WorldWideScience

Sample records for workplace air contaminants

  1. Process for contamination containment of a workplace by means of an air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meline, F.

    1984-01-01

    Containment of pollution in an area, for example the room where nuclear fuel elements are cut, is obtained by an air curtain directed by a second air jet to improve the containment of pollutants. Contamined air is extracted by a cyclone and filtered [fr

  2. Characterisation of contamination migration in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, D.; Laborde, J.C.; Pourprix, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a procedure for characterising airborne contamination between processes and the workplace in nuclear facilities. It was initially intended to use this process to validate operator choices concerning the monitoring of indoor air contamination (personnel monitoring, and environmental detection at fixed locations), but also to optimise the fundamental parameters which have a more or less direct influence on potential exposure of staff in the workplace (at the same time optimising the contamination source, close confinement, process ventilation and general ventilation). In practice, the methods used to obtain these expert appraisals were usually based on experiments carried out in situ: (i) characterisation of aerosol contamination by accurate measurement of the nature, concentration and particle size distribution at various locations; (ii) characterisation of the migration of contamination by precise measurement involving gas and/or particle tracing techniques. In parallel with these experiments, a considerable effort was made to develop and qualify computer codes capable of predicting or estimating the migration of contamination through complex ventilated areas, by means of both fluid mechanics and aerosol science. (Author)

  3. Air sampling in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ''Air sampling in the Workplace.'' That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed

  4. Workplace monitoring for radiation and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way but excessive exposure to them may have adverse health effects. In order to avoid excessive exposure, appropriate and efficient radiation measuring instruments are needed. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with such measuring instruments and describes the principal types, their construction and typical applications in the workplace. It is important to ensure not only that monitoring is carried out where there is a potential radiation exposure but also that the monitoring instrument is appropriate to the task and that the user places correct interpretations on the results obtained. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the instrument tests and calibrations described in this Module require the services of a qualified expert

  5. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  6. Workplace monitoring for radiation and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way but excessive exposure to them may have adverse health effects. Radiation measuring instruments are needed in order to detect the presence of such radiations and avoid excessive exposure. The use of appropriate and efficient instruments enables exposures to be controlled and the doses received to be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with such measuring instruments and describes the principal types, their construction and typical applications in the workplace. It is important to ensure not only that monitoring is carried out where there is a potential radiation exposure but also that the monitoring instrument is appropriate to the task and that the user places correct interpretations on the results obtained. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the instrument tests and calibrations described in this Manual require the services of a qualified expert

  7. Levels of surface contamination with radioactive materials at workplaces of nuclear research centre at Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Nemcova, I.; Kasikova, M.; Popper, J.; Chysky, J.

    1983-01-01

    A hygiene supervision unit at workplaces of the nuclear Research Institute in Rez monitored on a long-term basis surface contamination with radioactive substances. Surface contamination was found at workplaces with open sources. Of the 4343 monitored places action levels were only exceeded in 13 cases. The obtained data were used for typifying workplaces with the highest level of surface contamination, to determine in certain instances the mechanism of the escape of radioactive substances from insulating facilities and to determine the rate of the spread of the radioactive substance into adjacent non-active workplaces. (author)

  8. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  9. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  10. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  11. Assessment of gold exposure and contamination in galvanizing workplace by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Amaral, A.M.; Maia, E.C.P.; Albinati, C.C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Gold is not included in the current list of elements considered essential to humans and there are many controversies related to its toxicity. According to the chemical characteristics of the element, Au 1+ is favored for binding at sites with S donor, such as sulfhydryl group (-SH) in proteins in biological systems. This tendency raises the possibility of health-related risk, mainly linked to a long-term exposure to high and low levels of gold. This paper highlights the determination of gold by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) during the assessment of exposure levels to metals and possible workers' contamination in three galvanizing factories applying the same processes. This assessment is aimed at giving support to Worker's Health Awareness Program of the Municipal Department of Health of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. INAA, mix of k 0 and monostandard methods was applied to air filter, hair and toenail samples, and to urine samples. Solvent extraction of gold was carried out followed by comparative INAA. The results revealed that gold was present in all matrixes, indicating the exposure in the workplace and suggesting endogenous contamination. Is gold playing a role as a toxic element? (author)

  12. A constant flow filter air sampler for workplace environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulian, A.; Rodgers, J.C.; McFarland, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    A filter air sampler has been developed for sampling radionuclide aerosol particles form the workplace environment. It provides easy filter changing, constant flow sampling, and a visual display to indicate proper operation. An experimental study was conducted to characterize the collection efficiency of the sampler as affected by variations in room air velocity, particle size, sampling flow rate, inlet geometry, and inlet orientation to the free stream. Tests were carried out in a wing tunnel at velocities between 0.3 m s -1 and 2.0 m s -1 , which is a range that covers anticipated velocities in the typical highly ventilated workplace environment of a nuclear facility. Nearly monodisperse aerosols with sizes between 5 and 20 μm aerodynamic diameter were sampled at flow rates between 28.3 and 84.9 L min -1 . Inlet orientations of 0 degree, 90 degree, and 180 degree from the horizontal were selected for evaluation. When the sampler was oriented at 0 degree over various ranges of free stream velocities, sampling flow rates and particle sizes, the transmission efficiency of aerosol was typically greater than 95%. The transmission efficiencies varied form 80% to 106% for 10-μm aerodynamic diameter particles over the previously noted range of free stream velocities and inlet orientations. Uniformity of deposits of 10 μm aerodynamic diameter particles on collection filters was examined for a sampling rate of 57 L min -1 , a sampler orientation of 90 degree into the wind and wind speeds of 0.3-2 m s -1 . The coefficients of variation for the areal density of the deposits ranged from 6.1% to 37.2%. A miniature critical flow venturi with a constant sampling flow rate of 57 L min -1 was developed for application to the new filter air sampler. It was demonstrated that the performance of the new filter air sampler is quite acceptable over a wide range of conditions. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  14. Colombian legislation for air contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-01-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms

  15. River Corridor Project Workplace Air Monitoring Technical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANTOOTH, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis by which the workplace air monitoring and sampling program is operated in the River Corridor Project (RCP). Revision 2 addresses and incorporates changes in the air monitoring program drivers and implementing documents which occurred after the previous revision was issued. This revision also includes an additional RCP project to make Revision 2 applicable to the entire RCP. These changes occurred in the following areas: (1) Changes resulting from the conversion of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1) into the Project Hanford Radiological Control Manual (F-5173). HNF-5173 is now the implementing document for 10CFR835. (2) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised Hanford Site implementing procedures. (3) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised, as well as the cancellation of RCP implementing procedures. (4) Addition of the 200 Area Accelerated Deactivation Project (ADP). (5) Modification of some air sampling/monitoring locations to better meet the needs of facility operations. (6) Changes resulting from the RCP reorganization

  16. 29 CFR 1910.19 - Special provisions for air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for air contaminants. 1910.19 Section 1910.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Standards § 1910.19 Special provisions for air contaminants. (a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and...

