and the development of meaningful and specific DM policies and procedures were seen as key to a comprehensive workplace DM program. Education about health and safety also was identified as an important component of creating a supportive workplace environment. The OPP questionnaire showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.95) and discriminant validity. This study demonstrates the importance of workplaces communicating with their employees and respecting their opinions when establishing and carrying out DM policies and practices. The OPP Questionnaire is useful in determining how DM is managed in the workplace.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on managing cultural diversity at workplaces in Slovenia. The author critically reflects on some aspects of research and studies that have been carried out both on discrimination as well as managing diversity in Slovenia between 2007 and 2013, and finds the cause of the inability of organisations to adopt policies on managing diversity in the lack of competences and skills associated with cultural sensibility. The author maintains that whereas workplaces are bound to become more and more diverse, the predominant approach towards diversity in workplaces in Slovenia tends to either dismiss (cultural diversity as inconsequential or treat it as a nuisance that needs to be dealt with, thus failing to grasp the advantages which such diversity could bring.
Gensby, Ulrik; Lund, Thomas; Kowalski, Krystyna
Return-to-work (RTW) following work related injuries or illnesses is receiving continued attention from a wide spectrum of research fields and is an important topic for many policy- and decision-makers. In particular long-term sickness absence is a challenge associated with a series of negative...... is still needed. This review will evaluate the effect of workplace disability management programs promoting RTW - i.e. report on the evidence and describes and combine results from individual studies on workplace disability management programs and explain possible variations in practice....
Stuart W Flint
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to first identify whether obese people are discriminated against when hiring employees. Employees of workforces that vary due to the physical demand of their job, will rate hypothetical applicants on their suitability for employment using Likert-type responses to a range of questions. Applicants’ curriculum vitae will be manipulated by weight status and gender. Implicit and explicit attitudes towards obese people will also be examined using existing measures with strong psychometric properties as reported in extant research. Second, using focus group discussions with employees of either sedentary or physically active workforces, this study will explore why and in what ways obese people are discriminated against in the workplace.
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is a growing international health problem that has already reached epidemic proportions, particularly within the United States where a majority of the population is overweight or obese. Effective methods of treatment are needed, and should be taught to physicians by efficient means. There exists a disconnect between the rising obesity prevalence with its high toll on medical resources, and the lack of obesity education provided to practitioners in the course of their training. One particular shortfall is the lack of representation of obesity on standardized medical examinations. Physician attitudes toward obesity are influenced by their lack of familiarity with the management of the disease. This may include dietary restriction, increasing physical activity, behavior modification, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions. Thus, curricular changes in the medical education of obesity could help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.
Jaffe, Dennis T.; And Others
This paper on designing and implementing a stress management program in the workplace begins by defining stress. A brief overview of the relationship of stress to health and personal style follows. The subsequent discussion of the relationship between stress and work focuses on these topics: work contributes to stress; stress affects work…
Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores. A comprehensive history, physical examination and laboratory assessment relevant to the patient's obesity should be obtained. Appropriate goals of weight management emphasise realistic weight loss to achieve a reduction in health risks and should include promotion of weight loss, maintenance and prevention of weight regain. Management of co-morbidities and improving quality of life of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. Balanced hypocaloric diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasise. Aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass while a programme including resistance training is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged and overweight/obese individuals. Cognitive behavioural therapy directly addresses behaviours that require change for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Pharmacotherapy can help patients to maintain compliance and ameliorate obesity-related health risks. Surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of long-term weight loss. A comprehensive obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team. We conclude that physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment. Treatment
Yumuk, Volkan; Tsigos, Constantine; Fried, Martin; Schindler, Karin; Busetto, Luca; Micic, Dragan; Toplak, Hermann
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk) can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores. A comprehensive history, physical examination and laboratory assessment relevant to the patient's obesity should be obtained. Appropriate goals of weight management emphasise realistic weight loss to achieve a reduction in health risks and should include promotion of weight loss, maintenance and prevention of weight regain. Management of co-morbidities and improving quality of life of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. Balanced hypocaloric diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasise. Aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass while a programme including resistance training is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged and overweight/obese individuals. Cognitive behavioural therapy directly addresses behaviours that require change for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Pharmacotherapy can help patients to maintain compliance and ameliorate obesity-related health risks. Surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of long-term weight loss. A comprehensive obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team. We conclude that physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment. Treatment should be based on
Yumuk, Volkan; Tsigos, Constantine; Fried, Martin; Schindler, Karin; Busetto, Luca; Micic, Dragan; Toplak, Hermann
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by an increase of body fat stores. It is a gateway to ill health, and it has become one of the leading causes of disability and death, affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents worldwide. In clinical practice, the body fatness is estimated by BMI, and the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (marker for higher metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk) can be assessed by waist circumference. Complex interactions between biological, behavioural, social and environmental factors are involved in regulation of energy balance and fat stores. A comprehensive history, physical examination and laboratory assessment relevant to the patient's obesity should be obtained. Appropriate goals of weight management emphasise realistic weight loss to achieve a reduction in health risks and should include promotion of weight loss, maintenance and prevention of weight regain. Management of co-morbidities and improving quality of life of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. Balanced hypocaloric diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasise. Aerobic training is the optimal mode of exercise for reducing fat mass while a programme including resistance training is needed for increasing lean mass in middle-aged and overweight/obese individuals. Cognitive behavioural therapy directly addresses behaviours that require change for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Pharmacotherapy can help patients to maintain compliance and ameliorate obesity-related health risks. Surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of long-term weight loss. A comprehensive obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team. We conclude that physicians have a responsibility to recognise obesity as a disease and help obese patients with appropriate prevention and treatment. Treatment should be based on
Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima
While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked...... as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...
This volume of Advances in Library Administration and Organization attempts to put project management into the toolboxes of library administrators through overviews of concepts, analyses of experiences, and forecasts for the use of project management within the profession.
Jardim, Lucia Rodrigues
This study aims to determine how sexual harassment can effectively be managed in the workplace in accordance with sexual harassment policies and procedures. The literature review takes an in depth view into: local and international codes with reference to the differences and similarities between the codes; the processes and procedures managers should follow when faced with sexual harassment grievances; the legal alternatives available to victims of sexual harassment. The empirical research wa...
Full Text Available Despite extensive research on health in working life, few studies focus on this issue from the perspective of managers in small-scale enterprises (SSEs. To gain deeper knowledge of managers’ perceptions and strategies for dealing with workplace health management, 13 Norwegian and Swedish SSE managers were interviewed after participating in a workplace health development project. The methodical approach was based on Grounded Theory with a constructivist orientation. The main theme that emerged was ‘ambiguity in workplace health management and maintaining the business’, which was related to the categories ‘internal workplace settings’, ‘workplace surroundings’, and ‘leadership strategies’. The managers experienced ambiguity due to internal and external demands. These requirements were linked to the core challenges in dealing with multitasking leadership, financial decision-making, labour legislation, staff development and maintaining business. However, the managers developed new skills and competence and thereby a more reflexive approach and readiness to create a health-promoting workplace from being part of a development project. The implications are that managers in SSEs need to exchange experiences and discuss workplace health issues with other managers in networks. It is also important that occupational health services and social and welfare organizations use tailor-made models and strategies for supporting SSEs.
Diversity management is not a numbers game. Diversity management is a holistic and strategic intervention aimed at maximizing every individual’s potential to contribute towards the realization o f the organization’s goals through capitalizing on individual talents and differences within a diverse workforce environment. Managing interpersonal relationships within a diverse workforce environment presents a number of challenges related to changes in the social, legal and economic landscape, indi...
Brown, Jenny; Wimpenny, Peter
The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical background and relevance of a holistic approach to obesity management by nurses. There is a global rise in the number of people with obesity, such that it now represents one of the major health challenges. However, nurses are often influenced by physical and dietetic focused approaches and could fail to acknowledge a range of other factors that can impact on weight management. As part of the development of a holistic approach to obesity a literature search was undertaken to establish relevant theoretical perspectives that underpin practice in physical, psychological and social aspects of care (focused on the period 1995-2005). In addition, experiences of working in a secondary care weight management clinic were also drawn upon. Psychobiological, attribution and social support theories were identified that could contribute to a better understanding of obesity. If these theoretical perspectives and supporting evidence can be integrated in a holistic approach to care and management it might be possible to promote better health and well-being in those with obesity. Creating a greater understanding of the range of theoretical perspectives and supporting evidence related to obesity could, it is argued, provide enhanced care and management. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
As the work force decreases, the workload remains the same or, in many cases, increases. An effective employee must arrange work time to accomplish what needs to be done in the time available. The best way to manage time is to set a goal, develop a plan, and measure the outcome. To manage time requires determining where time is currently spent, taking time at the end of the day to prepare for the next morning, managing appointments, carefully planning projects, and managing phone, electronic, and paper mail. Organization is another step in effectively managing time. An organizational system decreases wasted time. Keeping the desk clear and creating a system to organize mail improves efficiency. Time management also focuses on balance, an overall purpose, and supporting principles. Personal or professional effectiveness does not depend solely on the effort expended, but whether the effort is in the right direction. The challenge of time management is to manage not only time, but also oneself. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Villablanca, Pedro A; Alegria, Jorge R; Mookadam, Farouk; Holmes, David R; Wright, R Scott; Levine, James A
Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease. The global increase in sedentary lifestyle is an important factor contributing to the rising prevalence of the obesity epidemic. Traditionally, counseling has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise, with disappointing results. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is an important component of daily energy expenditure. It represents the common daily activities, such as fidgeting, walking, and standing. These high-effect NEAT movements could result in up to an extra 2000 kcal of expenditure per day beyond the basal metabolic rate, depending on body weight and level of activity. Implementing NEAT during leisure-time and occupational activities could be essential to maintaining a negative energy balance. NEAT can be applied by being upright, ambulating, and redesigning workplace and leisure-time environments to promote NEAT. The benefits of NEAT include not only the extra calories expended but also the reduced occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. We believe that to overcome the obesity epidemic and its adverse cardiovascular consequences, NEAT should be part of the current medical recommendations. The content of this review is based on a literature search of PubMed and the Google search engine between January 1, 1960, and October 1, 2014, using the search terms physical activity, obesity, energy expenditure, nonexercise activity thermogenesis, and NEAT. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donatus I. Amaram
The acceptance and management of cultural diversity have been promoted and touted as a positive tool in social and organizational engineering aimed at solving and preventing group dynamics problems in both business organizations and society as well. Positive attributes of cultural integration in business organizations have received fair and significant attention in the past two decades. What have not been sufficiently presented are the challenges and pitfalls inherent in the management of cul...
Full Text Available Diversity management is not a numbers game. Diversity management is a holistic and strategic intervention aimed at maximizing every individual’s potential to contribute towards the realization o f the organization’s goals through capitalizing on individual talents and differences within a diverse workforce environment. Managing interpersonal relationships within a diverse workforce environment presents a number of challenges related to changes in the social, legal and economic landscape, individual expectations and values as well as the inevitable change in organizational culture (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 2005: 1-7. Whether or not organizations are effective in managing diversity is a function of senior managements’ commitment, and the perceived centrality of diversity management by all those who populate the institution’s workspace. Above all it should be clear to all employees, irrespective of race, gender, or vocational/professional status, that each and every one of them has something of value to contribute towards the realization of the institution’s mission and goals. It is crucial to determine clear and manageable success indicators, focusing not only on compliance with legal obligations to include and/or increase the number of employees from the underrepresented and designated groups, but also on strategic intervention strategies to be used to promote and nurture individual talent and potential toward the realization of both individual aspirations and organizational goals re-quality patient outcomes.
Kelly, Aaron S; Fox, Claudia K
This review provides a rationale for the use of pharmacotherapy in pediatric weight management, summarizes results of some of the key pediatric clinical trials of approved and "off-label" obesity medications, introduces new options in the pediatric pipeline, and offers a glimpse into the future of pediatric obesity medicine. Despite the need for adjunctive treatments to enhance the outcomes of lifestyle modification therapy among youth with obesity, none of the obesity medications evaluated to date have been shown to meaningfully reduce BMI or cardiometabolic risk factors. Promising medications recently approved for the treatment of obesity in adults will soon be tested in pediatric trials, offering hope that new therapeutic options will soon be available. As new medications are approved to treat pediatric obesity, it will be important to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination pharmacotherapy and investigate predictors of response. Application of precision medicine approaches to the field of pediatric obesity management will improve the long-term outlook for the tens of millions of youth afflicted with this serious and recalcitrant disease.
Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt
This paper explores how organizations address emotions by offering training and tools that promote emotion management. One such tool is mindfulness. With a combination of meditation and bodily exercises, mindfulness has become a favored tool for managers to offer to employees with the promise...... of increasing the individual’s ability to focus attention, to increase productivity and to keep calm in high-velocity, complex settings and not least to reduce the risk of stress and prevent burn-outs. It is discussed how training in mindfulness can result in promotion of certain emotional responses...... and discouragement of others and thereby promote a mode of emotional control over organizational members....
Belinda S Drew
Full Text Available Belinda S Drew, Andrew F Dixon, John B DixonCentre for Obesity Research and Education, Monash University, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Over the past 20 years obesity has become a worldwide concern of frightening proportion. The World Health Organization estimates that there are over 400 million obese and over 1.6 billion overweight adults, a figure which is projected to almost double by 2015. This is not a disease restricted to adults – at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight in 2005 (WHO 2006. Overweight and obesity lead to serious health consequences including coronary artery disease, stroke, type-2 diabetes, heart failure, dyslipidemia, hypertension, reproductive and gastrointestinal cancers, gallstones, fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis and sleep apnea (Padwal et al 2003.Modest weight loss in the obese of between 5% and 10% of bodyweight is associated with improvements in cardiovascular risk profiles and reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes (Goldstein 1992; Avenell et al 2004; Padwal and Majumdar 2007. Orlistat, a gastric and pancreatic lipase inhibitor that reduces dietary fat absorption by approximately 30%, has been approved for use for around ten years (Zhi et al 1994; Hauptman 2000. There is now a growing body of evidence to suggest that Orlistat assists weight loss and that it may also have additional benefits. The aim of this review is to provide a brief update on the current literature studying the efficacy, safety and significance of the use of Orlistat in clinical practice.Keywords: obese, weight, diet, orlistat, hypertension, cholesterol
of obesity in children is also on the increase, with an estimated. 42 million children .... measurement arithmetic is more useful in monitoring long-term nutritional therapy ... the short-term, although chronic therapy is indicated in resistant cases and .... psychomotor disturbances, memory impairment, diarrhoea and changes in ...
Purpose: Developing interpersonal relationships is widely recognised as a key managerial capability, but business schools have been criticised for the limited attention given to the subject. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to address this deficiency in the area of teaching workplace relationships. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…
Stankevitz, Kayla; Dement, John; Schoenfisch, Ashley; Joyner, Julie; Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Østbye, Truls
To characterize barriers to healthy eating (BHE) and physical activity (BPA) among participants in a workplace weight management intervention. Steps to health participants completed a questionnaire to ascertain barriers to physical activity and healthy eating faced. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure for BPA and BHE. The relationships of these factors with accelerometer data and dietary behaviors were assessed using linear regression. Barriers to physical activity included time constraints and lack of interest and motivation, and to healthy eating, lack of self-control and convenience, and lack of access to healthy foods. Higher BHE correlated with higher sugary beverage intake but not fruit and vegetable and fat intake. To improve their effectiveness, workplace weight management programs should consider addressing and reducing barriers to healthy eating and physical activity.
Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo
This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Rössner, Stephan
The upward trend in obesity prevalence across regions and continents is a worldwide concern. Today a majority of the world's population live in a country where being overweight or obese causes more deaths than being underweight. Only a portion of those qualifying for treatment will get the health care they need. Still, a minor weight loss of 5-10% seems to be sufficient to provide a clinically significant health benefit in terms of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Diet, exercise and behavior modifications remain the current cornerstones of obesity treatment. Weight-loss drugs play a minor role. Drugs which were available and reasonably effective have been withdrawn because of side effects. The fact that the 'old' well known, but pretty unexciting tools remain the basic armamentarium causes understandable concern and disappointment among both patients and therapists. Hence, bariatric surgery has increasingly been recognized and developed, as it offers substantial weight loss and prolonged weight control. The present review highlights the conventional tools to counter obesity, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery, including some of the barriers to successful weight loss: (1) unrealistic expectations of success; (2) high attrition rates; (3) cultural norms of self-acceptance in terms of weight and beliefs of fat being healthy; (4) neighborhood attributes such as a lack of well-stocked supermarkets and rather the presence of convenience stores with low-quality foods; and (5) the perception of the neighborhood as less safe and with low walkability. Prevention is the obvious key. Cost-effective societal interventions such as a tax on unhealthy food and beverages, front-of-pack traffic light nutrition labeling and prohibition of advertising of junk food and beverages to children are also discussed.
Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B
To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ariza-Montes, J Antonio; Muniz R, Noel M; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L; Leal-Millán, Antonio G
The aim of this paper is to study certain factors that may be determinant in the emergence of workplace bullying among managers-employees with a recognized and privileged position to exercise power-adopting the individual perspective of the subject, the bullied manager. Individual, organizational, and contextual factors integrate the developed global model, and the methodology utilized to accomplish our research objectives is based on the binary logistic regression model. A sample population of 661 managers was obtained from the micro data file of the 5th European Working Conditions Survey-2010 (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions) and utilized to conduct the present research. The results indicate that the chance for a manager to refer to him/herself as bullied increases among women that hold managerial positions and live with children under 15 at home, and among subjects that work at night, on a shift system, suffering from work stress, enjoying little satisfaction from their working conditions, and not perceiving opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes, within the usual course of events, that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist directors/general directors in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among managers.
Ariza-Montes, J. Antonio; Muniz R., Noel M.; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L.; Leal-Millán, Antonio G.
The aim of this paper is to study certain factors that may be determinant in the emergence of workplace bullying among managers—employees with a recognized and privileged position to exercise power—adopting the individual perspective of the subject, the bullied manager. Individual, organizational, and contextual factors integrate the developed global model, and the methodology utilized to accomplish our research objectives is based on the binary logistic regression model. A sample population of 661 managers was obtained from the micro data file of the 5th European Working Conditions Survey-2010 (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions) and utilized to conduct the present research. The results indicate that the chance for a manager to refer to him/herself as bullied increases among women that hold managerial positions and live with children under 15 at home, and among subjects that work at night, on a shift system, suffering from work stress, enjoying little satisfaction from their working conditions, and not perceiving opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes, within the usual course of events, that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist directors/general directors in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among managers. PMID:24599041
J. Antonio Ariza-Montes
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study certain factors that may be determinant in the emergence of workplace bullying among managers—employees with a recognized and privileged position to exercise power—adopting the individual perspective of the subject, the bullied manager. Individual, organizational, and contextual factors integrate the developed global model, and the methodology utilized to accomplish our research objectives is based on the binary logistic regression model. A sample population of 661 managers was obtained from the micro data file of the 5th European Working Conditions Survey-2010 (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions and utilized to conduct the present research. The results indicate that the chance for a manager to refer to him/herself as bullied increases among women that hold managerial positions and live with children under 15 at home, and among subjects that work at night, on a shift system, suffering from work stress, enjoying little satisfaction from their working conditions, and not perceiving opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes, within the usual course of events, that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist directors/general directors in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among managers.
Gensby, U; Labriola, Merete; Irvin, E
Purpose: This paper presents results from a Campbell systematic review on the nature and effectiveness of workplace disability management programs (WPDM) promoting return to work (RTW), as implemented and practiced by employers. A classification of WPDM program components, based on the review...... were conducted in pairs of reviewers. Studies were clustered around various dimensions of the design and context of programs. Results: 16,932 records were identified by the initial search. 599 papers were assessed for relevance. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria. Twelve peer reviewed articles...
Gensby, Ulrik; Lund, Thomas; Kowalski, Krystyna
This report presents a Campbell systematic review on the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs (WPDM programs) promoting return to work (RTW), as implemented and practised by employers. The objectives of this review were to assess the effects of WPDM programs, to examine...... non-randomized studies (NRS) and eleven single group ‘before and after’ studies (B & A)), including data from eleven different WPDM programs, met the inclusion criteria. There were insufficient data on the characteristics of the sample and the effect sizes were uncertain. There is a lack of evidence...
Lewis, Jeffrey S.; Geroy, Gary D.
Discusses six entry points to initiate discussion of employee spirituality in management education: cross-cultural management, workplace diversity, leadership, team management, organizational culture, and human resource development. (SK)
Sawada, Kimi; Ota, Erika; Shahrook, Sadequa; Mori, Rintaro
Various studies are currently investigating ways to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and obesity among workers through interventions using incentive strategies, including price discounts for low-fat snacks and sugar-free beverages at workplace cafeterias or vending machines, and the provision of a free salad bar in cafeterias. Rather than assessing individual or group interventions, we will focus on the effectiveness of nutrition education programs at the population level, which primarily incorporate financial incentive strategies to prevent obesity. This paper describes the protocol of a systematic review that will examine the effectiveness of financial incentive programs at company cafeterias in improving dietary habits, nutrient intake, and obesity prevention. We will conduct searches in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. Interventions will be assessed using data from randomized control trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs. However, if few such trials exist, we will include quasi-RCTs. We will exclude controlled before-and-after studies and crossover RCTs. We will assess food-based interventions that include financial incentive strategies (discount strategies or social marketing) for workplace cafeterias, vending machines, and kiosks. Two authors will independently review studies for inclusion and will resolve differences by discussion and, if required, through consultation with a third author. We will assess the risk of bias of included studies according to the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool. The purpose of this paper is to outline the study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis that will investigate the effectiveness of population-level, incentive-focused interventions at the workplace cafeteria that aim to promote and prevent obesity. This review will give an important overview of the available evidence about the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental interventions to
Overeating and physical inactivity are of great importance in the etiology of obesity. Psychological factors are often found in the background of life style. Chronic stress can contribute to physical inactivity and behaviors that hinder the keeping of a diet (e.g., irregular eating pattern, emotional eating). Results of randomized controlled trials show that relaxation can reduce emotional eating, improve cognitive restraint, and thereby reduce weight. However, stress management is more than relaxation. It consists of adaptive emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies and skills to improve relationships. Deflection skills may help in replacing emotional eating with other behaviors. Cognitive restructuring, saying no, and problem solving help to prevent or manage conflicts and difficulties otherwise would result in overeating due to distress. Developing stress management skills may result in greater compliance with the treatment. The techniques presented in the study can be easily applied by general practitioners or specialists, and provide tools for optimizing obesity treatment.
Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark
In Australia, more than 30% of the traffic volume can be attributed to work-related vehicles. Although work-related driver safety has been given increasing attention in the scientific literature, it is uncertain how well this knowledge has been translated into practice in industry. It is also unclear how current practice in industry can inform scientific knowledge. The aim of the research was to use a benchmarking tool developed by the National Road Safety Partnership Program to assess industry maturity in relation to risk management practices. A total of 83 managers from a range of small, medium and large organisations were recruited through the Victorian Work Authority. Semi-structured interviews aimed at eliciting information on current organisational practices, as well as policy and procedures around work-related driving were conducted and the data mapped onto the benchmarking tool. Overall, the results demonstrated varying levels of maturity of risk management practices across organisations, highlighting the need to build accountability within organisations, improve communication practices, improve journey management, reduce vehicle-related risk, improve driver competency through an effective workplace road safety management program and review organisational incident and infringement management. The findings of the study have important implications for industry and highlight the need to review current risk management practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nowrouzi, Behdin; Gohar, Basem; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behnam; Mintsopoulos, Victoria; McDougall, Alicia; Jordan, Gillian; Casole, Jennifer; Lariviere, Michel; Tremblay, Angelo
The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review examining predictors of lost-time injury, illness and disability (IID) in the workplace, with a focus on obesity as a predictor, and to evaluate the relationship between obesity and losttime IID. The study objective was also to analyze workplace disability prevention and interventions aimed at encouraging a healthy lifestyle among employees and reducing obesity and IID, as well as to identify research gaps. The search was conducted in several major online databases. Articles included in the review were published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 2003 and December 2014, and were found to be of good quality and of relevance to the topic. Each article was critically reviewed for inclusion in this study. Studies that focused on lost-time IID in the workplace were reviewed and summarized. Workers in overweight and obese categories are shown to be at a higher risk of workplace IID, are more likely to suffer from lost-time IID, and experience a slower recovery compared to workers with a healthy body mass index (BMI) score. Lost-time IID is costly to an employer and an employee; therefore, weight reduction may financially benefit both - workers and companies. It was found that some companies have focused on developing interventions that aid reduction of weight and the practice of active lifestyle among their employees. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):749-766. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Zhao, Denise H; Cheung, Janet M Y; Smith, Lorraine; Saini, Bandana
People with asthma spend a significant amount of time in the workplace but little is known about the current state of disease management in such contexts. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of asthma across different stakeholders in the workplace to help inform potential recommendations for workplace asthma policies. Using purposive and convenience sampling methods, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia with 5 human resource personnel, 10 employees with asthma and 10 employees without asthma. Interviews were guided by a schedule of questions focusing on attitudes and experiences of people with asthma in the workplace, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Analysis of the qualitative dataset revealed three key themes: Beliefs and Attitudes about Asthma, Asthma Solutions in the Workplace and Workplace Obstacles. Findings suggest that employees with asthma experience problems managing their asthma at work and there is a lack of workplace support in relation to asthma emergency management. Key recommendations for workplace asthma policies have been made to provide better support for employees with asthma. However, further investigation into the experience of managing asthma is required in a wider variety of occupations and work experiences to inform the development of a workplace asthma policy.
Scott, Hayley A; Wood, Lisa G; Gibson, Peter G
Obesity is a commonly reported comorbidity in asthma, particularly in severe asthma. Obese asthmatics are highly symptomatic with a poor quality of life, despite using high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. While the clinical manifestations have been documented, the aetiologies of obese-asthma remain unclear. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed, including poor diet quality, physical inactivity and consequent accrual of excess adipose tissue. Each of these factors independently activates inflammatory pathways, potentially exerting effects in the airways. Because the origins of obesity are multifactorial, it is now believed there are multiple obese-asthma phenotypes, with varied aetiologies and clinical consequences. In this review, we will describe the clinical implications of obesity in people with asthma, our current understanding of the mechanisms driving this association and describe recently proposed obese-asthma phenotypes. We will then discuss how asthma management is complicated by obesity, and provide graded recommendations for the management of obesity in this population.
Kirsh, Bonnie; Krupa, Terry; Luong, Dorothy
Organizations have become increasingly concerned about mental health issues in the workplace as the economic and social costs of the problem continue to grow. Addressing employees' mental health problems and the stigma that accompanies them often falls to supervisors, key people in influencing employment pathways and the social climate of the workplace. This study examines how supervisors experience and perceive mental illness and stigma in their workplaces. It was conducted under the mandate of the Mental Health Commission of Canada's Opening Minds initiative. The study was informed by a theoretical framework of stigma in the workplace and employed a qualitative approach. Eleven supervisors were interviewed and data were analyzed for major themes using established procedures for conventional content analysis. Themes relate to: perceptions of the supervisory role relative to managing mental health problems at the workplace; supervisors' perceptions of mental health issues at the workplace; and supervisors' experiences of managing mental health issues at work. The research reveals the tensions supervisors experience as they carry out responsibilities that are meant to benefit both the individual and workplace, and protect their own well-being as well. This study emphasizes the salience of stigma and mental health issues for the supervisor's role and illustrates the ways in which these issues intersect with the work of supervisors. It points to the need for future research and training in areas such as balancing privacy and supports, tailoring disclosure processes to suit individuals and workplaces, and managing self-care in the workplace.
Ritten, Angela; LaManna, Jacqueline
Despite the rather slow acceptance of obesity as a disease state, several obesity staging systems and weight-management guidelines have been developed and are in use, along with an ever-growing number of treatment options. Many primary care clinicians, including nurse practitioners (NPs), are at the forefront of clinical efforts to assist individuals with obesity, but face challenges due to lack of alignment and consensus among the various staging systems and guidelines. This is further complicated by shortfalls in clinical training related to obesity management and increasing complexities in reimbursement for obesity-related services. Unmet needs in the management of obesity thus stretch from guidelines to clinic. This article examines the principal barriers to effective management of individuals with obesity and considers how concerns might be overcome, with particular emphasis on the role of the NP. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Babita Mukherjee; Dikshit Gambhir; Arooj Yaswi
In this era of globalization, workplace diversity has become the salient aspect of any organization. It helps to increase productivity, efficiency and maintain a positive work environment within the organization. The study assessed the attitude difference that managers come across and how to get benefited from the diversity in the workforce. The investigation was set out to find the relationship between openness to diversity and managerial attitude, based on the data collected from 213 manage...
Schaecher, Kenneth L
In the United States, obesity is characterized as this century's greatest healthcare threat. The American Medical Association and several other large organizations now classify obesity as a disease. Several federal initiatives are in the planning stages, have been approved, or are being implemented to address the disease. Obesity poses challenges for all healthcare stakeholders. Diet and exercise often are insufficient to create the magnitude of change patients and their attending healthcare providers need. Managed care organizations (MCOs) have 3 tools that can help their members: health and wellness programs focusing on lifestyle changes, prescription weight-loss drugs, and bariatric surgical interventions. MCOs are addressing changes with national requirements and are responding to the availability of new weight-loss drugs to help their members achieve better health. A number of factors either deter or stimulate the progress of weight loss therapy. Understanding how MCOs are key to managing obesity at the local level is important for healthcare providers. It can help MCOs and individual healthcare providers develop and coordinate strategies to educate stakeholders and better manage overall care.
Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul
Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…
McKie, L.; Jyrkinen, M.
Purpose We report on research with women managers’ in which we document their strategies in response to gendered and sexualised working life. Our analysis offers a conceptual framework as well as suggesting ways in which employing organisations and workers might recognise and address the myriad forms of discrimination. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative design was pursued with 15 one-to-one interviews and two focus groups involving 12 women managers aged from their 30s to 60s...
E. Alexopoulou; N. Giannousi; I. K. Thanasas
Nowadays obesity is one of the most important nutritional problems with features contemporary epidemic which concerns not only the developed but also the developing countries. Obesity during pregnancy associate with maternal and perinatal risks that make the management of obesity, before and during pregnancy imperative. The best and most effective treatment of obesity in pregnancy is prevention. A healthy diet and regular exercise of pregnant woman is crucial for the normal dev...
... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...
Herse, Peter; Yapp, Michael
Discusses the workplace-based accommodations that allowed a 45-year-old Southeast Asian woman with a moderate hearing deficit, who was diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa, to continue to perform her duties as a checkout operator. Emphasizes the importance of conducting workplace evaluations before providers offer advice on vocational matters. (CR)
Martin, Larry G.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita M.
The influx of minorities into the workplace requires attention to their participation in workplace training, to race relations and organizational culture, and to potential communication difficulties. Human resource professionals must address cultural diversity issues as they affect the attainment of organizational goals. (SK)
... Implementation of Office of Management and Budget Guidance on Drug-Free Workplace Requirements AGENCY: Office of... Management and Budget (OMB) guidance implementing the portion of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (41 U.S... removing its regulation implementing the Governmentwide common rule on drug-free workplace requirements for...
Bourdage, Joshua S; Wiltshire, Jocelyn; Lee, Kibeom
In the present study, we investigated the role of personality in understanding impression management (IM) behaviors. We hypothesized that the HEXACO model of personality could provide an intricate understanding of the dispositional bases of IM behaviors, as well as coworkers' ability to accurately perceive the IM of those they work with. Using 2 samples (N = 176 and N = 366), we found that the common core underlying 5 IM behaviors possesses a strong negative relationship with the personality trait of Honesty-Humility, such that individuals low in this trait were more likely to report using all IM behaviors. Furthermore, we found that the unique variance associated with specific IM behaviors can be understood using other traits included in the HEXACO personality model, including Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. In a subset of the data (N = 100), we examined self-coworker convergence in IM and personality. We found that while coworkers are adequate at judging traditional personality traits, the self-coworker convergence for all 5 IM behaviors, as well as the personality trait of Honesty-Humility, were not significant. This adds to a growing body of evidence that coworkers may not be good at accurately perceiving IM or Honesty-Humility in the workplace. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Larsson, Robert; Åkerlind, Ingemar; Sandmark, Hélène
Previous research indicates that companies manage workplace health in various ways, but more in-depth empirical knowledge of how workplace health promotion (WHP) is managed in public sector organizations is needed. The aim of this study was to explore how WHP is managed and incorporated into the general management system in two large Swedish municipal organizations. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Fourteen senior managers were purposefully selected and interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Documents were used as supplementary data. All data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The management of WHP was described as a set of components that together contribute to the organization's capacity for WHP. The informants described WHP as dominated by fitness programmes and as following a problem-solving cycle, in which the annual employee survey emerged as an important managerial tool. Achieving feasible WHP measures and appropriate follow-ups were described as challenges. The provision of leadership competence for WHP and use of supportive resources were described as additional components. The WHP management approach needs to be broadened to include work environment and organizational factors. Further integration with occupational health and safety and the general management system in the organizations is also needed.
Saragoza, Philip; White, Stephen G
Workplace predatory violence has been the focus of increased study over the past 30 years, leading to a more sophisticated understanding of the factors that contribute to it, and important considerations for its assessment and management. Risk assessment professionals involved in workplace violence consultations should be mindful of issues specific to the workplace context and the principles of threat assessment to provide a more precise opinion of risk, to inform and enhance critical decisions regarding the employment status of the individual of concern, security measures, possible treatment options, and other management responses, while being mindful of the employee's certain rights. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sommer, Marni; Chandraratna, Sahani; Cavill, Sue; Mahon, Therese; Phillips-Howard, Penelope
The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls? and women?s contributions to the workplace, and ...
Full Text Available Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001 in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.
Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Grigorovich, Alisa; Damianakis, Thecla; Le Dorze, Guylaine; David, Christine; Lemsky, Carolyn; Hebert, Debbie
Misperceptions regarding persons with brain injuries (PWBI) can lead to stigmatization, workplace discrimination and, in turn, influence PWBIs full vocational integration. In this study we explored how stigma may influence return-to-work processes, experiences of stigma and discrimination at the workplace for persons with (moderate to severe) brain injuries, and strategies that can be employed to manage disclosure. Exploratory qualitative study; used in-depth interviews and an inductive thematic analytical approach in data analysis. Ten PWBI and five employment service providers participated. PWBI discussed their work experiences, relationships with supervisors and co-workers and experiences of stigma and/or discrimination at work. Employment service providers discussed their perceptions regarding PWBI's rights and abilities to work, reported incidents of workplace discrimination, and how issues related to stigma, discrimination and disclosure are managed. Three themes were identified: i) public, employer and provider knowledge about brain injury and beliefs about PWBI; ii) incidents of workplace discrimination; iii) disclosure. Misperceptions regarding PWBI persist amongst the public and employers. Incidents of workplace discrimination included social exclusion at the workplace, hiring discrimination, denial of promotion/demotion, harassment, and failure to provide reasonable accommodations. Disclosure decisions required careful consideration of PWBI needs, the type of information that should be shared, and the context in which that information is shared. Public understanding about PWBI remains limited. PWBI require further assistance to manage disclosure and incidents of workplace discrimination.
Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio
Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress. PMID:26913013
Despite countless diets, exercise regimens, drugs, and behavior modification strategies, the prevalence of obesity continues its relentless increase in both developed and developing nations. Although many necessary components to treat obesity have been identified, behavior modification remains the b...
... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...
Workplace incivility is a well-documented issue in nursing in the health care setting. It has the potential to cause emotional and physical distress in victims and potentially affects the quality of care provided. The purpose of this study was to critique and summarize the most recent, available evidence related to interventions in assisting nursing staff working in health care settings in managing incivility. This systematic review of literature yielded 10 studies meeting the criteria. The studies were mostly identified as lower quality research. Despite the lower quality of research, the collection of evidence suggests the use of a combination of educational training about workplace incivility, training about effective responses to uncivil workplace behaviors, and active learning activities to practice newly learned communication skills, in assisting nurses in improving their ability to manage incivility in the workplace.
The objective of the study is to review the current knowledge on the problems associated with obesity, as well as the measures and strategies that have evolved in its management. A review of the literature on the subject of obesity, its epidemiology, risk factors, clinical complications and treatment (using Medline computer ...
Sternberg, Daniel; Del Porto, Delbert
Stress management training contributes to weight loss, maintenance of weight loss and improved social and occupational functioning in obese women. Data from the Beck Depression Inventory and the Assertiveness Questionnaire indicate that obese persons have poor self-concepts which result in depression which is inversely related to assertiveness.…
Gurnani, Muskaan; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill
One-third of North American children are overweight or obese. Pathologic obesity accounts for only a small percentage of these cases. The vast majority are the result of a complex interaction of genetic and hormonal, nutritional, physical activity, and physical and social environmental factors. Obesity increases the risk for various cardiometabolic, pulmonary, and psychosocial complications for children, which often continues into adulthood. Multidisciplinary care, focusing on family-centered behavior change, is an evidence-based, essential part of the treatment, along with pharmacologic and surgical options for more complex cases. Prevention and early intervention strategies are key to reversing the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaw, William S; Tveito, Torill H; Geehern-Lavoie, Mary; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Nicholas, Michael K; Reme, Silje E; Wagner, Gregory; Pransky, Glenn
To evaluate the extent to which the principles of chronic pain or illness self-management (SM) programs might be adapted to focus on the workplace concerns of adults with persistent or recurrent pain and lead to new workplace intervention opportunities. Eight SM programs were selected as representative evidence-based programs and then compared to extract common instructional elements. Elements were analyzed for potential application to four workplace problem domains identified by workers with pain: activity interference, negative self-perceptions, interpersonal challenges, and the inflexibility of work. Of 24 instructional elements, 17 were shared by at least half of the SM programs. Instructional elements judged to be best suited for dealing with workplace concerns included those focused on reducing pain and discomfort, making informed decisions, communicating effectively, and dealing with thoughts and feelings. However, aspects of the workplace that may alter the feasibility or effectiveness of SM strategies include the level of physical demands and limitations, job leeway, and the nature of workplace roles and relationships. Principles and methods of SM intervention programs are generally well suited to address pain-related problems in the workplace, but tailoring of messages may be necessary to incorporate the unique organizational, physical, and social aspects of work into psycho-educational programs.
Sommer, Marni; Chandraratna, Sahani; Cavill, Sue; Mahon, Therese; Phillips-Howard, Penelope
The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to managing monthly menstruation, that may hinder girls' and women's contributions to the workplace, and their health and wellbeing. There is an urgent need to document the specific social and environmental barriers they may be facing in relation to menstrual management, to conduct a costing of the implications of inadequate supportive workplace environments for menstrual hygiene management, and to understand the implications for girls' and women's health and wellbeing. This will provide essential evidence for guiding national policy makers, the private sector, donors and activists focused on advancing girls' and women's rights.
Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder
Most diversity management programs in Canada maintain that enhancing workforce diversity is of tremendous significance for business organizations in today’s competitive global urban markets. Since well-meaning diversity management initiatives have been largely ineffective thus far in dealing...... with workplace discrimination and racism in the Canadian workplace, this paper underscores the need to decenter the focus of diversity management from a business imperative to an antidiscrimination and social justice imperative. Within this latter perspective, the paper examines the strengths and limitations...
Full Text Available Nowadays obesity is one of the most important nutritional problems with features contemporary epidemic which concerns not only the developed but also the developing countries. Obesity during pregnancy associate with maternal and perinatal risks that make the management of obesity, before and during pregnancy imperative. The best and most effective treatment of obesity in pregnancy is prevention. A healthy diet and regular exercise of pregnant woman is crucial for the normal development of pregnancy. Moreover every obese pregnant woman should be informed about the importance of calorie - intake regulation and weight reduction both before and after pregnancy. Additional therapeutic options are bariatric surgical procedures that a woman can have before pregnancy and anticoagulation therapy during pregnancy. This article attempts brief review on the current scientific knowledge that exists about the role of nutrition and physical activity in controlling the weight of obese pregnant women and its beneficial contribution to the health of both the mother and the newborn.
Full Text Available Obesity is a multifaceted subject. It has increased at an alarming rate in recent years. Being overweight increases the likelihood of a patient having associated health and social problems which may affect dental services and dental management. A review of the literature on obesity and periodontal disease suggested that they both confound each other and obesity itself has been recognized as a major risk factor for periodontal disease. It has been found that adverse effects of obesity on the periodontium may be mediated through pro-inflammatory cytokines and various other bioactive substances. This article tries to focus on the possible role of obesity and obesity-related diseases like diabetes and coronary heart diseases (CHD, as a potential contributor to periodontal disease and vice versa. The meanings of these associations can be useful for various diagnostic and treatment planning purposes.