  17. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  18. Evaluation of the Level of air Microbial Contamination in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of air microbial contamination in some teaching hospitals waste dump site in South Eastern Nigeria was evaluated using the standard microbiological techniques. Passive air sampling was performed using settle plates. The microbial load of the air around the hospitals waste dumpsite, showed high microbial load ...

  19. Microbiological contamination of compressed air used in dentistry: an investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, M; Lynch, R M; Robson, M G

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was twofold: 1) to examine the possibility of cross-contamination between a dental-evacuation system and the compressed air used in dental operatories and 2) to capture and identify the most common microflora in the compressed-air supply. The investigation used swab, water, and air sampling that was designed to track microorganisms from the evacuation system, through the air of the mechanical room, into the compressed-air system, and back to the patient. Samples taken in the vacuum system, the air space in the mechanical room, and the compressed-air storage tank had significantly higher total concentrations of bacteria than the outside air sampled. Samples of the compressed air returning to the operatory were found to match the outside air sample in total bacteria. It was concluded that the air dryer may have played a significant role in the elimination of microorganisms from the dental compressed-air supply.

  20. [Establishment of Assessment Method for Air Bacteria and Fungi Contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-ling; Yao, Da-jun; Zhang, Yu; Fang, Zi-liang

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, in order to settle existing problems in the assessment of air bacteria and fungi contamination, the indoor and outdoor air bacteria and fungi filed concentrations by impact method and settlement method in existing documents were collected and analyzed, then the goodness of chi square was used to test whether these concentration data obeyed normal distribution at the significant level of α = 0.05, and combined with the 3σ principle of normal distribution and the current assessment standards, the suggested concentrations ranges of air microbial concentrations were determined. The research results could provide a reference for developing air bacteria and fungi contamination assessment standards in the future.

  1. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  2. Particulate Air Contamination in Puerto Rico: A Student Involvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a research project undertaken by physics undergraduate students to monitor particulate air contamination in Ponce, Puerto Rico, and to determine the meteorological factors which contribute to it. (GA)

  3. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  4. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  5. Breaking the Take Home Pesticide Exposure Pathway for Agricultural Families: Workplace Predictors of Residential Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Richard A.; Lu, Chensheng; Negrete, Maria; Galvin, Kit

    2018-01-01

    Background Pesticides used in agriculture can be taken into worker homes and pose a potential risk for children and other family members. This study focused on identification of potential intervention points at the workplace. Methods Workers (N = 46) recruited from two tree fruit orchards in Washington State were administered a 63-item pesticide safety questionnaire. Dust was collected from commuter vehicles and worker homes and analyzed for four organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (azinphosmethyl, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, malathion). Results Geometric mean azinphosmethyl concentrations in dust for three worker groups (16 pesticide handlers, 15 green fruit thinners, 15 organic orchard workers) ranged from 0.027–1.5 μg/g, with levels in vehicle dust higher than in house dust, and levels in house dust from handlers’ homes higher than levels from tree fruit thinners’ homes. Vehicle and house dust concentrations of azinphosmethyl were highly associated (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001). Significant differences were found across worker groups for availability of laundry facilities, work boot storage, frequency of hand washing, commuter vehicle use, parking location, and safety training. Conclusions These findings support a focus on intervention activities to reduce take home pesticide exposure closer to the source of contamination; specifically, the workplace and vehicles used to travel to the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:1063–1071, 2013. PMID:23853121

  6. Mold contamination of automobile air conditioner systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Lopez, M; Fan, W; Cambre, K; Elston, R C

    1990-02-01

    Eight cars belonging to patients who were found to have exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma after turning on the air conditioner in their cars were examined. Mold concentrations inside the passenger compartment with the a/c turned off and at different climate control settings were lower than concentrations in the outside air. After turning on the air conditioner to "Max", cultures obtained at various intervals revealed that mold concentrations decreased significantly with time. Furthermore, placement of a filter at the portal of entry of outside air significantly reduced the mold concentration in the passenger compartment.

  7. Protection of atmospheric air against radioactive gas and aerosol contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykova, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Measures for contamination protection of atmospheric air subdivided into active and passive ones, are considered. The active measures envisage: development and application of waste-free flowsheets, use of flowsheets which restrict formation of gaseous-aerosol discharges; application of highly efficient treatment facilities torage. Dispersion of radioactive substances, released with discharges to the atmosphere, using high stacks; development of the corresponding site-selection solutions and arrangement of sanitary protective zones belong to passive measures. Measures for protection of atmospheric air also include waste and air contamination monitoring. The measures described are considered as applied to NPPs

  8. Healthy Air: Signs of Potential Problems in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airborne contaminants on the job such as dusts, welding fumes, gases, solvent vapors and mists. Some situations ... Donate Now. Introduction Risk Factors Screening Symptoms Tumor Testing Summary '; var arrows2 = ' Current Pathway Introduction Tumor Testing ...

  9. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements in the 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Technical Work Document is to satisfy HSRCM-1, the ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual.'' Article 551.4 of that manual states a requirement for a documented study of facility workplace air sampling programs (WPAS). This first revision of the original Supporting Document covers the period from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE/EH-0256T ''US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual'' as it applies to programs at Hanford. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. There are also several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of 300 Areas' workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance. The areas evaluated were the 340 Facility, the Advanced Reactor Operations Division Facilities, the N Reactor Fuels Supply Facility, and The Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory

  10. [Study on the groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Qiang; Zou, Zu-Guang; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xun-Chang; Zhao, Ji-Chu

    2007-04-01

    The groundwater petroleum contaminant remediation effect by air sparging was investigated in an oil field. The results show that the soil geological situation has great influence on the air distribution, and the shape of air distribution is not symmetrical to the air sparging (AS) well as axis. The influence distance in the left of AS well is 6 m, and only 4 m in the right. The petroleum removal rate can reach 70% in the zone with higher air saturation, but only 40% in the zone with lower air saturation, and the average petroleum removal rate reaches 60% in the influence zone for 40 days continuous air sparging. The petroleum components in groundwater were analyzed by GC/MS (gas chromatogram-mass spectrograph) before and after experiments, respectively. The results show that the petroleum removal rate has relationship with the components and their properties. The petroleum components with higher volatility are easily removed by volatilization, but those with lower volatility are difficult to remove, so a tailing effect of lingering residual contaminant exists when the air sparging technology is adopted to treat groundwater contaminated by petroleum products.

  11. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) surveyed the current air monitoring and sampling practices at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate a large diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The differences among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  12. Workplace protection of air-fed visors used in paint spraying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsover, J; Rajan-Sithamparanadarajah, B; Vaughan, N

    2006-04-01

    Air-fed visors are commonly used for protection against exposure to airborne isocyanates during paint spraying. Protection levels for this class of equipment are theoretically adequate, yet isocyanate sensitization in this occupation still occurs. The work reported here set out to establish the level of respiratory protection that is achieved during real paint spraying activities when air-fed visors are used. The work also examined the effects of reduced air supply flow rates on this type of respiratory protection. The workplace study highlighted common problems that occur when attempting to measure protection factors, and process and interpret the collected data. Many of the environments included in this study did not exhibit challenge concentrations high enough to reliably measure the workplace protection factor of this class of device. When detection limits are taken into consideration, the remaining field data suggest that an assigned protection factor in the region of 40 may be appropriate. When well maintained and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, air-fed visors are capable of providing a good level of respiratory protection. The protection given by air-fed visors is strongly dependent on the air flow supplied to them. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that protection falls as the air supply falls. This is a gradual process and does not suddenly occur at any particular air supply flow. Observations made during the field tests indicate that there may be other activities associated with the spraying process that need to be taken into consideration when looking for sources of respiratory sensitization.

  13. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  14. Spectrophotometric Determination of Carbon Disulphide in the Workplace Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pitschmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This papre describes a simple method of carbon disulphide determination in the air of working environment in the chemical companies and plants after its absorption into aprotic N,N-dimethylformamide solvent. Carbon disulphide absorbed into aprotic solvent was transformed by using ammonium hydroxide on sulphides which were determined by spectrophotometry. 5,5′-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid and blue tetrazolium chloride were used as chromogenic sensing reagents. Colour-reducing products were measured at the wavelength of 500, respectively 520 nm. Detection limits for determination of carbon disulphide in the air are 0.2, respectively 0.4 mg·m−3.

  15. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frederique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA) traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI): +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A) vs 30-45 dB(A)] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86)], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP) may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  16. Road, rail, and air transportation noise in residential and workplace neighborhoods and blood pressure (RECORD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Méline

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between road traffic noise and hypertension have been repeatedly documented, whereas associations with rail or total road, rail, and air (RRA traffic noise have rarely been investigated. Moreover, most studies of noise in the environment have only taken into account the residential neighborhood. Finally, few studies have taken into account individual/neighborhood confounders in the relationship between noise and hypertension. We performed adjusted multilevel regression analyses using data from the 7,290 participants of the RECORD Study to investigate the associations of outdoor road, rail, air, and RRA traffic noise estimated at the place of residence, at the workplace, and in the neighborhoods around the residence and workplace with systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and hypertension. Associations were documented between higher outdoor RRA and road traffic noise estimated at the workplace and a higher SBP [+1.36 mm of mercury, 95% confidence interval (CI: +0.12, +2.60 for 65-80 dB(A vs 30-45 dB(A] and DBP [+1.07 (95% CI: +0.28, +1.86], after adjustment for individual/neighborhood confounders. These associations remained after adjustment for risk factors of hypertension. Associations were documented neither with rail traffic noise nor for hypertension. Associations between transportation noise at the workplace and blood pressure (BP may be attributable to the higher levels of road traffic noise at the workplace than at the residence. To better understand why only noise estimated at the workplace was associated with BP, our future work will combine Global Positioning System (GPS tracking, assessment of noise levels with sensors, and ambulatory monitoring of BP.

  17. Air contamination during hemodialysis should be minimized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmayr, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    During preparation of the hemodialysis (HD) extracorporeal circuit (ECC) a priming solution is used to remove air from the tubes and dialyzer. Ultra sound techniques have verified micro embolic signals (MES) in the ECC that may derive from clots or gas embolies. In vitro studies could clarify that embolies of air develop within the ECC and also pass the safety systems such as air traps and enter the venous line that goes into the patient. Clinical studies have confirmed the presence of MES within the ECC that pass into the return-venous-line during conventional HD without inducing an alarm. In addition, studies confirmed that such MES were present within the AV fistula and subclavian vein, but also detected within the carotid artery. Autopsy studies revealed the presence of gas embolies surrounded by clots within the lung but also brain and myocardial tissue. This review will focus on how the MES develop and measures of how the exposure can be limited. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  18. Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Frank L; Stickings, Daryl S; Edwards-Jones, Valerie; Armstrong, David G; Boulton, Andrew Jm

    2009-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of air contamination with bacteria after surgical hydrodebridement and to determine the effectiveness of hydro surgery on bacterial reduction of a simulated infected wound. Four porcine samples were scored then infected with a broth culture containing a variety of organisms and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The infected samples were then debrided with the hydro surgery tool (Versajet, Smith and Nephew, Largo, Florida, USA). Samples were taken for microbiology, histology and scanning electron microscopy pre-infection, post infection and post debridement. Air bacterial contamination was evaluated before, during and after debridement by using active and passive methods; for active sampling the SAS-Super 90 air sampler was used, for passive sampling settle plates were located at set distances around the clinic room. There was no statistically significant reduction in bacterial contamination of the porcine samples post hydrodebridement. Analysis of the passive sampling showed a significant (p air whilst using hydro surgery equipment compared with a basal count of 582 CFUs/m3. During removal of the wound dressing, a significant increase was observed relative to basal counts (p air samples was still significantly raised 1 hour post-therapy. The results suggest a significant increase in bacterial air contamination both by active sampling and passive sampling. We believe that action might be taken to mitigate fallout in the settings in which this technique is used.

  19. Microbial contamination level of air in animal waste utilization plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Tymczyna, Leszek; Drabik, Agata; Krzosek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was evaluation of microbial contamination of air within and in the vicinity of animal waste disposal plants. Air samples were analyzed to determine total bacterial and fungal counts as well as microbial species composition. Measurements of climate conditions (temperature, humidity, air motion) and total dust concentration were also performed. Total numbers of bacteria and fungi surpassed the threshold limit values for production halls. The most abundant bacteria detected were those consisting of physiological microflora of animal dermis and mucosa. Fungal species composition proved to be most differentiated in the air beyond the plant area. Aspergillus versicolor, a pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus, was isolated only inside the rendering plant processing hall. The measurement results showed a low sanitary-hygienic state of air in the plant processing halls and substantial air pollution in its immediate vicinity.

  20. Determination of tricresyl phosphate air contamination in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denola, G; Hanhela, P J; Mazurek, W

    2011-08-01

    Monitoring of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) contamination of cockpit air was undertaken in three types of military aircraft [fighter trainer (FT), fighter bomber (FB), and cargo transport (CT) aircraft]. The aircraft had a previous history of pilot complaints about cockpit air contamination suspected to originate from the engine bleed air supply through the entry of aircraft turbine engine oil (ATO) into the engine compressor. Air samples were collected in flight and on the ground during engine runs using sorbent tubes packed with Porapak Q and cellulose filters. A total of 78 air samples were analysed, from 46 different aircraft, and 48 samples were found to be below the limit of detection. Nine incidents of smoke/odour were identified during the study. The concentrations of toxic o-cresyl phosphate isomers were below the level of detection in all samples. The highest total TCP concentration was 51.3 μg m(-3), while most were generally found to be contamination of cabin/cockpit air has been the subject of much concern in aviation, quantitative data are sparse.