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the developed world is increasing. Approximately 23% of adult Canadians (5.5 million people are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing several comorbid diseases, ranging from cardiovascular diseases to cholelithiasis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The etiology of obesity is multifactorial, involving a complex interaction among genetics, hormones and the environment. The available evidence and recommendations for nonpharmacological management of obesity, including dietary therapy, physical activity and behavioural therapy, in addition to pharmacotherapy are discussed. A brief discussion on endoscopic and surgical procedures is undertaken. Several antiobesity treatment options are available and may be indicated in appropriate situations. Selecting obesity therapy may be guided by body mass index measurements, comorbid illnesses and patient preference.
Novicevic, Milorad M.; Buckley, M. Ronald
Addresses the manager's dilemmas and options in resolving emerging latent intergenerational conflict in the contemporary knowledge-rich workplace. Topics include a theoretical framework for generational divide management; the polarization in task requirements; social and environmental factors; differences in employee needs and expectations; and…
Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sharma, Arya Mitra
Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases with significant morbidity, mortality and health care cost. There is concern due to the dramatic increase in overweight and obesity in Canada in the last 20 years. The causes of obesity are multifactorial, with underestimation by patients and healthcare providers of the long-term nature of the condition, and its complexity. Solutions related to prevention and management will require multifaceted strategies involving education, health policy, public health and health systems across the care continuum. We believe that to support such strategies we need to have a strong primary care workforce equipped with appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes to support persons at risk for, or with, obesity. To achieve this end, significant skills building is required to improve primary care obesity prevention and management efforts. This review will first examine the current state, and then will outline how we can improve.
Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Schoenfisch, Ashley; Dabrera, Thushani; Østbye, Truls
To investigate (1) why some participants in a workplace weight management program were more engaged in the program, (2) specific barriers and facilitators for engagement and weight loss, and (3) suggest how workplaces may better engage employees in these programs to improve their effectiveness. Qualitative study (8 focus groups). A large academic university and medical system. Twenty-six (5%) of the 550 employees who participated in a weight management program as part of the Steps to Health study. A trained moderator guided the audio-recorded focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using the directed content analysis approach. Participants faced numerous barriers to engagement in workplace weight management programs, both within and outside the workplace. Participants viewed the coaches positively and reported that the coaches had a strong influence on their engagement in the program. Participants suggested increased frequency and variety of contact by coaches, on-site group exercise classes, and tailored educational materials. Workplace weight management programs may be improved by being more flexible around participants' schedules and changing needs, by increasing access to affordable, convenient exercise facilities, and by implementing institutional changes that encourage healthy eating and physical activity during the workday. Employers should measure program engagement and solicit participant feedback to ensure that the programs are appropriate and delivered in an optimal manner.
Barak, M E
This article's main argument is that organizations need to expand their notion of diversity to include not only the organization itself, but also the larger systems that constitute its environment. The concept of "the inclusive workplace," introduced here, refers to a work organization that is not only accepting and using the diversity of its own work force, but also is active in the community, participates in state and federal programs to include working poor people, and collaborates across cultural and national boundaries with a focus on global mutual interests. Using an ecosystems perspective, the article outlines a value-based model and a practice-based model of the inclusive workplace as they pertain to the different organizational levels, from the micro to the macro. Finally, implications for the social work profession are drawn with specific case examples for each system level.
Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine; Silverman, Kenneth
In a therapeutic workplace business, drug abuse patients are hired as data entry operators and paid to perform data entry work contingent upon documented drug abstinence. Reliable attendance has been difficult to maintain despite the opportunity for operators to earn a living wage, 6 h per day, 5 days per week. A within-subject reversal design experiment evaluated a contingency management intervention that allowed for flexibility regarding when operators could arrive to work, yet maintained a contingency for reliable workplace attendance. Results from a within-subject reversal design experiment demonstrated the contingency management intervention to be effective in increasing the frequency of completed work shifts in four of five operators. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests of grouped data showed that the contingency management intervention significantly (P workplace participants.
The workplace is one of many areas of life where obese people are unfairly treated. According to the literature obese women are particularly susceptible to discrimination in employment. There is a lack of polish researches of this subject. The main objective of this study was to analyze personal, subjective experiences related to weight bias and discrimination against obese people in the workplace of obese Polish women. The study was carried out in a hospital clinic for obesity management. A total of 420 women with BMI>30, aged 21 to 72, participated in group interviews focused on the weight bias and discrimination against obese people in the workplace. In the group of clinically obese women, 5.3% of subjects had experienced employment discrimination and 10.5% had been victims of verbal and social abuse in the workplace. The most common psycho-physical consequences of the weight stigma were emotional problems, lack of motivation and overeating in response to stress. Weight-based discrimination in the workplace poses a problem in Poland. The weight stigma and occupational discrimination lead to psycho-physical discomfort which exacerbates overeating and obesity.
Kudryashov, A. V.; Erunova, A. V.; Kalinina, A. S.
The article is devoted to the study of the influence of the orientation of light apertures (windows) on the distribution of illumination in a room inside the workplaces equipped with displays. The measurements of natural light were carried out in two similar rooms, in the first room the windows are oriented to the north and in the second - to the south. The normative illumination value in a workplace equipped with a personal computer or display must be between 300 and 500 lux. However, during the daytime, the value of natural illumination at the workplace can exceed the normalized value by several times, and in the morning and evening hours is not sufficient. Such distribution of illumination involves the use a combined lighting control system (with daylight time control and switching on artificial lighting in the morning and evening hours). In the article it is justified that the orientation of the windows in the room does not have a significant effect on the distribution of illumination throughout the room which makes it possible not to take into account the restrictions concerning the orientation of the room’s light apertures when combined lighting control systems are used.
Imber, David Ae; Pirrone, Massimiliano; Zhang, Changsheng; Fisher, Daniel F; Kacmarek, Robert M; Berra, Lorenzo
With a rising incidence of obesity in the United States, anesthesiologists are faced with a larger volume of obese patients coming to the operating room as well as obese patients with ever-larger body mass indices (BMIs). While there are many cardiovascular and endocrine issues that clinicians must take into account when caring for the obese patient, one of the most prominent concerns of the anesthesiologist in the perioperative setting should be the status of the lung. Because the pathophysiology of reduced lung volumes in the obese patient differs from that of the ARDS patient, the best approach to keeping the obese patient's lung open and adequately ventilated during mechanical ventilation is unique. Although strong evidence and research are lacking regarding how to best ventilate the obese surgical patient, we aim with this review to provide an assessment of the small amount of research that has been conducted and the pathophysiology we believe influences the apparent results. We will provide a basic overview of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the obese respiratory system and review studies concerning pre-, intra-, and postoperative respiratory care. Our focus in this review centers on the best approach to keeping the lung recruited through the prevention of compression atelectasis and the maintaining of physiological lung volumes. We recommend the use of PEEP via noninvasive ventilation (NIV) before induction and endotracheal intubation, the use of both PEEP and periodic recruitment maneuvers during mechanical ventilation, and the use of PEEP via NIV after extubation. It is our hope that by studying the underlying mechanisms that make ventilating obese patients so difficult, future research can be better tailored to address this increasingly important challenge to the field of anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Baur, Louise A; Hazelton, Briony; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A
The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for effective treatment approaches. Initial assessments of these patients should include taking a careful history (investigating comorbidities, family history and potentially modifiable behaviors) and physical examination with BMI plotted on a BMI-for-age chart. The degree of investigation is dependent on the patient's age and severity of obesity, the findings on history and physical examination, and associated familial risk factors. There are several broad principles of conventional management: management of comorbidities; family involvement; taking a developmentally appropriate approach; the use of a range of behavior change techniques; long-term dietary change; increased physical activity; and decreased sedentary behaviors. Orlistat can be useful as an adjunct to lifestyle changes in severely obese adolescents and metformin can be used in older children and adolescents with clinical insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those who are severely obese, with recognition of the need for management in centers with multidisciplinary weight management teams and for surgery to be performed in tertiary institutions experienced in bariatric surgery. Finally, given the high prevalence and chronic nature of obesity, coordinated models of care for health-service delivery for the management of pediatric obesity are needed.
Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia
To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.
Eckel, Robert H; Bays, Harold E; Klein, Samuel; Bade Horn, Deborah
Despite the advice clinicians have been giving patients about the importance of restricting their food intake and increasing physical activity levels, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that 78.6 million adults in the United States (US) are still obese. With these statistics in mind, this symposium provided insights on the genetic, cultural, and environmental underpinning of obesity and discussed the latest research on pharmacotherapy, surgery, and the need to individualize treatment.
Han Gyu Kim
Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6–12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P<0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P<0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P<0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P<0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P<0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P<0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P<0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P<0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.
Smith, Louise; Holm, Lotte
In many affluent Western societies the less educated are at higher risk of developing obesity. Within a conceptual framework of sociology of embodiment, this study analyzed the embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of body weight among women and men with different social...... backgrounds. Qualitative in depth interviews were conducted with 20 Danish middle-aged men and women who were categorized as clinically obese in a national dietary survey. The study found a devastating impact of obesity in the lives of highly educated women related to motherhood, career and wifehood which...... had experienced weight-related disease, which interrelated with less commitment to, and variation in, weight-loss activities. These findings may help to explain why obesity is least prevalent among highly educated women in Danish society as well as other western societies. A marked difference between...
Leung, S L; Barber, J A; Burger, A; Barnes, R D
Most Americans spend an average of 8 hours per day in the workplace. Current understanding of eating behaviours in the workplace and their association with overweight, obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) is limited. Workplace eating behaviours and weight-related self-efficacy were examined in a sample of 98 individuals with overweight or obesity, with or without BED. Participants completed the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Worker's Perception of Environmental Factors, and a Workplace Questionnaire. Eating unplanned food occurred on average 2.43 times per week (SD = 3.37), and eating unplanned food even when meals were brought from home occurred on average 1.28 times per week (SD = 1.84). Individuals with BED purchased lunch even when they brought food from home significantly more frequently than did individuals without BED. Those with BED also reported significantly poorer work and social adjustment related to binge eating as compared with those without BED. The most significant barriers to healthy eating in the workplace were coworker influence, eating more food in general and more junk food in response to stress, eating unplanned food at work and time constraints. These factors may be important to target in weight-loss treatment to increase individuals' weight loss success. As individuals with BED may be the most vulnerable to eating unplanned foods, clinicians may want to focus on this potential barrier in BED treatment.
Strickland, Jaime R; Eyler, Amy A; Purnell, Jason Q; Kinghorn, Anna M; Herrick, Cynthia; Evanoff, Bradley A
The objective of this study was to examine workplace determinants of obesity and participation in employer-sponsored wellness programs among low-wage workers. We conducted key informant interviews and focus groups with 2 partner organizations: a health care employer and a union representing retail workers. Interviews and focus groups discussed worksite factors that support or constrain healthy eating and physical activity and barriers that reduce participation in workplace wellness programs. Focus group discussions were transcribed and coded to identify main themes related to healthy eating, physical activity, and workplace factors that affect health. Although the union informants recognized the need for workplace wellness programs, very few programs were offered because informants did not know how to reach their widespread and diverse membership. Informants from the health care organization described various programs available to employees but noted several barriers to effective implementation. Workers discussed how their job characteristics contributed to their weight; irregular schedules, shift work, short breaks, physical job demands, and food options at work were among the most commonly discussed contributors to poor eating and exercise behaviors. Workers also described several general factors such as motivation, time, money, and conflicting responsibilities. The workplace offers unique opportunities for obesity interventions that go beyond traditional approaches. Our results suggest that modifying the physical and social work environment by using participatory or integrated health and safety approaches may improve eating and physical activity behaviors. However, more research is needed about the methods best suited to the needs of low-wage workers.
Full Text Available Obesity has proven to be a gateway to ill health. It has already reached epidemic proportions becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and world-wide. Obesity plays a central role in the development of a number of risk factors and chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus inducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore weight management plays a central role in controlling the respective risk factors and their consequences. Obesity is a complex condition of multifactorial origin. Biological but also psychological and social factors interfere to lead to excess body weight and its deleterious outcomes. Obesity management cannot focus any more only on weight (and BMI reduction. More attention is to be paid to waist circumference (or waist-to-hip ratio, especially in females, the improvement in body composition (measured with body composition tracking systems like BOD POD, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis which is focusing on ameliorating or maintaining fat-free mass and decreasing fat mass. Management of co-morbidities, improving quality of life and well-being of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. This statement emphasises the importance of a comprehensive approach to obesity management.
Gignac, Monique A M
To examine ways in which individuals with arthritis manage their employment and health by focusing on the type and determinants of diverse behavioral coping strategies used to manage activity limitations, and to examine the relationship between coping behaviors and participation in employment. The study group comprised 492 patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. All participants were employed, and all participants were administered an in-depth, structured questionnaire. The study used an inductive approach and distinguished among 4 categories of coping behaviors as follows: adjustments to time spent on activities; receipt of help; modification of behaviors; and anticipatory coping. Fewer coping behaviors were reported at the workplace than outside of the workplace. Anticipatory coping was used most often in the workplace. Workplace activity limitations were related to increased reports of all types of coping. Women, those with more joints affected, and people expecting to remain employed reported more anticipatory coping. Expectations of continued employment were also related to modifications of activities, as was longer disease duration and discussing arthritis with one's employer. Help from others was associated with talking to an employer and positive job perceptions. Compared with work, reports of a greater number of coping behaviors used at home were associated with changes in overall work participation (e.g., absenteeism). These results expand our understanding of the experience of having a chronic illness and working and highlight the ways in which people accommodate to workplace limitations by using a variety of different behavioral coping efforts to remain employed.
Full Text Available Gina Cosentino,1 Ariane O Conrad,2 Gabriel I Uwaifo1 1Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Obesity is now a major public health concern worldwide with increasing prevalence and a growing list of comorbidities and complications. The morbidity, mortality and reduced productivity associated with obesity and its complications result in a major burden to health care costs. Obesity is a complex chronic medical syndrome often with multiple different etiologic factors in individual patients. The long term successful management of obesity remains particularly challenging and invariably requires a multifaceted approach including lifestyle and behavioral modification, increased physical activity, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery remains a last resort though at present it has the best results for achieving sustained robust weight loss. Obesity pharmacotherapy has been very limited in its role for long term obesity management because of the past history of several failed agents as well as the fact that presently available agents are few, and generally utilized as monotherapy. The recent FDA approval of the fixed drug combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate (topiramate-ER (trade name Qsymia™ marks the first FDA approved combination pharmacotherapeutic agent for obesity since the Phen-Fen combination of the 1990s. This review details the history and clinical trial basis for the use of both phentermine and topiramate in obesity therapeutics as well as the results of clinical trials of their combination for obesity treatment in humans. The initial clinical approval trials offer evidence that this fixed drug combination offers synergistic potential for effective, robust and sustained weight loss with mean weight loss of at least 10
Full Text Available Hak Yung Ng Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Tseung Kwan O, Hong Kong, China Abstract: Obesity in adolescence is a public health priority because it usually tracks into adulthood, resulting in enormous medical and social costs. This underscores the importance of early identification and intervention. Acanthosis nigricans (AN was once considered a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis, but is now frequently observed in obese adolescents. Current understanding suggests that it is associated with insulin resistance and has a unique role in secondary prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview of AN in obese adolescents, covering its history, current knowledge on the condition, its clinical significance, management challenges, and the direction of future research. Keywords: Differential diagnosis, screening, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolically healthy obesity, behavioral weight management, pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery
Zhang, Yingmei; Sowers, James R; Ren, Jun
Obesity poses a severe threat to human health, including the increased prevalence of hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, cancer, inflammation, sleep apnoea and other chronic diseases. Current therapies focus mainly on suppressing caloric intake, but the efficacy of this approach remains poor. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity will be essential for the management of obesity and its complications. Knowledge gained over the past three decades regarding the aetiological mechanisms underpinning obesity has provided a framework that emphasizes energy imbalance and neurohormonal dysregulation, which are tightly regulated by autophagy. Accordingly, there is an emerging interest in the role of autophagy, a conserved homeostatic process for cellular quality control through the disposal and recycling of cellular components, in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and organ function by selectively ridding cells of potentially toxic proteins, lipids and organelles. Indeed, defects in autophagy homeostasis are implicated in metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. In this Review, the alterations in autophagy that occur in response to nutrient stress, and how these changes alter the course of obesogenesis and obesity-related complications, are discussed. The potential of pharmacological modulation of autophagy for the management of obesity is also addressed.
Palvalin, M.O.; van der Voordt, Theo; Jylhä, T.E.
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the impact of workplaces, which support concentration and communication, and self-management practices on individual and team productivity. The underlying hypothesis is that the impact of these variables on the two levels of productivity (individual and team)
Emlen, Arthur C.; Koren, Paul E.
This study, which focused on effects of child care on the workplace, addressed several questions: (1) What kinds of child care arrangements do employed parents make, and why do they make them? (2) Are these parents having difficulty finding child care? (3) Does their ability to manage child care affect their absenteeism and stress? (4) What roles…
Torpey, Michael John
This article is about conflict in an educational workplace setting. It reports on a case study investigating the emergence, development, and management of conflict among diverse native English speakers working as language instructors within a Japanese university. The example of conflict presented, which deals with divergent assumptions about the…
Heuvel, S. van den; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Eekhout, I.; Houtman, I.L.D.
Management of psychosocial risks in European workplaces; drivers and barriers in a national and cultural context. General objective of the project commissioned by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) is to support policy makers in stimulating successful psychosocial risk (PSR)
Mbakaya, C F; Onyoyo, H A; Lwaki, S A; Omondi, O J
A baseline survey was conducted in 1995 on management perspectives of occupational health and safety (OHS) structures and practices in Kenya. This was achieved by interviewing management and supervisory staff attending 1 week multi-disciplinary courses that were organized by the Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE) and the International Labour Office (ILO) at hotel venues in Kenya. The purpose of the survey was to gain some insight into work safety conditions in Kenya and to assess the potential for a new OHS manual to meet existing knowledge gaps. The manual was locally developed in 1993/4 by Kenyan OHS experts in collaboration with colleagues from the Swedish National Institute for Working Life. Results of the survey from 65 participants indicated that most workplace managers were not familiar with the Kenyan work safety legislation. Work injuries were largely attributable to working with dangerous machinery. Occupational diseases and HIV/AIDS were cited as other causes of workplace morbidity and mortality. Although most respondents (70%) were satisfied with their work safety conditions, only 37% said their workplaces were annually audited by labour inspectors while 45% said injured workers were not treated well by management. Many workplaces (65%) violated the mandatory legal requirement on the establishment of health and safety committees. The OHS resource person and course content were rated highly by most respondents (96%). The foregoing results provided the basis of a needs analysis for future OHS programs in Kenya.
Wiman, Virginia; Lydell, Marie; Nyholm, Maria
Introduction: Several studies have shown that workplace health promotion leads to better health, increased productivity, as well as reduced absenteeism and presenteeism among employees. The objective of this study was to describe how managers in small companies (10-19 employees) perceive their company as an arena for promoting employees' health.…
Full Text Available Overweight or obese adults aged 20~55 years and living in Beijing more than one year were randomly divided into different management groups. A one-year integrated health management intervention was applied in the health management groups. The physical indicators and metabolic indicators changed after one-year intervention on the overweight and obese adults. The annual reduction of the physical indicators was significant in all groups (p<0.05 except the weight loss in the placebo + general management group. The health management and the dietary supplement have statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001 effects on the annual reduction of these indicators and interactive effect between them was found on some of these indicators such as bodyweight, body mass index (BMI, body fat ratio (BFR, and hipline (p<0.05. The dietary supplement + health management group had the best annual reduction effects for the indicators among the groups. Integrated health management interventions including both dietary supplements intervention and health management could improve metabolic indicators in overweight and obese adults together with the physical indicators, suggesting the intermediated role of metabolic indictors in controlling obesity.
Obesity is a growing phenomenon and a global concern. It is well-known that it plays a significant role in the development of several preventable diseases. The physiological mechanisms in regulating energy intake and expenditure are complex and remain a target area for current and future research. The absence of a ...
Skarbek, Anita J; Johnson, Sandra; Dawson, Christina M
The aim of this study was to acquire nurse managers' perspectives as to the scope of workplace bullying, which interventions were deemed as effective and ineffective, and what environmental characteristics cultivated a healthy, caring work environment. Research has linked workplace bullying among RNs to medical errors, unsafe hospital environments, and negative patient outcomes. Limited research had been conducted with nurse managers to discern their perspectives. Six nurse managers from hospital settings participated in in-depth, semistructured interviews. Ray's theory of bureaucratic caring guided the study. These themes emerged: (a) awareness, (b) scope of the problem, (c) quality of performance, and (d) healthy, caring environment. Findings indicated mandated antibullying programs were not as effective as individual manager interventions. Systems must be in place to hold individuals accountable for their behavior. Communication, collective support, and teamwork are essential to create environments that lead to the delivery of safe, optimum patient care.
Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Chappell, Stacie; Davies, Christina; Roche, Dee; Shilton, Trevor; Ledger, Melissa; Slevin, Terry; Rosenberg, Michael
The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore the barriers and enablers to implementing healthy workplace initiatives in a sample of workplaces based in Perth, Western Australia. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives from 31 organizations representing small, medium and large businesses in the Perth metropolitan area which reported having healthy workplace initiatives. In total, 43 factors were mentioned as influencing the implementation of healthy workplace initiatives. Factors appearing to exert the most influence on the implementation of health promoting initiatives in this sample were culture; support from managers and staff; collaboration with industry providers; financial resources circumstances and the physical environment. These factors appeared to be mutually reinforcing and interconnected. Findings suggest there may be merit in applying an organizational development lens to the implementation of workplace health promotion initiatives as this could assist in leveraging enablers and minimizing barriers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jack Kleinhenz; Russ Smith
This paper examines regional competitiveness as it relates to regional labor-management relations. A survey of recent literature provides perspective and secondary evidence regarding labor-management relations, workplace practices, and workforce quality. It does not answer the question, “Are unions good or bad?” Rather, it investigates the themes of productivity, wage premium, job security, innovation, communication, and economic development—the larger picture to consider when evaluating the ...
This presentation will show how technical managers can achieve greater success if provided with adequate people skills. Most times, managers are trained in the technical aspects of their field, however, the success of any organization often rests on the understanding of related people and management issues, rather than ...
Obesity in childhood is a very common disorder with an increasing prevalence. It is one of the most serious public health challenges. The objectives of the present paper are to increase the awareness of the problem of obesity in childhood, its serious complications and the need for prevention. Overweight and obese children are likely to remain obese into adulthood and more likely to develop serious complications including health problems such as diabetes and CVD, as well as psychological and social challenges. Overweight and obesity are largely preventable. In adults it is difficult to reduce excessive weight gain once it has become established, thus children should be considered the priority population for intervention strategies and prevention. Nutrition, exercise, weight gain in infancy, genetic and environmental factors, all contribute to the aetiology. Prevention and treatment of obesity in childhood requires education and empowerment of families relating to diet and exercise, along with the regulation and control of food marketing and clear nutritional labelling. The eating and physical activity behaviour of a child is strongly influenced by environmental and social factors. Therefore treatment will have only limited success in an environment where adequate physical activity is inhibited and the consumption of high-energy food is stimulated. Government investment in a health promotion programme addressing the issue of obesity in the population as a whole, with particular emphasis on the prevention and management of obesity in childhood is vital. The family doctor and multidisciplinary team play an important role. Regular visits to the family doctor, including growth assessment, will help motivate the family to restrict energy intake and to increase exercise. Therefore the prevention of childhood obesity needs high priority.
Tinsley, Catherine H.; Brett, Jeanne M.
We propose that managers have norms (standards of appropriate behavior) for resolving conflict, that these norms are culturally based, and that they explain cultural differences in conflict management outcomes. We confirm that the traditionally American norms of discussing parties' interests and synthesizing multiple issues were exhibited more strongly by American managers than by their Hong Kong Chinese counterparts. In addition, we confirm that the traditionally Chinese norms of concern for collective interests and concern for authority appeared more strongly among Hong Kong Chinese managers than among their American counterparts. American managers were more likely than Hong Kong Chinese managers, to resolve a greater number of issues and reach more integrative outcomes, while Hong Kong Chinese managers were more likely to involve higher management in conflict resolution. Culture had a significant effect on whether parties selected an integrative outcome rather than an outcome that involved distribution, compromise, higher management, or no resolution at all. Conflict norms explained the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching an outcome involving distribution, compromise, or higher management; however, conflict norms did not fully explain the cultural differences that existed between reaching an integrative outcome and reaching no resolution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Frazier, L M; Jones, T L
To find out who uses an occupational reproductive consultation service, what proportion of patients have different types of workplace exposures, and what hypotheses can be generated about barriers to implementing medically necessary job modifications to promote reproductive health. A case series study was conducted by reviewing medical records at two occupational health clinics. 51 patients (1 man and 50 women) were seen, 10 of whom wished to discuss a future pregnancy and 41 of whom were pregnant. Pregnant women worked with a mean of 15.5 different chemicals, and patients were also concerned about ionizing radiation, biological hazards, electromagnetic fields, and ultraviolet light. Pregnant women made clinic visits at a mean gestational age of 10.9 weeks. Only one man used the service, suggesting a lack of knowledge about possible paternal contributions to adverse reproductive outcomes. Many pregnant women visited the clinic too late to prevent harm from exposure to some teratogens, so preconception counseling may be of benefit. Cases are presented that illustrate ways in which the primary care provider can assist the patient who may be exposed to reproductive hazards.
Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner
Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment.
Risikko, Tanja; Mäkinen, Tiina M; Påsche, Arvid; Toivonen, Liisa; Hassi, Juhani
Cold conditions increase health and safety risks at work in several ways. The effects of cold have not been sufficiently taken into consideration in occupational safety and health practices. A systematic model and methods were developed for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces. The development work was performed, in a context-bound manner, in pilot industries and workplaces. The model can be integrated into the company's occupational health and safety management system, such as OHSAS 18001. The cold risks are identified and assessed by using a checklist. The preventive measures are systematically planned in a written form specifically produced for cold workplaces. It includes the organisational and technical preventive measures, protective clothing and personal protective equipment, as well as training and information of the personnel. According to the model, all the workers, foremen, occupational safety personnel and occupational health care personnel are trained to recognise the cold risks and to conduct preventive actions. The developed model was evaluated in the context of cold outdoor (construction) and indoor work (fish processing), and by occupational health and safety professionals. According to the feedback, the model and methods were easy to use after a one-day introduction session. The continuum between the cold risk assessment and management worked well, although there was some overlap in the documentation. The cold risk management model and its methods form an essential part of ISO CD 15743 Strategy for risk assessment, management and work practice in cold environments.
R.E. Peccei (Riccardo)
textabstractRiccardo Peccei (1945, Totino, Italy, D.Phil Sociology, Oxford University 1984) is Reader in Organisational Behaviour (OB) and Human Resource Management (HRM) in the Department of Management at King’s College London. His research interests include the study of the impact of HRM on
Blackford, Krysten; Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H
Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers ("too tired" and "access to unhealthy food") and enablers ("enjoy physical activity" and "nutrition knowledge"). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. The findings provide useful insights into employees' preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual.
Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun
Objective Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. Methods This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited (N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Results Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants’ experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants’ experience with hypertension and its management. Conclusion Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers’ health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers’ well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers’ health and disease management within their work environment. PMID:27695659
Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun
Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited ( N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants' experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants' experience with hypertension and its management. Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers' health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers' well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers' health and disease management within their work environment.
Science and Technology Studies has seen a growing interest in the commercialization of science. In this article, I track the role of corporations in the construction of the obesity epidemic, deemed one of the major public health threats of the century. Focusing on China, a rising superpower in the midst of rampant, state-directed neoliberalization, I unravel the process, mechanisms, and broad effects of the corporate invention of an obesity epidemic. Largely hidden from view, Western firms were central actors at every stage in the creation, definition, and governmental management of obesity as a Chinese disease. Two industry-funded global health entities and the exploitation of personal ties enabled actors to nudge the development of obesity science and policy along lines beneficial to large firms, while obscuring the nudging. From Big Pharma to Big Food and Big Soda, transnational companies have been profiting from the 'epidemic of Chinese obesity', while doing little to effectively treat or prevent it. The China case suggests how obesity might have been constituted an 'epidemic threat' in other parts of the world and underscores the need for global frameworks to guide the study of neoliberal science and policymaking.
Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice.
Jacobs, Sally; Johnson, Sheena; Hassell, Karen
Workplace stress in community pharmacy is increasing internationally due, in part, to pharmacists' expanding roles and escalating workloads. Whilst the business case for preventing and managing workplace stress by employers is strong, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of organisational stress management interventions in community pharmacy settings. To identify and synthesise existing evidence for the effectiveness of organisational solutions to workplace stress from the wider organisational literature which may be adaptable to community pharmacies. A secondary synthesis of existing reviews. Publications were identified through keyword searches of electronic databases and the internet; inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied; data about setting, intervention, method of evaluation, effectiveness and conclusions (including factors for success) were extracted and synthesised. Eighteen reviews of the stress management and prevention literature were identified. A comprehensive list of organisational interventions to prevent or manage workplace stress, ordered by prevalence of evidence of effectiveness, was produced, together with an ordered list of the benefits both to the individual and employing organisation. An evidence-based model of best practice was derived specifying eight factors for success: top management support, context-specific interventions, combined organisational and individual interventions, a participative approach, clearly delineated tasks and responsibilities, buy-in from middle management, change agents as facilitators and change in organisational culture. This literature review provides community pharmacy organisations with evidence from which to develop effective and successful stress management strategies to support pharmacists and pharmacy staff. Well-designed trials of stress management interventions in community pharmacy organisations are still required. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Purpose – This paper aims to enhance understanding of how companies actually implement diversity management, and of factors that may explain their approach. It does this by framing a tripartite model that articulates a combination of indicators, and by using this model to investigate the prevalent...... approach for managing diversity in Italy and the contingent factors at play. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents data from a survey conducted among 90 Italian companies, and two focus groups consisting of experts and managers. Findings – The most common approach among Italian companies...... in Italy, where interest in diversity is growing due to the increased participation of women and immigrants in the labor market and the initiatives inspired by the EU and multinational companies. In addition, the research model used in this study integrates existing typologies of diversity management...
textabstractRiccardo Peccei (1945, Totino, Italy, D.Phil Sociology, Oxford University 1984) is Reader in Organisational Behaviour (OB) and Human Resource Management (HRM) in the Department of Management at King’s College London. His research interests include the study of the impact of HRM on organisational performance and employee well-being, the transformation of work and employment relations in the service sector, and the nature and consequences of employee empowerment, partnership and par...
Full Text Available Bonita Falkner Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Largely due to the childhood obesity epidemic, there has been an increase in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents. Obesity associated hypertension is the most common hypertension phenotype among adolescents. Approximately 30% of obese adolescents have elevated blood pressure (BP or hypertension. Updated definitions of elevated BP and hypertension in adolescents are now similar to definitions of BP status in adults. For adolescents ≥13 years of age, elevated BP is 120 to 129/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension, stage 1, is ≥130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg, and hypertension, stage 2, is ≥140/90 mm Hg. BP measurements over separate clinic visits are necessary to verify the diagnosis of elevated BP or hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring, when available, provides confirmatory data on BP status. Causal mechanisms for obesity associated hypertension include increased sympathetic nervous system activity, increased renal sodium retention secondary to insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, and obesity mediated inflammation. The primary treatment for obesity associated hypertension is weight reduction with lifestyle changes in diet and physical activity. Although difficult to achieve, even modest weight reduction can be beneficial. The diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables, fiber, and low-fat dairy with reduction in salt intake. When lifestyle changes are insufficient to achieve BP control, pharmacologic therapy is indicated to achieve a goal BP of <130/80 mm Hg or <90th percentile, whichever is lower. Regular BP monitoring is necessary for ongoing management of obesity associated hypertension in adolescents. Keywords: adolescents, obesity, blood pressure, hypertension
Okonkwo, Ononuju; While, Alison
Objective: To investigate the knowledge and views of university students regarding obesity and weight management strategies. Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate university students in a large London university with a diverse student population. Method: The survey was administered online and circulated…
Pascal S. Zulu
Full Text Available This study assesses managerial perceptions of the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation in three production companies in Gauteng. A sample comprising 668 employees was drawn from a population of 1 259 (53% response rate using simple random sampling and data were collected through self-developed questionnaires and personal interviews. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that whilst the South African Transformation (SAT Agenda has propelled change in the political and economic spheres, similar developments have not been realised in the South African labour market. Hence, based on the findings, recommendations are made to enhance the management of cultural diversity and workplace transformation, and the need for urgent government intervention, through legislative amendments, is emphasised.
Yadav, Devinder K; Nikraz, Hamid; Chen, Yongqing
As the aviation industries developed, so too did the recognition that there must be an effective regulatory framework to address issues related to the workers' compensation and rehabilitation. All employees would like to work and return home safely from their workplace. Therefore, the efficient management of workplace injury and disease reduces the cost of aviation operations and improves flight safety. Workers' compensation and injury management laws regulate a majority of rehabilitation and compensation issues, but achieving an injury-free workplace remains a major challenge for the regulators. This paper examines the clauses of the workers' compensation and injury management laws of Western Australia related to workplace safety, compensation, and rehabilitations of the injured workers. It also discusses various provisions of common law under the relevant workers' health injury management legislations.
Dec 28, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. Significant proportion of Nigerians working in manufacturing firms do not enjoy the desirable level of wellbeing when it comes to safety and health. Safety management practices of industries have implications for employees' wellbeing and productivity. This study investigates relationship ...
Eisenmann, Joey C
This article provides descriptive information on the assessments conducted in stage 3 or 4 pediatric obesity-management programs associated with National Association of Children's Hospital and Related Institutions hospitals enrolled in FOCUS on a Fitter Future. Eighteen institutions completed a survey that considered the following assessments: patient/family medical history; physical examination; blood pressure; body size and composition; blood chemistry; aerobic fitness; resting metabolic rate; muscle strength and flexibility; gross motor function; spirometry; sedentary behavior and physical activity; dietary behavior and nutrition; and psychological assessments. Frequency distributions were determined for each question. Overall, the results indicate that most programs that participated in this survey were following 2007 Expert Committee assessment recommendations; however, a variety of measurement tools were used. The variation in assessment tools, protocols, etc is partially caused by the program diversity dictated by personnel, both in terms of number and duties. It also shows the challenges in standardizing methodologies across clinics if we hope to establish a national registry for pediatric obesity clinics. In addition to providing a better understanding of the current assessment practices in pediatric obesity-management programs, the results provided herein should assist other clinics/hospitals that are developing pediatric obesity programs.
Shojaei, Mir Hatef; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Craven, B Catharine
Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases. Studies evaluating any obesity management strategy, alone or in combination, including: diet therapy, voluntary and involuntary exercise such as neuro-muscular electric stimulation (NMES), pharmacotherapy, and surgery, among individuals with chronic SCI were included. Outcomes of interest were reductions in waist circumference, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and total fat mass (TFM) and increases in total lean body mass (TLBM) from baseline. From 3,553 retrieved titles and abstracts, 34 articles underwent full text review and 23 articles were selected for data abstraction. Articles describing weight loss due to inflammation, cancer or B12 deficiency were excluded. The Downs and Black reported poor to moderate quality of the studies. Bariatric surgery produced the greatest permanent weight reduction and BMI correction followed by combinations of physical exercise and diet therapy. Generally, NMES and pharmacotherapy improved TLBM and reduced TFM but not weight. The greatest weight reduction and BMI correction was produced by bariatric surgery, followed by a combination of physical exercise and diet therapy. NMES and pharmacologic treatment did not reduce weight or TFM but increased in TLBM.
Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; Smith, Diarmuid; Sreenan, Seamus; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronán
This article explores how and why workplace environments impact diabetes management for adults people with Type 1 diabetes, 23-30 years of age. Interviews were conducted with 35 young adults, 29 women and 6 men. The majority of these interviewees worked in sectors such as banking, technology and administration. Young adults found it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace for two main reasons: work-related time pressures and the non-routine nature of interviewees' work and working envir...
McDonald, Julia; Goldman, Roberta E; O'Brien, Ashley; Ayash, Christine; Mitchell, Kathy; Marshall, Richard; Simon, Steven R; Taveras, Elsie M
The purpose of this study was to examine pediatricians' familiarity with expert committee recommendations on the management of childhood obesity and their use of health information technology for obesity-related care. The authors interviewed 35 pediatricians from 17 primary care practices using an electronic health record; immersion crystallization facilitated analysis of the qualitative data. Nearly all pediatricians were unfamiliar with expert recommendations; however, all participants reported using growth charts and providing nutrition and physical activity counseling. Most participants wanted easy access to educational materials they could print for patients. The majority of participants were in favor of an electronic alert to identify obese patients, remind clinicians of current guidelines, and facilitate ordering, believing it would help standardize care. Concerns included "alert fatigue," distraction, and disruption of workflow. Suggestions for future electronic functions included tailored educational materials and physical activity resources customized by patient address.
Dunstan, Debra A; MacEachen, Ellen
Theoretical and empirical research findings attest to the workplace being a social environment in which co-workers have a critical influence on the employment outcomes and return-to-work (RTW) success of other employees. However, co-workers do not have a formal role in RTW planning. The aim of this study was to explore how managers responsible for developing and implementing RTW procedures view the role of co-workers in this process. An exploratory qualitative pilot study was conducted in Canada. Participants (1 male; 13 females; mean experience in RTW = 11.8 years) were workplace (n=8) or RTW managers (n=6) with direct oversight of RTW plans. The participants were recruited via invitation from a research institute and were drawn from three different provinces. Data were gathered via open-ended questions and were coded and subject to thematic analysis. Three key themes were identified: (1) Managers view RTW as having little relevance to co-workers but expect them to cooperate with the arrangements; (2) Formal procedures are inadequate when psychosocial barriers to work resumption are present, so managers use informal strategies to engage co-workers' emotional and social support; and (3) Managers have difficulty integrating RTW procedures with other legal obligations, such as privacy and confidentiality requirements. Existing arrangements for the development and implementation of RTW are sufficient most of the time, but may be inadequate when an injured worker presents with psychosocial barriers to work resumption. Implications for Rehabilitation Standard RTW arrangements can be inadequate when a RTW plan requires active co-worker support. Privacy and confidentiality provisions can result in managers using informal procedures for information exchange and to engage co-workers. The use of risk management strategies - assessment, consultation and communication - could be used to include co-workers when workplace issues threaten the success of a RTW plan.
Zapka, Jane; Lemon, Stephenie C; Estabrook, Barbara B; Jolicoeur, Denise G
Ecological interventions hold promise for promoting overweight and obesity prevention in worksites. Given the paucity of evaluative research in the hospital worksite setting, considerable formative work is required for successful implementation and evaluation. This paper describes the formative phases of Step Ahead, a site-randomized controlled trial of a multilevel intervention that promotes physical activity and healthy eating in six hospitals in central Massachusetts. The purpose of the formative research phase was to increase the feasibility, effectiveness, and likelihood of sustainability of the intervention. The Step Ahead ecological intervention approach targets change at the organization, interpersonal work environment, and individual levels. The intervention was developed using fundamental steps of intervention mapping and important tenets of participatory research. Formative research methods were used to engage leadership support and assistance and to develop an intervention plan that is both theoretically and practically grounded. This report uses observational data, program minutes and reports, and process tracking data. Leadership involvement (key informant interviews and advisory boards), employee focus groups and advisory boards, and quantitative environmental assessments cultivated participation and support. Determining multiple foci of change and designing measurable objectives and generic assessment tools to document progress are complex challenges encountered in planning phases. Multilevel trials in diverse organizations require flexibility and balance of theory application and practice-based perspectives to affect impact and outcome objectives. Formative research is an essential component.
Wolf, R.; Gering, D.