  1. [Determination a variety of acidic gas in air of workplace by Ion Chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyong

    2014-10-01

    To establish a method for determination of a variety of acid gas in the workplace air by Ion Chromatography. (hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid, sulfur anhydride or sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid). The sample in workplace air was collected by the porous glass plate absorption tube containing 5 ml leacheate. (Sulfuric acid fog, phosphoric acid aerosol microporous membrane after collection, eluted with 5 ml of eluent.) To separated by AS14+AG14 chromatography column, by carbonate (2.0+1.0) mmol/L (Na(2)CO(3)-NaHCO(3)) as eluent, flow rate of 1 ml/min, then analyzed by electrical conductivity detector. The retain time was used for qualitative and the peak area was used for quantitation. The each ion of a variety of acid gas in the air of workplace were excellent in carbonate eluent separation. The linear range of working curve of 0∼20 mg/L. The correlation coefficient r>0.999; lower detection limit of 3.6∼115 µg/L; quantitative limit of 0.012∼0.53 mg/L; acquisition of 15L air were measured, the minimum detection concentration is 0.004 0∼0.13 mg/m(3). The recovery rate is 99.7%∼101.1%. In the sample without mutual interference ions. Samples stored at room temperature for 7 days. The same analysis method, the detection of various acidic gases in the air of workplace, simple operation, good separation effect, high sensitivity, high detection efficiency, easy popularization and application.

  2. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Radioactive air and surface contamination in Czechia and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on the radioactive substance effluents into the environment in conditions of NPP normal operation and on the air contamination by 85 Kr due to operation of the European and Soviet plants for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. Data are given on the dosage of the Czechoslovakia population due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

  4. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques

  5. Technical assessment of workplace air sampling requirements at tank farm facilities. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). It was written to implement DOE N 5480.6 ''US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual'' as it applies to programs at Hanford which are now overseen by WHC. As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. This document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of Tank Farms' workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance

  6. A workplace air monitor for uranium particulate detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, J.E.; Monroe, F.E. Jr.; Smith, D.D.; Wallace, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    An air monitor has been developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to sample the air in enriched uranium processing areas and to detect elevated particulate concentrations due to an upset condition. The monitor measures the alpha particle activity from material collected on 47-mm filter paper. Three energy windows are used to allow quantification of background activity from radon and thoron daughters and correction of their spillage into the uranium window. There is sufficient monitor memory to hold a history file of six days' activity from three sampling heads at 20-min status intervals. Alarm signals are activated if the absolute level of activity on a filter exceeds a predefined level, or if an excessively fast rate of buildup is occurring, which would cause the absolute level to be exceeded. This monitor was combined with an absolute particle counter and data were collected at a processing station where uranium dust is known to be present. The occurrence of high particle count activity in the 3.0-10.0-μ range was followed by increased alpha activity on the filter paper. This strong correlation has not been reported

  7. Air contamination for predicting wound contamination in clean surgery: A large multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, Gabriel; Toupet, Gaëlle; Rukly, Stephane; Antoniotti, Gilles; Deschamps, Marie-Noelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Pornet, Carole; Stern, Jean Baptiste; Vandamme, Yves-Marie; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Timsit, Jean-François; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2015-05-01

    The best method to quantify air contamination in the operating room (OR) is debated, and studies in the field are controversial. We assessed the correlation between 2 types of air sampling and wound contaminations before closing and the factors affecting air contamination. This multicenter observational study included 13 ORs of cardiac and orthopedic surgery in 10 health care facilities. For each surgical procedure, 3 microbiologic air counts, 3 particles counts of 0.3, 0.5, and 5 μm particles, and 1 bacteriologic sample of the wound before skin closure were performed. We collected data on surgical procedures and environmental characteristics. Of 180 particle counts during 60 procedures, the median log10 of 0.3, 0.5, and 5 μm particles was 7 (interquartile range [IQR], 6.2-7.9), 6.1 (IQR, 5.4-7), and 4.6 (IQR, 0-5.2), respectively. Of 180 air samples, 50 (28%) were sterile, 90 (50%) had 1-10 colony forming units (CFU)/m(3) and 40 (22%) >10 CFU/m(3). In orthopedic and cardiac surgery, wound cultures at closure were sterile for 24 and 9 patients, 10 and 11 had 1-10 CFU/100 cm(2), and 0 and 6 had >10 CFU/100 cm(2), respectively (P air microbial counts (P contamination (P = .22). This study suggests that particle counting is a good surrogate of airborne microbiologic contamination in the OR. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Air Contamination Quantification by FTIR with Gas Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freischlag, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Air quality is of utmost importance in environmental studies and has many industrial applications such as aviators grade breathing oxygen (ABO) for pilots and breathing air for fire fighters. Contamination is a major concern for these industries as identified in MIL-PRF-27210, CGA G-4.3, CGA G-7.1, and NFPA 1989. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool that when combined with a gas cell has tremendous potential for gas contamination analysis. Current procedures focus mostly on GC-MS for contamination quantification. Introduction of this topic will be done through a comparison of the currently used deterministic methods for gas contamination with those of FTIR gas analysis. Certification of the mentioned standards through the ISOIEC 17065 certifying body A2LA will be addressed followed by an evaluation of quality information such as the determinations of linearity and the limits of detection and quantitation. Major interferences and issues arising from the use of the FTIR for accredited work with ABO and breathing air will be covered.

  9. Simple analytical method for acrylamide in the workplace air adsorbed by charcoal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J S; Lee, M Y; Park, I J; Kang, S K [Korea Industrial Safety corporation, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    For the ambient monitoring of acrylamide, the adequate condition of sampling and analysis was checked. The adequate adsorbents and desorption solvents were tested. The combination of char-coal tube as a adsorbent and acetone as a desorption solvent showed 87% desorption efficiency. Flame ionization detector was used to detect acrylamide. The detection limit was 0.814 mg acrylamide in 1 L acetone. It is the equivalent concentration of 0.0203 mg acrylamide in 1 3{sup 3} air if the volume of air collected was 40 L. The permissible exposure level (PEL) of acrylamide in the workplace air recommended by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, USA) is 0.3 mg acrylamide in 1 m{sup 3} air. So, it is very simple and economic analytical method for acrylamide to be set in the industrial hygiene laboratories.

  10. Circumventing shallow air contamination in Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Parai, Rita; Tucker, Jonathan; Middleton, Jennifer; Langmuir, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Noble gases in mantle-derived basalts provide a rich portrait of mantle degassing and surface-interior volatile exchange. However, the ubiquity of shallow-level air contamination frequently obscures the mantle noble gas signal. In a majority of samples, shallow air contamination dominates the noble gas budget. As a result, reconstructing the variability in heavy noble gas mantle source compositions and inferring the history of deep recycling of atmospheric noble gases is difficult. For example, in the gas-rich popping rock 2ΠD43, 129Xe/130Xe ratios reach 7.7±0.23 in individual step-crushes, but the bulk composition of the sample is close to air (129Xe/130Xe of 6.7). Here, we present results from experiments designed to elucidate the source of shallow air contamination in MORBs. Step-crushes were carried out to measure He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions on two aliquots of a depleted popping glass that was dredged from between the Kane and Atlantis Fracture Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in May 2012. One aliquot was sealed in ultrapure N2 after dredge retrieval, while the other aliquot was left exposed to air for 3.5 years. The bulk 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe ratios measured in the aliquot bottled in ultrapure N2 are 12.3 and 7.6, respectively, and are nearly identical to the estimated mantle source values. On the other hand, step crushes in the aliquot left exposed to air for several years show Ne isotopic compositions that are shifted towards air, with a bulk 20Ne/22Ne of 11.5; the bulk 129Xe/130Xe, however, was close to 7.6. These results indicate that lighter noble gases exchange more efficiently between the bubbles trapped in basalt glass and air, suggesting a diffusive or kinetic mechanism for the incorporation of the shallow air contamination. Importantly, in Ne-Ar or Ar-Xe space, step-crushes from the bottled aliquot display a trend that can be easily fit with a simple two-component hyperbolic mixing between mantle and atmosphere noble gases. Step