Like most other industries in the United States, the utility industry is undergoing profound changes. Furthermore, the industry is in a far more precarious position than almost all other businesses. Deregulation, a changing labor pool, competition and years of unbridled growth are some of the extraordinary factors impacting the industry. Perhaps the greatest challenge of all rests with the utility industry's top management. To lead their organizations from government anointed monopolies to rightful market leaders demands major intellectual and physical adjustments. Given this most difficult position, executives must learn to embrace change as a constant business opportunity and develop skills to constructively channel and manage change. The challenge to utilities is deceptively clear - to be competitive in a consumer and service driven environment. Unfortunately, the actions necessary to accomplish this daunting task are not that clear. The authors offer that this transition does not have to be as ominous as it may seem, provided one develops and employs a good plan and the open minds necessary to navigate these tricky waters
Reed, Louren; Leuty, Melanie E
Examination of individual difference variables have been largely ignored within research on the use of workplace sexual identity management strategies. The current study examined personality traits (extraversion, openness, and neuroticism), facets of sexual identity development (identity confusion, internalized heterosexism), and situational variables (e.g., perceptions of workplace climate and heterosexism) in explaining the use of management strategies, as well as possible interactions between individual and situational factors. Perceptions of the workplace climate toward lesbian and gay individuals significantly related to the use each of the management strategies, and Internalized Heterosexism was found to significantly predict the use of the Explicitly Out strategy. Most interactions between individual difference and situational variables were not supported, with the exception of an interaction between workplace heterosexism and internalized homophobia in explaining the use of the Explicitly Out strategy.
Um, Irene S I; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B
To explore pharmacists' opinions about the provision of weight management services in community pharmacy and their attitudes towards the establishment of an accredited training course in weight management in pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with practising pharmacists on site in various community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with twenty practising pharmacists were conducted. Of the twenty interviewed pharmacists, sixteen were involved in the provision of one or more pharmacy based weight management programs in their pharmacies. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory approach. The data were thematically analysed to identify facilitators and perceived barriers to the provision of high quality services, and pharmacists' willingness to undertake training and accreditation. Participants clearly perceived a role for pharmacy in weight management. Key facilitators to provision of service were accessibility and the perception of pharmacists as trustworthy healthcare professionals. The pharmacists proposed collaboration with other healthcare professionals in order to provide a service incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural therapy. A program that was not-product-centred, and supported by ethical marketing was favoured. Appropriate training and accreditation were considered essential to assuring the quality of such services. Barriers to the provision of high quality services identified were: remuneration, pharmacy infrastructure, client demand and the current marketing of product-centred programs. Australian pharmacists believe there is a role for pharmacy in weight management, provided training in accredited programs is made available. A holistic, evidence-based, multi-disciplinary service model has been identified as ideal.
Sorana Teodora MATEI
Full Text Available Some of the most common nutritional disorders are overweight and obesity, a proportion of approximately 59% of dogs and cats being affected. A permanent challenge for vets is weight management, including the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. Corporeal score and body-weight loss in dogs and cats have been monitored by feeding various diets. The study was conducted on a total of 10 animals (6 dogs and 4 cats, monitoring the effect of three types of food for dogs and two types for cats suffering from overweight and obesity.Â Cooked food, dry food diet and premium dry food were investigated. We determined the quality and gross chemical composition of food and we measured corporeal score, weekly weight loss percentage and the number of calories consumed daily. We also appreciated the quality of life and activity level of the animals at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Nutritional management of investigated diets for overweight and obesity in dogs and cats revealed that through the smallest caloric restriction, dry food diet presented the highest efficiency, dogs and cats loosing weight steadily without losing muscle mass. Although the satiety effect occurs when the animals reach their ideal weight, the Rebound effect was not present.
Gale, C; Pellett, O; Coverdale, J; Paton Simpson, G
To estimate the rate of adverse events to staff, to survey the use of various preventative measures, and to assess any association between these factors and the reported event rate. An anonymous postal nation-wide survey of violence reported to managers of psychiatric units in New Zealand. The mean rate of adverse event per 100 full time equivalent staff was 16.2 (range 0-187) for property damage, 16.3 (range 0-204) for attempted assault, 12 (range 0-194) for physical attack, 1.3 (range 0-33) for sexual harassment and 1.1 (range 0-17) for stalking. Inpatient units, the use of pocket alarms, and training in de-escalation were associated highly with an increase risk of adverse events. There is a high variation in the rate of violence. The issue of increased rate of events with certain interventions will require further research.
St-Pierre, Isabelle; Holmes, Dave
This paper describes discipline as a specific technique of power which constitutes, in our view, a form of institutional violence. The need to create and maintain safe and healthy work environments for healthcare professionals is well documented. Foucault's concept of disciplinary power was used to explore institutional violence from a critical perspective. Violence is identified as an important factor in the recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals. Given the shortage of such professionals, there is an urgent need to take a fresh look at their working environments and working conditions. Power, surveillance and disciplinary techniques are used at all levels of hospital management to control and contain both human resources and costs. By associating common workplace practices with institutional violence, employers who have a policy of zero tolerance toward workplace violence will need to re-examine their current ways of operating.
Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine E; Silverman, Kenneth
The Therapeutic Workplace is an effective drug abuse treatment that integrates abstinence reinforcement into a work setting by using a salary that drug abusers earn for work. Drug abuse patients are trained and hired to become data entry operators in a Therapeutic Workplace business. Despite the opportunity to earn a high wage, participants frequently arrive at work late and fail to work complete shifts. In the present study, a contingency management intervention to promote consistent and reliable attendance was evaluated in 4 participants. Participants were not allowed to work on days that they arrived late, and their pay was temporarily reduced each time they arrived late at work or failed to complete a work shift. A within-subject reversal design showed that the intervention increased the frequency with which participants arrived at work on time and completed work shifts.
Pellis, Tommaso; Leykin, Yigal; Albano, Giovanni; Zannier, Gianfederico; Di Capua, Gabriella; Marzano, Bernardo; Gullo, Antonino
Anesthetic management of super-obese patients is inferred from evidence which has been based on obese or morbidly obese patients. We present the perioperative management and monitoring of a 44-year-old 232-kg patient (BMI 70) admitted for laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. Awake fiberoptic endotracheal intubation preceded induction with propofol and rocuronium. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane and remifentanil. Desflurane was titrated on BIS values, whereas remifentanil was based on hemodynamic monitoring (invasive arterial pressure and HemoSonic). Rocuronium was administered based on ideal body weight and recovery of twitch tension. Safe and rapid extubation in the operating theatre was made possible by the use of short-acting agents coupled with continuous intraoperative monitoring. Recovery in the post-anesthesia care unit was uneventful, pain was managed with meperidine, and after 5 hours the patient was discharged to the surgical ward. Oxygen therapy and SpO2 monitoring were continued overnight. No desaturation episodes were recorded. Pain was managed with I.V. drip of ketorolac and tramadole.
Marisa Gaspar Carreño
Full Text Available Objective: To develop a safety working procedure for the employees in the Intermutual Hospital de Levante (HIL in those areas of activity that deal with the handling of hazardous drugs (MP. Methods: The procedure was developed in six phases: 1 hazard definition; 2 definition and identification of processes and development of general correct work practices about hazardous drugs’ selection and special handling; 3 detection, selection and set of specific recommendations to handle with hazardous drugs during the processes of preparation and administration included in the hospital GFT; 4 categorization of risk during the preparation/administration and development of an identification system; 5 information and training of professionals; 6 implementation of the identification measures and prevention guidelines. Results: Six processes were detected handling HD. During those processes, thirty HD were identified included in the hospital GFT and a safer alternative was found for 6 of them. The HD were classified into 4 risk categories based on those measures to be taken during the preparation and administration of each of them. Conclusions: The development and implementation of specific safety-work processes dealing with medication handling, allows hospital managers to accomplish effectively with their legal obligations about the area of prevention and provides healthcare professional staff with the adequate techniques and safety equipment to avoid possible dangers and risks of some drugs.
Gaspar Carreño, Marisa; Achau Muñoz, Rubén; Torrico Martín, Fátima; Agún Gonzalez, Juan José; Sanchez Santos, Jose Cristobal; Cercos Lletí, Ana Cristina; Ramos Orozco, Pedro
To develop a safety working procedure for the employees in the Intermutual Hospital de Levante (HIL) in those areas of activity that deal with the handling of hazardous drugs (MP). The procedure was developed in six phases: 1) hazard definition; 2) definition and identification of processes and development of general correct work practices about hazardous drugs' selection and special handling; 3) detection, selection and set of specific recommendations to handle with hazardous drugs during the processes of preparation and administration included in the hospital GFT; 4) categorization of risk during the preparation/administration and development of an identification system; 5) information and training of professionals; 6) implementation of the identification measures and prevention guidelines. Six processes were detected handling HD. During those processes, thirty HD were identified included in the hospital GFT and a safer alternative was found for 6 of them. The HD were classified into 4 risk categories based on those measures to be taken during the preparation and administration of each of them. The development and implementation of specific safety-work processes dealing with medication handling, allows hospital managers to accomplish effectively with their legal obligations about the area of prevention and provides healthcare professional staff with the adequate techniques and safety equipment to avoid possible dangers and risks of some drugs. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Uerlich, Magdalena F.; Yumuk, Volkan; Finer, Nick; Basdevant, Arnaud; Visscher, Tommy L.S.
Objective This study aims at assessing the status of obesity management in the European region and identifying future goals and objectives of professionals working in the field of obesity. Methods Presidents of all 31 EASO-affiliated (EASO = European Association for the Study of Obesity) national associations for the study of obesity were asked to invite 5 obesity experts from their country to participate in a survey. A total of 74 obesity professionals out of 23 countries participated. Questions addressed the development of guidelines, the status of obesity management, and goals and objectives for the future in obesity management. Further, EASO's three vice-presidents participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews, in which they were asked to provide their reflection on the survey data. Results Most countries define obesity as a clinical and chronic disease, but various differences in obesity management standards exist across Europe. Existing guidelines mainly focus on the acute treatment of obesity rather than on long-term approaches. Conclusion Multidisciplinary approaches for obesity management and the collaboration between general practitioners and hospitals as well as between professionals at the local level and networks of obesity management centers need to be improved across Europe. Good practices and evidence are available. PMID:27553443
Uerlich, Magdalena F; Yumuk, Volkan; Finer, Nick; Basdevant, Arnaud; Visscher, Tommy L S
This study aims at assessing the status of obesity management in the European region and identifying future goals and objectives of professionals working in the field of obesity. Presidents of all 31 EASO-affiliated (EASO = European Association for the Study of Obesity) national associations for the study of obesity were asked to invite 5 obesity experts from their country to participate in a survey. A total of 74 obesity professionals out of 23 countries participated. Questions addressed the development of guidelines, the status of obesity management, and goals and objectives for the future in obesity management. Further, EASO's three vice-presidents participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews, in which they were asked to provide their reflection on the survey data. Most countries define obesity as a clinical and chronic disease, but various differences in obesity management standards exist across Europe. Existing guidelines mainly focus on the acute treatment of obesity rather than on long-term approaches. Multidisciplinary approaches for obesity management and the collaboration between general practitioners and hospitals as well as between professionals at the local level and networks of obesity management centers need to be improved across Europe. Good practices and evidence are available. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Magdalena F. Uerlich
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims at assessing the status of obesity management in the European region and identifying future goals and objectives of professionals working in the field of obesity. Methods: Presidents of all 31 EASO-affiliated (EASO = European Association for the Study of Obesity national associations for the study of obesity were asked to invite 5 obesity experts from their country to participate in a survey. A total of 74 obesity professionals out of 23 countries participated. Questions addressed the development of guidelines, the status of obesity management, and goals and objectives for the future in obesity management. Further, EASO's three vice-presidents participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews, in which they were asked to provide their reflection on the survey data. Results: Most countries define obesity as a clinical and chronic disease, but various differences in obesity management standards exist across Europe. Existing guidelines mainly focus on the acute treatment of obesity rather than on long-term approaches. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approaches for obesity management and the collaboration between general practitioners and hospitals as well as between professionals at the local level and networks of obesity management centers need to be improved across Europe. Good practices and evidence are available.
Ridolfi, Danielle R.; Hayes, Jacqueline F.; St Paul, Michelle; Wilfley, Denise E.
Opinion Statement Family-based behavioral intervention has been demonstrated to be an effective and safe treatment for childhood obesity and should be considered a first-line treatment option. However, access to such intensive evidence-based treatment is limited and, currently, obesity care is dominated by high intensity behavioral treatment implemented in specialty clinics or less effective, low intensity treatments implemented in primary care. However, capitalizing on the established and ongoing relationship between primary care providers and families, primary care providers hold an invaluable role in early identification of overweight and obesity, and subsequent referral to an evidence-based treatment. key aspects of effective treatment include: early intervention, moderate- to high-intensity intervention of sufficient duration, multi-component intervention targeting dietary modification, physical activity and behavioral strategies, family involvement and goals targeting family members, and follow-up contact during maintenance. The purpose of this review is to present the current empirically supported treatment options for pediatric obesity including primary care-based interventions and diagnostic tools, multi-component behavioral intervention with a focus on family-based behavioral intervention, immersion treatment, and pharmacologic and surgical management. PMID:25205083
McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Desai, Nirav K
This update explores the current management options for adolescent obesity with a specific focus on bariatric surgery. Research has highlighted the serious health complications associated with adolescent obesity and thus emphasized the need for effective interventions. With the increasing severity of obesity seen in younger populations, coupled with the modest effects of most behavioral and even pharmacologic interventions, there has been increased interest in, and attention on, bariatric surgery in younger populations. Recent adult-focused guidelines regarding the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient outline the importance of careful patient selection, in addition to close monitoring, with a particular focus on preventing nutritional deficiencies. Several recent publications have focused on issues specific to bariatric surgery in the adolescent patient including the relationship between a patient's physical and emotional maturity and timing of surgery. Adolescent obesity is prevalent with increasing severity and long-term health implications. To date nonsurgical interventions have had modest effects. Bariatric surgery is becoming more common and has been shown to be well tolerated and effective in adolescents, but requires careful preoperative screening and postoperative monitoring.
Describes a study commissioned to evaluate employee attitudes and behaviours with respect to participation in workplace initiatives in waste diversion/reduction, to examine management initiatives related to waste diversion and reduction/recycling/reuse, and to report on Ontario Ministry of Environment & Energy activities related to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) waste diversion activities. Linkages between management and employees, management and government, and ICI activities and government were also studied. The study methodology included a literature review, a series of interviews with key stakeholders, industry associations, and waste management companies, and a series of 12 case studies spanning major industrial sectors in Ontario. Issues addressed in the study include the factors that trigger waste diversion activities by ICI establishments, barriers to the initiation of waste diversion practices, and the social aspects of waste reduction/recycling/reuse practices.
Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha
Work-related stress has been evaluated as one of the most important health risks in Europe. Prevention of work related stress and interventions to reduce risk factors for stress in the workplace are conducted together by the enterprise and occupational health services. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of Finnish occupational physicians on the stress management with enterprises. From the Finnish Association of Occupational Health Physicians membership list 207 physicians responded to self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0. The client enterprises contacted occupational health services frequently about work-related stress. Collaboration between occupational health and enterprises was strongest in companies' own occupational health services and generally with most experienced physicians. Occupational health services and enterprises shared responsibility for managing work-related stress. Professional experience and close contact with organisation management favours successful stress management between occupational health and enterprises.
Michaud, Tzeyu L; Nyman, John A; Jutkowitz, Eric; Su, Dejun; Dowd, Bryan; Abraham, Jean M
We examined the effectiveness of the weight management program used by the University of Minnesota in reducing health care expenditures and improving quality of life of its employees, and also in reducing their absenteeism during a 3-year intervention. A differences-in-differences regression approach was used to estimate the effect of weight management participation. We further applied ordinary least squares regression models with fixed effects to estimate the effect in an alternative analysis. Participation in the weight management program significantly reduced health care expenditures by $69 per month for employees, spouses, and dependents, and by $73 for employees only. Quality-of-life weights were 0.0045 points higher for participating employees than for nonparticipating ones. No significant effect was found for absenteeism. The workplace weight management used by the University of Minnesota reduced health care expenditures and improved quality of life.
Gard, Gunvor; Larsson, Agneta
Today, we can see a trend toward increased psychosocial strain at work among home-care managers and staff. The aim of this study is to describe home care managers' views on their own psychosocial working conditions and on how to promote workplace health and safety in a municipality in northern Sweden. A mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaire and qualitative focus group data. The qualitative data were analyzed by manifest content analysis. The results indicate that most managers perceived increased variety in work and opportunities for development at work, but at the same time increased demands. The managers suggested that workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessment and improved communication, a clear communication chain by a real as well as a virtual platform for communication. In summary, workplace health and safety could be improved by risk assessments and by a physical as well as a virtual platform for communication.
D'Ettorre, Gabriele; Pellicani, Vincenza; Mazzotta, Mauro; Vullo, Annamaria
Healthcare workers (HCWs) employed in Emergency Departments (EDs) frequently face with patients becoming violent because of long wait or diseases or under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Globally, workplace violence (WPV) in EDs is a major challenge to safety for HCWs, involving significant consequences to the victims, patients, and healthcare organizations. We reviewed the current literature with the aim to explore the topics focused on and to detect new evidences about approaching the issue of WPV toward HCWs in EDs. A search for articles regarding WPV toward HCWs employed in EDs and published from January 2007 through December 2017 was performed; using predetermined criteria for inclusion, selected articles were reviewed and qualitatively assessed for the aims of the review. We found 60 papers which matched our inclusion criteria; the topics, discussed in order of frequency from highest to lowest, were: "Risk Assessment", "Occurrence Rates", "Risk Management", and "Physical/non Physical Consequences". Dementia, schizophrenia, anxiety, acute stress reaction, suicidal ideation, and alcohol and drug intoxication were found as predictors of physical violence perpetrated by patients against HCWs. A strategic way to the effective management of WPV should prioritize training courses focused on: constructing HCW-patient relationship, improving the workers' communication skills, accurate reporting of each violent incident, and improving the labor context through management commitment and employee involvement in WPV prevention programs. A special effort is required in implementing workplace design effective in minimizing stressful conditions in waiting rooms which turned out to be the most frequent site of assaults.
Full Text Available Purpose: Deputy President, Ms Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, says a skills revolution is necessary for South Africaâs (SA skills crisis. The SA skills revolution began with the skills legislation of 1998-9 when the Departments of Labour (DOL and Education (DOE intended a seamless, integrated approach to rapid skills development. The National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS, the Sector Education and Training Providers (SETAs, the South African Qualifications Authorities (SAQA and the National Qualifications Framework (NQF were established to drive the human resource and skills development revolutionary strategy. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of the 2001-3 research investigating an internal management framework for training providers, employers and managers to accelerate workplace skills development. Design/Methodology/Approach: An integrated, multi-method research model was employed to gather empirical evidence on skills practices. A robust quantitative survey was conducted within 600 organisations. Simultaneously, rich, descriptive data was gathered from managers and employees using a structured qualitative interview strategy. The integrated data pool was factor analysed. The research findings, conclusion and recommended framework were reported in a PhD thesis. Findings: The research findings reveal major gaps in the effectiveness of SA training providers to radically accelerate and improve workplace skills development as per national skills legislation, implementation and management criteria. Implications: If the skills revolution in SA is to succeed, training providers especially, must become less complacent, more assertive and fully equipped when participating in the skills development arena. Originality/Value: Via this research, training providers will gain critical, reflective insight into their management framework for meeting skills legislative criteria and for managing training interventions and skills projects.
Mulders, Jaap Oude; Henkens, Kene; Schippers, Joop
Purpose: Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We
Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; Smith, Diarmuid; Sreenan, Seamus; Doyle, Frank; Conroy, Ronan
This article explores how and why workplace environments impact diabetes management for adults people with Type 1 diabetes, 23-30 years of age. Interviews were conducted with 35 young adults, 29 women and 6 men. The majority of these interviewees worked in sectors such as banking, technology and administration. Young adults found it difficult to manage diabetes in the workplace for two main reasons: work-related time pressures and the non-routine nature of interviewees' work and working environment. Young adults also found it difficult to get the time to exercise both inside and outside of work. Young adults with Type 1 diabetes need to be provided with the tools and technologies that they need to manage diabetes in modern flexible workplaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Archibald, Daryll; Douglas, Flora; Hoddinott, Pat; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Stewart, Fiona; Robertson, Clare; Boyers, Dwayne; Avenell, Alison
To investigate what weight management interventions work for men, with which men, and under what circumstances. Realist synthesis of qualitative studies. Sensitive searches of 11 electronic databases from 1990 to 2012 supplemented by grey literature searches. Studies published between 1990 and 2012 reporting qualitative research with obese men, or obese men in contrast to obese women and lifestyle or drug weight management were included. The studies included men aged 16 years or over, with no upper age limit, with a mean or median body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) in all settings. 22 studies were identified, including 5 qualitative studies linked to randomised controlled trials of weight maintenance interventions and 8 qualitative studies linked to non-randomised intervention studies, and 9 relevant UK-based qualitative studies not linked to any intervention. Health concerns and the perception that certain programmes had 'worked' for other men were the key factors that motivated men to engage with weight management programmes. Barriers to engagement and adherence with programmes included: men not problematising their weight until labelled 'obese'; a lack of support for new food choices by friends and family, and reluctance to undertake extreme dieting. Retaining some autonomy over what is eaten; flexibility about treats and alcohol, and a focus on physical activity were attractive features of programmes. Group interventions, humour and social support facilitated attendance and adherence. Men were motivated to attend programmes in settings that were convenient, non-threatening and congruent with their masculine identities, but men were seldom involved in programme design. Men's perspectives and preferences within the wider context of family, work and pleasure should be sought when designing weight management services. Qualitative research is needed with men to inform all aspects of intervention design, including the setting, optimal recruitment processes and
Ho, Mandy; Garnett, Sarah P; Baur, Louise A
Concomitant with the rise in global pediatric obesity in the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of children and adolescents with clinical signs of insulin resistance. Given insulin resistance is the important link between obesity and the associated metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk, clinicians should be aware of high risk groups and treatment options. As there is no universally accepted biochemical definition of insulin resistance in children and adolescents, identification and diagnosis of insulin resistance usually relies on clinical features such as acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Treatment for reducing insulin resistance and other obesity-associated comorbidities should focus on changes in health behaviors to achieve effective weight management. Lifestyle interventions incorporating dietary change, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behaviors, with the involvement of family and adoption of a developmentally appropriate approach, should be used as the first line treatment. Current evidence suggests that the primary objective of dietary interventions should be to reduce total energy intake and a combination of aerobic and resistance training should be encouraged. Metformin can be used in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention program in obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance to achieve weight loss and to improve insulin sensitivity. Ongoing evaluation and research are required to explore optimal protocol and long-term effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, as well as to determine whether the improvements in insulin sensitivity induced by lifestyle interventions and weight loss will lead to a clinical benefit including reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Bourassa, Katelynn A; McKibbin, Christine L; Hartung, Cynthia M; Bartholomew, Kay L; Lee, Aaron A; Stevens, Anne E; Buxton, Yvette; Slosser, Andrea E; Andren, Katherine A Kitchen
While youth with emotional and behavioral disorders experience increased rates of obesity, few obesity interventions exist that are tailored to their needs. Qualitative methods were employed to elucidate obesity management practices in this population. In all, 56 participants (i.e. 21 youths with emotional and behavioral disorders, 20 caregivers of youth with emotional and behavioral disorders, and 15 mental health providers) were recruited from community mental health centers. Participants completed a demographic form and semi-structured interview regarding obesity-related behaviors. Barriers (e.g. psychiatric symptoms) and facilitators (e.g. social support) to obesity management were identified. These results highlight preferred intervention components for this unique population.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to conduct the analysis of the conflict management strategies that Air Zimbabwe, a service delivery company in Zimbabwe in Southern Africa, employs in settling workplace disputes between it and its employees. The research approach relies mainly on a survey questionnaire that is completed by both the employees and management. The analysis of data is descriptive. The respondents indicate that strategies can move from a positive to a negative approach within a short space of time. The results are often detrimental to the quality of service that the company provides to its clientele. It is recommended that the parties should rely on negotiation and mediation to arrest conflicts before they escalate.
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...
Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71%) was more common than physical abuse (29%). The most (44%) incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse) occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50%) incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90%) of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93%) of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46%) or low (52%) Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%). Few (6%) victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more common than physical
Cashmore Aaron W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about workplace violence among correctional health professionals. This study aimed to describe the patterns, severity and outcomes of incidents of workplace violence among employees of a large correctional health service, and to explore the help-seeking behaviours of staff following an incident. Methods The study setting was Justice Health, a statutory health corporation established to provide health care to people who come into contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales, Australia. We reviewed incident management records describing workplace violence among Justice Health staff. The three-year study period was 1/7/2007-30/6/2010. Results During the period under review, 208 incidents of workplace violence were recorded. Verbal abuse (71% was more common than physical abuse (29%. The most (44% incidents of workplace violence (including both verbal and physical abuse occurred in adult male prisons, although the most (50% incidents of physical abuse occurred in a forensic hospital. Most (90% of the victims were nurses and two-thirds were females. Younger employees and males were most likely to be a victim of physical abuse. Preparing or dispensing medication and attempting to calm and/or restrain an aggressive patient were identified as ‘high risk’ work duties for verbal abuse and physical abuse, respectively. Most (93% of the incidents of workplace violence were initiated by a prisoner/patient. Almost all of the incidents received either a medium (46% or low (52% Severity Assessment Code. Few victims of workplace violence incurred a serious physical injury – there were no workplace deaths during the study period. However, mental stress was common, especially among the victims of verbal abuse (85%. Few (6% victims of verbal abuse sought help from a health professional. Conclusions Among employees of a large correctional health service, verbal abuse in the workplace was substantially more
Tsigos, Constantine; Hainer, Vojtech; Basdevant, Arnaud; Finer, Nick; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth; Micic, Dragan; Maislos, Maximo; Roman, Gabriela; Schutz, Yves; Toplak, Hermann; Yumuk, Volkan; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara
Obesity is recognised as a global epidemic and the most prevalent metabolic disease world-wide. Specialised obesity services, however, are not widely available in Europe, and obesity care can vary enormously across European regions. The European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO,
Ilott, Irene; Bennett, Bev; Gerrish, Kate; Pownall, Sue; Jones, Amanda; Garth, Andrew
To evaluate the learning effect and resource use cost of workplace-based, blended e-learning about dysphagia for stroke rehabilitation nurses. Dysphagia is a potentially life-threatening problem that compromises quality of life. In many countries, nurses play a crucial role in supporting the management of patients with swallowing problems, yet the literature reports a need for training. A single-group, pre- and post-study with mixed methods. Each blended e-learning session comprised a needs analysis, e-learning programmes, practical skills about modifying fluids and action planning to transfer learning into practice. Participants were the population of registered nurses (n = 22) and healthcare assistants (n = 10) on a stroke rehabilitation ward in a large, teaching hospital in England between August 2010-March 2011. Data collection comprised observation (34 hours), questionnaires administered at four time points to examine change in attitude, knowledge and practice, and estimating the resource use cost for the service. Nonparametric tests and content analysis were used to analyse the data. All participants achieved a nationally recognised level of competence. The learning effect was evident on the post- and follow-up measures, with some items of dysphagia knowledge and attitude achieving significance at the p ≤ 0·05 level. The most common self-reported changes in practice related to medicines management, thickening fluids and oral hygiene. The resource use cost was estimated at £2688 for 108 hours training. Workplace-based, blended e-learning was an acceptable, cost effective way of delivering essential clinical knowledge and skills about dysphagia. Dysphagia should be viewed as a patient safety issue because of the risks of malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration pneumonia. As such, it is pertinent to many members of the interdisciplinary team. Consideration should be given to including dysphagia management in initial education and continuing professional
Honiball, George; Geldenhuys, Dirk; Mayer, Claude-Hélène
This article explores the concept of spirituality within selected South African managerial work contexts. The aim of the study was to determine managers' perceptions of spirituality and health-related aspects in various South African workplaces. A phenomenological research paradigm was used, applying an in-depth qualitative research approach. The sample consisted of 12 senior managers from different organizations, including, for example, an international healthcare provider, an international auditing and consulting firm, a manufacturer of paint supplies and decorations and an ecclesiastical organization. Research methods included semi-structured interviews and observation. Data was analysed through content analysis, identifying themes, categories and codes. The findings indicate that spirituality promotes the development of health-related aspects of individuals, such as self-awareness, inner peace and the management of stress and depression. Managers emphasize that spirituality also has an impact on managing teams and teamwork, engaging in competitive behaviour, encouraging honesty and reducing selfishness. Based on the findings, a conclusion is given and practical as well as scientific recommendations are emphasized. In love lies the seed of our growth. The more we love, the closer we are to the spiritual experience. (Paulo Coelho, 1994).
Mahan, Bruce; Morawetz, John; Ruttenberg, Ruth; Workman, Rick
Seven hundred thirty-nine workers at Merck's Stonewall plant in Elkton, Virginia, have a safer and healthier workplace because four of them were enthusiastic about health and safety training they received from the union's training center in Cincinnati, Ohio. What emerged was not only that all 739 plant employees received OSHA 10-hour General Industry training, but that it was delivered by “OSHA-authorized” members of the International Chemical Workers Union Council who worked at the plant. Merck created a new fulltime position in its Learning and Development Department and hired one of the four workers who had received the initial training. Strong plant leadership promoted discussions both during the training, in evaluation, and in newly energized joint labor-management meetings following the training. These discussions identified safety and health issues needing attention. Then, in a new spirit of trust and collaboration, major improvements occurred. PMID:24704812
Mahan, Bruce; Morawetz, John; Ruttenberg, Ruth; Workman, Rick
Seven hundred thirty-nine workers at Merck's Stonewall plant in Elkton, Virginia, have a safer and healthier workplace because four of them were enthusiastic about health and safety training they received from the union's training center in Cincinnati, Ohio. What emerged was not only that all 739 plant employees received OSHA 10-hour General Industry training, but that it was delivered by "OSHA-authorized" members of the International Chemical Workers Union Council who worked at the plant. Merck created a new full-time position in its Learning and Development Department and filled it with one of the four workers who had received the initial training. Strong plant leadership promoted discussions both during the training, in evaluation, and in newly energized joint labor-management meetings following the training. These discussions identified safety and health issues needing attention. Then, in a new spirit of trust and collaboration, major improvements occurred.
J.K. Oostrom (Janneke); H. van Mierlo (Heleen)
textabstractWorkplace violence is a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers, generating a need for effective intervention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aggression management training program. The evaluation design was based on the internal
Kabe, Isamu; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kochi, Takeshi; Koga, Yasuo; Eguchi, Masafumi; Matsui, Tomomi; Ito, Rie; Tokujitani, Yoko; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Shigeru
The aim of this study was to survey the selection, use, and maintenance of chemical protective gloves (CPGs) at real workplaces. Subjects comprised 817 workers using CPGs at seven domestic manufacturing plants in Japan. We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey comprising the following aspect related to CPGs: environment of use, conditions of use, method of selection, knowledge/awareness pertaining to their use, method of use, precautionary measures associated with their use, maximum time of use, and maintenance. We compared responses provided by management staff and field workers. Chi square test was used for the analysis. Respondents included 661 (80.9%) manufacturing workers, 121 (14.8%) managers or supervisors, and 35 (4.3%) others. In total, 70.5% organic solvents, 28.9% acid or/and alkali, 18.1% dust, and 10.3% carcinogenic substances were the chemical substances handled using CPGs. The reason for deciding to wear CPGs was "the use of chemical substances" for 46.5%, "notice in safety data sheet (SDS) " for 29.8%, and "management staffs' guidance" for 21.4% respondents. "The grasp of chemical substances" was 70.1% (91.1% excluding "not applicable" ). "Warning of caution on skin and eyes" was indicated by 69.5% (91.0%) and "educational reasons for use of CPGs" was accepted by 68.1% (90.7%) respondents. On the other hand, the rate of responses such as "obtaining permeability test results of target substances" and "mixed substances are selected considering substances with short permeation time" was 25.2% (38.4%) and 29.2% (48.4%), respectively. The rate of "yes" as a response in the item concerning "permeation test" was low. On comparing the response provided by the management staff and field workers, the rate of "the permeation test result of the target substance was obtained" was 27.7% for management staff and 41.2% for field workers (p = 0.022). Regarding the cuffs of CPGs, the rate of "to fold back and to prevent sagging" and "mounted with tape" were
Sturgiss, E.A.; Elmitt, N.; Haelser, E.; Weel, C. van; Douglas, K.A.
OBJECTIVES: Obesity management is an important issue for the international primary care community. This scoping review examines the literature describing the role of the family doctor in managing adults with obesity. The methods were prospectively published and followed Joanna Briggs Institute
Raymund B. Moreno, Ma. Nellie L. Mapa
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the workplace performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management practicum students of West Visayas State University – Calinog Campus as perceived by the interns’ themselves and the supervisors in different hospitality establishments in Iloilo City where students were deployed for on-the-job training in relation to industry-site internship / practicum program for academic year 2013-2014.The result of the study serves as the basis for designing a proposed education or training program in enhancing the workplace performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management Students. The study surveyed 35 practicum students and 23 supervisors in different hospitality establishments in Iloilo City using survey questionnaire based from Competency Standards for hospitality related courses of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED Memorandum Order No.30 series of 2006. Findings revealed that both supervisor and student respondents agreed on the satisfactory performance of the interns in terms of Higher Order Thinking Skills and very satisfactory rating on Personal Qualities . With regard to the Basic Skills (e.g., numerical computation, oral and written communications, the students rated themselves Very Satisfactory while supervisors gave a Satisfactory rating. The same Very Satisfactory performance rating was achieved on Professional Competencies by both respondents. Of the five common competencies, Interpersonal and Technological skills of the interns were rated very satisfactory by both respondents on Interpersonal Skills and on Technological Skills. Also the same satisfactory rating was given on Information skills by both the supervisor and interns. Whereas for the Resources Skills, the interns rated themselves Very Satisfactory rating while the supervisors rated them Satisfactory. It is recommended to continue the review and upgrade industry training in the curriculum and consistently redefine the curricular focus to meet the
Ahmad, Nadia N; Butsch, Winfield Scott; Aidarous, Sabina
The World Health Organization estimates that nearly 2 billion people worldwide are overweight, 600 million of whom are obese. The increasing prevalence of this condition in women is of particular concern given its impact on reproductive health and mortality. Burgeoning data implicating maternal obesity in fetal programming and the metabolic health of future generations further suggest that obesity in women is one of the most pressing public health concerns of the twenty-first century. However, health care professionals are infrequently engaged in obesity management. This article provides a conceptual understanding of obesity and a rational approach to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dawkins, Sarah; Martin, Angela; Kilpatrick, Michelle; Scott, Jenn
Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) require specialized attention regarding workplace mental health (WMH), but can be challenging to engage in WMH promotion interventions. This cross-sectional study analyzed self-reported motivations of SME owner/managers who engaged in a WMH promotion intervention specifically designed for SMEs. Data from 297 SME owner/managers was thematically coded prior to conducting multinominal logistical regression analyses to determine reasons for engagement based on a series of predictors, including owner/manager psychological distress, recent experience of a stressful work event, and business confidence. Owner/manager psychological distress, experience of a recent stressful workplace, and low 12-month business confidence incident were important predictors of engagement. The findings provide important insights into the uptake of a WMH promotion intervention, which can inform the design and future recruitment strategies for WMH promotion interventions within the SME sector.
Papaleo, Bruno; Cangiano, Giovanna; Calicchia, Sara; Marcellini, Laura; Colagiacomo, Chiara; Pera, Alessandra
Develop an effective First Aid's system in workplaces is significantly important to the outcomes of accidents at work, thus contributing positively to create healthy and safe environments, improving responsible attitude and risk perception by workers. The italian regulation (D. Lgs. 81/08; DM 388/03) gives an important role to First Aid within the system for managing health and safety in workplaces and requires the employers to designate and train workers and organize facilities in the workplace. However, to ensure that First Aid's system actually contributes to increasing health and safety in workplaces, it's necessary to verify its effectiveness, beyond the law compliance. The article stands to evaluate the critical issues and related innovations to be introduced in this context, by analyzing data from literature and field experiences involving actors in the prevention system. The goal is to provide suggestions and action proposals to improve first aid's system in workplaces, paying particular attention to the aiders training (selection, motivation, teaching methods, retraining), as well as introduce to innovations to allow an immediate and timely emergency response (company equipments, other useful devices). On this last aspect, it has given particular emphasis to the introduction of semi-automatic defibrillator (AED), which is essential in case of sudden cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation, and special aiders training by means of BLSD (Basic Life Support and Defibrillation) courses based on international guidelines.
Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Muñoz-Calvo, María T; Pozo, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús
Obesity is currently the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in Western countries. It is one of the most frequent consultations in general pediatrics and is even more common in pediatric endocrinology. As might be predicted, the prevalence of obesity-associated comorbidities is also increasing in children and adolescents. It is widely accepted that this increase in obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, with an increase in positive energy balance being closely associated with the current lifestyle in Western countries. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an individual's genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. The physiologic mechanisms controlling appetite and energy expenditure are being revealed in part because of the identification of new causes of human monogenic, syndromic, and endocrine-related obesity. Thus, it is no longer appropriate to talk about obesity, but rather about "obesities" or "different diseases causing obesity," because their pathophysiologic bases differ. Moreover, these obesities require different diagnostic and management approaches. The pediatrician must be aware of this issue and focus the clinical history and physical examination toward specific clinical signs and symptoms to better exploit the available diagnostic and therapeutic resources when facing a child with obesity. Genetic, genomic, and metabolomic studies are often necessary to obtain a more appropriate diagnosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy is fundamental in obese children. The identification of potential targets will hopefully result in new pharmacologic approaches for translational and personalized medicine for obesity in the near future. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and its associated disorders are a growing epidemic across the world. Many genetic, physiological, and behavioral factors play a role in the etiology of obesity. Diet and exercise are known to play a valuable role in the treatment and prevention of obesity and associated disorders such as hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the prevalence, etiology, consequences, and treatment of obesity.
Oude Mulders, Jaap; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop
Top managers guide organizational strategy and practices, but their role in the employment of older workers is understudied. We study the effects that age-related workplace norms of top managers have on organizations' recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. We investigate two types of age-related workplace norms, namely age equality norms (whether younger and older workers should be treated equally) and retirement age norms (when older workers are expected to retire) while controlling for organizational and national contexts. Data collected among top managers of 1,088 organizations from six European countries were used for the study. Logistic regression models were run to estimate the effects of age-related workplace norms on four different organizational outcomes: (a) recruiting older workers, (b) encouraging working until normal retirement age, (c) encouraging working beyond normal retirement age, and (d) rehiring retired former employees. Age-related workplace norms of top managers affect their organizations' practices, but in different ways. Age equality norms positively affect practices before the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes a and b), whereas retirement age norms positively affect practices after the boundary of normal retirement age (Outcomes c and d). Changing age-related workplace norms of important actors in organizations may be conducive to better employment opportunities and a higher level of employment participation of older workers. However, care should be taken to target the right types of norms, since targeting different norms may yield different outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Grawitch, Matthew J; Ballard, David W; Erb, Kaitlyn R
This article explains how key practices pertaining to the psychologically healthy workplace can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to stress management in contemporary organizations. Specifically, we demonstrate the ways in which employee involvement, recognition, work-life balance, health and safety, and growth and development practices can be used to assist in the reduction of work stress and the proactive management of strain. Although many organizations strive to establish a positive environment conducive to work and well-being, identifying where to begin can often seem like a daunting task. Currently, many stress management efforts emphasize individual-level interventions that are simply implemented alongside existing organizational practices. We propose that a broader perspective allows for a better understanding of the stress process, resulting in the ability to consider a wider range of changes to organizational processes. Combining knowledge regarding psychologically healthy workplace practices, stress management intervention levels and the personal resource allocation framework, we present a comprehensive framework for approaching workplace stress management, which can be tailored to the unique needs of various organizations, departments and employees. By adopting this broader perspective, we believe organizations can more strategically address employee stress, resulting in more effective stress management and a profound impact on stress-related outcomes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Igel, L I; Saunders, K H; Fins, J J
In this review, we examine one of the ironies of American health care-that we pay more for disease management than disease prevention. Instead of preventing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by treating its precursor, obesity, we fail to provide sufficient insurance coverage for weight management only to fund the more costly burden of overt T2DM. There is a vital need for expanded insurance coverage to help foster a weight-centric approach to T2DM management. This includes broader coverage of anti-diabetic medications with evidence of cardiovascular risk reduction and mortality benefit, anti-obesity pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery, weight loss devices, endoscopic bariatric therapies, and lifestyle interventions for the treatment of obesity. The fundamental question to ask is why weight? Why wait to go after obesity until its end-stage sequelae cause intractable conditions? Instead of managing the complications of T2DM, consider preventing them by tackling obesity.
... improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can ... more calories than you burn. And most Americans' diets are too high in calories and are ... factors Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and ...
Saunders, Katherine H; Kumar, Rekha B; Igel, Leon I; Aronne, Louis J
Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality.
Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H
Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding
Sandhu, Jag S; Anderson, Keith; Keen, Dave; Yassi, Annalee
A web-based questionnaire-survey was administered primarily to determine what information is useful to managers in Fraser Health, of British Columbia to support decision-making for workplace health and safety. The results indicated that managers prefer electronic quarterly reports, with targets, goals, and historical trends rated as "very important." Over 85.7% "agree" that if information was readily available in the "most beneficial" format, they would be able to improve workplace health. Recommendations include that managers be presented with clear and concise workplace health reports that facilitate analysis for decision-making.
Rippe, J M; Crossley, S; Ringer, R
The United States is in the midst of an epidemic of obesity involving more than one third of the adult population. The prevalence of obesity increased by 40% between 1980 and 1990. Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifactorial etiology including genetics, environment, metabolism, lifestyle, and behavioral components. A chronic disease treatment model involving both lifestyle interventions and, when appropriate, additional medical therapies delivered by an interdisciplinary team including physicians, dietitians, exercise specialists, and behavior therapists offers the best chance for effective obesity treatment. Lifestyle factors such as proper nutrition, regular physical activity, and changes in eating behaviors should be coordinated by this team. This review addresses the modern epidemic of obesity, the strong association between obesity and comorbidities such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In addition to obesity, the health risks of abdominal obesity and adult weight gain are discussed. The evidence that supports health benefits from modest weight loss (between 5% and 10% of body weight) is evaluated and the 5 key principles of effective obesity therapy are put forward. Obesity is a therapeutic challenge best met by teams of health care professionals, including dietitians and physicians, working together to deliver optimal treatment.
Martinez, Angel Johann Solorzano
Workplace violence in health care settings is an occupational issue concerning nurses and other health care professionals. Patient aggression against nurses is often the most common form of violence in clinical settings, occurring in emergency departments, inpatient psychiatric settings, and nursing homes. Physical and verbal assaults are the major forms of workplace violence encountered by nurses. Current research has identified staff, environmental, and patient risk factors as the major precursors of workplace violence initiated by patients. Nurses often experience significant physical and psychological negative consequences after an episode of workplace violence. A review of the evidence was conducted to identify current evidence-based interventions that can help nurses minimize the incidence of workplace violence. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 31-36.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Madsen, Ida Elisabeth Huitfeldt; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Hasle, Peter
This study examined the association between the workplace-effort in psychosocial risk management and later employee-rating of the psychosocial work environment. The study is based on data from two questionnaire surveys - one including 1013 workplaces and one including 7565 employees from these workplaces. The association was analyzed using multi-level linear regression. The association for five different trade-groups and for five different psychosocial work environment domains was examined. Limited but statistically significant better employee-ratings of the psychosocial work environment in the respective domains were observed among Danish workplaces that prioritized "development possibilities for employees," "recognition of employees," "employees influence on own work tasks," good "communication at the workplace," and "help to prevent work overload." Danish workplaces with a high effort in psychosocial risk management in the preceding year had a small but significantly more positive rating of the psychosocial work environment by the employees. However, future studies are needed to establish the causality of the associations.
Harvey, E L; Summerbell, C D; Kirk, S F L; Hill, A J
To examine dietitians' views of overweight and obese people, to explore the role of level of severity on these perceptions (overweight vs. obesity), and to explore the relationship between dietitians' views and their reported weight management practices. An independent measures survey, questioning dietitians about either overweight or obese people. One-hundred and eighty-seven members of the British Dietetic Association. A questionnaire exploring beliefs about the causes, attitudes, perceptions of responsibility and reported weight management practices. Physical inactivity was identified as an important causative factor for both overweight and obesity. Mood, eating too much of the wrong foods, repeated dieting and interpersonal factors were also seen as relatively important for both groups. Attitudes were mixed, but were generally neutral to positive. The most negative attitudes were described in terms of perceived reduced self-esteem, sexual attractiveness and health. Dietitians rated obese people more negatively than overweight people. They viewed both overweight and obese people as being responsible for their excess weight. They also reported very similar management practices for overweight and obese people. Beliefs about the causes of overweight explained more of the variance in practice than dietitians' attitudes towards or perceived responsibility of overweight and obese people. However, these associations were not consistent and strong, and other factors not investigated here are likely to have a greater influence on weight management practices.
And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.
Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…
Oostrom, Janneke K; van Mierlo, Heleen
Workplace violence is a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers, generating a need for effective intervention programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aggression management training program. The evaluation design was based on the internal referencing strategy, an unobtrusive and applicable evaluation method that rules out some major threats to internal validity without the need for a control group. On three occasions, training participants completed a questionnaire containing experimental and control variables. As hypothesized, there was a significant improvement in the experimental variables that was larger than the non-significant change in the control variable. We conclude that aggression management training may be an effective instrument in the fight against workplace violence. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Hansen, Alana; Pisaniello, Dino; Varghese, Blesson; Rowett, Shelley; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Bi, Peng; Nitschke, Monika
Heat exposure can be a health hazard for many Australian workers in both outdoor and indoor situations. With many heat-related incidents left unreported, it is often difficult to determine the underlying causal factors. This study aims to provide insights into perceptions of potentially unsafe or uncomfortably hot working conditions that can affect occupational health and safety using information provided by the public and workers to the safety regulator in South Australia (SafeWork SA). Details of complaints regarding heat exposure to the regulator's "Help Centre" were assembled in a dataset and the textual data analysed thematically. The findings showed that the majority of calls relate to indoor work environments such as kitchens, factories, and warehouses. The main themes identified were work environment, health effects, and organisational issues. Impacts of hot working conditions ranged from discomfort to serious heat-related illnesses. Poor management practices and inflexibility of supervisors featured strongly amongst callers' concerns. With temperatures predicted to increase and energy prices escalating, this timely study, using naturalistic data, highlights accounts of hot working conditions that can compromise workers' health and safety and the need for suitable measures to prevent heat stress. These could include risk assessments to assess the likelihood of heat stress in workplaces where excessively hot conditions prevail.
Full Text Available Heat exposure can be a health hazard for many Australian workers in both outdoor and indoor situations. With many heat-related incidents left unreported, it is often difficult to determine the underlying causal factors. This study aims to provide insights into perceptions of potentially unsafe or uncomfortably hot working conditions that can affect occupational health and safety using information provided by the public and workers to the safety regulator in South Australia (SafeWork SA. Details of complaints regarding heat exposure to the regulator’s “Help Centre” were assembled in a dataset and the textual data analysed thematically. The findings showed that the majority of calls relate to indoor work environments such as kitchens, factories, and warehouses. The main themes identified were work environment, health effects, and organisational issues. Impacts of hot working conditions ranged from discomfort to serious heat-related illnesses. Poor management practices and inflexibility of supervisors featured strongly amongst callers’ concerns. With temperatures predicted to increase and energy prices escalating, this timely study, using naturalistic data, highlights accounts of hot working conditions that can compromise workers’ health and safety and the need for suitable measures to prevent heat stress. These could include risk assessments to assess the likelihood of heat stress in workplaces where excessively hot conditions prevail.
Horowitz, Neil S; Wright, Alexi A
To describe the effects of obesity on the pharmacokinetics and dosing of chemotherapies and provide recommendations for chemotherapy management in obese women with gynecologic malignancies. PubMEd and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles published before June 2014. Only English-language articles were considered. 84 manuscripts were reviewed and 66 were included. Search terms included: obesity, overweight, body mass index, body surface area, glomerular filtration rate, chemotherapy, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, inflammation, and pharmacokinetics, Obese cancer patients have worse clinical outcomes, compared with non-obese patients. This may be because of differences in pharmacokinetics, metabolic dysregulation, or physicians' decisions to reduce chemotherapy dose-intensity during treatment to minimize toxicities. A 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline recommends using actual body weight for chemotherapy dosing in all patients treated with curative intent, irrespective of obesity, to avoid compromising clinical outcomes, including progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In women with gynecologic cancers most studies demonstrate no difference in PFS or OS when obese patients receive the same chemotherapy dose intensity as non-obese patients, except perhaps with bevacizumab. Chemotherapy dose-intensity is a critical determinant of cancer outcomes and should be maintained in all patients, irrespective of obesity. Future studies should prospectively examine the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes (adverse events, survival) to improve the care of this growing population of patients who are at risk for inferior clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gayed, Aimée; Bryan, Bridget T.; Petrie, Katherine; Deady, Mark; Milner, Allison; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Calvo, Rafael A.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen; Mykletun, Arnstein; Glozier, Nicholas; Harvey, Samuel B.
Background Within high income countries, mental health is now the leading cause of long term sickness absence in the workplace. Managers are in a position to make changes and decisions that have a positive effect on the wellbeing of staff, the recovery of employees with mental ill health, and potentially prevent future mental health problems. However, managers report addressing workplace mental health issues as challenging. The aim of the HeadCoach trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a ...
Tremblay, A; Arguin, H; Panahi, S
Capsaicin is the molecule that is responsible for the pungency of hot peppers. It stimulates the sympathoadrenal system that mediates the thermogenic and anorexigenic effects of capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids have been found to accentuate the impact of caloric restriction on body weight loss. Some studies have also shown that capsinoids, the non-pungent analogs of capsaicinoids, increase energy expenditure. Capsaicin supplementation attenuates or even prevents the increase in hunger and decrease in fullness as well as the decrease in energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which normally result from energy restriction. These effects may postpone the occurrence of resistance to lose fat during a weight loss program and facilitate the maintenance of body weight in a postobese state. Evidence also highlights the plausibility of an indirect effect of capsaicin on energy balance via its analgesic effects, which may improve sleep and ultimately facilitate the regulation of energy balance. Although capsaicin intake appears to be a safe practice, further studies will be needed to ascertain the safety of regular long-term consumption. Taken together, these observations reinforce the idea that consumption of capsaicinoids and capsinoids may be helpful to facilitate obesity management.
... by William Dietz and a forward-looking 'future perspectives' conclusion by Philip James embrace an international team of authors, all with experience of the issues posed by obesity in the young. Aimed at doctors, and all health-care professionals, it will be of interest to all those concerned about the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and ...
Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun
Uncorrected obesity has been associated with cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several mechanisms for this cardiomyopathy have been identified, including oxidative stress, autophagy, adrenergic and renin-angiotensin aldosterone overflow. Another process that may regulate effects of obesity is epigenetics, which refers to the heritable alterations in gene expression or cellular phenotype that are not encoded on the DNA sequence. Advances in epigenome profiling have greatly improved the understanding of the epigenome in obesity, where environmental exposures during early life result in an increased health risk later on in life. Several mechanisms, including histone modification, DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, have been reported in obesity and can cause transcriptional suppression or activation, depending on the location within the gene, contributing to obesity-induced complications. Through epigenetic modifications, the fetus may be prone to detrimental insults, leading to cardiac sequelae later in life. Important links between epigenetics and obesity include nutrition, exercise, adiposity, inflammation, insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide studies have identified altered DNA methylation patterns in pancreatic islets, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues from obese subjects compared with non-obese controls. In addition, aging and intrauterine environment are associated with differential DNA methylation. Given the intense research on the molecular mechanisms of the etiology of obesity and its complications, this review will provide insights into the current understanding of epigenetics and pharmacological and non-pharmacological (such as exercise) interventions targeting epigenetics as they relate to treatment of obesity and its complications. Particular focus will be on DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McKibbon, D. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)
The importance of implementing comprehensive drug and alcohol policies in the workplace was discussed with particular emphasis on the procedures which are needed to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements regarding alcoholism and drug abuse. A study of workplace substance abuse issues in Alberta revealed that 80 per cent of the Alberta workforce uses alcohol, 27 per cent use cold medication, and 6.5 per cent use illicit drugs. The impact of drug and alcohol use in the workplace was also reviewed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policy procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities. 3 refs.
Abdulaziz M Sebiany
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge of primary health care physicians and the barriers perceived in the management of overweight and obesity in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Setting: Primary health care centers in Dammam and Al-Khobar cities, Saudi Arabia. Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-nine physicians were surveyed. Data were collected with a specially made anonymous, self-administrated, structured questionnaire with a Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.85, and content validity by five experts was used to measure the knowledge and barriers from several different aspects of care provided by primary health care centers to the overweight and obese. Results: One hundred and thirty (87% physicians responded. More than two-thirds of the respondents considered themselves as key players in the management of obesity. However, only one-third believed that they were well prepared to treat obesity. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had a negative attitude toward the concept of overweight and obesity. It was noted that 76.9% of physicians advised patients to control their weight with sport and exercise together with low calorie diet. Sixty percent of the respondents used body mass index to diagnose obesity. Seventy-two percent of respondents did not use weight reduction medications to treat obesity. Lack of training, poor administrative support, and time constraints were identified as barriers in managing overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Respondents were aware of the magnitude of overweight and obesity as a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia, and they were also aware of the correct definition of overweight and obesity, as well as its effect in increasing mortality. Better training is required to improve some areas of awareness and management of the conditions.
D.Ed. A skills revolution was launched in the South African workplace by the Department of Labour in 1998. Various skills development legislation were introduced to meet international standards, redress skills imbalances, curb skills shortages and improve the general skills in the current workforce. Training providers were the drivers of workplace training, yet are now displaced by skills authorities, such as the SET As, the ETQAs and SAQA. While the custody of skills development is placed...
Mohammad, Shoaib; Ahmad, Jamal
Obesity and being overweight is the most powerful risk factor accounting for 80-90% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The epidemic of obesity is driving the diabetes epidemic to alarming levels and primary care is becoming an important setting for obesity management in T2DM in India. Yet many primary care providers feel ill-equipped or inadequately supported to address obesity in patients with diabetes. This article reviews the most recent and strongest evidence-based strategies that may aid physicians in management of obesity in patients with T2DM in primary care. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE using the search terms Obesity, Obesity in T2DM, weight loss and Primary Care was conducted. The American Diabetes Association, National Institute for Health, National Institute of Health and Excellence (NICE), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and World Health Organization websites were also searched. Most studies in this area are observational in design with few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Articles and studies involving meta-analysis or RCTs were preferred over other types. Effective weight management treatment in T2DM patient can be implemented in the primary care setting. Evidence based individualized lifestyle and pharmacologic measures supported by behavioral intervention and counseling with appropriate and informed surgical referrals has the potential to improve the success of weight management within primary care. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Courtney J Jolliffe
Full Text Available Courtney J Jolliffe1, Ian Janssen1,21School of Physical and Health Education, 2Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. Pediatric obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV risk factors including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. It is also associated with an increased risk of CV disease (CVD in adulthood. Moreover, obesity and CVD risk factors in obese youth tend to track into adulthood, further increasing the risk of adult CVD. Consequently, the treatment and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health priority. Proper nutrition and increased physical activity are the main focus of these efforts; however, few studies have shown positive results. Treatment options for obesity in youth also include pharmacotherapy and surgery. While pharmacotherapy appears promising, additional evidence is needed, especially with respect to the long-term impact, before it becomes a widespread treatment option in the pediatric population.Keywords: childhood, obesity, overweight, cardiovascular risk factors, prevention, treatment
... Obesity, And What You Can Do Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic Stress Management How Does Stress Affect You? ... Keeping the Weight Off • Obesity - Introduction - Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic - Treating Obesity as a Disease - Childhood Obesity ...
Siti Noraida Jamal
Full Text Available There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme.We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2 employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM (intervention(n = 97 or dietary counseling (comparison(n = 97. The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle.The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation age of 40.5 (9.3 years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45. At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts.The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving targeted weight loss, improving
Jamal, Siti Noraida; Moy, Foong Ming; Azmi Mohamed, Mohd Nahar; Mukhtar, Firdaus
There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme. We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle. The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts. The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving targeted weight loss, improving weight self
Full Text Available Obesity, a risk factor for de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD, confers survival advantages in advanced CKD. This so-called obesity paradox is the archetype of the reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risks, in addition to the lipid, blood pressure, adiponectin, homocysteine, and uric acid paradoxes. These paradoxical phenomena are in sharp contradistinction to the known epidemiology of cardiovascular risks in the general population. In addition to advanced CKD, the obesity paradox has also been observed in heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, liver cirrhosis, and metastatic cancer, as well as in elderly individuals. These are populations in whom protein−energy wasting and inflammation are strong predictors of early death. Both larger muscle mass and higher body fat provide longevity in these patients, whereas thinner body habitus and weight loss are associated with higher mortality. Muscle mass appears to be superior to body fat in conferring an even greater survival. The obesity paradox may be the result of a time discrepancy between competing risk factors, that is, overnutrition as the long-term killer versus undernutrition as the short-term killer. Hemodynamic stability of obesity, lipoprotein defense against circulating endotoxins, protective cytokine profiles, toxin sequestration of fat mass, and antioxidation of muscle may play important roles. Despite claims that the obesity paradox is a statistical fallacy and a result of residual confounding, the consistency of data and other causality clues suggest a high biologic plausibility. Examining the causes and consequences of the obesity paradox may help uncover important pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to improved outcomes in patients with CKD.
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...
Gensby, U; Labriola, M; Irvin, E; Amick, B C; Lund, T
This paper presents results from a Campbell systematic review on the nature and effectiveness of workplace disability management programs (WPDM) promoting return to work (RTW), as implemented and practiced by employers. A classification of WPDM program components, based on the review results, is proposed. Twelve databases were searched between 1948 to July 2010 for peer-reviewed studies of WPDM programs provided by employers to re-entering workers with occupational or non-occupational illnesses or injuries. Screening of articles, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were conducted in pairs of reviewers. Studies were clustered around various dimensions of the design and context of programs. 16,932 records were identified by the initial search. 599 papers were assessed for relevance. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria. Twelve peer reviewed articles (two non-randomized studies, and ten single group experimental before and after studies), including ten different WPDM programs informed the synthesis of results. Narrative descriptions of the included program characteristics provided insight on program scope, components, procedures and human resources involved. However, there were insufficient data on the characteristics of the sample and the effect sizes were uncertain. A taxonomy classifying policies and practices around WPDM programs is proposed. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of employer provided WPDM programs promoting RTW. It was not possible to determine if specific program components or specific sets of components are driving effectiveness. The proposed taxonomy may guide future WPDM program evaluation and clarify the setup of programs offered to identify gaps in existing company strategies.
Mark Ng Tang Fui
Full Text Available With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.
Full Text Available After having conducted two studies of the effectiveness of workplace travel plans for promoting active travel, we investigated health and transport practitioners' perspectives on implementing workplace travel plans to share some of the lessons learnt. The objectives of this study were to describe perceived elements of effective workplace travel plans, barriers and enablers to workplace travel planning, their experiences of working with the other profession on travel plan implementation, their recommendations for workplace travel planning, and also to explore similarities and differences in transport and health practitioner perspectives.Fourteen health and ten transport practitioners who had prior involvement in workplace travel plan programs were purposefully selected from workplaces in Australia. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews since data saturation had been reached at this point, and data were subject to framework analysis.Perceived essential elements of effective workplace travel plans included parking management; leadership, organisational commitment and governance; skills and other resources like a dedicated travel plan coordinator; and, pre-conditions including supportive transport infrastructure in the surrounds. Recommendations for promoting travel plans included supportive government policy, focusing on business benefits and working at different scales of implementation (e.g. single large worksites and business precincts. Health and transport practitioner perspectives differed, with transport practitioners believing that parking management is the key action for managing travel demand at a worksite.Health practitioners implementing travel plans may require training including concepts of travel demand management, and support from transport planners on parking management strategies. Promoting an understanding of the shared travel behaviour change skills of transport and health practitioners may assist further collaboration. For take
Petrunoff, Nick; Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming
After having conducted two studies of the effectiveness of workplace travel plans for promoting active travel, we investigated health and transport practitioners' perspectives on implementing workplace travel plans to share some of the lessons learnt. The objectives of this study were to describe perceived elements of effective workplace travel plans, barriers and enablers to workplace travel planning, their experiences of working with the other profession on travel plan implementation, their recommendations for workplace travel planning, and also to explore similarities and differences in transport and health practitioner perspectives. Fourteen health and ten transport practitioners who had prior involvement in workplace travel plan programs were purposefully selected from workplaces in Australia. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews since data saturation had been reached at this point, and data were subject to framework analysis. Perceived essential elements of effective workplace travel plans included parking management; leadership, organisational commitment and governance; skills and other resources like a dedicated travel plan coordinator; and, pre-conditions including supportive transport infrastructure in the surrounds. Recommendations for promoting travel plans included supportive government policy, focusing on business benefits and working at different scales of implementation (e.g. single large worksites and business precincts). Health and transport practitioner perspectives differed, with transport practitioners believing that parking management is the key action for managing travel demand at a worksite. Health practitioners implementing travel plans may require training including concepts of travel demand management, and support from transport planners on parking management strategies. Promoting an understanding of the shared travel behaviour change skills of transport and health practitioners may assist further collaboration. For take-up by
Callaway, C W
Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...
Full Text Available Amy Fleischman, Erinn T RhodesDivision of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, United StatesAbstract: Childhood obesity has become a national and international epidemic. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth have been increasing, and type 2 diabetes is one of the most challenging complications of obesity in childhood. Comprehensive lifestyle interventions that include attention to dietary change, increased physical activity and behavior change appear to be required for the successful treatment of pediatric obesity. In particular, aspects of behavioral interventions that have been identified as contributing to effectiveness have included intensity, parent/family participation, addressing healthy dietary change, promoting physical activity, and involving behavioral management principles such as goal setting. A multidisciplinary team approach is required for successful management of type 2 diabetes in youth as well. As with many therapies in pediatrics, clinical trials and support for treatments of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth lag behind adult data. Pediatric recommendations may be extrapolated from adult data and are often based on consensus guidelines. Type 2 diabetes in children is most commonly managed with lifestyle modification and medications, metformin and/or insulin, the only medications currently approved for use in children. However, many opportunities exist for ongoing research to clarify optimal management for obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth.Keywords: children, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metformin, insulin, bariatric surgery
Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo
An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pchildren. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
German, Alexander J
Obesity is arguably the biggest health and welfare issue affecting pet dogs. Although successful weight loss has health benefits, current strategies are far from ideal. Many obese dogs that start a weight programme fail to lose weight, or subsequently regain the weight they have lost. Given that current weight loss strategies are not perfect, clinicians need to focus carefully on tailoring the programme, perhaps setting a pragmatic target for weight loss, so as to ensure the benefits are maximised. This review will summarise key findings from recent clinical research into pet obesity, and present a framework for improving success, by better tailoring weight management regimens and end points to the individual.
Full Text Available Mark E Lemstra Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Moose Jaw, SK, Canada Abstract: Few workplaces have prospectively reviewed workplace and worker issues simultaneously and assessed their impact on Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB claims. In January of 2014, each worker in a large workplace in Saskatchewan, Canada, was prospectively followed for 1 year to determine factors that impact injury claim incidence, recovery, and costs. In total, 207 out of 245 workers agreed to complete the baseline survey (84.5%. In 2014, 82.5% of workers had self-reported pain, but only 35.5% submitted a WCB claim. Binary logistic regression was used to compare those with pain who did not submit a WCB injury claim to those with pain who did initiate a WCB claim. Independent risk factors associated with WCB claim incidence included depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] =2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–9.78 and lower job satisfaction (OR =1.70, 95% CI 1.08–10.68. Higher disability duration was independently associated with higher depressed mood (OR =1.60, 95% CI 1.05–4.11 and poor recovery expectation (OR =1.31, 95% CI 1.01–5.78. Higher cost disability claims were independently associated with higher depressed mood (OR =1.51, 95% CI 1.07–6.87 and pain catastrophizing (OR =1.11, 95% CI 1.02–8.11. Self-reported pain, physically assessed injury severity, and measured ergonomic risk of workstation did not significantly predict injury claim incidence, duration, or costs. In January 2015, the workplace implemented a new occupational prevention and management program. The injury incidence rate ratio reduced by 58% from 2014 to 2015 (IRR =1.58, 95% CI =1.28–1.94. The ratio for disability duration reduced by 139% from 2014 to 2015 (RR =2.39, 95% CI =2.16–2.63. Costs reduced from $114,149.07 to $56,528.14 per year. In summary, WCB claims are complex. Recognizing that nonphysical factors, such as depressed mood, influence injury claim incidence, recovery, and
German, Alexander J
Obesity is now recognised as the most important medical disease in pets worldwide. All current strategies for weight management involve dietary energy restriction with a purpose-formulated diet. Whilst current weight management regimes can be successful, outcomes are often disappointing with the rate of weight loss progressively slowing down as time goes on. Success is most challenging for the most obese dogs and cats that are more likely to discontinue the programme before reaching target weight. To improve outcomes, clinicians must focus carefully on better tailoring programmes, paying particular to setting an appropriate target weight so as to maximise the benefits for the individual. In this opinionated review, the author will discuss findings from recent clinical research studies examining weight management in obese dogs and cats. A strategy for tailoring weight management targets will then be discussed, illustrated with case examples.
Harris, Isiah D; Python, Johanne; Roth, Lauren; Alvero, Ruben; Murray, Shona; Schlaff, William D
To assess the practice patterns and personal beliefs of fertility physicians who care for obese patients seeking assisted reproduction, we conducted a national survey of fertility program directors from both private and academic practices and discovered that although few practices have firm guidelines regarding the management of obese patients, the overwhelming majority of providers believe that body mass index guidelines or cutoffs should exist. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. During the last two decades, the prevalence of adults in the higher body mass index (BMI) categories in the US has increased the most, as much as 300% for those with a BMI above 40kg/m2. In children and adolescents, a doubling of the prevalence of severe overweight poses a serious health risk to future generations of young adults who may develop chronic diseases normally associated with aging. The simple definition of obesity, an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, ignores the complexity of, and largely unknown interactions between, genes, food intake and physical activity, which together determine bodyweight and fat distribution. Although the etiology and manifestations of overweight and obesity are complex, the assessment of overweight and obesity requires only an accurate measurement of bodyweight, height and abdominal circumference, as well as a history and physical examination attuned to the morbidities that commonly accompany overweight and obesity such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep apnea. The treatment of patients with overweight and obesity continues to be based on changes to diet and physical activity. Simple behavior modification techniques are within the reach of busy clinicians. The additional use of available bodyweight reduction medications can reliably lead to a 5 to 10% reduction from initial bodyweight, a loss that has been shown to provide significant health benefit. The use of meal replacements has also been shown to be effective and is probably an under-appreciated treatment resource. Surgery is the most successful treatment for those with severe obesity and should be discussed as an option for those in the appropriate bodyweight categories. Because societal trends favor the greater intake of calorie-dense foods and less physical activity to accomplish the activities of daily life, the future of obesity treatment will require the
Flego, Anna; Dowsey, Michelle M; Choong, Peter F M; Moodie, Marj
Obesity is one of the only modifiable risk factors for both incidence and progression of Osteoarthritis (OA). So there is increasing interest from a public health perspective in addressing obesity in the management of OA. While evidence of the efficacy of intereventions designed to address obesity in OA populations continues to grow, little is known about their economic credentials. The aim of this study is to conduct a scoping review of: (i) the published economic evidence assessing the economic impact of obesity in OA populations; (ii) economic evaluations of interventions designed to explicitly address obesity in the prevention and management of OA in order to determine which represent value for money. Besides describing the current state of the literature, the study highlights research gaps and identifies future research priorities. In July 2014, a search of the peer reviewed literature, published in English, was undertaken for the period January 1975 - July 2014 using Medline Complete (Ebscohost), Embase, Econlit, Global Health, Health Economics Evaluation Database (HEED), all Cochrane Library databases as well as the grey literature using Google and reference lists of relevant studies. A combination of key search terms was used to identify papers assessing the economic impact of obesity in OA or economic evaluations conducted to assess the efficiency of obesity interventions for the prevention or management of OA. 14 studes were identified; 13 were cost burden studies assessing the impact of obesity as a predictor for higher costs in Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) patients and one a cost-effectiveness study of an intervention designed to address obesity in the managment of mild to moderate OA patients. The majority of the economic studies conducted are cost burden studies. While there is some evidence of the association between severe obesity and excess hospital costs for TJA patients, heterogeneity in studies precludes definitive statements about the
Kloek, C.J.J.; Tol, J.; Veenhof, C.; Wulp, I. van der; Swinkels, I.C.S.
Background: General practitioners (GPs) can play an important role in both the prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Current general practice guidelines in the Netherlands allow room for GPs to execute their own weight management policy. Objective: To examine GPs’ current weight
The ongoing debate over the definition and application of workplace diversity policies results in a wide range of viewpoints. There are a number of theoreticians who feel that if diversity is more than avoidance of discrimination, that the traditional body of anti-discrimination programs such as the Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) efforts…
Fruh, Sharon M
The aims of this article are to review the effects of obesity on health and well-being and the evidence indicating they can be ameliorated by weight loss, and consider weight-management strategies that may help patients achieve and maintain weight loss. Narrative review based on literature searches of PubMed up to May 2016 with no date limits imposed. Search included terms such as "obesity," "overweight," "weight loss," "comorbidity," "diabetes," cardiovascular," "cancer," "depression," "management," and "intervention." Over one third of U.S. adults have obesity. Obesity is associated with a range of comorbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and cancer; however, modest weight loss in the 5%-10% range, and above, can significantly improve health-related outcomes. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss, although strategies such as realistic goal-setting and increased consultation frequency can greatly improve the success of weight-management programs. Nurse practitioners have key roles in establishing weight-loss targets, providing motivation and support, and implementing weight-loss programs. With their in-depth understanding of the research in the field of obesity and weight management, nurse practitioners are well placed to effect meaningful changes in weight-management strategies deployed in clinical practice. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Villagra, Victor G
Obesity is a critical health concern that has captured the attention of public and private healthcare payers who are interested in controlling costs and mitigating the long-term economic consequences of the obesity epidemic. Population-based approaches to obesity management have been proposed that take advantage of a chronic care model (CCM), including patient self-care, the use of community-based resources, and the realization of care continuity through ongoing communications with patients, information technology, and public policy changes. Payer-sponsored disease management programs represent an important conduit to delivering population-based care founded on similar CCM concepts. Disease management is founded on population-based disease identification, evidence-based care protocols, and collaborative practices between clinicians. While substantial clinician training, technology infrastructure commitments, and financial support at the payer level will be needed for the success of disease management programs in obesity and cardiometabolic risk reduction, these barriers can be overcome with the proper commitment. Disease management programs represent an important tool to combat the growing societal risks of overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available This study investigates the prevalence and nature of sexual harassment and, assesses the impact of supervisory relations, levels of interaction, appearance and personality and types of behaviour. The study was undertaken at a tertiary institution using a sample of 74 employees, drawn by means of simple random sampling. Data was collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which was statistically tested and, analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that the sub-dimensions of the study impact significantly on sexual harassment. Based on the findings, a model for early identification and effective management of sexual harassment in the workplace was generated.
Full Text Available Agnes M Lamon, Ashraf S Habib Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. It is associated with increased comorbidities and increased maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. The risk of cesarean delivery is also increased in obese parturients. Anesthetic management of the obese parturient is challenging and requires adequate planning. Therefore, those patients should be referred to antenatal anesthetic consultation. Anesthesia-related complications and maternal mortality are increased in this patient population. The risk of difficult intubation is increased in obese patients. Neuraxial techniques are the preferred anesthetic techniques for cesarean delivery in obese parturients but can be technically challenging. An existing labor epidural catheter can be topped up for cesarean delivery. In patients who do not have a well-functioning labor epidural, a combined spinal epidural technique might be preferred over a single-shot spinal technique since it is technically easier in obese parturients and allows for extending the duration of the block as required. A continuous spinal technique can also be considered. Studies suggest that there is no need to reduce the dose of spinal bupivacaine in the obese parturient, but there is little data about spinal dosing in super obese parturients. Intraoperatively, patients should be placed in a ramped position, with close monitoring of ventilation and hemodynamic status. Adequate postoperative analgesia is crucial to allow for early mobilization. This can be achieved using a multimodal regimen incorporating neuraxial morphine (with appropriate observations with scheduled nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Thromboprophylaxis is also important in this patient population due to the increased risk of thromboembolic complications. These patients should be monitored carefully in the postoperative period, since there
Guillemette, L; Durksen, A; Rabbani, R; Zarychanski, R; Abou-Setta, A M; Duhamel, T A; McGavock, J M; Wicklow, B
Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of offspring childhood obesity. Treatment reduces macrosomia; however, it is unclear if this effect translates into a reduced risk of childhood obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intensive glycemic management in pregnancy in preventing childhood obesity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov up to February 2016 and conference abstracts from 2010 to 2015. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials evaluating intensive glycemic management interventions for hyperglycemia in pregnancy and included four of the 383 citations initially identified. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and evaluated internal validity of the studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using the I 2 test. The primary outcome was age- and sex-adjusted childhood obesity. Secondary outcomes included childhood weight and waist circumference and maternal hypoglycemia during the trial (safety outcome). The four eligible trials (n=767 children) similarly used lifestyle and insulin to manage gestational hyperglycemia, but only two measured offspring obesity and waist circumference and could be pooled for these outcomes. We found no association between intensive gestational glucose management and childhood obesity at 7-10 years of age (relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.22; two trials; n=568 children). Waist circumference also did not differ between treatment and control arms (mean difference, -2.68 cm; 95% CI, -8.17 to 2.81 cm; two trials; n=568 children). Intensive gestational glycemic management is not associated with reduced childhood obesity in offspring, but randomized data is scarce. Long-term follow-up of trials should be prioritized and comprehensive
Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K
A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Method: Literature review was conducted using Goggle Search Engine and Highwire Press. Selected papers were taken and books from the author's collection were used for further reference. Results: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity producing long lasting weight loss and remission of ...
Full Text Available Background. The management of a child presenting with obesity in a primary care setting can be viewed as a multi-step behavioral process with many perceived and actual barriers for families and primary care providers. In order to achieve the goal of behavior change and, ultimately, clinically meaningful weight management outcomes in a child who is considered obese, all steps in this process should ideally be completed. We sought to review the evidence for completing each step, and to estimate the population effect of secondary prevention of childhood obesity in Canada.Methods. Data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Community Health Survey and from a review of the literature were used to estimate the probabilities for completion of each step. A flow chart based on these probabilities was used to determine the proportion of children with obesity that would undergo and achieve clinically meaningful weight management outcomes each year in Canada.Results. We estimated that the probability of a child in Canada who presents with obesity achieving clinically meaningful weight management outcomes through secondary prevention in primary care is around 0.6% per year, with a range from 0.01% to 7.2% per year. The lack of accessible and effective weight management programs appeared to be the most important bottleneck in the process.Conclusions. In order to make progress towards supporting effective pediatric obesity management, efforts should focus on population-based primary prevention and a systems approach to change our obesogenic society, alongside the allocation of resources toward weight management approaches that are comprehensively offered, equitably distributed and robustly evaluated.
Brown, I; Gould, J
There is a high non-attendance and dropout attrition from weight management interventions for adults with obesity. Patient dissatisfaction with consultations involving decisions about interventions may be a factor. A systematic review was undertaken of qualitative studies reporting perceptions, experiences, contexts and influences for adults facing, or reflecting on, weight management. The aim was to synthesize a generic model of influences on decision-making about weight management for adult patients. Electronic database and hand searches identified 29 qualitative studies involving 1387 participants (mean age 45.3 years; mean BMI 37.1 kg m(-2) ; 79.9% women). Seven overarching themes were inductively derived from extracted data spanning: cultural identity; social structures such as gender; responses to obesity stigma; previous weight loss experiences; personal motivators and barriers; social support; and practical resources. A model is presented in the paper. Improving decisions about weight management requires attention to how diffuse cultural and psycho-social factors, such as obesity stigma, influence patient choices. Reflection on experiences of previous attempts at weight loss is also essential, as are practical resource factors - particularly for less affluent groups. Considering these factors along with more established theories of individual psychological motivations and barriers may help to improve initial participation and retention within interventions. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Full Text Available John P Loftus, Joseph J Wakshlag Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Canine and feline obesity rates have reached pandemic proportions and are similar to those in humans, with approximately 30%–40% of dogs and cats being overweight to obese. Obesity has been associated with other health problems, including osteoarthritis, renal disease, skin disease, insulin resistance, and neoplasia in dogs, while in cats obesity is associated with dermatological issues, diabetes mellitus, neoplasia, and urolithiasis. The health issues appear to be slightly different across the two species, which may be due to some inherent differences in the hormonal milieu involved in obesity that differs between the dog and the cat. In this review, we discuss the complicated nature of the pathogenesis of obesity, the hormonal stimulus for orexigenic and anorexigenic behavior, adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, and most importantly, clinical management of the number one disease in canine and feline medicine.Keywords: obesity, canine, feline, veterinary
With the rise in overweight and obesity in children, it is imperative for health care providers to routinely address appropriate body mass index for children during primary care visits. The purposes of this project were to determine if overweight and obese children are accurately being identified and to evaluate provider adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the management of obesity. A retrospective chart review was completed for all children ages 2, 6, and 10 years who presented for a well-child visit from January 1, 2011, through June 30, 2011. Based on a review of 255 charts, 21.6% of patients were overweight and 18.4% were obese according to standards of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of these children, 34% were properly documented as being either overweight or obese, and documentation was lacking for the remaining 66%. Of the children correctly identified as being overweight or obese, only 11% and 26%, respectively, were counseled on therapeutic lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise. This review provides evidence that providers have opportunities to intervene early with well-child examinations and that providers have great room for improvement on counseling overweight and obese children. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pegah JafariNasabian,1 Julia E Inglis,1 Owen J Kelly,2 Jasminka Z Ilich1 1Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 2Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome (OSO has recently been identified as a condition encompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity. OSO is especially deleterious in older adults (even if they are not obese by conventional measures, due to age-related redistribution of fat and its infiltration into bone and muscle. Osteoporosis and bone fractures in elderly increase the risk of sarcopenia, which, through decreased mobility, increases the risk of more falls and fractures, creating a vicious cycle. Obesity plays a dual role: to a certain extent, it promotes bone and muscle gains through mechanical loading; in contrast, increased adiposity is also a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other endocrine factors that impair bone and muscle. As the elderly population increases, changes in lifestyle to delay the onset of OSO, or prevent OSO, are warranted. Among these changes, dietary patterns and physical activity modifications are the first ones to be implemented. The typical Western diet (and lifestyle promotes several chronic diseases including OSO, by facilitating a pro-inflammatory state, largely via the imbalance in omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and low-fiber and high-processed food consumption. Nutritional modifications to prevent and/or alleviate the OSO syndrome include adequate intake of protein, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D and increasing consumptions of foods containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. Certain types of physical activity, often decreased in overweight/obese women and in elderly, might preserve bone and muscle, as well as help in reducing body fat accrual and fat infiltration. Habitual daily activities and some alternative modes of exercise may be more appropriate for older
Sutton, Suzanne M; Magwood, Gayenell S; Nemeth, Lynne S; Jenkins, Carolyn M
Weight management of overweight and obese (OWO) African-American females (AAFs) is a poorly defined concept, leading to ineffective treatment of overweight and obesity, prevention of health sequelae, and risk reduction. A conceptual model of the phenomenon of weight management in OWO AAFs was developed through dimensional analysis of the literature. Constructs were identified and sorted into the dimensions of perspective, context, conditions, process, and consequences and integrated into an explanatory matrix. Through dimensional analysis, weight management in OWO AAFs was characterized as a multidimensional concept, defined from the perspective of weight loss in community-dwelling AAFs. Behaviors associated with weight management are strongly influenced by intrinsic factors and extrinsic conditions, which influence engagement in the processes and consequences of weight management. The resulting conceptual model of weight management in OWO AAFs provides a framework for research interventions applicable in a variety of settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Eunice G John
Full Text Available Hypertension after pediatric renal transplant is a common and important risk factor for graft loss and patient survival. The mechanism of post kidney transplant hypertension is complex and multifactorial. Control of blood pressure in renal transplant patients is important but often times blood pressures remain uncontrolled. The management of hypertension and obesity in pediatric kidney transplant patients is based on the pathophysiology. Compared to the general pediatric hypertensive population, special attention needs to be focused on the additional impact of immunosuppressive medications side effects and interactions, recurrent disease, and donor and recipient comorbidities such as obesity on blood pressure control with thoughtful consideration of the risk of graft failure. In general, there is a need for prospective studies in pediatric kidney transplant patients to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and obesity and the appropriate approach to achieve a balance between the primary need to avoid rejection and the need to lower blood pressure and prevent obesity.