  11. Concentrations of selected contaminants in cabin air of airbus aircrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, M; Sohn, H; Steinhanses, J

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of selected air quality parameters in aircraft cabins were investigated including particle numbers in cabin air compared to fresh air and recirculation air, the microbiological contamination and the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The Airbus types A310 of Swissair and A340 of Lufthansa were used for measurements. The particles were found to be mainly emitted by the passengers, especially by smokers. Depending on recirculation filter efficiency the recirculation air contained a lower or equal amount of particles compared to the fresh air, whereas the amount of bacteria exceeded reported concentrations within other indoor spaces. The detected species were mainly non-pathogenic, with droplet infection over short distances identified as the only health risk. The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were well below threshold values. Ethanol was identified as the compound with the highest amount in cabin air. Further organics were emitted by the passengers--as metabolic products or by smoking--and on ground as engine exhaust (bad airport air quality). Cleaning agents may be the source of further compounds.

  12. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates.

  13. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  14. Assessment of the bacterial contamination of hand air dryer in washrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh Hussein; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Zayed, M.E.; Al-Johny, Bassam O.; Wainwright, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out, using standard techniques, to identify and count the bacterial contamination of hand air dryers, used in washrooms. Bacteria were isolated from the air flow, outlet nozzle of warm air dryers in fifteen air dryers used in these washrooms. Bacteria were found to be relatively numerous in the air flows. Bacterially contaminated air was found to be emitted whenever a warm air dryer was running, even when not being used for hand drying. Our investigation shows th...

  15. Microbial air contamination in indoor environment of a university library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Burkowska, Aleksandra; Wilk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the number of bacteria and mould fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of Toruń University Library. The sampling sites were located in the rooms serving the functions typical of libraries (i.e. in the Main Reading Room, Current Periodicals Reading Room, Collections Conservation Laboratory, Old Prints Storeroom, in rooms serving other (non-library) functions (i.e. main hall, cafeteria, and toilet) as well as outside the library building. The analyses reveal that the concentrations of bacterial as well as fungal aerosols estimated with the use of the impaction method ranged between 10(1)-10(3) CFU·m(-3), which corresponds to the concentrations normally observed in areas of this kind. Evaluation of the hygienic condition of the studied areas was based on the criteria for microbiological cleanliness in interiors submitted by the European Commission in 1993. According to this classification, the air was considered to be heavily or moderately contaminated with bacteria, while the air contamination with mould fungi was described as low or moderate. The air in the Old Prints Storeroom was considered the least contaminated with microbial aerosol.

  16. Biofiltration of air contaminated with methanol and toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofiltration of air contaminated with VOCs is inexpensive compared with the conventional techniques and very effective for treating large volumes of moist air streams with low concentrations of VOCs. In this study, biofiltration for the purification of polluted air from methanol, a hydrophilic VOC, and toluene, a hydrophobic VOC, was investigated. The experiments were operated using three separated stainless steel biofilters, for methanol, toluene, and a mixture of methanol and toluene, respectively. Biofilter consisted of a mixture of palm shells and activated sludge as a filter-bed material. Only the indigenous microorganisms of the bed medium without any addition of extra inoculum were used throughout the whole process. The polluted air inlet concentration was varied from 0.3-4.7 g/m3 with flow rates ranging from 0.06-0.45 m3/h, equivalent to the empty bed residence times of 9-71 sec. Polluted air was successfully treated by biofiltration, 100% removal efficiencies would be obtained when the air flow rate was lower than 0.45 m3/h. The presence of toluene did not affect the removal rate of methanol while the removal rate of toluene was decreased with the presence of methanol in air stream according to the competition phenomenon.

  17. Air Contamination by Mercury, Emissions and Transformations-a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Baczewska, Aneta H; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions. At present, the largest emission sources include fuel combustion, mainly that of coal, and "artisanal and small-scale gold mining" (ASGM). The distinctly highest emissions can be found in South and South-East Asia, accounting for 45% of the global emissions. The emissions of natural origin and re-emissions are estimated at 45-66% of the global emissions, with the largest part of emissions originating in the oceans. Forecasts on the future emission levels are not unambiguous; however, most forecasts do not provide for reductions in emissions. Ninety-five percent of mercury occurring in the air is Hg 0 -GEM, and its residence time in the air is estimated at 6 to 18 months. The residence times of its Hg II -GOM and that in Hg p -TPM are estimated at hours and days. The highest mercury concentrations in the air can be found in the areas of mercury mines and those of ASGM. Since 1980 when it reached its maximum, the global background mercury concentration in the air has remained at a relatively constant level.

  18. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  19. Air sampling in the workplace to meet the new part 20 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.; Hickey, E.E.; Knox, W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a Regulatory Guide on air sampling in the workplace to meet the requirements of the revised Part 20. The guide will be accompanied by a technical manual describing and giving examples of how to meet the recommendations in the guide. Draft versions of the guide and manual are scheduled to be published for public comment this year. A final guide and manual, revised to consider the public comments, are scheduled to be published in 1992. This talk will summarize some of the more important features of the guide and manual. In particular, the talk will discuss how to demonstrate that samples taken to estimate worker intakes are representative of the air inhaled by workers and what measurements are necessary if a licensee wants to adjust derived air concentrations to account for particle size

  20. Technical assessment of compliance with workplace air sampling requirements at WRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HACKWORTH, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this Technical Assessment is to satisfy HSRCM-1, ''Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual'' Article 551.4 for a documented study of facility Workplace Air Monitoring (WAM) programs. HSRCM-1 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). The HSRCM-1 complies with Title 10. Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). This document provides an evaluation of the compliance of the Waste Receiving and Processing facility (WRAP) WAM program to the criteria standards, requirements, and documents compliance with the requirements where appropriate. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance

  1. Properties of aerosol floating in the air in a nuclear power plant workplace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, H.; Funabashi, M.; Ito, M.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on properties of radioactive aerosol floating in the air at several workplaces in nuclear power plant. The principal results are as follows: the aerosol particle size distributions consisted of two particle groups, whose aerodynamic diameters ranged from 4 to 7 microns and from 0.4 to 0.6 microns; the radioactive aerosol particle size distribution were unimodal. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was 6 microns, with geometric standard deviation microns; and, the average density of the aerosol was about 2.2g/cm 3 . (author)

  2. Air separation of heavy metal contaminants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, M.E.; Harper, M.J.; Buckon, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Several heavy metal separation techniques are currently being developed for soil remediation at various Department of Defense and Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities. The majority of these techniques involve a wet process using water, pH modifiers or other compounds. The US Naval Academy (USNA) has developed a dry process for heavy metal separation. The process uses air classification technology to concentrate the metal contaminant into a fraction of the soil. The advantages of this dry process are that it creates no contaminated byproduct and uses commercially available technology. The USNA process is based on using a Gayco-Reliance air classifier. Tests have been conducted with the system at the Naval Academy and the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR). The USNA tests used soil from the Nevada Test Site mixed with bismuth at a concentration of 500--1,000 ppm. The UNR tests used soil from four DOE sites mixed with uranium oxides and plutonium at an activity level of 100--700 pCi per gram. Concentration of activities and volume reduction percentages are presented for the various soils and contaminants tested

  3. Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.