McKibbon, D.; Glass, H. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., (Canada)
The impact of drugs and alcohol in the workplace was reviewed. The policies and procedures which are required to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements were discussed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The implementation of a comprehensive drug and alcohol policy was said to be important to demonstrate to employees that the organization is ready to take a proactive and supportive role in addressing this health concern. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policies, procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities.
Saundry, Richard Arthur; Latreille, Paul; Dickens, Linda; Irvine, Charlie; Teague, Paul; Urwin, Peter; Wibberley, Gemma
The resolution of individual workplace conflict has assumed an increasingly important place in policy debates over contemporary work and employment. This is in part due to the decline in collective industrial action and the parallel rise in the volume of employment tribunal applications. It reflects a growing concern over the\\ud implications of individual employment disputes for those involved but has perhaps been driven by concerns over the cost of litigation and the perceived burden that th...
Ogunleye, Ayodele; Osunlana, Adedayo; Asselin, Jodie; Cave, Andrew; Sharma, Arya Mitra; Campbell-Scherer, Denise Lynn
Despite opportunities for didactic education on obesity management, we still observe low rates of weight management visits in our primary care setting. This paper describes the co-creation by front-line interdisciplinary health care providers and researchers of the 5As Team intervention to improve obesity prevention and management in primary care. We describe the theoretical foundations, design, and core elements of the 5AsT intervention, and the process of eliciting practitioners' self-identified knowledge gaps to inform the curricula for the 5AsT intervention. Themes and topics were identified through facilitated group discussion and a curriculum relevant to this group of practitioners was developed and delivered in a series of 12 workshops. The research question and approach were co-created with the clinical leadership of the PCN; the PCN committed internal resources and a practice facilitator to the effort. Practice facilitation and learning collaboratives were used in the intervention For the content, front-line providers identified 43 topics, related to 13 themes around obesity assessment and management for which they felt the need for further education and training. These needs included: cultural identity and body image, emotional and mental health, motivation, setting goals, managing expectations, weight-bias, caregiver fatigue, clinic dynamics and team-based care, greater understanding of physiology and the use of a systematic framework for obesity assessment (the "4Ms" of obesity). The content of the 12 intervention sessions were designed based on these themes. There was a strong innovation values fit with the 5AsT intervention, and providers were more comfortable with obesity management following the intervention. The 5AsT intervention, including videos, resources and tools, has been compiled for use by clinical teams and is available online at http://www.obesitynetwork.ca/5As_Team . Primary care interdisciplinary practitioners perceive important
To combat the rising use of drugs in the workplace many American companies have implemented drug testing programs and are testing employees and job applicants for use of illegal drugs. In addition, on September 15, 1986, Executive Order No.12564 was issued by President Reagan, which requires all federal agencies to develop programs and policies, one of the goals of which is to achieve a drug-free federal workplace. Included in this Executive Order is the requirement that federal agencies implement drug testing has become a prevalent practice as a means to detect and deter drug use in the workplace. Before a drug testing program is implemented, it is imperative that policies and procedures are developed that (1) ensure the accuracy of test results, (2) protect the validity and integrity of the specimen, (3) guarantee due process, and (4) maintain confidentiality. To make certain that these prerequisites were met in the government drug testing programs, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) was directed to develop technical and scientific guidelines for conducting such programs. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists as providers of primary health care are well placed in promoting physical activity and lifestyles changes, but the role and practice of physiotherapist towards its promotion among obese individuals has not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to examine perceptions of Karachi physiotherapists regarding their role in management of obesity, the learning needs for, and hurdles facing by them in the rehabilitation. Methods: It was cross-sectional survey that has been conducted among 100 Physiotherapists from three tertiary care hospitals & universities of Karachi from April to June 2013. There has been used Self-administered questionnaire and sampling was Convenient Purposive sampling in qualitative research. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Questionnaire was intended to determine physiotherapist’s perceptions of their role and consisted of questions about respondent’s demographics profile, practice and domains related to management of obesity and associated conditions. Result: In this study 93% of participants agreed that physiotherapists has role in the management of patients with obesity by developing exercise interventions.95% plays role in functional mobility and 94%in cardio respiratory training programme. In this study participants were found less aware about weight loss management. Barrier found in patient treatment is due to lack of patient motivation. Conclusion: This study revealed physiotherapist played important role in patient rehabilitation management with obesity, especially in a area of mobility and exercise prescription for conditions associated with obesity. In future there is need to take into account the different perspectives of physical therapy and with a larger sample size representing all four states of Pakistan.
Bossche, S. van den
Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the
Bernatsky, S; Rusu, C; O'Donnell, S; Mackay, C; Hawker, G; Canizares, M; Badley, E
To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obese Canadians with arthritis and to describe their use of arthritis self-management strategies, as well as explore the factors associated with not engaging in any self-management strategies. Respondents to the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada, a nationally representative sample of 4,565 Canadians age ≥20 years reporting health professional-diagnosed arthritis (including more than 100 rheumatic diseases and conditions), were asked about the impact of their arthritis and how it was managed. Among the overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) individuals with arthritis (n = 2,869), the use of arthritis self-management strategies (i.e., exercise, weight control/loss, classes, and community-based programs) were analyzed. Log binomial regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with engaging in none versus any (≥1) of the 4 strategies. More than one-quarter (27.4%) of Canadians with arthritis were obese and an additional 39.9% were overweight. The overweight and obese individuals with arthritis were mostly female (59.5%), age ≥45 years (89.7%), and reported postsecondary education (69.0%). While most reported engagement in at least 1 self-management strategy (84.9%), less than half (45.6%) engaged in both weight control/loss and exercise. Factors independently associated with not engaging in any self-management strategies included lower education, not taking medications for arthritis, and no clinical recommendations from a health professional. Fewer than half of the overweight and obese Canadians with arthritis engaged in both weight control/loss and exercise. The provision of targeted clinical recommendations (particularly low in individuals that did not engage in any self-management strategies) may help to facilitate participation. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Johnston, Matthew; Safcsak, Karen; Cheatham, Michael L; Smith, Chadwick P
Obesity incidence in the trauma population is increasing. Abdominal compartment syndrome has poor outcomes when left untreated. Surgeons may treat obese patients differently because of concern for increased morbidity and mortality. We studied the effects of body mass index (BMI) on resource utilization and outcome. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of trauma patients requiring temporary abdominal closure (TAC) was performed. Patients were stratified as follows: Group 1-BMI = 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2), Group 2-BMI = 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), Group 3-BMI = 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), Group 4-BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2). Demographic data, illness severity as defined by Injury Severity Score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Score Version II and Simplified Acute Physiology Score Version II scores, resource utilization, fascial closure rate, and survival were collected. About 380 patients required TAC. Median age of Group 1 was significantly lower than Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.001). Severity of illness did not differ. Group 4 had a longer intensive care unit stay compared with Groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.005). Group 4 required mechanical ventilation longer than Group 1 (P = 0.027). Hospital stay, fascial closure, and survival were equivalent. Obese trauma patients with TAC have a longer intensive care unit stay and more ventilator days, but there is no difference in survival or type of closure. TAC can be used safely in trauma patients with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2).
Elmitt, Nicholas; Haelser, Emily; Douglas, Kirsty A
Objectives Obesity management is an important issue for the international primary care community. This scoping review examines the literature describing the role of the family doctor in managing adults with obesity. The methods were prospectively published and followed Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Setting Primary care. Adult patients. Included papers Peer-reviewed and grey literature with the keywords obesity, primary care and family doctors. All literature published up to September 2015. 3294 non-duplicate papers were identified and 225 articles included after full-text review. Primary and secondary outcome measures Data were extracted on the family doctors’ involvement in different aspects of management, and whether whole person and person-centred care were explicitly mentioned. Results 110 papers described interventions in primary care and family doctors were always involved in diagnosing obesity and often in recruitment of participants. A clear description of the provider involved in an intervention was often lacking. It was difficult to determine if interventions took account of whole person and person-centredness. Most opinion papers and clinical overviews described an extensive role for the family doctor in management; in contrast, research on current practices depicted obesity as undermanaged by family doctors. International guidelines varied in their description of the role of the family doctor with a more extensive role suggested by guidelines from family medicine organisations. Conclusions There is a disconnect between how family doctors are involved in primary care interventions, the message in clinical overviews and opinion papers, and observed current practice of family doctors. The role of family doctors in international guidelines for obesity may reflect the strength of primary care in the originating health system. Reporting of primary care interventions could be improved by enhanced descriptions of the providers involved and explanation
Bhardwaj, Niharika N; Wodajo, Bezawit; Gochipathala, Keerthi; Paul, David P; Coustasse, Alberto
Obesity is the largest driver of chronic preventable diseases, accounting for an estimated $147 billion or 10 percent of total US healthcare costs in 2008. It has been forecasted that 42 percent of Americans will be obese by 2030. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies target and may modify the behavioral factors that lead to obesity to promote a healthy lifestyle. These technologies could potentially reduce the cost and the morbidity and mortality burden of obesity because of their inexpensive and portable nature. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of mHealth interventions for adult obesity in the United States. The methodology used in this study was a literature review of 54 articles. Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference reductions, and favorable lifestyle behavior changes were noted across most studies. Existing data and research on efficacy and linked costs indicated that mHealth technologies were more effective than other methods and could be inexpensively delivered remotely to manage adult obesity, offering significant benefits over conventional care. Further studies on the costs and benefits of adapting such mHealth interventions in clinical settings are needed.
Infectious diseases in the workplace can present difficult dilemmas for employers, who must balance the rights of infected employees against obligations to protect other employees from infection. Anti-discrimination legislation imposes additional obligations on employers to ensure that any steps taken in response to the risk of infectious disease do not amount to unlawful discrimination against employees who may be disease carriers. This paper analyses the operation of anti-discrimination in this context and points to ways in which employers can formulate an infectious diseases policy that is both ethically and legally defensible.
... INFORMATION: I. Background The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-690, Title V, Subtitle D) (41 U.S... rule would not affect current application and enforcement of drug-free workplace requirements, no... Workplace Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: HUD is moving its...
Shaikh, Ulfat; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Romano, Patrick
Objective: To determine health care provider needs related to pediatric obesity management in rural California and to explore strategies to improve care through telehealth. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of health care providers who treated children and adolescents at 41 rural clinics with existing telehealth connectivity. Results: Most of the…
Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Luo, Zhehui; Piatt, Gretchen; Green, Lee A; Chen, Qiaoling; Piette, John
To address the increasing burden of chronic disease, many primary care practices are turning to care management and the hiring of care managers to help patients coordinate their care and self-manage their conditions. Care management is often, but not always, proving effective at improving patient outcomes, but more evidence is needed. In this pair-matched cluster randomized trial, 5 practices implemented care management and were compared with 5 comparison practices within the same practice organization. Targeted patients included diabetic patients with a hemoglobin A1c >9% and nondiabetic obese patients. Clinical values tracked were A1c, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein, microalbumin, and weight. Clinically important improvements were demonstrated in the intervention versus comparison practices, with diabetic patients improving A1c control and obese patients experiencing weight loss. There was a 12% relative increase in the proportion of patients meeting the clinical target of A1c management practices lost 5% or more of their body weight as compared with 10% of comparison patients (adjusted relative improvement, 15%; CI, 2%-28%). These findings add to the growing evidence-base for the effectiveness of care management as an effective clinical practice with regard to improving diabetes- and obesity-related outcomes.
Gray, C.M.; Hunt, K.; Mutrie, N.; Anderson, A.S.; Treweek, S.; Wyke, S.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of male obesity is increasing, but men are less likely than women to attend existing weight management programmes. We have taken a novel approach to reducing perceived barriers to weight loss for men by using professional football (soccer) clubs to encourage participation
Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…
HICKEY, Jane; SAUNDERS, Jean; DAVERN, Peter
A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers’ motivations for comm...
Rueda-Clausen, C F; Benterud, E; Bond, T; Olszowka, R; Vallis, M T; Sharma, A M
Obesity counselling in primary care is positively associated with self-reported behaviour change in patients with obesity. Obesity counselling is rare, and when it does occur, it is often of low quality because of poor training and/or competency of providers' obesity management, lack of time and economical disincentives, and negative attitude towards obesity and obesity management. 5As frameworks are routinely used for behaviour-change counselling and addiction management (e.g. smoking cessation), but few studies have examined its efficacy for weight management. This study presents pilot data from the implementation and evaluation of an obesity management tool (5As of Obesity Management developed by the Canadian Obesity Network) in a primary care setting. Results show that the tool facilitates weight management in primary care by promoting physician-patient communications, medical assessments for obesity and plans for follow-up care. Obesity remains poorly managed in primary care. The 5As of Obesity Management is a theory-driven, evidence-based minimal intervention designed to facilitate obesity counselling and management by primary care practitioners. This project tested the impact of implementing this tool in primary care clinics. Electronic self-administered surveys were completed by pre-screened obese subjects at the end of their appointments in four primary care clinics (over 25 healthcare providers [HCPs]). These measurements were performed before (baseline, n = 51) and 1 month after implementing the 5As of Obesity Management (post-intervention, n = 51). Intervention consisted of one online training session (90 min) and distribution of the 5As toolkit to HCPs of participating clinics. Subjects completing the survey before and after the intervention were comparable in terms of age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, satisfaction and self-reported health status (P > 0.2). Implementing the 5As of Obesity Management resulted in a twofold increase
Leiter, Lawrence A; Astrup, Arne; Andrews, Rob C
in achieving their weight loss goals. At the same time, participants tended to overestimate the effectiveness of current medical management in maintaining reductions in body weight. Educational initiatives addressing the real-life effectiveness of different weight control interventions may help to close...... are often found among physicians and others involved in treating obesity and may adversely impact the effectiveness of management. In this international study, healthcare professionals were invited to complete an online survey of their attitudes and practice in the management of excess body weight. A total...... of 335 clinicians completed the survey of whom approximately half were based in Europe. A key finding from the survey is that, while participants are generally confident in their ability to manage overweight and obesity effectively, they also report that most of their patients are not successful...
Shimizu, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kubota, Shinya; Mishima, Norio; Nagata, Shoji
We investigated relationships among self-efficacy, self-management skills, communication with superiors and mental health of employees at a Japanese workplace. The subjects were 426 employees in a medium-sized manufacturing company in Kyushu. In 1999, with agreement of the company, we mailed a self-administrated questionnaire which included questions on age, gender, job rank, communication with superiors, a General Self-Efficacy Scale(GSES), a Self-Management Skill scale(SMS) and the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire(GHQ-12). Eighty percent of the subjects returned the questionnaire. Excluding senior managers and insufficient answers, the final response rate was 55 percent. By multiple regression analysis, we found that job rank contributed significantly and positively, and that age, communication with superiors and self-management skills contributed significantly and negatively to the GHQ-12. Our results implied that age, job rank, communication with superiors and self-management skills would contribute to the mental health of Japanese employees.
Hales, Caz; de Vries, Kay; Coombs, Maureen
Critically ill morbidly obese patients pose considerable healthcare delivery and resource utilisation challenges in the intensive care setting. These are resultant from specific physiological responses to critical illness in this population and the nature of the interventional therapies used in the intensive care environment. An additional challenge arises for this population when considering the social stigma that is attached to being obese. Intensive care staff therefore not only attend to the physical and care needs of the critically ill morbidly obese patient but also navigate, both personally and professionally, the social terrain of stigma when providing care. To explore the culture and influences on doctors and nurses within the intensive care setting when caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients. A focused ethnographic approach was adopted to elicit the 'situated' experiences of caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients from the perspectives of intensive care staff. Participant observation of care practices and interviews with intensive care staff were undertaken over a four month period. Analysis was conducted using constant comparison technique to compare incidents applicable to each theme. An 18 bedded tertiary intensive care unit in New Zealand. Sixty-seven intensive care nurses and 13 intensive care doctors involved with the care and management of seven critically ill patients with a body mass index ≥40kg/m(2). Interactions between intensive care staff and morbidly obese patients were challenging due to the social stigma surrounding obesity. Social awkwardness and managing socially awkward moments were evident when caring for morbidly obese patients. Intensive care staff used strategies of face-work and mutual pretence to alleviate feelings of discomfort when engaged in aspects of care and caring. This was a strategy used to prevent embarrassment and distress for both the patients and staff. This study has brought new understandings
Namazi, Nazli; Khodamoradi, Kajal; Larijani, Bagher; Ayati, Mohammad Hossein
Complementary therapies may increase the success rate of weight loss via a calorie-restricted diet. Acupuncture is a popular complementary therapy for obesity management. To our knowledge, no studies have summarised the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on obesity. To evaluate the efficacy of LA, in particular with respect to its impact on anthropometric features and appetite in obese adults, by conducting a systematic review of previous clinical trials. We searched PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Embase and Google Scholar electronic databases for papers published through October 2016. All clinical trials in English containing either anthropometric indices or appetite parameters were included. Two reviewers independently examined studies based on a predefined form for data extraction and the Jadad scale for quality assessment in order to minimise bias throughout the evaluation. After screening the papers, seven clinical trials met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. Positive effects of LA therapy were seen in body weight (n=3), body mass index (n=5), waist circumference (n=4), hip circumference (n=3), waist to hip ratio (n=4) and % fat mass (n=3). Appetite parameters were reported in one study, which showed that LA can reduce appetite and increase the sensation of feeling full. Although some studies have indicated beneficial effects for LA on obesity, the lack of evidence with high methodological quality made it impossible to reach a definitive conclusion about the efficacy of LA for obesity management. Further high-quality, randomised, sham-controlled clinical trials with a larger sample size are needed to shed light on the efficacy of LA for obesity management and weight maintenance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Tóthová, Valérie; Bártlová, Sylva; Šedová, Lenka; Olišarová, Věra; Prokešová, Radka; Adámkova, Věra; Mauritzová, Ilona; Trešlová, Marie; Chloubová, Ivana; Mikšová, Zdeňka
The aim of this research into 'self-management' was to determine to what extent respondents were aware of their status as overweight or obese. For respondents who indicated that they were overweight or obese, the goal was to determine whether they tried to lose weight, what steps they took to control their, and what specific methods they used. Information was collected using semi-structured interviews from May 31, 2014, to January 30, 2015. Data processing was performed using statistical analysis of the social data SASDM 01/04/10 software. The total study group consisted of 600 respondents, including 302 from the Roma minority, and 298 from the non-Roma majority population (control group). Respondents were selected specifically from South Bohemia Region of the Czech Republic. The sample from the Roma minority was constructed using the snowball method (Snowball Sampling). The control sample of non-Roma was selected through quota sampling. The results indicate that the respondents from both the Roma minority and the non-Roma control group generally recognized when they were overweight or obese, or they were aware of it to a much lesser extent than objective indicators revealed. More than two thirds of the respondents who admitted they were overweight or obese (N = 143) reported that they had suffered from overweight or obesity since they were young adults. Significantly more members of the majority population had tried to lose weight using self-management, whereas the level of effort was significantly less among members of the Roma minority (P = 0). Nevertheless, Roma respondents significantly more often reported (P < 0.01) that they had agreed on a specific weight loss plan with a doctor. The results of our research show that in the context of prevention, it is important to promote self-managed skills, habits and other characteristics that can play an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and overweight.
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is today the most effective long-term therapy for the management of patients with severe obesity, and its use is recommended by the relevant guidelines of the management of obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery is in general safe and effective, but it can cause new clinical problems and is associated with specific diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic needs. For clinicians, the acquisition of special knowledge and skills is required in order to deliver appropriate and effective care to the post-bariatric patient. In the present recommendations, the basic notions needed to provide first-level adequate medical care to post-bariatric patients are summarised. Basic information about nutrition, management of co-morbidities, pregnancy, psychological issues as well as weight regain prevention and management is derived from current evidences and existing guidelines. A short list of clinical practical recommendations is included for each item. It remains clear that referral to a bariatric multidisciplinary centre, preferably the one performing the original procedure, should be considered in case of more complex clinical situations.
Busetto, Luca; Dicker, Dror; Azran, Carmil; Batterham, Rachel L.; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Fried, Martin; Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Kinzl, Johann; Leitner, Deborah R.; Makaronidis, Janine M.; Schindler, Karin; Toplak, Hermann; Yumuk, Volkan
Bariatric surgery is today the most effective long-term therapy for the management of patients with severe obesity, and its use is recommended by the relevant guidelines of the management of obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery is in general safe and effective, but it can cause new clinical problems and is associated with specific diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic needs. For clinicians, the acquisition of special knowledge and skills is required in order to deliver appropriate and effective care to the post-bariatric patient. In the present recommendations, the basic notions needed to provide first-level adequate medical care to post-bariatric patients are summarised. Basic information about nutrition, management of co-morbidities, pregnancy, psychological issues as well as weight regain prevention and management is derived from current evidences and existing guidelines. A short list of clinical practical recommendations is included for each item. It remains clear that referral to a bariatric multidisciplinary centre, preferably the one performing the original procedure, should be considered in case of more complex clinical situations. PMID:29207379
Gayed, Aimée; Bryan, Bridget T; Petrie, Katherine; Deady, Mark; Milner, Allison; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Calvo, Rafael A; Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen; Mykletun, Arnstein; Glozier, Nicholas; Harvey, Samuel B
Within high income countries, mental health is now the leading cause of long term sickness absence in the workplace. Managers are in a position to make changes and decisions that have a positive effect on the wellbeing of staff, the recovery of employees with mental ill health, and potentially prevent future mental health problems. However, managers report addressing workplace mental health issues as challenging. The aim of the HeadCoach trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed online training intervention to determine whether it is able to build managers' confidence to better support individuals within their teams who are experiencing mental ill health, and the confidence to promote manager behaviour likely to result in a more mentally healthy workplace. We will conduct a cluster randomised control trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of HeadCoach, an online training intervention for managers with a focus on the mental health of their employees, compared to a waitlist control. The target sample is 168 managers, and their direct employees. Managers and employees will be assessed at baseline and at 4-month follow up. Managers will have an additional, intermediate assessment 6-weeks post-baseline. The primary outcome is change from baseline in managers' self-reported confidence when dealing with mental health issues within their team and promoting a mentally healthy workplace. The difference between the intervention and waitlist control groups will be assessed using linear mixed effects repeated measures (MMRM) analysis of variance (ANOVA). Secondary managerial outcomes include mental health literacy, attitudes towards mental health issues in the workplace and managerial behaviour in dealing with mental health matters with their staff. Employee outcomes will be perceived level of manager support, engagement, psychological distress, and rates of sickness absence and presenteeism. To our knowledge this will be the first RCT of a purely online training
Wang, Ya-Ling; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Yang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Wen-Ching; Wu, Ming-Ju; Lin, Tzu-Mei; Chen, Cheng-Hsu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity are important public health concerns. Because obesity may initiate and/or accelerate kidney damage, weight control may benefit CKD patients. We examined the influence of dietary management and physical exercise in 38 obese CKD patients with or without target reduction of body weight 3% or more from baseline. After a 2-month lifestyle intervention program, those with target body weight control had significant improvement of blood pressure control, as well as reduced lipid profiles, serum creatinine level (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.8 ± 0.3; P management and exercise were associated with improvements in health-related physical fitness, cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure and lipid control), and renal profiles in obese CKD patients. Supportive individualized programs for lifestyle change could exert beneficial effects, but long-term research with a larger patient population is needed to elucidate the optimal effective combination of dietary management and exercise. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suzanne J. Snodgrass
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The potential for allied health professionals to intervene through the provision of lifestyle advice is unknown. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for clients with overweight or obesity. Dietitians, exercise physiologists, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and psychologists (n = 296 working in New South Wales were surveyed using paper-based and online methods. The majority of health professionals (71% believed that providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice; 81% provided physical activity advice but only 57% provided dietary advice. Other than dietitians, few had received training in client weight management during their professional qualification (14% or continuing education (16%. Providing dietary advice was associated with: believing it was within their scope of practice (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9–7.9, p < 0.01, training during their entry-level qualification (OR 7.2, 3.2–16.4, p < 0.01 and having departmental guidelines (OR 4.7, 2.1–10.9, p < 0.01. Most health professionals are willing to provide lifestyle advice to clients with overweight or obesity but few have received required training. Developing guidelines and training for in client weight management may potentially impact on rising obesity levels.
Full Text Available Background: Many obese patients cannot lose weight or reject conventional obesity management. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (the Apollo method is a pioneering coadjuvant, interventionist technique for the integral management of obesity. Objectives: The goals of this study were to report safety and efficacy results obtained at 6 months in patients undergoing endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. Material and methods: A prospective study was performed in 55 patients (13 males, 42 females who were subjected to the Apollo technique; mean age was 43.5 years (range 25-60 and mean BMI was 37.7 kg/m² (range 30-48. All received multidisciplinary follow-up for weight loss. Weight changes and presence of complications were assessed. Through the endoscope a triangular pattern suture is performed consisting of approximately 3-6 transmural (mucosa to serosa stitches, using a cinch device to bring them nearer and form a plication. Results: A total of 6-8 plications are used to provide a tubular or sleeve-shaped restriction to the gastric cavity. No major complications developed and patients were discharged at 24 hours following the procedure. Endoscopic and radiographic follow-up at 6 months post-procedure showed a well preserved tubular form to the stomach. After 6 months patients had lost 18.9 kg and 55.3% of excess weight. Conclusions: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty, together with dietary and psycho-behavioral changes, is a safe, effective technique in the coadjuvant management of obese patients.
There is a great need for empirical evidence to inform clinical prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Application of virtual reality (VR) methods to this research agenda could present considerable advantages. Use of VR methods in basic and applied obesity prevention and treatment research is currently extremely limited. However, VR has been employed for social and behavioral research in many other domains where it has demonstrated validity and utility. Advantages of VR technologies as research tools include the ability to situate hypothetical research scenarios in realistic settings, tight experimental control inherent in virtual environments, the ability to manipulate and control any and all scenario elements, and enhanced behavioral measurement opportunities. The means by which each of these features could enhance obesity prevention and management research is discussed and illustrated in the context of an example research study. Challenges associated with the application of VR methods, such as technological limitations and cost, are also considered. By employing experimental VR methods to interrogate clinical encounters and other health-related situations, researchers may be able to elucidate causal relationships, strengthen theoretical models, and identify potential targets for intervention. In so doing, researchers stand to make important contributions to evidence-based practice innovation in weight management and obesity prevention. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.
Shaw, William S; Besen, Elyssa; Pransky, Glenn; Boot, Cécile R L; Nicholas, Michael K; McLellan, Robert K; Tveito, Torill H
The percentage of older and chronically ill workers is increasing rapidly in the US and in many other countries, but few interventions are available to help employees overcome the workplace challenges of chronic pain and other physical health conditions. While most workers are eligible for job accommodation and disability compensation benefits, other workplace strategies might improve individual-level coping and problem solving to prevent work disability. In this study, we hypothesize that an employer-sponsored group intervention program employing self-management principles may improve worker engagement and reduce functional limitation associated with chronic disorders. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), workers participating in an employer-sponsored self-management group intervention will be compared with a no-treatment (wait list) control condition. Volunteer employees (n = 300) will be recruited from five participating employers and randomly assigned to intervention or control. Participants in the intervention arm will attend facilitated group workshop sessions at work (10 hours total) to explore methods for improving comfort, adjusting work habits, communicating needs effectively, applying systematic problem solving, and dealing with negative thoughts and emotions about work. Work engagement and work limitation are the principal outcomes. Secondary outcomes include fatigue, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, turnover intention, sickness absence, and health care utilization. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed alongside the randomized trial. This study will be most relevant for organizations and occupational settings where some degree of job flexibility, leeway, and decision-making autonomy can be afforded to affected workers. The study design will provide initial assessment of a novel workplace approach and to understand factors affecting its feasibility and effectiveness
Issues discussed included conflict of values, counsellor competency problem, workplace counselling as a victimization tool, management of client information, workplace counselling as an excuse or avoidance route, making workplaces mental-health friendly, display of care, preventive mechanism, a risk management tool, ...
common obesity mainly by exclusion, will in the future play an increasingly important role in understanding and managing obesity, but only with parallel studies of the physiological, behavioral, and economic influences. Keywords: obesity phenotypes, obesogenic environment, genomics, pathophysiology, treatment, prevention
Steglitz, Jeremy; Sommers, Mary; Talen, Mary R; Thornton, Louise K; Spring, Bonnie
Primary care clinicians are well-positioned to intervene in the obesity epidemic. We studied whether implementation of an obesity intake protocol and electronic health record (EHR) form to guide behavior modification would facilitate identification and management of adult obesity in a Federally Qualified Health Center serving low-income, Hispanic patients. In three studies, we examined clinician and patient outcomes before and after the addition of the weight management protocol and form. In the Clinician Study, 12 clinicians self-reported obesity management practices. In the Population Study, BMI and order data from 5000 patients and all 40 clinicians in the practice were extracted from the EHR preintervention and postintervention. In the Exposure Study, EHR-documented outcomes for a sub-sample of 46 patients actually exposed to the obesity management form were compared to matched controls. Clinicians reported that the intake protocol and form increased their performance of obesity-related assessments and their confidence in managing obesity. However, no improvement in obesity management practices or patient weight-loss was evident in EHR records for the overall clinic population. Further analysis revealed that only 55 patients were exposed to the form. Exposed patients were twice as likely to receive weight-loss counseling following the intervention, as compared to before, and more likely than matched controls. However, their obesity outcomes did not differ. Results suggest that an obesity intake protocol and EHR-based weight management form may facilitate clinician weight-loss counseling among those exposed to the form. Significant implementation barriers can limit exposure, however, and need to be addressed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kathryn N. Porter Starr
Full Text Available The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this “fat and frail” population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient’s nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults.
Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Weidner, Julia A.; Bales, Connie W.
The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this “fat and frail” population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient’s nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults. PMID:27153084
In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....
Full Text Available The expectations of employees on the effects of actions of the Workplace Health Management (WHM as a part of the Human Resource Management are relevant for a successful implementation within the companies. The diversity approach can be able to improve the cooperation among different groups of employees. In this relation the measures of the WHM can support the existing Diversity Management efforts of a company. A successful Diversity Management has to meet the expectations of the employees. Therefore the Management needs to know what the employees expect from measures to be implemented in order to improve the performance of the companies. The theoretical framework of the Diversity Management in general, the Work Health Management (WHM measures and the results of a survey carried out among Hungarian employees and their expectations on a WHM are depicted within this paper. As important diversity groups the expectation on effects of the WHM actions on the groups of disabled / able-bodied employees and the groups of younger / older employees are examined. For all groups the cooperation exchange within the own work-unit and in the company as a whole is surveyed. As a result for all groups the most recommendable actions, in consideration of the employees, could be determined.
Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.
Ball, Geoff D C; Spence, Nicholas D; Browne, Nadia E; O'Connor, Kathleen; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zelichowska, Joanna; Ho, Josephine; Gokiert, Rebecca; Mâsse, Louise C; Carson, Valerie; Morrison, Katherine M; Kuk, Jennifer L; Holt, Nicholas L; Kebbe, Maryam; Gehring, Nicole D; Cesar, Melody; Virtanen, Heidi; Geller, Josie
Experts recommend that clinicians assess motivational factors before initiating care for pediatric obesity. Currently, there are no well-established clinical tools available for assessing motivation in youth with obesity or their families. This represents an important gap in knowledge since motivation-related information may shed light on which patients might fail to complete treatment programs. Our study was designed to evaluate the measurement properties and utility of the Readiness and Motivational Interview for Families (RMI-Family), a structured interview that utilizes a motivational interviewing approach to (i) assess motivational factors in youth and their parents, and (ii) examine the degree to which motivation and motivation-related concordance between youth and parents are related to making changes to lifestyle habits for managing obesity in youth. From 2016 to 2020, this prospective study will include youth with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥97th percentile; 13-17 years old; n = 250) and their parents (n = 250). The study will be conducted at two primary-level, multidisciplinary obesity management clinics based at children's hospitals in Alberta, Canada. Participants will be recruited and enrolled after referral to these clinics, but prior to initiating clinical care. Each youth and their parent will complete the RMI-Family (~1.5 h) at baseline, and 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Individual (i.e., youth or parent) and family-level (i.e., across youth and parent) responses to interview questions will be scored, as will aspects of interview administration (e.g., fidelity to motivational interviewing tenets). The RMI-Family will also be examined for test-retest reliability. Youth data collected at each time point will include demography, anthropometry, lifestyle habits, psychosocial functioning, and health services utilization. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between individual and family-level interview scores on the RMI
Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong
This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…
Cochrane, Anita J; Dick, Bob; King, Neil A; Hills, Andrew P; Kavanagh, David J
There have been consistent recommendations for multicomponent and multidisciplinary approaches for obesity management. However, there is no clear agreement on the components, disciplines or processes to be considered within such an approach. In this study, we explored multicomponent and multidisciplinary approaches through an examination of knowledge, skills, beliefs, and recommendations of stakeholders involved in obesity management. These stakeholders included researchers, practitioners, educators, and patients. We used qualitative action research methods, including convergent interviewing and observation, to assist the process of inquiry. The consensus was that a multicomponent and multidisciplinary approach should be based on four central meta-components (patient, practitioner, process, and environmental factors), and specific components of these factors were identified. Psychologists, dieticians, exercise physiologists and general practitioners were nominated as key practitioners to be included. A complex condition like obesity requires that multiple components be addressed, and that both patients and multiple disciplines are involved in developing solutions. Implementing cycles of continuous improvement to deal with complexity, instead of trying to control for it, offers an effective way to deal with complex, changing multisystem problems like obesity.
Maximova, K; Ambler, K A; Rudko, J N; Chui, N; Ball, G D C
Parents play a fundamental role in helping children with obesity to make and maintain healthy lifestyle changes. This study aimed to characterize stages of engagement to change nutrition and physical activity habits among parents whose children with obesity were enrolled in obesity management and examine differences in parents' own nutrition and physical activity habits according to their stage of engagement. Medical records of 113 children (body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile) enrolled in an outpatient weight management clinic were reviewed for baseline (cross-sectional) data. Parents completed the Weight Loss Behavior-Stage of Change Scale to assess the degree of engagement in making healthy changes to their lifestyle behaviours. Latent class analysis was used to classify parents into distinct clusters by grouping individuals with similar ratings of stages of engagement regarding nutrition- and physical activity-related behaviours. Parents' engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviours varied (more engaged [n = 43]; less engaged [n = 70]). A greater proportion of parents in the more engaged group was in action and/or maintenance stages of changing their lifestyle habits. The more engaged group was less overweight than the less engaged group (BMI = 28.5 vs. 33.3 kg m(-2); P healthy changes to their lifestyle behaviours, and those categorized as more engaged already demonstrated positive lifestyle behaviours. Information regarding parents' degree of engagement in healthy behaviours can inform clinical recommendations, especially when parents represent the primary agents of change in families trying to manage paediatric obesity. © 2014 World Obesity.
Full Text Available Time-loss injuries are still a major occurrence in Canada, injuring thousands of Canadian workers each year. With obesity rates on the rise across the country, as well as around the world, it is important that the possible effects of obesity in the workplace be fully understood, especially those effects linked to lost-time injuries. The aim of this paper was to evaluate predictors of workplace lost-time injuries and how they may be related to obesity or high body mass index by examining factors associated with lost-time injuries in the health care sector, a well-studied industry with the highest number of reported time loss injuries in Canada. A literature review focusing on lost-time injuries in Registered Nurses (RNs was conducted using the keywords and terms: lost time injury, workers' compensation, occupational injury, workplace injury, injury, injuries, work, workplace, occupational, nurse, registered nurse, RN, health care, predictors, risk factors, risk, risks, cause, causes, obese, obesity, and body mass index. Data on predictors or factors associated with lost-time injuries in RNs were gathered and organized using Loisel's Work Disability Prevention Management Model and extrapolated upon using existing literature surrounding obesity in the Canadian workplace.
Hélio Gustavo Santos
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. Methods/Design This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18–65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM. The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on
Santos, Hélio Gustavo; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Valentim, Daniela Pereira; da Silva, Patricia Rodrigues; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini
Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18-65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE) comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM). The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on adherence to the program, which may result in significant and
Yeon-Ha Kim, RN, PhD
Conclusions: “Analysis and planning” skill is priority training area for healthcare professionals and occupational health managers who managed nonmanufacturing industry. It is necessary to develop a training curriculum for occupational health managers that include improving analysis of worksites and plans for a health education program.
Smethers, Alissa D; Rolls, Barbara J
Several dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools can help facilitate successful weight management by reducing energy density, providing portion control, and improving diet quality. The flexibility of energy density gives patients options to tailor and personalize their dietary pattern to reduce energy intake for sustainable weight loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Puiu, Maria
This pilot study sought to evaluate the neurofeedback training outcomes in childhood obesity management. The study involved 34 overweight and obese children, age 6-18 years (12 patients in the intervention group, 22 in the control group). Complete assessment of children was done before the intervention and 3 and 6 months after the intervention; eating behavior and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed at study start and 6 months after. All children received classic lifestyle recommendations for weight management, while the intervention group also had 20 neurofeedback sessions (infra-low-frequency training). The neurofeedback intervention was associated with less weight loss compared with classic weight management. The mean change in body-mass index standard deviation score at 3 months was -0.29 for the intervention group and -0.36 for the control group (p=0.337); after 6 months, the changes were -0.30 and -0.56, respectively (p=0.035). Quality of life improved similarly for both groups. Subjective outcomes reported by patients in the intervention were less snacking, improved satiety, enhanced attention capacity, ameliorated hyperactivity, and better sleep patterns. Larger studies, with training methods involving both the left and right cortices, should further clarify the role of neurofeedback training in obesity management.
Martin, J; Chater, A; Lorencatto, F
Rates of childhood obesity are increasing, and it is essential to identify the active components of interventions aiming to prevent and manage obesity in children. A systematic review of behaviour change interventions was conducted to find evidence of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that are most effective in changing physical activity and/or eating behaviour for the prevention or management of childhood obesity. An electronic search was conducted for randomised controlled trials published between January 1990 and December 2009. Of 4309 titles and abstracts screened, full texts of 135 articles were assessed, of which 17 published articles were included in this review. Intervention descriptions were coded according to the behaviour-specific CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. BCTs were identified and compared across obesity management (n=9) vs prevention (n=8) trials. To assess the effectiveness of individual BCTs, trials were further divided into those that were effective (defined as either a group reduction of at least 0.13 body mass index (BMI) units or a significant difference in BMI between intervention and control groups at follow-up) vs non-effective (reported no significant differences between groups). We reliably identified BCTs utilised in effective and non-effective prevention and management trials. To illustrate the relative effectiveness of each BCT, effectiveness ratios were calculated as the ratio of the number of times each BCT was a component of an intervention in an effective trial divided by the number of times they were a component of all trials. Results indicated six BCTs that may be effective components of future management interventions (provide information on the consequences of behaviour to the individual, environmental restructuring, prompt practice, prompt identification as role model/position advocate, stress management/emotional control training and general communication skills training), and one that may be effective in prevention
Soljan, Ivana; Josipović-Jelić, Zeljka; Jelić Kis, I Anita
Workplace mobbing is a hostile and unethical communication, systematically aimed from one or more individuals towards mostly one individual, who are forced into a helpless position and are held in it by constant bullying. This article describes some of the most important characteristics of mobbing: offensive behaviour, organizational and non-organizational causes of this behaviour, the victim and the consequences. Modern business environment is complex, dynamic, volatile, and requires better ability to adjust. Constant changes are a part of organizational reality, but they also produce an ideal environment for all kinds of conflicts. Conflicts are inevitable in every organization, but the task of its management is to identify them and resolve before they affect the workforce, productivity and costs. The idea is to avert psychological abuse and aberrant behaviour such as mobbing which that may cause physical and mental disorders. Mobbing is a problem of the modern society; as a violation of human rights it is relatively new and unrecognised in Croatia. Abuse is mostly psychological: it affects the victim's health and life, quality of work, productivity, profitability, and may lead to significant economic losses in the community. Mobbing can be averted by joint forces that would involve employee and management, medical and legal professionals, and even community as a whole. The more an organization pursues excellence based on trust and business ethics, the higher the probability that mobbing will be averted or stopped.