  4. Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Haeng Joe

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.

  5. Compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery: exhaust air is a potential source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, H C; DiPasquale, Thomas; Sanders, Roy; Herscovici, Dolfi

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the exhaust from surgical compressed-air power tools contains bacteria and if the exhaust leads to contamination of sterile surfaces. Bacteriologic study of orthopaedic power tools. Level I trauma center operative theater. None. Part I. Exhaust from two sterile compact air drills was sampled directly at the exhaust port. Part II. Exhaust from the drills was directed at sterile agar plates from varying distances. The agar plates represented sterile surfaces within the operative field. Part III. Control cultures. A battery-powered drill was operated over open agar plates in similar fashion as the compressed-air drills. Agar plates left open in the operative theater served as controls to rule out atmospheric contamination. Random cultures were taken from agar plates, gloves, drills, and hoses. Incidence of positive cultures. In Part I, all filters from both compressed-air drill exhausts were culture negative ( = 0.008). In Part II, the incidence of positive cultures for air drills number one and number two was 73% and 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered organisms were, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus species. All control cultures from agar plates, battery-powered drill, gloves, and hoses were negative ( compressed-air power tools in orthopaedic surgery may contribute to the dissemination of bacteria onto the surgical field. We do not recommend the use of compressed-air power tools that do not have a contained exhaust.

  6. Direct measurement of homogeneously distributed radioactive air contamination with germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, W.

    1990-01-01

    Air contamination by γ emitting radionuclides was measured with a vertically arranged germanium detector, laterally shielded by a lead ring, and calibration factors and detection limits of a number of fission products determined. The possibility of measuring simultaneously existing air and soil contamination by measurements with and without lead shield is described. The change of detection limit of air contamination is presented for different soil contamination levels by the same radionuclide. Calibration factors are given to determine the dose rate on the ground due to air contamination by different radionuclides. (author)

  7. A study on contaminant transport in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujala, Usha; Sen, Soubhadra; Subramanian, V.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    In case of an accidental release of radioactive contaminant inside a well-ventilated room, the same will be transported to the different parts of the room due to the circulation of indoor air. To ensure safety of the operating personnel, it is important to identify the ideal locations for keeping the warning alarm systems. To address the problem, a detailed study is required where numerical simulation has to be supported by experimental verification. A computational methodology has already been verified for this purpose (IGC report-no.323). In this work, a study on the transport of an inert aerosol inside a well-ventilated isolated room has been carried out

  8. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan1, B Mohd Rafee1, Juahir Hafizan2, AZF Azman1, AM Nizar3, Z Izwyn4, AA Muhaimin5, MA Syafiq Yunos6, AR Anita1, J Muhamad Hanafiah1, MS Shaharuddin1, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail8, MN Mohamad Azhar1, HS Azizan1, I Zulfadhli9, J Othman101Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division (BTI, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 8Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 10Department of Counsellor Education and Counselling Psychology (DCECP, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support

  9. Evaluation of radon-222 concentration in air of workplaces at Curitiba/PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rocha@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The isotope Rn-222 is a noble gas that is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population, and has very high probability to induce the lung cancer. The goal of present research is to evaluate the activity concentration of Rn-222 in the air of workplaces at Curitiba, Parana State. Simultaneously there were performed the measurements of Rn-222 emanation from soil and building materials occurred at evaluated workplaces. Indoor measurements of Rn-222 activity were performed using CR-39 detectors. The instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used in the measurements of the average concentrations of Rn-222 in soil gas and building materials. The average concentration of indoor Rn-222 obtained in the measurements of workplaces vary between 36+/-49 Bq/m³ and 164+/-51 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the reference limit of 200 Bq/m³ established by international agencies such as the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection, but slightly above the limit of 148 Bq/m³ established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The measurements involving building materials presented the concentration values of Rn-222 in a range from 427+/-310 Bq/m³ to 2053+/-700 Bq/m³. The Rn-222 concentrations in soil ranged from 31+/-2 kBq/m³ to 35+/-4 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 are found in a range of 41+/-6 kBq/m³ and 25+/-11 kBq/m³, thus the concentrations of radon gas soil are below the swedish criterion of 50 kBq/m³ that represent the minimum value for high-risk situation. (author)

  10. Evaluation of radon-222 concentration in air of workplaces at Curitiba/PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Denyak, Valeriy; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2013-01-01

    The isotope Rn-222 is a noble gas that is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population, and has very high probability to induce the lung cancer. The goal of present research is to evaluate the activity concentration of Rn-222 in the air of workplaces at Curitiba, Parana State. Simultaneously there were performed the measurements of Rn-222 emanation from soil and building materials occurred at evaluated workplaces. Indoor measurements of Rn-222 activity were performed using CR-39 detectors. The instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used in the measurements of the average concentrations of Rn-222 in soil gas and building materials. The average concentration of indoor Rn-222 obtained in the measurements of workplaces vary between 36+/-49 Bq/m³ and 164+/-51 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the reference limit of 200 Bq/m³ established by international agencies such as the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Commission on Radiological Protection, but slightly above the limit of 148 Bq/m³ established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The measurements involving building materials presented the concentration values of Rn-222 in a range from 427+/-310 Bq/m³ to 2053+/-700 Bq/m³. The Rn-222 concentrations in soil ranged from 31+/-2 kBq/m³ to 35+/-4 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 are found in a range of 41+/-6 kBq/m³ and 25+/-11 kBq/m³, thus the concentrations of radon gas soil are below the swedish criterion of 50 kBq/m³ that represent the minimum value for high-risk situation. (author)

  11. Workplace air measurements and likelihood of exposure to manufactured nano-objects, agglomerates, and aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, Derk H.; Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit van; Berges, Markus; Bard, Delphine; Jankowska, Elzbieta; Moehlmann, Carsten; Pelzer, Johannes; Mark, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Manufactured nano-objects, agglomerates, and aggregates (NOAA) may have adverse effect on human health, but little is known about occupational risks since actual estimates of exposure are lacking. In a large-scale workplace air-monitoring campaign, 19 enterprises were visited and 120 potential exposure scenarios were measured. A multi-metric exposure assessment approach was followed and a decision logic was developed to afford analysis of all results in concert. The overall evaluation was classified by categories of likelihood of exposure. At task level about 53 % showed increased particle number or surface area concentration compared to “background” level, whereas 72 % of the TEM samples revealed an indication that NOAA were present in the workplace. For 54 out of the 120 task-based exposure scenarios, an overall evaluation could be made based on all parameters of the decision logic. For only 1 exposure scenario (approximately 2 %), the highest level of potential likelihood was assigned, whereas in total in 56 % of the exposure scenarios the overall evaluation revealed the lowest level of likelihood. However, for the remaining 42 % exposure to NOAA could not be excluded