Hofma, Christian Casper; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind
workplaces we are going from a more collective to individual feeling of presence in the workplace. The first contribution is to close the knowledge gap that exists in the academic literature on IVEs in a work context. Second, practitioners will have a better understanding of the changes IVEs have...
Shaw, W S; Feuerstein, M; Lincoln, A E; Miller, V I; Wood, P M
A case manager's ability to obtain worksite accommodations and engage workers in active problem solving may improve health and return to work outcomes for clients with work related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs). This study examines the feasibility of a 2 day training seminar to help nurse case managers identify ergonomic risk factors, provide accommodation, and conduct problem solving skills training with workers' compensation claimants recovering from WRUEDs. Eight procedural steps to this case management approach were identified, translated into a training workshop format, and conveyed to 65 randomly selected case managers. Results indicate moderate to high self ratings of confidence to perform ergonomic assessments (mean = 7.5 of 10) and to provide problem solving skills training (mean = 7.2 of 10) after the seminar. This training format was suitable to experienced case managers and generated a moderate to high level of confidence to use this case management approach.
Nesrine S. Farrag
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood OR adolescence AND obesity AND (MENA or each country AND ("last five years" [PDat]. Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.
Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K
Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.
Shabbir, Asim; Dargan, Dallan
Abstract The rapid reversal of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity by surgical means has challenged accepted doctrines regarding the management of metabolic syndrome. Sleeve gastrectomy, which developed initially as a preparatory procedure for biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, has seen an exponential rise in popularity as an effective lone laparoscopic bariatric procedure. Superior excess weight loss, a low complication rate, and excellent food tolerance, combine...
Apovian, Caroline M
Caroline M ApovianMedicine and Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine; Nutrition and Weight Management Center; and Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Obesity increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and this in turn correlates with an elevated probability of long-term diabetes complications once diabetes is established. Interventions aimed at lowering weight via changes in...
Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona
The relationship between workplace absenteeism and adverse lifestyle factors (smoking, physical inactivity and poor dietary patterns) remains ambiguous. Reliance on self-reported absenteeism and obesity measures may contribute to this uncertainty. Using objective absenteeism and health status measures, the present study aimed to investigate what health status outcomes and lifestyle factors influence workplace absenteeism. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a complex workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Republic of Ireland. Participants included 540 randomly selected employees from the four workplaces. Annual count absenteeism data were collected. Physical assessments included objective health status measures (BMI, midway waist circumference and blood pressure). FFQ measured diet quality from which DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) scores were constructed. A zero-inflated negative binomial (zinb) regression model examined associations between health status outcomes, lifestyle characteristics and absenteeism. The mean number of absences was 2·5 (sd 4·5) d. After controlling for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, the zinb model indicated that absenteeism was positively associated with central obesity, increasing expected absence rate by 72 %. Consuming a high-quality diet and engaging in moderate levels of physical activity were negatively associated with absenteeism and reduced expected frequency by 50 % and 36 %, respectively. Being in a managerial/supervisory position also reduced expected frequency by 50 %. To reduce absenteeism, workplace health promotion policies should incorporate recommendations designed to prevent and manage excess weight, improve diet quality and increase physical activity levels of employees.
Ball, Geoff D C; Mushquash, Aislin R; Keaschuk, Rachel A; Ambler, Kathryn A; Newton, Amanda S
Pediatric obesity has become increasingly prevalent over recent decades. In view of the psychosocial and physical health risks, and the high likelihood that children with obesity will grow to become adults with obesity, there is a clear need to develop evidence-based interventions that can be delivered in the health care system to optimize the health and well-being of children with obesity and their families. The aim of this paper is to describe the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a parent-based weight management intervention designed for parents of 8-12 year olds with obesity. The principles of Intervention Mapping (IM) were used to develop an intervention called Parents as Agents of Change (PAC © ). From 2006 to 2009, an environmental scan plus qualitative (individual interviews with parents and children), quantitative (medical record reviews), and literature review data were collected to gain broad insight into family factors related to pediatric obesity and its management. Theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence guided curriculum development, which was founded primarily on the tenets of family systems theory and cognitive behavioral theory. PAC was developed as a manualized, 16-session, group-based, health care professional-led intervention for parents to address individual, family, and environmental factors related to the management of pediatric obesity. The intervention was refined based on feedback from local and international experts, and has been implemented successfully in a multi-disciplinary weight management centre in a children's hospital. IM provided a practical framework to guide the systematic development of a pediatric weight management intervention for parents of children with obesity. This logical, step-by-step process blends theory and practice and is broadly applicable in the context of obesity management intervention development and evaluation. Following intervention development, the PAC intervention was
Hopkins, Kristy F; Decristofaro, Claire; Elliott, Lydia
To provide information regarding evidence-based interventions and clinical practice guidelines as a basis for a clinical toolkit utilizing a step management approach for the primary care provider in managing childhood obesity. Evidence-based literature including original clinical trials, literature reviews, and clinical practice guidelines. Interventions can be stratified based on initial screening of children and adolescents so that selection of treatment options is optimized. For all treatments, lifestyle modifications include attention to diet and activity level. Levels of initial success, as well as maintenance of target body mass index, may be related to the intensity and duration of interventions; involvement of family may increase success rates. For failed lifestyle interventions, or for patients with extreme obesity and/or certain comorbidities, pharmacologic or surgical options should be considered. Many intensive programs have shown success, but the resources required for these approaches may be unavailable to the typical community provider and family. However, using current guidelines, the primary care provider can initiate and manage ongoing interventions in pediatric obesity. A toolkit for primary care implementation and maintenance interventions is provided. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Janke, E Amy; Ramirez, Michelle L; Haltzman, Brittany; Fritz, Megan; Kozak, Andrea T
The aim of this research is to examine perceptions of those with comorbid chronic pain and obesity regarding their experience of comorbidity management in primary care settings. Chronic pain and obesity are common comorbidities frequently managed in primary care settings. Evidence suggests individuals with this comorbidity may be at risk for suboptimal clinical interactions; however, treatment experiences and preferences of those with comorbid chronic pain and obesity have received little attention. Semi-structured interviews conducted with 30 primary care patients with mean body mass index=36.8 and comorbid persistent pain. The constant comparative method was used to analyze data. Participants discussed frustration with a perceived lack of information tailored to their needs and a desire for a personalized treatment experience. Participants found available medical approaches unsatisfying and sought a more holistic approach to management. Discussions also focused around the need for providers to initiate efforts at education and motivation enhancement and to show concern for and understanding of the unique difficulties associated with comorbidity. Findings suggest providers should engage in integrated communication regarding weight and pain, targeting this multimorbidity using methods aligned with priorities discussed by patients.
Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Trudel, Jeannie
The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among conflict management styles and target and instigator incivility and job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover intent. Data from 270 employees suggested that experiencing and instigating uncivil behavior occurred frequently. Using an integrative conflict management style…
Fichera, Christopher E.
A majority of large IT projects fail to meet scheduled deadlines, are over budget and do not satisfy the end user. Many projects fail in spite of utilizing traditional project management techniques. Research of project management has not identified the use of a visual workspace as a feature affecting or influencing the success of a project during…
Matteson, Miriam; Hines, Samantha Schmehl
Authors explore application of the study of emotion in the library workplace and look at future trends in the area. Library managers will take away knowledge about how the library workplace can and should operate with consideration toward emotion, and will glean ideas for implementation with their own staff and services.
Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…
Romney, Martha C; Thomson, Erin; Kash, Kathryn
Due to the increased prevalence of obesity and associated direct and indirect costs to employers, weight management programs have become an integral component of employer and insurer benefits plans. The programs vary in foci, scope, breadth, and implementation. The aim of this study was to explore promising employer-sponsored population-based obesity management programs. A case study that utilized a telephonic semi-structured questionnaire was conducted with small and large organizations located in different regions of the United States that had been recruited to participate. Eight employers and 1 health care advocacy coalition who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed about features of their weight management programs. The case study revealed a number of themes consistent with reports in the literature and reflecting cited best practices. Key findings include confirmation that weight management is a significant component of the wellness strategy in all participating organizations because employers are invested in population health programs and cost savings. Based upon their experience and knowledge, occupational health specialists are responsible for designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating employee health programs. Almost all employers utilize electronic media as a prominent component of wellness and disease management initiatives. Experience has shown that incentives-both financial and nonmonetary-are effective motivators for employee engagement and outcomes. However, while employers report success, favorable outcomes have been difficult to quantify.
Giabbanelli, Philippe J; Crutzen, Rik
Obesity has commonly been addressed using a 'one size fits all' approach centred on a combination of diet and exercise. This has not succeeded in halting the obesity epidemic, as two-thirds of American adults are now obese or overweight. Practitioners are increasingly highlighting that one's weight is shaped by myriad factors, suggesting that interventions should be tailored to the specific needs of individuals. Health games have potential to provide such tailored approach. However, they currently tend to focus on communicating and/or reinforcing knowledge, in order to suscitate learning in the participants. We argue that it would be equally, if not more valuable, that games learn from participants using recommender systems. This would allow treatments to be comprehensive, as games can deduce from the participants' behaviour which factors seem to be most relevant to his or her weight and focus on them. We introduce a novel game architecture and discuss its implications on facilitating the self-management of obesity. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee
Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.
Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee
Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults’ attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults’ perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group. PMID:26923688
De Dreu, Carsten K W; Evers, Arne; Beersma, Bianca; Kluwer, Esther S.; Nauta, Aukje
Conflict management influences individual wellbeing, group performance and organizational effectiveness. This research examined the psychometric qualities of two versions of the newly developed test for conflict handling. The lean version (Study 1 and 2) included problem solving, forcing, yielding
Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri; Rugala, Eugene; Romano, Steve; Ramirez, Marizen
We examined threat management investigations conducted by a large multinational company. The company provided a database, removing any identifiers, of investigations by the corporate Threat Management Teams in 2009 and 2010. Rates were calculated using worker population data. During the 2-year study period, the company investigated threat management cases at a rate of 13.9 per 10,000 employees per year. Cases that activated a Threat Management Team were more likely to lead to corrective action (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.08 to 3.87) and referral to the Employee Assistance Program (odds ratio = 4.8; 95% confidence interval = 3.00 to 7.77), but were not related to likelihood of termination. When the multidisciplinary teams were involved, cases were more likely to result in some type of action but were not more likely to lead to termination.
de Menezes, L. M.; Wood, S.
Purpose - This article investigates whether a quality management philosophy underlies the joint use of operations and human resource management practices, and the relationships with job-related contentment and performance.\\ud \\ud Design/ methodology/approach - Data from an economy-wide survey is used to test hypotheses via latent variable analyses (latent trait and latent class models) and structural equation models. The sensitivity of each path is then assessed using regression models.\\ud \\u...
International audience; Constructing rules for work that foster both health and safety and efficient production entails, in many organisations, the introduction of procedures, tools and techniques implemented by specialists. The purpose of this is to combat the amateur practices and lack of expertise supposedly found not only amongst employees, but also in their managers. This chapter argues that, on the contrary, field managers possess knowledge about working conditions and are actors who ar...
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between, and factors influencing, staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager caring (NMC) and the perceived exposure to workplace bullying (WPB) in multiple healthcare settings. Workplace bullying is commonplace, increasing, and detrimental to the health and availability of our nursing workforce. Positive relationships between a nurse manager (NM) and staff increase staff satisfaction and reduce turnover. Still unknown, however, is whether a caring relationship between manager and staff can reduce staff nurse perception of exposure to WPB. On the basis of Watson's theory that caring is reciprocal in nature, a descriptive correlational design was used to assess 156 staff nurses' self-report of NMC and their exposure to negative acts using the Caring Factor Survey-Caring of the Manager and the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised instruments. There is a significant inverse relationship between NMC and exposure to WPB in the nursing workplace. Gender, work environment, and a high workload influenced these findings. This study highlights the importance of caring leadership to reduce exposure to negative behaviors. The data lend support to the idea of educating NMs regarding the application of caring behaviors to support staff at the point of care.
The globalization of the economy and the recent economic recession in Japan has accelerated down-sizing or restructuring of corporations and has resulted in the induction of a wage system according to achievement instead of the traditional seniority wage system, break-down of the life-long employment system, excess labor and increased unemployment. These rapid changes in the labor situation have increased job stress. It was reported in the survey conducted by the Ministry of Labor in 1997 that 62.8 percent of 16,000 workers had anxiety, worry and stress regarding their working life. The need for effective stress management at work has been increasing in this situation, but in the survey mentioned above only 26.5 percent of 12,000 companies replied that they had incorporated mental health measures. The characteristic features of the approaches for stress management in Japan are summarized as follows: 1) The most popular approaches are education and consultation for individual workers. 2) Systematic preventive approaches such as work control, working environment control, organizational change in the health management system, and systematic and continuous educational programs for managers are inadequate. 3) Systems to evaluation the effectiveness of these interventional approaches are also inadequate. Considering the current situation in which there is increasing job stress and a need for the occupational mental health promotion, we propose a series of mini-reviews regarding stress management at work and mention the composition of this series.
Ledoux, Elise; Cloutier, Esther; Fournier, Pierre-Sébastien
Previous studies have shown that the job knowledge and prudent knowledge of experienced workers constitute a wealth that needs to be shared in workplaces to promote worker integration, job retention and occupational health and safety. It appears, however, that certain management practices undermine this knowledge sharing process. This case study of food service helpers in institutional food service departments is part of a research project aimed at comparing the impact of different work organization methods on knowledge sharing in the workplace on the basis of case studies carried out in several organizations. The results of this case study reveal that by destabilizing and weakening the work teams, flexible management practices create an environment that is not conducive to experiential knowledge sharing.
Davies, Marilyn A; Terhorst, Lauren; Nakonechny, Amanda J; Skukla, Nimisha; El Saadawi, Gilan
To evaluate the effects of web-based information on parental self-efficacy in managing obesity risk in preschoolers. The project included a literature review and the development and field testing of an information website that presented information on how to manage nine obesity risk factors for childhood obesity. Parents stated that they had no problems using the website, and 69% reported improved self-efficacy on at least two risk factors. Many parents access the Internet to obtain health information. A website that offers practical information on managing childhood obesity risk factors is a valuable resource for obesity prevention efforts. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lindsey, Alex P; Avery, Derek R; Dawson, Jeremy F; King, Eden B
Preliminary research suggests that employees use the demographic makeup of their organization to make sense of diversity-related incidents at work. The authors build on this work by examining the impact of management ethnic representativeness-the degree to which the ethnic composition of managers in an organization mirrors or is misaligned with the ethnic composition of employees in that organization. To do so, they integrate signaling theory and a sense-making perspective into a relational demography framework to investigate why and for whom management ethnic representativeness may have an impact on interpersonal mistreatment at work. Specifically, in three complementary studies, the authors examine the relationship between management ethnic representativeness and interpersonal mistreatment. First, they analyze the relationship between management ethnic representativeness and perceptions of harassment, bullying, and abuse the next year, as moderated by individuals' ethnic similarity to others in their organizations in a sample of 60,602 employees of Britain's National Health Service. Second, a constructive replication investigates perceived behavioral integrity as an explanatory mechanism that can account for the effects of representativeness using data from a nationally representative survey of working adults in the United States. Third and finally, online survey data collected at two time points replicated these patterns and further integrated the effects of representativeness and dissimilarity when they are measured using both objective and subjective strategies. Results support the authors' proposed moderated mediation model in which management ethnic representation is negatively related to interpersonal mistreatment through the mediator of perceived behavioral integrity, with effects being stronger for ethnically dissimilar employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Margaret Allman-Farinelli, Juliana Chen School of Life and Environmental Science, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia Abstract: The global pandemic of obesity requires an urgent response. Obesity results in increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The need to provide cost-effective treatment to the millions affected is evident but traditional repeated individual face-to-face management would clearly exhaust available health care services. It is for this reason that the use of mobile health (mHealth to improve population health, diet, and physical activity has become an active area of research. The aim of this review is to give a perspective of where this field of research currently stands using examples from the published literature. Smartphones provide a medium for the delivery of health information, personal coaching, monitoring of eating and physical activity behaviors and to integrate outputs from other sensors. Health and computer researchers have been developing and evaluating mHealth for the management of obesity but their efforts are relatively small. Text messaging, applications (apps and a number of multicomponent mHealth programs utilizing a variety of Smartphone functions indicate some success in weight management but the results are mixed. Apart from the ubiquitous nature of Smartphones and devices, the real-time delivery of output data provides the potential for continuous adjustment of interventions according to the changes an individual is making after each message they receive from the mHealth program. This ability to optimize interventions for individual weight management in a timely fashion is the big challenge for researchers. Personalized heath advice is the preferred option of individuals, and cooperation between computer scientists, behavioral scientists, dietitians, exercise physiologists and medical practitioners will be needed to meaningfully
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a national survey to evaluate the recent endoscopic treatment and drug therapy of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB patients and to compare practices in high and low case volume Hungarian workplaces. A total of 62 gastroenterology units participated in the six-month study. A total of 3033 PUB cases and a mean of 8.15±3.9 PUB cases per month per unit were reported. In the 23 high case volume units (HCV, there was a mean of 12.9±5.4 PUB cases/month, whereas in the 39 low case volume units (LCV, a mean of 5.3±2.9 PUB cases/month were treated during the study period. In HCV units, endoscopic therapies for Forrest Ia, Ib, and IIa ulcers were significantly more often used than in LCV units (86% versus 68%; P=0.001. Among patients with stigmata of recent haemorrhage (Forrest I, II, bolus + continuous infusion PPI was given significantly more frequently in HCV than in LCV units (49.6% versus 33.2%; P=0.001. Mortality in HCV units was less than in LCV units (2.7% versus 4.3%; P=0.023. The penetration of evidence-based recommendations for PUB management is stronger in HCV units resulting lower mortality.
Ballantine, Joan A.; Guo, Xin; Larres, Patricia
This study considers the potential for influencing business students to become ethical managers by directing their undergraduate learning environment. In particular, the relationship between business students’ academic cheating, as a predictor of workplace ethical behavior, and their approaches to learning is explored. The three approaches to learning identified from the students’ approaches to learning literature are deep approach, represented by an intrinsic interest in and a desire to unde...
Stephanie R. Partridge
Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behavior change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalization of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviors of adolescents now and in the future.
... regular employee meetings. What protections does OSHA offer? The Occupational Safety and Health Act’s ( OSH Act ) General Duty Clause requires employers to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all workers covered by the OSH Act . ...
de Dreu, C.K.W.; Evers, A.; Beersma, B.; Kluwer, E.S.; Nauta, A.
Conflict management influences individual well-being, group performance and organizational effectiveness. This research examined the psychometric qualities of two versions of the newly developed test for conflict handling (the Dutch Test for Conflict Handling). The lean version (Study 1 and 2)
Downey, Angela M; Sharp, David J
There is extensive evidence that worksite health promotion (WHP) programmes reduce healthcare costs and improve employee productivity. In many countries, a large proportion of healthcare costs are borne by the state. While the full benefits of WHP are still created, they are shared between employers and the state, even though the employer bears the full (after-tax) cost. Employers therefore have a lower incentive to implement WHP activity. We know little about the beliefs of managers with decision responsibility for the approval and implementation of WHP programmes in this context. This article reports the results of a study of the attitudes of Canadian senior general managers (GMs) and human resource managers (HRMs) in the auto parts industry in Ontario, Canada towards the consequences of increasing discretionary spending on WHP, using Structural Equation Modelling and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We identified factors that explain managers' intentions to increase discretionary spending on wellness programmes. While both senior GMs and HRMs are motivated primarily by their beliefs that WHP reduces indirect costs of health failure, GMs were also motivated by their moral responsibility towards employees (but surprisingly HRMs were not). Importantly, HRMs, who usually have responsibility for WHP, felt constrained by a lack of power to commit resources. Most importantly, we found no social expectation that organizations should provide WHP programmes. This has important implications in an environment where the adoption of WHP is very limited and cost containment within the healthcare system is paramount.
Caruso, Shirley J.
This paper serves as an exploration into some of the ways in which organizations can promote, capture, share, and manage the valuable knowledge of their employees. The problem is that employees typically do not share valuable information, skills, or expertise with other employees or with the entire organization. The author uses research as well as…
This study researches whether the ePortfolio is a suitable instrument for human capital management in the business environment. The implementation of ePortfolio systems in five different organizations is analyzed. It considers whether ePortfolio implementations were successful, and relevant critical success factors were identified. For the latter…
Armson, Genevieve; Whiteley, Alma
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' and managers' accounts of interactive learning and what might encourage or inhibit emergent learning. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken was a constructivist/social constructivist ontology, interpretive epistemology and qualitative methodology, using grounded theory…
This podcast demonstrates the importance of workplace support in managing diabetes in a corporate diabetes program. Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. Date Released: 11/8/2007.
Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Park, Kye-Yeong; Lee, Myung-Nam; Ham, Ok Kyung
The purpose of the study was to evaluate a parent involvement intervention for childhood obesity intended to increase parents' skills in managing children's weight-related behavior and to improve child-parent relationships. Many studies reported on parental influence on childhood obesity, emphasizing parent involvement in prevention and management of childhood obesity. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Forty-two parents of overweight/obese children were recruited from four cities and randomized to the experimental group or control group. The parental intervention was provided only to parents in the experimental group and consisted of weekly newsletters and text messages for a period of 5 weeks. Exercise classes and nutrition education were provided to all children. Lifestyle Behaviour Checklist and the Child-Parent Relationship Scale (CPRS) were used for measurement of parent outcome. For the child outcome, dietary self-efficacy, exercise frequency, and body mass index were measured. A mixed-design analysis of variance was performed with city location entered as a random effect. After the intervention, CPRS of parents and dietary self-efficacy of children showed an increase in the experimental group (p parents and dietary self-efficacy of children (p parent involvement intervention in promoting child-parent relationship and dietary self-efficacy of children. However, a 5-week parent involvement intervention was not sufficient to produce significant changes in children's body mass index. Further research is needed to investigate effects of parent involvement intervention with long-term evaluation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tveito, Torill Helene; Shaw, William S; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Nicholas, Michael; Wagner, Gregory
Most working adults with low back pain (LBP) continue to work despite pain, but few studies have assessed self-management strategies in this at-work population. The purpose of this study was to identify workplace challenges and self-management strategies reported by workers remaining at work despite recurrent or persistent LBP, to be used as a framework for the development of a workplace group intervention to prevent back disability. Workers with LBP (n = 38) participated in five focus groups, and audio recordings of sessions were analysed to assemble lists of common challenges and coping strategies. A separate analysis provided a general categorisation of major themes. Workplace pain challenges fell within four domains: activity interference, negative self-perceptions, interpersonal challenges and inflexibility of work. Self-management strategies consisted of modifying work activities and routines, reducing pain symptoms, using cognitive strategies and communicating pain effectively. Theme extraction identified six predominant themes: knowing your work setting, talking about pain, being prepared for a bad day, thoughts and emotions, keeping moving and finding leeway. To retain workers with LBP, this qualitative investigation suggests future intervention efforts should focus on worker communication and cognitions related to pain, pacing of work and employer efforts to provide leeway for altered job routines.
Hart, Rod; Heybrock, Denise
As episodes of workplace-centered violence have increased in the United States, a focus on emotional and mental health matters is more essential than ever. It is imperative for organizations to be proactive about violence prevention and have a plan that is supported by top management and understood by all managers and employees. Employers can take a number of steps in collaboration with a comprehensive violence prevention plan to promote a supportive and safe work environment. This article addresses workplace violence, risk factors and the components of a violence prevention plan as well as the importance of building a psychologically healthy workplace.
In the UK, Government Inquiries into health and social work failures have burgeoned ever more bureaucratic regulatory mechanisms for managing the conduct of professionals. This article draws on the concepts of Nudge Theory and Interpretive Vigilance to consider the impact upon the social work profession of mandatory registration (license) with a regulatory body. The author’s earlier UK based empirical qualitative study found that, as a regulatory method, registration had perverse consequences...
Craft, Jennifer M; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Vickers, Kristin S; Hathaway, Julie C; Vincent, Ann; Oh, Terry H
The aim of this study was to identify barriers, needs, and preferences of weight management intervention for women with fibromyalgia (FM). Obesity appears in higher rates in women with fibromyalgia compared to the population at large, and no study to date has taken a qualitative approach to better understand how these women view weight management in relation to their disease and vice versa. We designed a qualitative interview study with women patients with FM and obesity. Women (N = 15) were recruited by their participation in a fibromyalgia treatment program (FTP) within the year prior. The women approached for the study met the following inclusion criteria: confirmed diagnosis of FM, age between 30 and 60 years (M = 51 ± 6.27), and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (M = 37.88 ± 4.87). Patients completed questionnaire data prior to their participation in focus groups (N = 3), including weight loss history, physical activity data, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9). Three focus group interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. Consistent themes were revealed within and between groups. Patients expressed the complex relationships between FM symptoms, daily responsibilities, and weight management. Weight was viewed as an emotionally laden topic requiring compassionate delivery of programming from an empathetic leader who is knowledgeable about fibromyalgia. Patients view themselves as complex and different, requiring a specifically tailored weight management program for women with FM. Women with FM identify unique barriers to weight management, including the complex interrelationships between symptoms of FM and health behaviors, such as diet and exercise. They prefer a weight management program for women with FM that consists of an in-person, group-based approach with a leader but are open to a tailored conventional weight management program. Feasibility may be one of the biggest barriers
Cooper, Beth A.
NASA Lewis Research Center is home to more than 100 experimental research testing facilities and laboratories, including large wind tunnels and engine test cells, which in combination create a varied and complex noise environment. Much of the equipment was manufactured prior to the enactment of legislation limiting product noise emissions or occupational noise exposure. Routine facility maintenance and associated construction also contributes to a noise exposure management responsibility which is equal in magnitude and scope to that of several small industrial companies. The Noise Program, centrally managed within the Office of Environmental Programs at LRC, maintains overall responsibility for hearing conservation, community noise control, and acoustical and noise control engineering. Centralized management of the LRC Noise Program facilitates the timely development and implementation of engineered noise control solutions for problems identified via either the Hearing Conservation of Community Noise Program. The key element of the Lewis Research Center Noise Program, Acoustical and Noise Control Engineering Services, is focused on developing solutions that permanently reduce employee and community noise exposure and maximize research productivity by reducing or eliminating administrative and operational controls and by improving the safety and comfort of the work environment. The Hearing Conservation Program provides noise exposure assessment, medical monitoring, and training for civil servant and contractor employees. The Community Noise Program aims to maintain the support of LRC's neighboring communities while enabling necessary research operations to accomplish their programmatic goals. Noise control engineering capability resides within the Noise Program. The noise control engineering, based on specific exposure limits, is a fundamental consideration throughout the design phase of new test facilities, labs, and office buildings. In summary, the Noise Program
Holman, David; Johnson, Sheena; O'Connor, Elinor
In this chapter we provide an overview of stress management interventions (SMI) and review the evidence for their effects on employee stress and well-being. We start by setting out a typology of SMI that classes SMI according to level (i.e., the individual-level or organisation-level) and focus (i.e., a ‘primary’ focus on altering the causes of stress or a ‘secondary’ or ‘tertiary’ focus on reducing stress itself). We then use this typology to describe key types of SMI, after which we review ...
For the past few decades, there has been numerous literature produced on managing diversity and great attention has been paid on the work life conflicts. However, not so many studies have investigated the Chinese women’s work life conflicts and the relationship between diversity and work life conflicts has not been fully discussed and explained, hence the main purpose of this study is to explore how a range of characteristics can influence Chinese women’s work life conflicts and come up with ...
Findholt, Nancy E; Davis, Melinda M; Michael, Yvonne L
To explore the perceived barriers, resources, and training needs of rural primary care providers in relation to implementing the American Medical Association Expert Committee recommendations for assessment, treatment, and prevention of childhood obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 rural primary care providers in Oregon. Transcribed interviews were thematically coded. Barriers to addressing childhood obesity fell into 5 categories: barriers related to the practice (time constraints, lack of reimbursement, few opportunities to detect obesity), the clinician (limited knowledge), the family/patient (family lifestyle and lack of parent motivation to change, low family income and lack of health insurance, sensitivity of the issue), the community (lack of pediatric subspecialists and multidisciplinary/tertiary care services, few community resources), and the broader sociocultural environment (sociocultural influences, high prevalence of childhood obesity). There were very few clinic and community resources to assist clinicians in addressing weight issues. Clinicians had received little previous training relevant to childhood obesity, and they expressed an interest in several topics. Rural primary care providers face extensive barriers in relation to implementing recommended practices for assessment, treatment, and prevention of childhood obesity. Particularly problematic is the lack of local and regional resources. Employing nurses to provide case management and behavior counseling, group visits, and telehealth and other technological communications are strategies that could improve the management of childhood obesity in rural primary care settings. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.
Reed, Monique; Cygan, Heide; Lui, Karen; Mullen, Mary
Background In the United States, overweight/obesity among youth has reached epidemic proportions. The purpose of this project was to (1) examine primary care provider adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines; (2) compare adherence based on patients' weight classification, age, race, and gender; and (3) identify areas for improvement in health care delivery. Methods A retrospective chart audit and feedback quality improvement project was conducted with a stratified random sample of 175 charts of 6- to 19-year-olds seen for well-child visits. Frequencies of provider adherence were reported. χ(2) Analyses of weight classification, age, race, or gender influence on adherence was calculated. Results After discussion with the primary care providers, 5 areas were identified as priorities for change (diagnosis based on BMI, parental history of obesity, sleep assessment, endocrine assessment, and attendance of patients at the follow-up visit). Conclusion Cost-efficient, feasible strategies to improve provider adherence to recommendations for identification, prevention and management of childhood overweight and obesity were identified. © The Author(s) 2015.
Salawi, Hebah A; Ambler, Kathryn A; Padwal, Rajdeep S; Mager, Diana R; Chan, Catherine B; Ball, Geoff D C
Severe obesity (SO) in pediatrics has become increasing prevalent in recent decades.The objective of our study was to examine differences in demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle variables in children and youth with SO versus their less overweight/obese (OW/OB) peers. A retrospective medical record review of 6-19 year old participants enrolled in an outpatient pediatric weight management clinic was conducted. SO (body mass index [BMI] ≥99(th) percentile) and OW/OB (BMI ≥85(th) and $50,000/year (65.7%). The SO group (n = 161) had lower HDL-cholesterol and higher liver enzymes, insulin resistance and blood pressure than the OW/OB group (n = 184; all p youth in the SO group failed to meet moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (48.4% vs 31.9%) and leisure-time-screen-time recommendations (43.4% vs 28.3%; both p youth with SO have a worse cardiometabolic profile and less favorable lifestyle habits than their OW/OB peers. These differences emphasize the heightened obesity-related health risks associated with SO in the pediatric years.
Sinha, Ashish C; Singh, Preet Mohinder
Over the last four decades, as the rates of obesity have increased, so have the challenges associated with its anesthetic management. In the present review, we discuss perioperative anesthesia management issues that are modifiable by the early involvement of the surgical team. We sum up available evidence or expert opinion on issues like patient positioning, postoperative analgesia, and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilation on surgical anastomosis. We also address established predictors of higher perioperative risk and suggest possible management strategies and concerns of obese patients undergoing same day procedures. Finally, a generalized pharmacological model relevant to altered pharmacokinetics in these patients is presented.
Gehring, Nicole D; Ball, Geoff D C; Perez, Arnaldo; Holt, Nicholas L; Neuman, Daniel; Spence, Nicholas; Mercier, Laura; Jetha, Mary
Home visits have successfully been used to deliver various health services, but what role could they play in paediatric weight management? Low treatment initiation and high attrition prompted our multidisciplinary paediatric weight management clinic to investigate how families perceived the benefits and barriers of home visits. We focused on children with obesity aged 2-17 who were enrolled in our tertiary-level clinic in Alberta, Canada. None had received a home visit. The families were interviewed face-to-face from October 2015 to October 2016, and we used a qualitative description methodological framework and manifest content analysis. The parents were the main interviewees. Of the 56 families, 89% were interested in a home visit, 82% wanted support from a dietician and 54% from an exercise specialist. The perceived benefits of home visits included comprehensive assessment (95%), convenience (86%), tailored care (29%) and family involvement (13%), while the costs and barriers included clinicians' potential judgmental attitudes (30%), loss of privacy (19%) and distractions (10%). Some thought clinicians would find home visits inconvenient (25%), with bureaucratic challenges (14%) and sustainability issues (5%). Families felt home visits were a convenient option for managing paediatric obesity and identified important benefits and barriers that could guide such interventions. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moore, Lucas C; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S
Parental concern about child weight has been identified as a factor in parental monitoring and regulation of child diet. However, little is known about factors that influence parental concern or about how concern may influence parent management of child physical activity. The objectives of the current study were to identify the factors associated with parental concern about child weight and determine if parental concern is associated with specific actions to improve diet and increase physical activity. A stratified random sample of 1,500 parents of children in kindergarten, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 9th grade were interviewed. Interviews addressed: (a) child and parent physical activity, (b) child and family nutrition, (c) child and parent BMI weight category, (d) interactions with health care providers, (e) parent obesity knowledge, (f) school assessment of BMI, and (g) parent perception of and concern about child weight. Child gender, weight status, and parent perception of child weight were significant predictors of parental concern. Parents were significantly more likely to report concern if their child was female, they believed their child to be overweight/obese, or their child was overweight/obese as indicated by BMI percentile. Concerned parents were significantly more likely to limit child screen time, take steps to improve child diet, and increase child physical activity than were parents who reported no concern. Treatment and prevention efforts should emphasize parental concern and awareness about child weight by providing accurate feedback on child weight status and education regarding the health risks associated with childhood overweight and obesity. Schools can play an important role in this process through the incorporation of BMI screenings.
Lee, Albert; Ho, Mandy; Keung, Vera M W; Kwong, Amy C M
Home and school environments conducive for unhealthy eating and physical inactivity are precursors of obesity. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based weight management programme for overweight and obese primary school children via a home-school joint venture. This study made use of variety of behavioural modification strategies integrating into the Health Promoting School approach to promote healthy lifestyles. The participants were overweight and obese students aged between 8 and 12 from six participating schools. The interventions involved students attending ten 75 minutes after-school sessions and one 3-hour week-end session of practical interactive and fun activities on healthy eating and exercise, and meal plan together with parents and printed tailor-made management advices. Parents received an introductory seminar with 2 sets of specially designed exercise for their overweight children. The tools to measure bodyweight and fat percentage and standing height were bio-impedance body fat scale and a portable stadiometer. Self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. McNemar test was utilized to compare the proportions of behaviour changes within the same group to assess for the trends of changes. BMI z-score and body fat percentage of intervention participants at baseline, 4 month and 8 month were compared pair-wisely using tests of within subject contrasts in repeated measures ANOVA to assess for programme sustainability. Those students in the intervention group reduced their BMI z-score (-0.21, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.07, P = 0.003) and body fat (-2.67%, 95% CI -5.12 to -0.22, P = 0.033) compared to wait list control group with statistical significant, and the intervention group also had a significant reduction in BMI z-score (-0.06, 95% CI -0.11, -0.007, P = 0.028) and body fat (-1.71%, 95% CI, -3.44 to 0.02, P = 0.052) after a 4 month maintenance period. Improvement of
Manjunath S Somannavar
Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM, and hypertension (HTN. In an era of rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, it is important to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practices of primary care physicians. Materials and Methods: Study participants were medical officers (MOs of primary health centers in three districts of North Karnataka. The questionnaire was developed by a review of literature in the field and validated with five participants for scope, length, and clarity. Results/Discussion: Of the 102 participants, only 15% were aware about the burden of obesity in India. HTN, DM, and CVD were indicated as comorbidities by 73, 78, and 60 participants, respectively. Only 25 and 12 participants indicated appropriate body mass index (BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity diagnosis. Of the 102 participants, 54 were not aware of the guidelines for obesity management. Practices and attitudes of the participants were encouraging. Nearly all of them felt that the adults with BMI within the healthy range should be encouraged to maintain their weight and, three-fourth of them agreed that most overweight persons should be treated for weight loss and small weight loss can achieve major medical benefit. However, nearly half of the participants′ responses were stereotypical as they felt only obese and overweight with comorbidities should be treated for weight loss. Two-thirds of them use BMI to diagnose overweight/obese and nearly all of them advice their patients to increase physical activity and restrict fat. Most of the participants were advising their patients to restrict sugar intake, increase fruits and vegetable consumption, reduce red meat, and avoid alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Present study exposed the lack of knowledge regarding obesity. However, practices and attitudes of the participants were promising. There is a need of in-service training to MOs to further
Full Text Available BackgroundShifting the focus of parent management training (PMT to parents and discussing implications for maximizing the outcomes of PMT for the entire family is new and promising.ObjectiveWe aimed to examine the efficacy of work place PMT on job and marital satisfaction among staff members of an academic center.MethodsWe held 8 PMT sessions (1.5 h each for 20 staff members who were parents to children in the age range of 2–12 years. Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Occupational Descriptive Index [Health and Safety Executive (HSE] were used for baseline and post-intervention data gathering. DAS higher scores indicate higher marital adjustment satisfaction and higher HSE scores indicate higher occupational stress. To analyze changes in HSE and DAS scores over time, paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used, respectively.ResultsAll DAS subscales show significant increased from baseline to the final session except for affectional expression which was not significant. We found no significant changes in total or subscale HSE scores among participants.ConclusionFindings of this study underscore the role of psycho-education usage in work environment and provide evidence about the importance of designing interventions concerning working parents. Implications of PMT are discussed in the text.
Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa
To conceptualize how health care leaders' strategies to increase their influence in their psychosocial work environment are experienced and handled, and may be supported. The complex nature of the psychosocial work environment with increased stress creates significant challenges for leaders in today's health care organizations. Interviews with health care leaders (n = 39) were analysed in accordance with constructivist grounded theory. Compound identities, loyalty commitments and professional interests shape conditions for leaders' influence. Strategies to achieve legitimacy were either to retain clinical skills and a strong occupational identity or to take a full leadership role. Ethical stress was experienced when organizational procedural or consequential legitimacy norms were in conflict with the leaders' own values. Leadership support through socializing processes and strategic support structures may be complementary or counteractive. Support programmes need to have a clear message related to decision-making processes and should facilitate communication between top management, human resource departments and subordinate leaders. Ethical stress from conflicting legitimacy principles may be moderated by clear policies for decision-making processes, strengthened sound networks and improved communication. Supportive programmes should include: (1) sequential and strategic systems for introducing new leaders and mentoring; (2) reflective dialogue and feedback; (3) team development; and (4) decision-making policies and processes.
Greenes, R A
Medical educators are interested in approaches to making selected relevant knowledge available in the context of problem-based care. This is of value both during the process of care and as a means of organizing information for offline self-study. Four trends in health information technology are relevant to achieving the goal and can be expected to play a growing role in the future. First, health care enterprises are developing approaches for access to information resources related to the care of a patient, including clinical data and images but also communication tools, referral and other logistic tools, decision support, and educational materials. Second, information for patients and methods for patient-doctor interaction and decision making are becoming available. Third, computer-based methods for representation of practice guidelines are being developed to support applications that can incorporate their logic. Finally, considering patients as being in particular "clinical management states" (or CMSs) for specific problems, approaches are being developed to use guidelines as a kind of "predictive" framework to enable development of interfaces for problem-based clinical encounters. The guidelines for a CMS can be used to identify the kinds of resources specifically needed for clinical encounters of that type. As the above trends converge to produce problem-specific environments, professional specialty organizations and continuing medical education course designers will need to focus energies on organizing and updating medical knowledge to make it available in CMS-specific contexts.
Johnson, Susan L; Boutain, Doris M; Tsai, Jenny H-C; de Castro, Arnold B
To explore how workplace bullying is addressed by hospital nursing unit managers and organizational policies. Although workplace bullying is costly to organizations, nurses report that managers do not consistently address the issue. This study used discourse analysis to analyze interview data and policy documents. There were differences in the manner in which managers and the policy documents labeled bullying-type behaviors and discussed the roles and responsibilities of staff and managers. Policies did not clearly delineate how managers should respond to workplace bullying. These differences can allow management variation, not sanctioned by policy. Unclear policy language can also offer insufficient guidance to managers, resulting in differential enforcement of policies.