  12. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  13. [Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in some of the italian state police workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Francesco; Rulli, Giuseppina

    2017-12-01

    Little can be found in the literature about thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in law enforcement workplaces. This study, based on environmental surveys carried out by the Centro Sanitario Polifunzionale of Milan (Italian State Police Health Service Department), aims to assess the thermal comfort and IAQ in some of the Italian State Police workplaces. Measurements were performed in some indoor workplaces such as offices, archives, laboratories and guard-houses in various regions (Lombardia, Emilia Romagna, Liguria, Veneto, Trentino Alto-Adige) of Northern Italy. The PMV/PPD model developed by Fangar for the evaluation of the thermal comfort was used. We measured both CO2 concentration and relative humidity indoor levels for the evaluation of IAQ. We used Chi square and t Student tests to study both prevalence of thermal discomfort and low IAQ, and their differences between summer and winter. For the purposes of the present study we carried out 488 measurements in 36 buildings (260 in winter and 228 in summer). Our results showed that thermal comfort was reached in 95% and 68% of environmental measurements (in winter and summer, respectively). In summer, we measured different types of thermal discomfort. As regard to IAQ, CO2 exceeded the threshold limit value (1000 ppm) in 39% (winter) and 9% (summer) of our measurements. Chi-square test showed a statistically significant difference between summer and winter for all outcomes considered. Indeed, thermal comfort was better in winter than summer (X2 = 61.0795), while IAQ was found to be better in the summer than winter considering both the CO2 1000 ppm and 1200 ppm threshold values (X2 = 56.9004 and X2 = 8.8845 respectively). Prevalence of low relative humidity in winter was higher than in summer (X2 = 124.7764). Even though this study did not report any situation of risk to Italian police officers health and safety, it has highlighted some potential issues in some of the examined workplaces, concerning

  14. [Evaluation of uncertainty for determination of tin and its compounds in air of workplace by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiuning; Wei, Yuan; Liu, Fangfang; Ding, Yalei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the method for uncertainty evaluation of determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The national occupational health standards, GBZ/T160.28-2004 and JJF1059-1999, were used to build a mathematical model of determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace and to calculate the components of uncertainty. In determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, the uncertainty for the concentration of the standard solution, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, sample digestion, parallel determination, least square fitting of the calibration curve, and sample collection was 0.436%, 0.13%, 1.07%, 1.65%, 3.05%, and 2.89%, respectively. The combined uncertainty was 9.3%.The concentration of tin in the test sample was 0.132 mg/m³, and the expanded uncertainty for the measurement was 0.012 mg/m³ (K=2). The dominant uncertainty for determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace comes from least squares fitting of the calibration curve and sample collection. Quality control should be improved in the process of calibration curve fitting and sample collection.

  15. Conflict management strategies in settling workplace disputes: The case of air Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandiso Ngcobo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to conduct the analysis of the conflict management strategies that Air Zimbabwe, a service delivery company in Zimbabwe in Southern Africa, employs in settling workplace disputes between it and its employees. The research approach relies mainly on a survey questionnaire that is completed by both the employees and management. The analysis of data is descriptive. The respondents indicate that strategies can move from a positive to a negative approach within a short space of time. The results are often detrimental to the quality of service that the company provides to its clientele. It is recommended that the parties should rely on negotiation and mediation to arrest conflicts before they escalate.

  16. Air suctioning during colon biopsy forceps removal reduces bacterial air contamination in the endoscopy suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, S R; Tutuian, R; Imhof, A; Wildi, S; Gubler, C; Fruehauf, H; Ruef, C; Schoepfer, A M; Fried, M

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination of endoscopy suites is of concern; however studies evaluating bacterial aerosols are lacking. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of air suctioning during removal of biopsy forceps in reducing bacterial air contamination. This was a prospective single-blinded trial involving 50 patients who were undergoing elective nontherapeutic colonoscopy. During colonoscopy, endoscopists removed the biopsy forceps first without and then with suctioning following contact with the sigmoid mucosa. A total of 50 L of air was collected continuously for 30 seconds at 30-cm distance from the biopsy channel valve of the colonoscope, with time starting at forceps removal. Airborne bacteria were collected by an impactor air sampler (MAS-100). Standard Petri dishes with CNA blood agar were used to culture Gram-positive bacteria. Main outcome measure was the bacterial load in endoscopy room air. At the beginning and end of the daily colonoscopy program, the median (and interquartile [IQR] range) bioaerosol burden was 4 colony forming units (CFU)/m (3) (IQR 3 - 6) and 16 CFU/m (3) (IQR 13 - 18), respectively. Air suctioning during removal of the biopsy forceps reduced the bioaerosol burden from a median of 14 CFU/m (3) (IQR 11 - 29) to a median of 7 CFU/m (3) (IQR 4 - 16) ( P = 0.0001). Predominantly enterococci were identified on the agar plates. The bacterial aerosol burden during handling of biopsy forceps can be reduced by applying air suction while removing the forceps. This simple method may reduce transmission of infectious agents during gastrointestinal endoscopies. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  17. Colombian legislation for air contamination control; Legislacion colombiana para el control de la contaminacion del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-12-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms.

  18. Application of air ions for bacterial de-colonization in air filters contaminated by aerosolized bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Seon; Yoon, Ki Young; Park, Jae Hong; Hwang, Jungho

    2011-01-01

    We aerosolized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) bacteria and collected them on membrane filters. Then we generated air ions by applying a high voltage to a carbon fiber tip and applied them to the contaminated filters. The antibacterial efficiency was not significantly affected by the bacteria being Gram-positive or Gram-negative, however, negative ions showed a lower antibacterial efficiency than positive ions to both E. coli and S. epidermidis, even though the concentration of negative air ions was much higher than that of positive air ions. With a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images and fluorescence microscopy images using a LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit, electrostatic disruption of the bacteria was found to be the dominant antibacterial effect. - Research Highlights: →This study examined the effects of air ions generated by a carbon fiber ionizer on the inactivation of bioaerosols. →When the ion exposure time and the ion generation concentration were increased, the antibacterial efficiency increased. →The bioaerosols carried a significant number of negative electrical charges. →Negative ions showed lower antibacterial efficiency than positive ions to both E. coli and S. epidermidis, even though the concentration of negative air ions was much higher than that of positive air ions.