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD and obesity are important public health concerns. We examined the influence of dietary management and physical exercises on renal function, lipid profiles and exercise tolerance of a group of CKD patients. We enrolled 45 obese patients with CKD from stage 1 to 3b with tailored by regular dietitian consultation, recommendations of adequate daily protein and caloric intake, and physical exercises for body weight (BW reduction. The target was BW reduction ≥ 3%. Thirty eight obese CKD patients completed the study and 24 patients reached the target. Patients who reached the target was significant larger in total body fat decrement than those who failed (3.0% vs 0.5%, p = 0.003. In addition, total muscle mass, especially on trunk and lower limbs (1.2% vs 0%, P = 0.026 was significant decreased in patients who reached the target compared to those who failed. The laboratory data disclosed the significant reduction of Chol (0.7% vs. -19.3%; P = 0.007, LDL-C ( 3.7% vs. -37.6%; P < 0.001, and UA (0% vs. -0.8%; P = 0.025 between the two groups. The cardiorespiratory endurance to complete 800 meters run (375.1 ± 64.7 sec vs. 327.1 ± 84.0 sec; P = 0.001, abdominal muscle strength and endurance by times of sit-ups (13.6 ± 9.1 number/min vs. 19.9 ± 9.2; P = 0.005, and flexibility of the lower back by sit and reach (18.8 ± 10.8 cm vs. 27.8 ± 10.9 cm; P< 0.001 of the patients who reached the target were improved significantly after 2-months of physical exercise training and education.We conclude that combination of dietary management and exercises are effective in improving health-related physical fitness, blood pressure control, dyslipidemia and renal function in overweight or obese CKD patients. Supportive individualized programs for lifestyle change could exert beneficial effects. A longitudinal study with larger sample size is warranted to elucidate the efficacy of combination of dietary management and exercises.
The adaptation of workplaces can be defined as an integral service aimed at adapting all work areas to current legislation. At present, these activities involve the restoration of the areas and equipment in all the disciplines, achieving substantial improvements in terms of quality, safety, radiation protection and maintenance. The integral workplace adaptation service has been implemented in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power plant for more than five years and has succeeded in adapting a third of all the cubicles to current legislation. The goal is to continue with these activities until adaption of 100% of the plant cubicles is completed. (Author)
Rissel, Chris; Wen, Li Ming
Objectives After having conducted two studies of the effectiveness of workplace travel plans for promoting active travel, we investigated health and transport practitioners’ perspectives on implementing workplace travel plans to share some of the lessons learnt. The objectives of this study were to describe perceived elements of effective workplace travel plans, barriers and enablers to workplace travel planning, their experiences of working with the other profession on travel plan implementation, their recommendations for workplace travel planning, and also to explore similarities and differences in transport and health practitioner perspectives. Materials and Methods Fourteen health and ten transport practitioners who had prior involvement in workplace travel plan programs were purposefully selected from workplaces in Australia. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews since data saturation had been reached at this point, and data were subject to framework analysis. Results Perceived essential elements of effective workplace travel plans included parking management; leadership, organisational commitment and governance; skills and other resources like a dedicated travel plan coordinator; and, pre-conditions including supportive transport infrastructure in the surrounds. Recommendations for promoting travel plans included supportive government policy, focusing on business benefits and working at different scales of implementation (e.g. single large worksites and business precincts). Health and transport practitioner perspectives differed, with transport practitioners believing that parking management is the key action for managing travel demand at a worksite. Conclusions Health practitioners implementing travel plans may require training including concepts of travel demand management, and support from transport planners on parking management strategies. Promoting an understanding of the shared travel behaviour change skills of transport and health practitioners may
Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed
This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures.
Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Uwakwe, Laura; Rashid, Farzana
Approximately 36% of adult women in the United States are obese. Although obesity affects women similarly to men in terms of prevalence, there seem to be gender-specific differences in the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of obesity. Obesity is linked to comorbid diseases involving multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, like gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatty liver disease, and gallstones. This article focuses on obesity in women, specifically the impact of obesity on gastrointestinal diseases and reproductive health, as well as the treatment of obesity in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
These four papers are from a symposium on changing workplaces. "Women Entrepreneurs: Maintaining Business Success through Human Resource Development" (Dominic G. Kamau , Gary N. McLean, Alexander Ardishvili) investigates contributions of human resource development (HRD) to business success and reports the following: (1) women can be…
This document contains four papers from a symposium on the changing workplace and its relationship to human resource development (HRD). In "Globalization, Immigration and Quality of Life Dynamics for Reverse Brain Drains" (Ben-Chieh Liu, Maw Lin Lee, Hau-Lien), the factors responsible for the brain drain from Taiwan to the United States…
Hickey, Jane; Saunders, Jean; Davern, Peter
A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers' motivations for commissioning the asbestos survey were also identified. The study found that ASA-trained managers (n=11) were not significantly more likely to work in larger organisations or in organisations which operated an accredited management system. Though ASA-trained managers' instinctive thoughts on asbestos were of a slightly poorer technical quality compared with those of non-ASA-trained managers, they were still significantly more cognisant of their responsibilities towards those of their employees at specific risk of asbestos exposure. Most managers (n=28) commissioned the asbestos survey to satisfy a pre-requisite of external contractors for commencing refurbishment/demolition work in their buildings. Given its potential to positively influence the occupational management of asbestos, the authors recommend the general promotion of suitably tailored ASA-training programmes among building managers and external contractors alike.
Yildirim, Aytolan; Yildirim, Dilek
This research was conducted as a descriptive and cross-sectional study with the purpose of determining the mobbing experienced by nurses who work in healthcare facilities in Turkey, its emotional, social and physiological effects on the nurses and the actions that the individuals take to escape from the mobbing. The term 'mobbing', which includes workplace terrorizing, pressure, frightening, belittling and psycho-terror, is defined as the presence of systematic, directed, unethical communication and antagonistic behaviour by one or more individuals. These actions that occur frequently and continue for a long time are the most serious and effective causes of workplace stress. The person who is the target of the mobbing is left without help, without protection and alone in the workplace. Individuals who are exposed to psychological abuse experience physiological, psychological and social problems that are related to high levels of stress and anxiety. The research participants were 505 nurses of whom 325 (64%) worked in public and 180 (36%) in private hospitals. All of the participants were female. A questionnaire developed by the researchers in the light of information in the literature was used for data collection and had four sections including the participants' demographic characteristics and questions asking about mobbing behaviours, reaction to mobbing incidents and actions taken to escape from the mobbing. The data were collected between October and December 2005 by giving an envelope to the participants and then collecting the responses in the closed envelope. The overwhelming majority (86.5%) of the nurses participating in the research reported facing mobbing behaviour in the workplace in the last 12 months. The nurses working at private hospitals faced statistically significantly more mobbing behaviours than those at public hospitals (pworkplace need to be defined and appropriate policies and procedures need to be developed and shared with all employees to
Tucker, Jared M; Howard, Kathleen; Guseman, Emily H; Yee, Kimbo E; Saturley, Heather; Eisenmann, Joey C
The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Screening Tool (FNPA) evaluates family behavioural and environmental factors associated with pediatric obesity, but it is unknown if FNPA scores differ among youth across obesity severities. Our aim was to determine the association between the FNPA and obesity severity in youth referred to weight management. Upon initiating treatment, height, weight, and the FNPA were collected according to standard procedures. Cut-points for overweight/obesity, severe obesity (SO) class 2, and SO class 3 were calculated. FNPA scores were compared across weight status groups using analysis of covariance, and odds of SO across FNPA quartiles were evaluated with multiple logistic regression. Participants included 564 5-18year old who initiated treatment and completed the FNPA. After adjustment, FNPA scores differed by weight status with higher/healthier scores in youth with overweight/obesity (56.6±8.5) when compared to those with SO class 2 (55.0±7.1; p=0.015) or SO class 3 (53.6±9.0; p<0.001). Compared to those in the highest FNPA quartile, youth in the 2nd quartile had 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) times higher odds of SO, and those in the lowest FNPA quartile had 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.4) times higher odds of SO. Youth with SO had unhealthier subscale scores among 6 of 10 constructs, including nutritional, physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviours. Results suggest a consistent inverse relationship between the FNPA and adiposity among youth presenting for weight management. The FNPA is a useful metric for programs and clinicians targeting family behaviours and the home environment to combat obesity. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Michael J Abunassar1, George A Wells2, Robert R Dent31Faculty of Medicine, 2Heart Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3The Ottawa Hospital Weight Management Clinic, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death. Very little tobacco exposure can increase cardiovascular disease risk. The relationship between smoking, sex, and weight remains unclear.Methods: Between September 1992 and June 2007, 2582 consenting patients starting the Ottawa Hospital Weight Management program were grouped by sex and smoking status. “Former smokers” (771 females, 312 males had quit for at least 1 year. “Smokers” (135 females, 54 males smoked >9 cigarettes daily. There were 979 females and 331 males who never smoked. Using SAS 9.2 statistical software, the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, major depressive disorder (MDD, and medication use among the groups was compared (Chi-square [χ2]. Anthropometric measurements, lipid, glucose and thyroid levels were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Interactions were assessed using 2-way ANOVA analysis for continuous data, and logistic regression for discrete data.Results: Smokers were more likely to have MDD (χ2, lower high-density lipoprotein levels and higher triglyceride levels than other groups. Former smokers had a greater prevalence of CAD, T2DM on pharmacotherapy, and impaired fasting glucose than other groups. They were also more likely to be taking lipid-lowering agents and antihypertensives (χ2. Never smokers had less MDD, CAD, and were less likely to be on antidepressants than the other groups. Males were more likely to have CAD and T2DM than females. Females were more likely to have MDD than males. Interactions between smoking status and sex were found for age, weight, fasting glucose and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.Conclusion: Obese never smokers suffer from the fewest chronic diseases
Gayed, Aimée; Milligan-Saville, Josie S; Nicholas, Jennifer; Bryan, Bridget T; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Madan, Ira; Calvo, Rafael A; Christensen, Helen; Mykletun, Arnstein; Glozier, Nicholas; Harvey, Samuel B
Managers are in an influential position to make decisions that can impact on the mental health and well-being of their employees. As a result, there is an increasing trend for organisations to provide managers with training in how to reduce work-based mental health risk factors for their employees. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify workplace interventions for managers with an emphasis on the mental health of employees reporting directing to them. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled effect sizes using the random effects model for both manager and employee outcomes. Ten controlled trials were identified as relevant for this review. Outcomes evaluating managers' mental health knowledge (standardised mean difference (SMD)=0.73; 95% CI 0.43 to 1.03; pmental health (SMD=0.36; 95% CI 0.18 to 0.53; pemployees experiencing mental health problems (SMD=0.59; 95% CI 0.14 to 1.03; p=0.01) were found to have significant pooled effect sizes favouring the intervention. A significant pooled effect was not found for the small number of studies evaluating psychological symptoms in employees (p=0.28). Our meta-analysis indicates that training managers in workplace mental health can improve their knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour in supporting employees experiencing mental health problems. At present, any findings regarding the impact of manager training on levels of psychological distress among employees remain preliminary as only a very limited amount of research evaluating employee outcomes is available. Our review suggests that in order to understand the effectiveness of manager training on employees, an increase in collection of employee level data is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Caroline M ApovianMedicine and Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine; Nutrition and Weight Management Center; and Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Obesity increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and this in turn correlates with an elevated probability of long-term diabetes complications once diabetes is established. Interventions aimed at lowering weight via changes in diet and lifestyle have repeatedly been shown to improve glycemic control in patients with T2DM and even to reverse early disease. Weight gain, a potential side effect of treatment for patients with T2DM, is also an important concern, and it has been noted that weight increases associated with antidiabetes therapy may blunt cardiovascular risk reductions achieved by decreasing blood glucose. Among older agents, metformin and acarbose have the lowest risk for weight gain, while sulfonylureas, meglitinides, and thiazolidinediones are all associated with weight increases. Clinical trial results have also consistently demonstrated that treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and amylin lowers weight, and that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are weight neutral in patients with T2DM. Conventional human insulin formulations are known to increase weight in patients with T2DM. However, some insulin analogs, particularly insulin detemir, have lower liability for this adverse event. The use of both pharmacologic and surgical therapies aimed at treating obesity rather than lowering blood glucose have the potential to improve glycemic control and even resolve T2DM in some patients.Keywords: bariatric, diabetes, incretin, insulin, obesity, oral antidiabetes agents
STAICULESCU Ana Rodica
This paper is a response to the problem of workplace gender violence and the power relationships between males and females in organizational theory. Victimization based on gender is afflicting society as a whole, but is also relevant to the construction of social attitudes at the workplace. Thus, we will present how the context of work relationships can be affected by acts of verbal and physical intimidation engaged by gender inequality and what are the consequences for managers. Moreover, we...
Dickey, Wayne; Arday, David R; Kelly, Joseph; Carnahan, Col David
As childhood obesity is a concern in many communities, this study investigated outpatient evaluation and initial management of overweight and obese pediatric patients in U.S. military medical treatment facilities (MTFs). Samples of 579 overweight and 341 obese patients (as determined by body mass index [BMI]) aged 3-17 years were drawn from MTFs. All available FY2011 outpatient records were searched for documentation of BMI assessment, overweight/obesity diagnosis, and counseling. Administrative data for these patients were merged to assess coded diagnostic and counseling rates and receipt of recommended laboratory screenings. Generic BMI documentation was high, but BMI percentile assessments were found among fewer than half the patients. Diagnostic recording or recognition totaled 10.9% of overweight and 32.0% of obese. Counseling rates were higher, with 46.4% and 61.0% of overweight and obese patients, respectively, receiving weight related counseling. Among patients 10 years of age or older, rates of recommended lab screenings for diabetes, liver abnormality, and dyslipidemia were not greater than 33%. BMI percentile recording was strongly associated with diagnostic recording, and diagnostic recording was strongly associated with counseling. Improvements to electronic health records or implementation of local procedures to facilitate better diagnostic recording would likely improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
LaMontagne, Ramona Marie
This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…
Conclusion: SP could be a powerful instrument for evaluating medical performance of general practitioners in the field of obesity/overweight management. Further research is needed to find the more aspects of training and validation of unannounced SPs in this field.
Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel J; Jones, Ruth A; Speroni, Karen Gabel
Workplace bullying can not only cost thousands of dollars to replace an affected nurse, but also have detrimental economic effects on health care organizations. Occupational health nurses can provide leadership in preventing or eliminating workplace bullying. This pilot study determined that attendance at a cognitive rehearsal program decreased workplace bullying. The study used an Internet-based survey administered 6 months after nurses completed the 2-hour cognitive rehearsal program. Half of the nurses reported witnessing bullying behaviors since attending the program; 70% of the nurses reported changing their own behaviors following the course; and 40% of the nurses reported a decrease in bullying behaviors during the past 6 months. Although 70% of the nurses believed they could intervene in bullying situations, only 16% reported they responded to bullying at the time of occurrence. This study illuminates the need to continue searching for other effective methods to prevent and manage workplace bullying. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Background. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG are on the rise with negative impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research into managing GWG using accessible technology is limited. The maternal obesity management using mobile technology (MOMTech study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of text messaging based complex intervention designed to support obese women (BMI ≥ 30 with healthier lifestyles and limit GWG. Methods. Participants received two daily text messages, supported by four appointments with healthy lifestyle midwife, diet and activity goal setting, and self-monitoring diaries. The comparison group were obese mothers who declined to participate but consented for their routinely collected data to be used for comparison. Postnatal interviews and focus groups with participants and the comparison group explored the intervention’s acceptability and suggested improvements. Results. Fourteen women completed the study which did not allow statistical analyses. However, participants had lower mean GWG than the comparison group (6.65 kg versus 9.74 kg and few (28% versus 50% exceeded the Institute of Medicine’s upper limit of 9 kg GWG for obese women. Conclusions. MOMTech was feasible within clinical setting and acceptable intervention to support women to limit GWG. Before further trials, slight modifications are planned to recruitment, text messages, and the logistics of consultation visits.
Wakshlag, Joseph J; Loftus,John
John P Loftus, Joseph J Wakshlag Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Canine and feline obesity rates have reached pandemic proportions and are similar to those in humans, with approximately 30%–40% of dogs and cats being overweight to obese. Obesity has been associated with other health problems, including osteoarthritis, renal disease, skin disease, insulin resistance, and neoplasia in dogs, while in cats obesity is...
For the first time in history, radiologic science (RS) workplaces consist of 4 generational cohorts. As each cohort possess their own attitudes, values, work habits, and expectations, motivating a generational diverse workplace is challenging. Through the understanding of generational differences, managers are better able to accommodate individual as well as generational needs and help create a more productive and higher performing workplace. The purpose of this paper is to assist managers in the understanding and utilization of generational differences to effectively motivate staff in an RS workplace. Generational cohorts will be defined and discussed along with an in-depth discussion on each of the generations performing in today's RS workplace. Motivators and how they impact the different generational cohorts will be addressed along with how to best motivate a multigenerational RS workplace.
Although there are 3.6 million gay people in Britain and 1.7 million lesbian, gay and bisexual people in Britain's workforce (Stonewall 2006a), dealing explicitly with issues of sexual orientation is still a taboo topic (Stonewall 2004b). Research has shown that LGB people who are out at work are vulnerable to harassment, bullying and discrimination in their careers (Stonewall 2004b). According to 2007 Stonewall Workplace Equality Index, the investment banks are the leaders in promoting e...
Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo
This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...... symbolic power and this is reflected in the linguistic ecosystem of the various work settings. In this chapter, we discuss issues around language use, language policy and language ideology in the workplace as well as gatekeeping. We draw on our recently completed and ongoing work as well as illustrative...
Winik, Connie L; Bonham, C Elizabeth
Obesity is a rapidly growing health problem reaching epidemic levels around the world (World Health Organization, 2014). According to the World Health Organization, the current incident rate of obesity makes it the leading risk for deaths across the globe. The United States (USA) is amidst in this growing global epidemic. The obesity epidemic is a nondiscriminatory health problem affecting millions of individuals from a variety of backgrounds and social status. One group impacted by this disease is the US military. The health-related consequences of overweight and obesity has increased our military health care expenditures and has a direct impact on our nation's military readiness (Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense, 2014). The purpose of this Doctor of Nursing Practice project was to implement the Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense's Clinical Practice Guideline on Screening and Management of Overweight and Obesity at a military treatment facility in the Midwest. The goal of the project was to reduce the incidence rate of overweight and obese active duty military service members assigned to a military installation in the Midwest. With institutional review board approval, project implementation results were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics (paired t- tests). The goal to reduce the incident rate of overweight and obese by 5% was not achieved, but in turn the rate of overweight and obese increased by 1.57% over the 6-mo period. There were decreases in the normal with an increase in the overweight and obesity rate. This inverse outcome was unexpected and concerning. Based on the project's finding, there is a need to address the perceived barriers to maintaining healthy behaviors to plan future activities. An in-depth look at whether there is a knowledge deficit, a perceived lack of self-efficacy, competing life priorities preventing engagement in health promotion behaviors, or some other element influencing the motivation to change would be
Full Text Available Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1-12; 50% boys and their parents, but only 1440 (6-19 years and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children's weight. Parental perception of their children's weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children's weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children's' weight status; underestimating (27.4% or overestimating (6.3%. Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5% and underweight (55.1% children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child's BMI percentile (CDC with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209-1.425; p<0.001 per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child's sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children's weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children's BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child's weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages.
Márcio Luiz Benevides
Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The increased prevalence of obesity in the general population extends to women of reproductive age. The aim of this study is to report the perioperative management of a morbidly obese pregnant woman, body mass index >50 kg/m2, who underwent cesarean section under general anesthesia. Case report: Pregnant woman in labor, 35 years of age, body mass index 59.8 kg/m2. Cesarean section was indicated due to the presumed fetal macrosomia. The patient refused spinal anesthesia. She was placed in the ramp position with cushions from back to head to facilitate tracheal intubation. Another cushion was placed on top of the right gluteus to create an angle of approximately 15° to the operating table. Immediately before induction of anesthesia, asepsis was carried out and sterile surgical fields were placed. Anesthesia was induced in rapid sequence, with Sellick maneuver and administration of remifentanil, propofol, and succinilcolina. Intubation was performed using a gum elastic bougie, and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. The interval between skin incision and fetal extraction was 21 min, with the use of a Simpson's forceps scoop to assist in the extraction. The patient gave birth to a newborn weighing 4850 g, with Apgar scores of 2 in the 1st minute (received positive pressure ventilation by mask for about 2 min and 8 in the 5th minute. The patient was extubated uneventfully. Multimodal analgesia and prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting was performed. Mother and newborn were discharged on the 4th postoperative day.
Dietz, William H; Baur, Louise A; Hall, Kevin; Puhl, Rebecca M; Taveras, Elsie M; Uauy, Ricardo; Kopelman, Peter
Although the caloric deficits achieved by increased awareness, policy, and environmental approaches have begun to achieve reductions in the prevalence of obesity in some countries, these approaches are insufficient to achieve weight loss in patients with severe obesity. Because the prevalence of obesity poses an enormous clinical burden, innovative treatment and care-delivery strategies are needed. Nonetheless, health professionals are poorly prepared to address obesity. In addition to biases and unfounded assumptions about patients with obesity, absence of training in behaviour-change strategies and scarce experience working within interprofessional teams impairs care of patients with obesity. Modalities available for the treatment of adult obesity include clinical counselling focused on diet, physical activity, and behaviour change, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Few options, few published reports of treatment, and no large randomised trials are available for paediatric patients. Improved care for patients with obesity will need alignment of the intensity of therapy with the severity of disease and integration of therapy with environmental changes that reinforce clinical strategies. New treatment strategies, such as the use of technology and innovative means of health-care delivery that rely on health professionals other than physicians, represent promising options, particularly for patients with overweight and patients with mild to moderate obesity. The co-occurrence of undernutrition and obesity in low-income and middle-income countries poses unique challenges that might not be amenable to the same strategies as those that can be used in high-income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aviles, Christopher B.
Social work educators are being called upon more often to deliver employee workplace seminars for community agencies on a variety of topics ranging from burnout and stress management to improving workplace communication and managing workplace conflicts. One tool that addresses workplace communication is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). It…
Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa
Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H
The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.
Fukai, Nanae; Hiraoka, Ko; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Thanachokswang, Chatchai; Arphorn, Sara; Uehara, Msamichi; Nakanishi, Shigemoto; Mori, Koji
We collected information necessary for conducting occupational health activities in Thailand with regard to occupational safety and health management systems (OSHMS). Based on an information collection check sheet developed in our previous research, we conducted a literature research and visited four local business bases, one ISO certification body and two higher educational institutions. The legal framework concerning occupational health in Thailand consists of the Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Act of 2011 and 13 ordinances from the Ministry of Labor under that act. The original OSHMS standards for Thailand have been published, and the number of companies, especially large ones, introducing systems conforming to these standards has increased in recent years. For occupational health specialists, there are training programs for specialized occupational health physicians, professional safety officers and occupational nurses. Professional safety officers also play a central role in occupational health in the workplace. In Thailand, it is necessary to ensure compliance with related acts and regulations, and to conduct voluntary activities that satisfy workplace conditions as based on the OSHMS standards. Additionally, to improve occupational health performance, it is essential to use high-quality external services and/or occupational health professionals. Headquarters of Japanese companies have considered taking countermeasures such as recommending active use of professional safety officers, as well as issuing global standards.
Dixon, J.B.; Browne, J.L.; Mosely, K.G.; Jones, K.M.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.
Aims To investigate whether diabetes self-care attitudes, behaviours and perceived burden, particularly related to weight management, diet and physical activity, differ between adults with Type 2 diabetes who are severely obese and matched non-severely obese control subjects. Methods The 1795
Shaw, W.S.; Besen, E.; Pransky, G.; Boot, C.R.L.; Nicholas, M.K.; McLellan, R.K.; Tveito, T.H.
Background: The percentage of older and chronically ill workers is increasing rapidly in the US and in many other countries, but few interventions are available to help employees overcome the workplace challenges of chronic pain and other physical health conditions. While most workers are eligible
Gordon, Virginia; Steele, Peg
The American workplace today is unlike any other in history because for the first time it is made up of four distinct generations. The advising workplaces on today's college campuses mirror this generational diversity. Four generations and their different perceptions of work attitudes and values, management expectations, communication patterns,…
Griffin, Hayley J; O'Connor, Helen T; Rooney, Kieron B; Steinbeck, Katharine S
Limited research in young overweight and obese women indicates that they are difficult to recruit to weight management trials, with attrition higher and weight loss success lower than middle to older age participants. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different recruitment strategies for a clinical weight loss trial in overweight and obese Generation Y women. Overweight and obese (BMI >=27.5 kg/m-2) women aged 18-25 years (n=70) were required for a 12 month clinical weight management trial including diet, exercise and behaviour modification. Contact with researchers and eventual recruitment are reported for the various strategies employed to engage participants. Data reported as % or mean±SE. Recruitment was challenging with only 50 of the total 70 participants recruited within the scheduled time frame (24 months). Just over one quarter (27%) of volunteers assessed were recruited. Flyers posted around local tertiary education campuses were the most successful method, yielding 36% of included participants. This was followed by advertisements on the local area health service intranet (26%) and in local and metropolitan newspapers (16%). Recruitment of overweight and obese Generation Y women for a clinical weight loss trial was difficult. Multiple strategies targeted at this age and gender group were required. Less rigorous selection criteria and reduced face-to-face intervention time may improve recruitment and retention rates into clinical trials for this age group.
Vickie A Lambert
Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.
Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K
A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or del...
Johnson, Susan L
The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vesco, Kimberly K.; Leo, Michael C.; Karanja, Njeri; Gillman, Matthew W.; McEvoy, Cindy T.; King, Janet C.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Smith, K. Sabina; Perrin, Nancy; Stevens, Victor J.
Objective This analysis focuses on 1-year maternal and infant follow-up of a randomized trial that tested a weight management intervention conducted during pregnancy. Methods We randomly assigned 114 women with obesity (mean BMI 36.7 kg/m2) at a mean of 15 weeks’ gestation to a weight management intervention or usual care control condition. The intervention ended at delivery and resulted in less gestational weight gain and a lower proportion of large-for-gestational age newborns among intervention compared to control participants. The primary outcome at 12 months postpartum was maternal weight. Secondary outcomes included infant weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores. Results At 1 year, mothers in the intervention group weighed 96.3±18.6 kg, and in the control group, 99.7±19.2 kg. There was no significant difference between groups in change in weight from randomization to 1-year postpartum (b=-0.47, 95% CI [-4.03, 3.08]. There was a significant main effect of group for infant weight-for-age z-score (b=-0.40, 95% CI [-0.75,-0.05]) but not infant weight-for-length z-scores (b=-0.20, 95% CI [-0.59,0.20]. Conclusions A gestational weight management intervention did not influence maternal weight or infant weight-for-length at 1-year postpartum. Future studies may be warranted to determine if extending prenatal interventions into the postpartum period would be beneficial for maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:27670399
Batch, Jennifer A; Baur, Louise A
Obesity in children and adolescents has reached alarming levels--20%-25% of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and 4.9% of boys and 5.4% of girls are obese. Rates of obesity have increased significantly in Australia from 1985 to 1995, with the prevalence of overweight doubling and obesity trebling. Body mass index (related to reference standards for age and sex) is recommended as a practical measure of overweight and obesity in children, and is used in monitoring individual progress in clinical practice. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may be associated with a range of medical and psychological complications, and can predispose individuals to serious health problems in adult life, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Obesity interventions for which there is some evidence include family support, a developmentally appropriate approach, long-term behaviour modification, dietary change, and increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour. Prevention of obesity in children and adolescents requires a range of strategies involving changes in both the microenvironment (eg, housing, neighbourhoods, recreational opportunities) and the macroenvironment (eg, food marketing, transport systems, urban planning).
Robertson, C.; Archibald, D.; Avenell, A.; Douglas, F.; Hoddinott, P.; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Boyers, D.; Stewart, F.; Boachie, C.; Fioratou, E.; Wilkins, D.; Street, T.; Carroll, P.; Fowler, C.
Background\\ud Obesity increases the risk of many serious illnesses such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis. More men than women are overweight or obese in the UK but men are less likely to perceive their weight as a problem and less likely to engage with weight-loss services.\\ud Objective\\ud The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence-based management strategies for treating obesity in men and investigate how to engage men in obesity services by inte...
Wolff, Margaret S; Rhodes, Erinn T; Ludwig, David S
Information about the availability and effectiveness of childhood obesity training during residency is limited. We surveyed residency program directors from pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics (IM-Peds), and family medicine residency programs between September 2007 and January 2008 about childhood obesity training offered in their programs. The response rate was 42.2% (299/709) and ranged by specialty from 40.1% to 45.4%. Overall, 52.5% of respondents felt that childhood obesity training in residency was extremely important, and the majority of programs offered training in aspects of childhood obesity management including prevention (N = 240, 80.3%), diagnosis (N = 282, 94.3%), diagnosis of complications (N = 249, 83.3%), and treatment (N = 242, 80.9%). However, only 18.1% (N = 54) of programs had a formal childhood obesity curriculum with variability across specialties. Specifically, 35.5% of IM-Peds programs had a formal curriculum compared to only 22.6% of pediatric and 13.9% of family medicine programs (p obesity training was competing curricular demands (58.5%). While most residents receive training in aspects of childhood obesity management, deficits may exist in training quality with a minority of programs offering a formal childhood obesity curriculum. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity, a greater emphasis should be placed on development and use of effective training strategies suitable for all specialties training physicians to care for children.
In the field of occupational health, health guidance concerning obesity is often conducted in order to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. With recent awareness of the concept of metabolic syndrome, measurement of the visceral fat area (VFA) by CT has been useful for health guidance, but it is difficult in workplace health screening. Presently, the BMI (Body Mass Index), body fat percentage measured by the bioelectrical impedance method, and waist girth at the umbilical level (abdominal girth) are practical indices of obesity used in such health screening. In this study, VAF was measured in 590 clerical or sales workers in the manufacturing industry using a body fat meter capable of a visceral fat measurement by the bioelectrical impedance method. The relationship of this value to the results of biochemical tests and lifestyle was then evaluated using analysis of covariance structures. Analysis indicated that the risk of lifestyle-related disease was closely related to the degree of obesity. Among indices of the degree of obesity, VFA was more closely related than BMI or body fat percentage, and only slightly less closely related than abdominal girth to the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. Since VFA is effective in screening for latent obesity, health guidance based on digital data, and the subjects' body imaging, its measurement by the bioelectrical impedance method is considered useful for workplace health management. (author)
Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj
All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications.
Finell, Eerika; Seppälä, Tuija; Suoninen, Eero
Suffering from a contested illness poses a serious threat to one's identity. We analyzed the rhetorical identity management strategies respondents used when depicting their health problems and lives in the context of observed or suspected indoor air (IA) problems in the workplace. The data consisted of essays collected by the Finnish Literature Society. We used discourse-oriented methods to interpret a variety of language uses in the construction of identity strategies. Six strategies were identified: respondents described themselves as normal and good citizens with strong characters, and as IA sufferers who received acknowledge from others, offered positive meanings to their in-group, and demanded recognition. These identity strategies located on two continua: (a) individual- and collective-level strategies and (b) dissolved and emphasized (sub)category boundaries. The practical conclusion is that professionals should be aware of these complex coping strategies when aiming to interact effectively with people suffering from contested illnesses.
Glendinning, Peter M.
A literature review concluded that supervisor/supervisee relationships are critical to job satisfaction; workplace bullying in the form of a management style of aggressive and intimidating behaviors is widespread; certain types of organizations foster bullying; and bullying has high costs for the targeted employee and the organization. (Contains…
Full Text Available Arianne N Sweeting,1 Eddy Tabet,1 Ian D Caterson,1,2 Tania P Markovic1,2 1Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA recently approved lorcaserin and the combination of phentermine and extended release topiramate (phentermine/topiramate ER for the treatment of obesity in conjunction with a lifestyle intervention, expanding the therapeutic options for long-term obesity pharmacotherapy, which was previously limited to orlistat. Combination phentermine/topiramate ER is associated with greater weight loss compared to its constituent monotherapy, with a more favorable adverse effect profile. Phentermine/topiramate ER also appears to have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk, although longer-term cardiovascular safety data are required. While there are no head-to-head studies among the currently available obesity pharmacotherapy agents, phentermine/topiramate ER appears to have a superior weight loss profile. This review will discuss the epidemiology, natural history, and cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity, provide an overview on current obesity pharmacotherapy, and summarize the recent clinical efficacy and safety data underpinning the FDA's approval of both phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin as pharmacotherapy for a long-term obesity intervention. Keywords: obesity, phentermine/topiramate extended release, safety and efficacy, review
Royall, Dawna; Brauer, Paula; Atta-Konadu, Edwoba; Dwyer, John J M; Edwards, A Michelle; Hussey, Tracy; Kates, Nick
Both providers and patients may have important insights to inform the development of obesity prevention and management services in Canadian primary care settings. In this formative study, insights for new obesity management services were sought from both providers and patients in 1 progressive citywide organization (150 physicians, team services, separate offices). Seven focus groups with interprofessional health providers (n = 56) and 4 focus groups with patients (n = 34) were conducted. Two clinical vignettes (adult, child) were used to focus discussion. Four analysts coded for descriptive content and interpretative themes on possible tools and care processes using NVivo. Participants identified numerous strategies for care processes, most of which could be categorized into 1 or more of 11 themes: 6 directed at clinical care of patients (raising awareness, screening, clinical care, skill building, ongoing support, and social/peer support) and 5 directed at the organization (coordination/collaboration, creating awareness among health professionals, adding new expertise to the team, marketing, and lobbying/advocacy). The approach was successful in generating an extensive list of diverse activities to be considered for implementation studies. Both patients and providers identified that multiple strategies and systems approaches will be needed to address obesity management in primary care.
Argues that adult education discourse about the workplace uncritically adopts management perspectives and pays inadequate attention to gender and power issues. States that understanding gender as an organizing principle provides insights into these issues that can be applied to organizational change. (SK)
Full Text Available Anna M Buehler Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz, Institute of Health Education and Sciences, Sao Paulo, BrazilI read with great interest the systematic review by Caixàs et al1 on the effect of naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release (NB for the management of obesity. By comprehensively appraising five recent clinical trials, the authors concluded that the naltrexone/bupropion combination might represent an important new therapeutic option for the management of obesity, with a weight reduction effect that is similar to other drugs approved for the treatment of obesity.View original paper by Caixàs and colleagues.
respond to an act of workplace violence, which could jeopardize their safety during a workplace violence threat or incident. Workplace Violence Prevention... Management Command (IMCOM) Prevention of Workplace Violence Program (U),” September 21, 2012. 18 OPORD 14-091, “U.S. Army Installation Management ... Safety and Health Administration’s definition of workplace violence25 and applies to military, civilian, and contractor personnel. 22 SECNAVINST
• Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion
Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.
Paul (P.A.) Bowen, Department of Construction Economics and Management,. University of Cape Town, Private ..... Explore workplace stress levels among quantity surveyors in the developing nation of ...... London: Free. Association Books.
Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship between the occurrence of conflicts in the work unit and conflict management styles in the work unit, and workplace bullying. First, we assume a positive relationship between the occurrence of conflicts and bullying; and that the conflict management styles 'fighting', 'avoiding' and 'yielding' associate positively and 'problem solving' associates negatively with bullying. Second, we expect that the work unit's conflict management styles moderate the relationship between the occurrence of conflicts and bullying. Results ('N' = 942 revealed a positive association between the occurrence of conflicts and bullying, as well as between fighting and bullying. Problem solving related negatively with bullying. Unexpectedly, we found no moderation. Our findings suggest that particularly the occurrence of conflicts relate to bullying, which may be owed to a strong negative connotation associated with (many conflicts at work or to its negative impact on the work unit's social climate. Organisations may also encourage problem solving and discourage fighting to prevent bullying.
Tsai, Adam G; Histon, Trina; Donahoo, W Troy; Hashmi, Shahid; Murali, Sameer; Latare, Peggy; Oliver, Lajune; Slovis, Jennifer; Grall, Sarah; Fisher, David; Solomon, Loel
Kaiser Permanente, an integrated health care delivery system in the USA, takes a "whole systems" approach to the chronic disease of obesity that begins with efforts to prevent it by modifying the environment in communities and schools. Aggressive case-finding and substantial investment in intensive lifestyle modification programs target individuals at high risk of diabetes and other weight-related conditions. Kaiser Permanente regions are increasingly standardizing their approach when patients with obesity require treatment intensification using medically supervised diets, prescription medication to treat obesity, or weight loss surgery.
Rhodes Erinn T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about the availability and effectiveness of childhood obesity training during residency is limited. Methods We surveyed residency program directors from pediatric, internal medicine-pediatrics (IM-Peds, and family medicine residency programs between September 2007 and January 2008 about childhood obesity training offered in their programs. Results The response rate was 42.2% (299/709 and ranged by specialty from 40.1% to 45.4%. Overall, 52.5% of respondents felt that childhood obesity training in residency was extremely important, and the majority of programs offered training in aspects of childhood obesity management including prevention (N = 240, 80.3%, diagnosis (N = 282, 94.3%, diagnosis of complications (N = 249, 83.3%, and treatment (N = 242, 80.9%. However, only 18.1% (N = 54 of programs had a formal childhood obesity curriculum with variability across specialties. Specifically, 35.5% of IM-Peds programs had a formal curriculum compared to only 22.6% of pediatric and 13.9% of family medicine programs (p Conclusions While most residents receive training in aspects of childhood obesity management, deficits may exist in training quality with a minority of programs offering a formal childhood obesity curriculum. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity, a greater emphasis should be placed on development and use of effective training strategies suitable for all specialties training physicians to care for children.
The issue of workplace bullying has become an area of research interest in the last 3 decades. Much of the extant literature is published in the business management journals. This is problematic as the targets of workplace bullying may need psychiatric treatment; as a discipline, therefore psychiatrists may benefit from a deeper understanding of the nature of workplace bullying and its sequelae. There is still no agreed upon definition, although most definitions include similar criteria. Managers and human resources personnel frequently have difficulty identifying and effectively managing workplace bullying. The consequences for the targets of bullying can be severe; they may need psychiatric treatment and it can have a lifelong impact. There is a paucity of research into effective prevention and intervention programs. Preventive measures that focus on the whole workplace culture or on targets alone have mixed results. Workplace policies and procedures may lessen the prevalence and incidence of bullying, but often competing interests of senior management, human resources personnel, supervisors and workers may mitigate any antibullying interventions. Although psychiatrists are likely to treat the targets of bullying, bullying has yet to attract much attention as a research topic in psychiatry. Although the consequences of bullying can be severe for both targets and workplaces, prevention strategies are hampered by competing interests.
Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo
studies from socio and applied linguistics research. Special attention is paid to the notions of symbolic capital and power as well as to language attitudes particularly in relation to linguistic evaluation and ‘common sense’ perceptions of language practice. We explore the relationship between language......This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...
Leader, Natasha J; Ryan, Lynne; Molyneaux, Lynda; Yue, Dennis K
To compare patient compliance and benefits, over 12 months, of 1 versus 2 partial meal replacement (PMR) for the management of overweight/obese subjects with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. Thirty-six overweight patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (BMI > 27 kg/m(2) and HbA1c > 7.5% [58 mmol/mol]) were randomized to receive 1 or 2 PMR/day, while maintaining usual lifestyle. Subjects were seen monthly and adjustment of medications was made to prevent hypoglycemia. Compliance was assessed by counting unused sachets. Patients on 2 PMR/day lost almost 4 kg compared with only 0.5 kg in the 1 PMR/day group. This difference was statistically significant (P meal replacement. Reductions in weight, waist, and HbA1c were better in the 2 PMR/day group while patient dropout and compliance were not worse over a 12-month period. PMR provides a further management option for overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The initial recommendation should be 2 PMR/day. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Foreyt, J P; Poston, W S
Type 2 diabetes is associated with many comorbid medical conditions including obesity, neuropathy, microvascular pathology and atherosclerotic arterial disease. Due to its complications and chronicity, reducing risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle through lifestyle modification is crucial to the long-term health of patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients must learn how to adopt lifelong, low-fat eating habits and regular activity patterns, with formal treatments focusing on weight loss, increased physical activity and low-fat, low-saturated fat diets. In this article we review the efficacy of lifestyle modification programmes for obese diabetic patients. In addition, we discuss barriers to lifestyle changes and methods for improving long-term adherence. Finally, we present information on how this approach has been adapted to a group of Mexican Americans in the USA, a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes, obesity and sedentary lifestyle.
Seidell, J.C.; Halberstadt, J.; Noordam, H.; Niemer, S.I.J.
The Partnership Overweight Netherlands (PON) is a collaboration between 18 partners, which are national organizations of health care providers, health insurance companies and patient organizations. The PON published an integrated health care standard for obesity in November 2010.The integrated
Joffe, Yael T; Houghton, Christine A
Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, as well as diet and exercise, play an important role in the development and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. If an individual's susceptibility to becoming obese and their responsiveness to weight loss interventions are to be understood, then it needs to be addressed at a molecular and metabolic level, including genetic interaction. This review proposes a three-pillar approach to more fully comprehend the complexity of diet-gene interactions in obesity. Peroxisomal proliferating-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) are explored in detail. Illustrating how an understanding of nutritional biochemistry, nutrigenomics, and nutrigenetics may be the key to understanding differences observed in the obese phenotype that vary both within and across populations.
Degroote, S; Vogelaers, D; Koeck, R; Borms, R; De Meulemeester, L; Vandijck, D
As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recruited using flyers and announcements on websites. A total of 54 PLHIV completed the questionnaire, among whom 50 (92·6%) males. Half of the participants did not disclose their HIV status in the workplace, mostly due to being afraid of social or professional consequences. Those who disclosed, reported no changes in the workplace or even reported receiving more empathy. A minority of participants have to take antiretroviral medication at work and they reported no particular problems related to medication intake. Despite improved solidarity and information campaigns, many PLHIV still do not disclose their HIV status in the workplace, most frequently due to fear for discrimination. More actions are warranted, as well as addressing possible self-stigma. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the workplace posed little or no problems.
Hess, Rick; Cross, L Brian
Lorcaserin represents a new serotonergic medication used as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity treatment plan for chronic weight management in adult patients with an initial body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 or in adult patients with an initial body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m 2 who have ≥ 1 comorbid condition associated with weight (eg, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes mellitus). In 2012, lorcaserin became the first obesity treatment medication to gain US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval since 1999. Lorcaserin is a centrally acting, selective serotonin C (5-HT2C) receptor full agonist that is associated with increased satiety and decreased food consumption in patients. The selectivity of lorcaserin for 5-HT2C receptors should reduce patient risk for the serious adverse complications that are associated with nonselective 5-HT agonist therapies, such as cardiac valvulopathy and pulmonary hypertension. The safety and efficacy of lorcaserin (10 mg twice daily) for ≥ 52 weeks has been evaluated in 3 separate Phase 3 trials. The primary outcome of patient weight loss in the 3 trials satisfied the FDA categorical benchmark but patient outcomes in the trials failed to achieve the FDA mean benchmark of patient weight loss. Secondary patient outcomes after lorcaserin therapy were favorable. Lorcaserin appears to be well tolerated in patients and the most common adverse events reported did not include serious complications. The incidence of FDA-defined valvulopathy in patients after 1 year of treatment was low and nonsignificant, but the statistical analysis of this safety endpoint was limited due to the small size of the study populations and high patient dropout rates. Continued post-marketing surveillance of patients taking lorcaserin is warranted.
Bischoff, Stephan C; Boirie, Yves; Cederholm, Tommy; Chourdakis, Michael; Cuerda, Cristina; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Fouque, Denis; Genton, Laurence; Gil, Carmen; Koletzko, Berthold; Leon-Sanz, Miguel; Shamir, Raanan; Singer, Joelle; Singer, Pierre; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Thorell, Anders; Weimann, Arved; Barazzoni, Rocco
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens. Obesity is usually accompanied by an increased muscle mass. This might explain why obesity, under particular circumstances such as cancer or high age, might have protective effects, a phenomenon named the 'obesity paradox'. However, loss of muscle mass or function can also occur, which is associated with poor prognosis and termed 'sarcopenic obesity'. Therefore, treatment recommendations may need to be individualized and adapted to co-morbidities. Since obesity is a chronic systemic disease it requires a multidisciplinary approach, both at the level of prevention and therapy including weight loss and maintenance. In the present personal review and position paper, authors from different disciplines including endocrinology, gastroenterology, nephrology, pediatrics, surgery, geriatrics, intensive care medicine, psychology and psychiatry, sports medicine and rheumatology, both at the basic science and clinical level, present their view on the topic and underline the necessity to provide a multidisciplinary approach, to address this epidemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Pascual, J M; Rodilla, E
Its indications should only be considered in patients with morbid obesity (BMI>40 kg/m2) or severe obesity (BMI>35 kg/m2) with serious associated comorbidity. In general, significant weight loss with marked improvement of the cardiovascular comorbidity is obtained. There are still no studies that show long term survival. It must be stressed that the patients should follow a subsequent and continuous medical monitoring to prevent important secondary metabolic complications.
Neeland, Ian J; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre
The prevalence of obesity has increased globally over the last 2 decades. Although the body mass index has been a convenient and simple index of obesity at the population level, studies have shown that obesity defined by body mass index alone is a remarkably heterogeneous condition with varying cardiovascular and metabolic manifestations across individuals. Adipose tissue is an exquisitely active metabolic organ engaged in cross-talk between various systems; perturbation of adipose tissue results in a pathological response to positive caloric balance in susceptible individuals that directly and indirectly contributes to cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Inadequate subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion in the face of dietary triglycerides leads to visceral and ectopic fat deposition, inflammatory/adipokine dysregulation, and insulin resistance. Conversely, preferential fat storage in the lower body depot may act as a metabolic buffer and protect other tissues from lipotoxicity caused by lipid overflow and ectopic fat. Translational, epidemiological, and clinical studies over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated a strong link between visceral and ectopic fat and the development of a clinical syndrome characterized by atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia/glucose intolerance, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and adverse cardiac remodeling/heart failure. This relationship is even more nuanced when clinical entities such as metabolically healthy obesity phenotype and the obesity paradox are considered. Although it is clear that the accumulation of visceral/ectopic fat is a major contributor to cardiovascular and metabolic risk above and beyond the body mass index, implementation of fat distribution assessment into clinical practice remains a challenge. Anthropometric indexes of obesity are easily implemented, but newer imaging-based methods offer improved sensitivity and specificity for measuring specific depots. Lifestyle, pharmacological, and surgical
..., they may be identified in the grant application. If the grantee does not identify the workplaces at the... the workplace(s) on file in its office and make the information available for Federal inspection...-Free Workplace Requirements Appendix to Part 17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY...
Ma, Chun-Ming; Lu, Na; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Li; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Fu-Zai
The present study evaluated the performance of three novel obese indicators, visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP) and waist circumference-triglyceride index (WTI), for identifying metabolic syndrome(MetS) in type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 711 type 2 diabetes in Qinhuangdao. The MetS was defined as the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to assess the accuracy of three obese indicators as diagnostic tests for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 71.3%. In men, among all three obese indicators, the LAP had the highest area under curve (AUC) value (AUC = 0.894), followed by VAI (AUC = 0.860) and WTI (AUC = 0.855). In women, among all three obese indicators, the LAP had the highest AUC value (AUC = 0.906), followed by WTI (AUC = 0.887) and VAI (AUC = 0.881). However. there was no significant difference between the three obese indicators(P > 0.05). Three obese indicators were effective indicators for the screening of MetS, LAP and WTI are more simple.
Full Text Available Konstantinos Tziomalos, Gerasimos E Krassas, Themistoklis TzotzasDepartment of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Panagia General Hospital, Thessaloniki, GreeceAims: To review the major trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of the use of sibutramine for weight loss and the impact of this agent on obesity-related disorders.Methods and results: The most important articles on sibutramine up to January 2009 were located by a PubMed and Medline search. Sibutramine reduces food intake and body weight more than placebo and has positive effects on the lipid profile (mainly triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemic control and inflammatory markers in studies for up to one year. Preliminary studies showed that sibutramine may also improve other obesity-associated disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, binge eating disorder and adolescent obesity. The high discontinuation rates and some safety issues mainly due to the increase in blood pressure and pulse rate have to be considered. Additionally, it has not yet been established that treatment with sibutramine will reduce cardiovascular events and total mortality.Conclusions: Sibutramine, in conjunction with lifestyle measures, is a useful drug for reducing body weight and improving associated cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity-related disorders. Studies of longer duration are required to determine the precise indications of the drug, to evaluate safety issues and to assess its efficacy on cardiovascular mortality. Keywords: Sibutramine, obesity, weight loss, cardiometabolic risk factors, obesity-related disorders, side-effects
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 105-74.635 Section 105-74.635 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Administration 74-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74...
Osunlana, A M; Asselin, J; Anderson, R; Ogunleye, A A; Cave, A; Sharma, A M; Campbell-Scherer, D L
Despite several clinical practice guidelines, there remains a considerable gap in prevention and management of obesity in primary care. To address the need for changing provider behaviour, a randomized controlled trial with convergent mixed method evaluation, the 5As Team (5AsT) study, was conducted. As part of the 5AsT intervention, the 5AsT tool kit was developed. This paper describes the development process and evaluation of these tools. Tools were co-developed by the multidisciplinary research team and the 5AsT, which included registered nurses/nurse practitioners (n = 15), mental health workers (n = 7) and registered dieticians (n = 7), who were previously randomized to the 5AsT intervention group at a primary care network in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The 5AsT tool development occurred through a practice/implementation-oriented, need-based, iterative process during learning collaborative sessions of the 5AsT intervention. Feedback during tool development was received through field notes and final provider evaluation was carried out through anonymous questionnaires. Twelve tools were co-developed with 5AsT. All tools were evaluated as either 'most useful' or 'moderately useful' in primary care practice by the 5AsT. Four key findings during 5AsT tool development were the need for: tools that were adaptive, tools to facilitate interdisciplinary practice, tools to help patients understand realistic expectations for weight loss and shared decision-making tools for goal setting and relapse prevention. The 5AsT tools are primary care tools which extend the utility of the 5As of obesity management framework in clinical practice. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
Full Text Available We conducted a text message-based intervention for weight management over three months by two months intervention and one month wash-out period. In a quasi-experimental study with control ( and experimental group (, 80 overweight and obese employed women were entered. Participants were recruited via announcement. All subjects attended a face-to-face information session and received a booklet that contained food calorie chart and strategies and recommendations for weight management. The experimental group received text messages (SMS about weight management twice a day for two months, in addition to the information and the booklet which they had received in the information session. Also, the experimental group was instructed to weekly self-weight and to send the data to the principle researcher. All subjects were measured for baseline and secondary weight in a standardized manner by a nurse, and the data were compared between the two groups. Experimental group lost more weight than the control group (1.5 kg difference, . Text messaging seems to be an effective channel of communication for weight management in Iranian overweight and obese women. The clinical trial registration number is IRCT201204029360N1.
Tang, Weihong; Chen, Yuhua; Pan, Meizhen; Chen, Lihua; Zhang, Lele; Wang, Tingfeng; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Chengzhu; Yu, Bo
To explore the value of nutrition management in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy(LSG). Clinical data of 22 obese T2DM patients undergoing LSG from March 2013 to July 2015 in Fudan University Pudong Medical Center were collected. All the patients strictly followed the specialized instruction by nutritionists: diabetic and low calorie diet 3347.2 to 5020.8 kJ (800 to 1200 kcal) per day before the operation; low calorie liquid diet 2510.4 kJ(600 kcal) per day before operation for promoting gastric emptying; fasting diet before postoperative ventilation; clear liquid diet 1673.6 to 2510.4 kJ (400 to 600 kcal) per day after postoperative ventilation (liquid intake >2000 ml); low fat liquid diet 2928.8 to 3765.6 kJ (700 to 900 kcal) per day (protein 60 g per day at least, 2000 ml liquid) 2 weeks after the operation; semi-liquid diet 1 month after operation and gradually normal diet. All the 22 patients were followed up at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 months after operation on time. Changes of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index(BMI), blood glucose indexes induding fasting blood glucose(FBG), 2-hour postparandial blood glucose(PBG), fasting C-peptide, 2-hour postprandial C-peptide, fasting serum inculin(FINS), 2-hour postprandial inculin(INS), HbAlc, blood pressure and blood lipid indexes were observed and analyzed before and 1 week, 1, 3, 6 months after operation. The average age of 22 patients (10 men and 12 women) was 38.6 years (18 to 66 years). The duration of diabetes varied from 1 month to 15 years. Comorbidity included 12 patients of high blood pressure, 14 of fatty liver, 1 of coronary heart disease, 1 of gout, 1 of chronic thyroiditis and 1 of menstrual disorder. LSG was performed successfully in all the patients and no severe complications and transference to laparotomy occurred. As compared to pre-operation, at 6 months after operation, the average body weight decreased from (103.9±20
Workplaces specified for leak testing are divided into clean workplaces of the 1st degree, clean workplaces of the second degree, clean workplaces of the third degree and semi-clean workplaces. Clean workplaces are further subdivided into permanent and temporary workplaces. For all said types of workplaces the standard sets the following provisions: basic equipment, machines and instrumentation, permitted and prohibited working activities and principles for maintenance and inspection. (E.S.)
Johnson, Susan L; Boutain, Doris M; Tsai, Jenny H-C; de Castro, Arnold B
Organizations use policies to set standards for employee behaviors. Although many organizations have policies that address workplace bullying, previous studies have found that these policies affect neither workplace bullying for targets who are seeking assistance in ending the behaviors nor managers who must address incidents of bullying. This article presents the findings of a study that used critical discourse analysis to examine the language used in policies written by health care organizations and regulatory agencies to regulate workplace bullying. The findings suggest that the discussion of workplace bullying overlaps with discussions of disruptive behaviors and harassment. This lack of conceptual clarity can create difficulty for managers in identifying, naming, and disciplining incidents of workplace bullying. The documents also primarily discussed workplace bullying as a patient safety concern. This language is in conflict with organizations attending to worker well-being with regard to workplace bullying. © 2015 The Author(s).
... proactive approach to these issues by educating our customers on prevention of the repetitive stress injuries that ... workplaces, environments, job tasks, equipment, and processes in relationship to human capabilities and interactions in the workplace. ...
... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the prioritization of workplace practices among Islamic financial institutions in Malaysia for 2012. A content analysis of the annual and sustainability reports were carried out to examine the extensiveness of disclosure relating to information on workplace practices. An Islamic workplace index was used to evaluate the workplace disclosure. The results of the study revealed that skill enhancement and employees-management engagement were the focus for workplace environment among Islamic financial institutions. Particularly, information relating to incentives and bonuses were found to be the most extensively disclosed information.
Gledhill, Irvy MA
Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...
In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the
Prout Parks, Elizabeth; Moore, Reneé H; Li, Ziyi; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T; Garrett, Andrew R; Hill, Douglas L; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Sarwer, David B
Severe obesity in adolescents has deleterious physical and psychological complications necessitating frequent multi-disciplinary clinic visits. Greater treatment engagement has been equated with weight-loss. However, traditional medical weight-loss programs for adolescents have high attrition rates. Social media is widely used by adolescents and may enhance medical weight management engagement and success. The first objective was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of using a private social media group as an adjunct to medical weight management in youth ages 14 to 20 years with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2]. The second objective was to pilot test the use of social media to improve treatment engagement and decrease attrition rates. In this single arm, 12 week pre-post study, participants attended individual clinic visits and participated in a moderated private social media group that received nutrition, exercise, and behavior change social media communications or "posts" 3 to 4 times/week. Youth commented and/or liked posts from the moderator and each other. Social media engagement was measured with the number of likes and comments on social media. Clinic attrition was compared, measuring clinic visit attendance 12 weeks prior, during, and after the intervention with mixed linear regression models. Correlations of social media engagement with changes from baseline for BMI, BMI-z score, and psychosocial measures were fit. All 13 enrolled youth completed the study and reported that the group was enjoyable, helpful, reinforced their weight management program, and would recommend using social media to support other youth. The pilot trial was acceptable and feasible. Youth mean weekly engagement (likes + comments) in social media was greater than once a day (8.6 ±3.6). Compared to 12 weeks prior to the intervention, there was no significant decrease in clinic visit attendance at the end of the intervention (M=.231, P=.69) or 12 weeks at
Milligan-Saville, Josie S; Tan, Leona; Gayed, Aimée; Barnes, Caryl; Madan, Ira; Dobson, Mark; Bryant, Richard A; Christensen, Helen; Mykletun, Arnstein; Harvey, Samuel B
Mental illness is one of the most rapidly increasing causes of long-term sickness absence, despite improved rates of detection and development of more effective interventions. However, mental health training for managers might help improve occupational outcomes for people with mental health problems. We aimed to investigate the effect of mental health training on managers' knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and behaviour towards employees with mental health problems, and its effect on employee sickness absence. We did a cluster randomised controlled trial of manager mental health training within a large Australian fire and rescue service, with a 6-month follow-up. Managers (clusters) at the level of duty commander or equivalent were randomly assigned (1:1) using an online random sequence generator to either a 4-h face-to-face RESPECT mental health training programme or a deferred training control group. Researchers, managers, and employees were not masked to the outcome of randomisation. Firefighters and station officers supervised by each manager were included in the study via their anonymised sickness absence records. The primary outcome measure was change in sickness absence among those supervised by each of the managers. We analysed rates of work-related sick leave and standard sick leave seperately, with rate being defined as sickness absence hours divided by the sum of hours of sickness absence and hours of attendance. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613001156774). 128 managers were recruited between Feb 18, 2014, and May 17, 2014. 46 (71%) of 65 managers allocated to the intervention group received the intervention, and 42 (67%) of 63 managers allocated to the control group were entered in the deferred training group. Managers and their employees were followed up and reassessed at 6 months after randomisation. 25 managers (1233 employees) in the intervention group and 19 managers (733 employees) in
Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.
Santangelo, Carmela; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Filesi, Carmelina; Masella, Roberta
Obesity is a global and dramatic public health problem; maternal obesity represents one of the main risk factors of infertility and pregnancy complications as it is associated with adverse maternal and offspring outcomes. In the last few years, adipose tissue dysfunction associated with altered adipocytokine secretion has been suggested to play a critical role in all the phases of reproductive process. Obesity is a nutrition-related disorder. In this regard, dietary intervention strategies, such as high intake of fruit and vegetables, have shown significant effects in both preserving health and counteracting obesity-associated diseases. Evidence has been provided that polyphenols, important constituents of plant-derived food, can influence developmental program of oocyte and embryo, as well as pregnancy progression by modulating several cellular pathways. This review will examine the controversial results so far obtained on adipocytokine involvement in fertility impairment and pregnancy complications. Furthermore, the different effects exerted by polyphenols on oocyte, embryo, and pregnancy development will be also taken in account. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Saquib, Nazmus; Rock, Cheryl L.; Natarajan, Loki; Flatt, Shirley W.; Newman, Vicky A.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Pierce, John P.
A randomized dietary intervention trial across 4 years examined diet, weight, and obesity incidence (body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 30 kg/m[superscript 2]) differences between study groups. Participants were 1,510 breast cancer survivors with BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m[superscript 2] at entry. Dietary intake was assessed…
Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Krassas, Gerasimos E; Tzotzas, Themistoklis
Aims: To review the major trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of the use of sibutramine for weight loss and the impact of this agent on obesity-related disorders. Methods and results: The most important articles on sibutramine up to January 2009 were located by a PubMed and Medline search. Sibutramine reduces food intake and body weight more than placebo and has positive effects on the lipid profile (mainly triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol), glycemic control and inflammatory markers in studies for up to one year. Preliminary studies showed that sibutramine may also improve other obesity-associated disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, binge eating disorder and adolescent obesity. The high discontinuation rates and some safety issues mainly due to the increase in blood pressure and pulse rate have to be considered. Additionally, it has not yet been established that treatment with sibutramine will reduce cardiovascular events and total mortality. Conclusions: Sibutramine, in conjunction with lifestyle measures, is a useful drug for reducing body weight and improving associated cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity-related disorders. Studies of longer duration are required to determine the precise indications of the drug, to evaluate safety issues and to assess its efficacy on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:19475780
Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Krassas, Gerasimos E; Tzotzas, Themistoklis
To review the major trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of the use of sibutramine for weight loss and the impact of this agent on obesity-related disorders. The most important articles on sibutramine up to January 2009 were located by a PubMed and Medline search. Sibutramine reduces food intake and body weight more than placebo and has positive effects on the lipid profile (mainly triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol), glycemic control and inflammatory markers in studies for up to one year. Preliminary studies showed that sibutramine may also improve other obesity-associated disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, binge eating disorder and adolescent obesity. The high discontinuation rates and some safety issues mainly due to the increase in blood pressure and pulse rate have to be considered. Additionally, it has not yet been established that treatment with sibutramine will reduce cardiovascular events and total mortality. Sibutramine, in conjunction with lifestyle measures, is a useful drug for reducing body weight and improving associated cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity-related disorders. Studies of longer duration are required to determine the precise indications of the drug, to evaluate safety issues and to assess its efficacy on cardiovascular mortality.
DeFraia, Gary S
Central to the field of trauma psychology is assessment of the impact of critical incidents on individuals, as measured by individual symptoms of stress. Accordingly, the trauma literature reflects a proliferation of clinical impact of event scales. Workplace incidents however, affect not only individual employees, but also work organizations, requiring a multi-level response. Critical incident stress management (CISM) is the most prevalent multi-level incident response strategy utilized by organizations, often through specialized CISM units operating within their employee assistance programs (EAPs). While EAP-based CISM units seeks to support both individuals and organizations, studies focused on individual stress dominate the literature, mirroring assessment scales that tend to emphasize clinical as opposed to organizational practice. This research contributes to less-prevalent studies exploring incident characteristics as disruptive to organizations, rather than clinical symptoms as disruptive to individuals. To measure incident disruption, an EAP-based CISM unit developed a critical incident severity scale. By analyzing this unit's extensive practice database, this exploratory study examines how critical incident severity level varies among various types of incidents. Employing the methodology of clinical data mining, this practice-based research generates evidence-informed practice recommendations in the areas of EAP-based CISM intake assessment, organizational consultation and incident response planning.
Hasson, H.; Brown, C.; Hasson, D.
In web-based health promotion programs, large variations in participant engagement are common. The aim was to investigate determinants of high use of a worksite self-help web-based program for stress management. Two versions of the program were offered to randomly selected departments in IT and media companies. A static version of the program…
Sarbini, Shahrul R; Kolida, Sofia; Deaville, Eddie R; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A
The energy-salvaging capacity of the gut microbiota from dietary ingredients has been proposed as a contributing factor for the development of obesity. This knowledge generated interest in the use of non-digestible dietary ingredients such as prebiotics to manipulate host energy homeostasis. In the present study, the in vitro response of obese human faecal microbiota to novel oligosaccharides was investigated. Dextrans of various molecular weights and degrees of branching were fermented with the faecal microbiota of healthy obese adults in pH-controlled batch cultures. Changes in bacterial populations were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation and SCFA concentrations were analysed by HPLC. The rate of gas production and total volume of gas produced were also determined. In general, the novel dextrans and inulin increased the counts of bifidobacteria. Some of the dextrans were able to alter the composition of the obese human microbiota by increasing the counts of Bacteroides-Prevotella and decreasing those of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus bromii/R. flavefaciens. Considerable increases in SCFA concentrations were observed in response to all substrates. Gas production rates were similar during the fermentation of all dextrans, but significantly lower than those during the fermentation of inulin. Lower total gas production and shorter time to attain maximal gas production were observed during the fermentation of the linear 1 kDa dextran than during the fermentation of the other dextrans. The efficacy of bifidobacteria to ferment dextrans relied on the molecular weight and not on the degree of branching. In conclusion, there are no differences in the profiles between the obese and lean human faecal fermentations of dextrans.
The subject matter of this paper is workplace diversity. The study is conducted to explore how companies manage workforce diversity and its consequences to the company’s existence as well as examine how companies’ deal with challenges that comes with employees from diverse cultural backgrounds. The research therefore answers the question `Has workplace diversity contributed to organizational success`. Because diversity covers a wide range of human attrib-utes and qualities, The research is ...
Welbourn, Richard; Dixon, John; Barth, Julian H; Finer, Nicholas; Hughes, Carly A; le Roux, Carel W; Wass, John
Despite increasing prevalence of obesity, no country has successfully implemented comprehensive pathways to provide advice to all the severely obese patients that seek treatment. We aimed to formulate pathways for referral into and out of weight assessment and management clinics (WAMCs) that include internal medicine/primary care physicians as part of a multidisciplinary team that could provide specialist advice and interventions, including referral for bariatric surgery. Using a National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE)-accredited process, a Guidance Development Group conducted a literature search identifying existing WAMCs. As very few examples of effective structures and clinical pathways existed, the current evidence base for optimal assessment and management of bariatric surgery patients was used to reach a consensus. The model we describe could be adopted internationally by health services to manage severely obese patients.
Degroote, S.; Vogelaers, D.; Koeck, R.; Borms, R.; De Meulemeester, L.; VANDIJCK, Dominique
Objectives: As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recru...
Soldano, Sharon K
To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa
We examined the socio-economic differential in the self-perception of body weight, future intention for weight management and actual weight-management behaviour among normal-weight, overweight and obese women in India. A population-based follow-up survey of ever-married women, systematically selected from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples, who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. Information on women's perception about their own weight, intention of weight management and actual weight-management behaviour were collected through personal interview. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current BMI. Three hundred and twenty-five ever-married women aged 20-54 years residing in the national capital territory of Delhi in India. Discrepancy between self-perceived body weight and women's actual body weight was reported. One-quarter of overweight women and one in ten obese women perceived themselves as normal weight. Although a majority of overweight and obese women wanted to reduce their weight, a significant proportion of overweight (one in four) and 4 % of obese women also wanted to maintain their weight as it is. Only one in three overweight and one in four obese women were performing any physical activity to reduce their weight. These findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass-media programmes to raise awareness of appropriate body weight to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.
Risteska-Kuc, Snezana; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan
HESME program concept is based on building and strengthening existing national structures and practices for health promotion at workplace, occupational health and safety, and environmental health. As part of the global HESME program, which includes different activities in the Republic of Macedonia, HESME pilot projects in two enterprises in 2003/2004 were aimed at analysis and setting targets of workplace health promotion. The analysis was made by the Institute of Occupational Health, WHO Col...
Dupuis, J M; Vivant, J F; Daudet, G; Bouvet, A; Clément, M; Dazord, A; Dumet, N; David, M; Bellon, G
Estimation of both physical and psychological effects of an adapted physical training on children undergoing an obesity treatment. The survey was carried out on 36 obese boys (ages = 12-16 years) who stayed in the medical center for at least four months. Eighteen of them were trained with the SELF method (the SELF-training is global, progressive, adapted to each boy, controlled and takes place within a ten-week period with five sessions a fortnight, each session lasting 30 to 40 minutes). The parameters that were studied concerned auxology, breathing function exploration, aerobic and anaerobic capacities, muscle strength and psychomotor qualities; the subjective effects of the training were estimated with a questionnaire about life quality, and the hand test. At inclusion the results were reported to a standard kind of population. At the end of the training the results of the 18 boys that were trained were compared to those of the 18 controls. Compared to a standard population, the obese children' aerobic capacity is diminished for the maximum power but is identical in absolute value for the VO2 max; their anaerobic capacities, muscle strength and psychomotor capacities are lower and their psyche is affected by the disease. After a three-month training period and after comparison with the 'control' group, there can be noticed a significant improvement in the psychomotor capacities, a major tendency for the improvement of the aerobic capacities and very positive effects on the psyche. SELF-training in association with dietetics appears to be very useful in the therapeutic care of obese children. For the follow-up at home it would need to be registered within the domain of physiotherapy.
Elshatanoufy, Solafa; Matthews, Alexandra; Yousif, Mairy; Jamil, Marcus; Gutta, Sravanthi; Gill, Harmanjit; Galvin, Shelley L; Luck, Ali M
The aim of our study was to assess midurethral sling (MUS) failure rate in the morbidly obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥40 kg/m) population as compared with normal-weight individuals. Our secondary objective was to assess the difference in complication rates. This is a retrospective cohort study. We included all patients who underwent a synthetic MUS procedure from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2015, in our health system. Failure was defined as reported stress urinary incontinence symptoms or treatment for stress urinary incontinence. Variables collected were BMI; smoking status; comorbidities; perioperative (≤24 hours), short-term (≤30 days), and long-term (>30 days) complications; and follow-up time. Statistics include analysis of variance, χ test, logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression. There were 431 patients included in our analysis. Forty-nine patients were in class 3 with a BMI mean of 44.9 ± 5.07 kg/m. Median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 6-119 months). Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m) was the only group that had an increased risk of failure when compared with the normal-weight group (P = 0.03; odds ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.59). Obesity was not a significant predictor of perioperative, short-term, or long-term postoperative complications (P = 0.19, P = 0.28, and P = 0.089, respectively) after controlling for other comorbidities. Patients in the class 3 obesity group who are treated with an MUS are 2 times as likely to fail when compared with those in the normal-weight category on long-term follow-up with similar low complication rates.
Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C
Body composition changes occur with aging; bone and muscle mass decrease while fat mass increases. The collective term for these changes is osteosarcopenic obesity. It is known that conventional resistance exercise programs build/maintain lean mass and reduce fat mass. However, unconventional (to Western society/medicine) forms of exercise may be viable for the treatment/prevention of osteosarcopenic obesity. The purpose of this review is to assess relatively unconventional exercises for their efficacy in maintaining/improving bone and muscle mass and reducing fat mass. A literature search for unconventional exercise showed Tai Chi, yoga, Pilates, whole body vibration, electrical stimulation of muscle, and the Alexander Technique were considered alternative/ unconventional. A PubMed and Medline search for human data using combinations and synonyms of osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity, and each exercise was then conducted. Tai Chi, yoga, and Pilates, in addition to whole body vibration, electrical stimulation of muscle, and the Alexander Technique are all considered low impact. Tai Chi, yoga, and Pilates not only physically support the body, but also increase balance and quality of life. The devices showed promise in reducing or preventing muscle atrophy in older people that are unable to perform conventional exercises. Any exercise, conventional or otherwise, especially in sedentary older people, at risk of, or diagnosed with osteosarcopenic obesity may be better than none. Exercise prescriptions should suit the patient and the desired outcomes; the patient should not be forced to fit an exercise prescription, so all potential forms of exercise should be considered. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution.
Sansone, Lori A.
Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978
Gorm, Nanna; Shklovski, Irina
Sedentary work is a contributing factor to growing obesity levels worldwide. Research shows that step-counters can offer a way to motivate greater physical mobility. We present an in-situ study of a nation-wide workplace step-counting campaign. Our findings show that in the context of the workplace...
Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa
Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin
The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…
In the workplace this conflict arises "where the employer's right to the employee's ... the rights of the employer to manage his business operations efficiently with the ... to accommodate diversity and promote religious freedom in the workplace.
Full Text Available Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying are well documented. However, the mea- sures taken against workplace bullying, and the effectiveness of such measures, have received less attention. This study addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the role of ethical infrastructure in perceived successful handling of reported workplace bullying. Ethical infrastructure refers to formal and informal systems that enable ethical behavior and disable unethical behavior in organizations. A survey was sent to HR managers and elected head safety representatives (HSRs in all Norwegian municipality organizations. Overall, 216 organizations responded (response rate = 50.2 percent. The ethical infrastructure accounted for 39.4% of the variance in perceived suc- cessful handling of workplace bullying. Formal sanctions were the only unique and signi cant contributor to the perceived successful handling of workplace bullying. The results substantiate the argument that organizations’ ethical infrastructure relate to the HR managers and HSRs’ percep- tions regarding their organizations’ handling of workplace bullying.
Campbell-Scherer, Denise L; Asselin, Jodie; Osunlana, Adedayo M; Fielding, Sheri; Anderson, Robin; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Cave, Andrew; Manca, Donna; Sharma, Arya M
Obesity is a pressing public health concern, which frequently presents in primary care. With the explosive obesity epidemic, there is an urgent need to maximize effective management in primary care. The 5As of Obesity Management™ (5As) are a collection of knowledge tools developed by the Canadian Obesity Network. Low rates of obesity management visits in primary care suggest provider behaviour may be an important variable. The goal of the present study is to increase frequency and quality of obesity management in primary care using the 5As Team (5AsT) intervention to change provider behaviour. The 5AsT trial is a theoretically informed, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation. Clinic-based multidisciplinary teams (RN/NP, mental health, dietitians) will be randomized to control or the 5AsT intervention group, to participate in biweekly learning collaborative sessions supported by internal and external practice facilitation. The learning collaborative content addresses provider-identified barriers to effective obesity management in primary care. Evidence-based shared decision making tools will be co-developed and iteratively tested by practitioners. Evaluation will be informed by the RE-AIM framework. The primary outcome measure, to which participants are blinded, is number of weight management visits/full-time equivalent (FTE) position. Patient-level outcomes will also be assessed, through a longitudinal cohort study of patients from randomized practices. Patient outcomes include clinical (e.g., body mass index [BMI], blood pressure), health-related quality of life (SF-12, EQ5D), and satisfaction with care. Qualitative data collected from providers and patients will be evaluated using thematic analysis to understand the context, implementation and effectiveness of the 5AsT program. The 5AsT trial will provide a wide range of insights into current practices, knowledge gaps and barriers that limit obesity management in primary practice
Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter; Egan, Mary; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Casimiro, Lynn; Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Welch, Vivian A; De Angelis, Gino; Francoeur, Lilliane; Milne, Sarah; Loew, Laurianne; McEwan, Jessica; Messier, Steven P; Doucet, Eric; Kenny, Glen P; Prud'homme, Denis; Lineker, Sydney; Bell, Mary; Poitras, Stéphane; Li, Jing Xian; Finestone, Hillel M; Laferrière, Lucie; Haines-Wangda, Angela; Russell-Doreleyers, Marion; Lambert, Kim; Marshall, Alison D; Cartizzone, Margot; Teav, Adam
The objective of this review was to construct an updated evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the use of physical activity and diet for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) in adults (>18 years of age) who are obese or overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Articles were extracted from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE (Current Contents), SPORTDiscus, SUM, Scopus, CINAHL, AMED, BIOMED, PubMed, ERIC, the Cochrane Controlled Trials, and PEDro. The Ottawa Panel and research assistance team strictly applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria from previous Ottawa Panel publications. An a priori literature search was conducted for articles related to obesity and OA of the lower extremities that were published from January 1, 1966, to November 30, 2010. Inclusion criteria and the methods to grade the recommendations were created by the Ottawa Panel. were graded based on the strength of evidence (A, B, C, C+, D, D+, or D-) as well as experimental design (I for randomized controlled trials and II for nonrandomized studies). In agreement with previous Ottawa Panel methods, Cochrane Collaboration methods were utilized for statistical analysis. Clinical significance was established by an improvement of ≥15% in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were a total of 79 recommendations from 9 articles. From these recommendations, there were 36 positive recommendations: 21 grade A and 15 grade C+. There were no grade B recommendations, and all recommendations were of clinical benefit. Further research is needed, as more than half of the trials were of low methodological quality. This review suggests that physical activity and diet programs are beneficial, specifically for pain relief (9 grade A recommendations) and improved functional status (6 grade A and 7 grade C+ recommendations), for adults with OA who are obese or overweight. The Ottawa Panel was able to demonstrate that when comparing physical activity alone, diet alone
Ursu, R I; Badiu, C; Cucu, N; Ursu, G F; Craciunescu, I; Severin, E
The incidence of obesity especially in Romanian population is presently escalating as a major nutrition and health problem. Clinicians aided by scientists are engaged in research approaches that include heredity aspects linked with behavior, education, applied nutrition studies and clinical therapies in order to prevent, control and reverse obesity. The common goal is to identify areas of basic and clinical research to understand aspects of human biology that may be considered as obesogenic. Regarding these approaches, recent discoveries in genetics, epigenetics and functional genomics, based on advancing technologies, are tools employed to prevent and treat obesity. The purpose of this article is to present the current knowledge of key components of the FTO gene role in the obesogenic system that links genetic, epigenetic and environmental, lifestyle/ diet nutritional and behavioral components and to describe the results obtained by genotyping and interviewing relevant selected groups of Romanian population. FTO rs9939609 genotyping was performed on a Romanian study group of 53 subjects (30 obese, 23 normal). Results have been analyzed in association with obesity parameters and comorbidities in order to identify this polymorphism's effect on body mass in our Caucasian cohort. At the same time, personal history of the subjects in correlation with the FTO genotypes provided important information on the FTO gene's influence on the feeding behavior and food selection of these individuals. In conclusion, the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism has been identified as a common gene variant in our Romanian Caucasian cohort, proving a high association with all the parameters of obesity and obesity comorbidities. The adherence to a Mediterranean diet is benefic for subjects with genetic predisposition for this disorder as long as it is kept for a long period of time along with sustained physical exercise. Association studies are an extremely important tool in understanding the
Full Text Available Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.
Anjum, Amna; Ming, Xu; Siddiqi, Ahmed Faisal; Rasool, Samma Faiz
Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.
Murray, Margaret; Dordevic, Aimee L; Bonham, Maxine P
Building self-esteem in overweight adolescents is key to long-term weight management; yet, self-esteem is rarely a key outcome of adolescent weight management interventions. This systematic review investigates the impact of multicomponent weight management interventions on self-esteem in overweight and obese adolescents. Six databases were searched in December 2014. Eligible studies met the following criteria: (1) randomized controlled trial, (2) overweight or obese participants, (3) adolescents (10-19 years), (4) multicomponent weight management intervention, (5) reported self-esteem and weight changes. Thirteen studies with 1,157 overweight or obese adolescents, aged 10-19 years, were included. Meta-analyses showed no significant change in self-esteem (0.27 [-0.04, 0.59]), but body mass index z -score reduced following intervention (-0.17 [-0.22, -0.11]). The lack of change in self-esteem suggests weight loss alone is insufficient to improve self-esteem. Multicomponent weight management interventions require a specific focus on self-esteem to improve this outcome in overweight and obese adolescents. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Quintiliani, Lisa; Poulsen, Signe; Sorensen, Glorian
through research examples. Findings - Through case studies and published research, it is found that workplace dietary interventions are generally effective, especially fruit and vegetable interventions. There is less consistent evidence on the long-term effectiveness of workplace weight management...... interventions, underscoring the need for further research in this area. This paper also reports evidence that changes in the work environment, including through health and safety programs, may contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of workplace health promotion, including dietary interventions...... of workplace influences on workers' dietary patterns. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of dietary health promotion, and provides a brief overview of appropriate theoretical frameworks to guide intervention design and evaluation. The findings are illustrated...
Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels
This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both...
Ursano, Robert J
Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...
Paepegaey, A-C; Dubern, B; Karsenty, A; Chantereau, H; Aron-Wisnewsky, J; Oderda, L; Hadoux, M; Robert-Gary, A; Bouillot, J-L; Oppert, J-M; Tounian, P; Poitou, C
preparation for bariatric surgery. A prospective follow-up with a larger number of subjects and recommendations are needed to better define and improve the specific clinical management of obese adolescents transitioning to adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Koo, H C; Poh, B K; Ruzita, Abd Talib
The rapid increase in childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, and has led to the development of many interventions. However, no intervention has emphasized whole grains as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Therefore, this article describes the protocol of a 12-week multi-component, family-based intervention on whole grain, using a healthy balanced diet for managing childhood obesity. The GReat-Child trial utilize a quasi-experimental method in which two schools in Kuala Lumpur are assigned to intervention and control groups. The eligibility criteria are overweight/obese children, aged 9 through 11 years, who has no serious co-morbidities. The children who report consuming whole-grain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during the screening will be excluded. The study sample is characterized by anthropometric measurements (weight, height, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), whole grain and nutrient intakes (3-day 24-h diet recalls), and their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards whole grain. The 12-week intervention is comprised of three components addressing behaviour, personal and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory: (1) individual diet counselling for the parents; (2) six 30-min nutrition education classes and (3) school delivery of whole-grain foods; The control school does not receive any interventions, however, for ethical purposes, a health talk is conducted after the entire GReat-Child Trial is completed. The GReat-Child trial represents a novel approach to examining the effectiveness of the intervention of whole grain in a healthy balanced diet on managing childhood obesity. We anticipate that this trial will reveal not only whether whole grain intervention will be effective in managing childhood obesity, but also provide greater insights into the acceptance of whole grain among Malaysian children.
The changing workplace requires employees to engage with new ways of working that rely increasingly on a variety of literacy skills. This study used action research to answer the research question whether a workplace literacy initiative could act as a catalyst to support employees to manage these new literacy practices in the workplace with confidence. A multi-national high-tech manufacturing plant in Ireland which is in a process of continuous change was selected as research site. A 45 ho...
Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M. Luisa
Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regard...