  19. Methods for Sampling and Measurement of Compressed Air Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1976-10-01

    In order to improve the technique for measuring oil and water entrained in a compressed air stream, a laboratory study has been made of some methods for sampling and measurement. For this purpose water or oil as artificial contaminants were injected in thin streams into a test loop, carrying dry compressed air. Sampling was performed in a vertical run, down-stream of the injection point. Wall attached liquid, coarse droplet flow, and fine droplet flow were sampled separately. The results were compared with two-phase flow theory and direct observation of liquid behaviour. In a study of sample transport through narrow tubes, it was observed that, below a certain liquid loading, the sample did not move, the liquid remaining stationary on the tubing wall. The basic analysis of the collected samples was made by gravimetric methods. Adsorption tubes were used with success to measure water vapour. A humidity meter with a sensor of the aluminium oxide type was found to be unreliable. Oil could be measured selectively by a flame ionization detector, the sample being pretreated in an evaporation- condensation unit

  20. Methods for Sampling and Measurement of Compressed Air Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L

    1976-10-15

    In order to improve the technique for measuring oil and water entrained in a compressed air stream, a laboratory study has been made of some methods for sampling and measurement. For this purpose water or oil as artificial contaminants were injected in thin streams into a test loop, carrying dry compressed air. Sampling was performed in a vertical run, down-stream of the injection point. Wall attached liquid, coarse droplet flow, and fine droplet flow were sampled separately. The results were compared with two-phase flow theory and direct observation of liquid behaviour. In a study of sample transport through narrow tubes, it was observed that, below a certain liquid loading, the sample did not move, the liquid remaining stationary on the tubing wall. The basic analysis of the collected samples was made by gravimetric methods. Adsorption tubes were used with success to measure water vapour. A humidity meter with a sensor of the aluminium oxide type was found to be unreliable. Oil could be measured selectively by a flame ionization detector, the sample being pretreated in an evaporation- condensation unit

  1. [Legionella spp. contamination in indoor air: preliminary results of an Italian multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Napoli, Christian; Cannova, Lucia; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Delia, Santi Antonino; Giuliano, Ada; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Rossini, Angelo; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Torregrossa, Maria Valeria; Villafrate, Maria Rosaria; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2014-01-01

    To propose a standardized protocol for the evaluation of Legionella contamination in air. A bathroom having a Legionella contamination in water >1,000 cfu/l was selected in 10 different healthcare facilities. Air contamination was assessed by active (Surface Air System, SAS) and passive (Index of Microbial Air, IMA) sampling for 8 hours, about 1 m away from the floor and 50 cm from the tap water. Two hundred liters of air were sampled by SAS every 12 min, after flushing water for 2 min. The IMA value was calculated as the mean value of colony forming units/16 plates exposed during sampling (2 plates/hour). Water contamination was evaluated at T0, after 4 and 8 hours, according to the standard methods. Air contamination by Legionella was found in three healthcare facilities (one with active and two with passive sampling), showing a concomitant tap water contamination (median=40,000; range 1,100-43,000 cfu/l). The remaining seven hospitals isolated Legionella spp. exclusively from water samples (median=8,000; range 1,200-70,000 cfu/l). Our data suggest that environmental Legionella contamination cannot be assessed only through the air sampling, even in the presence of an important water contamination.

  2. Controlled-air incineration of transuranic-contaminated solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Neuls, A.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    A controlled-air incinerator and an associated high-energy aqueous off-gas cleaning system are being installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Transuranic Waste Treatment Development Facility (TDF) for evaluation as a low-level transuranic-contaminated (TRU) solid waste volume reduction process. Program objectives are: (1) assembly and operation of a production scale (45 kg/hr) operation of ''off-the-shelf'' components representative of current incineration and pollution control technology; (2) process development and modification to meet radioactive health and safety standards, and (3) evaluation of the process to define the advantages and limitations of conventional technology. The results of the program will be the design specifications and operating procedures necessary for successful incineration of TRU waste. Testing, with nonradioactive waste, will begin in October 1976. This discussion covers commercially available incinerator and off-gas cleaning components, the modifications required for radioactive service, process components performance expectations, and a description of the LASL experimental program

  3. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines and effect on quality of indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaifciler, Duygu Göksay; Cotuk, Aysin

    2014-06-01

    The microbiological quality in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) is considered to be important because patients and dental staff with suppressed immune systems are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from dental units (DUs). Opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas, Legionella, Candida, and Aspergillus can be present in DUWLs, while during consultations, bioaerosols can be dispersed in the air, thus resulting in effects on microbiological quality of indoor air. This present study represents microbiological air and water quality in dental offices (DOs) and also concerns the relationship between the quality of DO air and dental unit water. This study aimed to assess both the microbial quality of dental unit water and the indoor air in 20 DOs and to survey the effect on the quality of the indoor air with the existing microorganisms in dental unit water. Fourteen out of 20 (70 %) DUWLs were found to be contaminated with a high number of aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria. In terms of bacterial air contamination levels, in 90 % of DOs, a medium level (contamination was determined, while in terms of microfungal air contamination, in all DOs, a low level (contamination was determined. Potential infection or allergen agents, such as Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces were isolated from water and air samples. This study's determination of contamination sources and evaluation of microbial load in DOs could contribute to the development of quality control methods in the future.

  4. An assessment of air as a source of DNA contamination encountered when performing PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Nina; Rodger, Gillian; Vandesompele, Jo; Benes, Vladimir; Zumla, Alimuddin; Rook, Graham A; Huggett, Jim F

    2009-12-01

    Sensitive molecular methods, such as the PCR, can detect low-level contamination, and careful technique is required to reduce the impact of contaminants. Yet, some assays that are designed to detect high copy-number target sequences appear to be impossible to perform without contamination, and frequently, personnel or laboratory environment are held responsible as the source. This complicates diagnostic and research analysis when using molecular methods. To investigate the air specifically as a source of contamination, which might occur during PCR setup, we exposed tubes of water to the air of a laboratory and clean hood for up to 24 h. To increase the chances of contamination, we also investigated a busy open-plan office in the same way. All of the experiments showed the presence of human and rodent DNA contamination. However, there was no accumulation of the contamination in any of the environments investigated, suggesting that the air was not the source of contamination. Even the air from a busy open-plan office was a poor source of contamination for all of the DNA sequences investigated (human, bacterial, fungal, and rodent). This demonstrates that the personnel and immediate laboratory environment are not necessarily to blame for the observed contamination.

  5. Sources of indoor air contamination on the ground floor of a high-rise commercial building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayebzadeh, A.; Cragg-Elkouh, S.; Rancy, R.; Dufresne, A.

    1999-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a subject of growing concern in the developed world. Many sources of indoor air contamination in commercial and office buildings are recognised and have been investigated. In addition to the usual internal sources of air contaminants, other external sources from attached facilities can find their way into the building. This report presents the results of an indoor air quality survey in a high-rise office building which demonstrated an obvious seasonal change in regard to the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). Furthermore, a complementary survey in the same building was carried out to identify the relevant sources of air contamination in the building and the results indicated that an attached train station and the nearby street traffic had a significant impact on indoor air quality. (author)

  6. Utilisation of an Air-conditioning System to Control the Levels of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Workplace Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.

    2000-01-01

    From long-term real-time radon and radon progeny measurements taken in a relatively large retail store, cyclical patterns were evident, which were found to relate to the overriding influence of the timed air-conditioning system. Concentration of radon, radon progeny and the variability of F factor were found to depend significantly on the intermittent operation of this ventilation-air-conditioning system. After pressure equalisation remedial measures proved ineffective, the air-movement system was utilised to reduce the levels of radon and radon progeny to well within established norms applicable during working hours. It is demonstrated that the average levels for radon and radon progeny are reduced in absolute terms. This amounted to less than 12% of the general level, during designated work periods. Where air movement systems are already installed, as well as other circumstances, their regulation provides an economical solution to meeting legal and other standards for radon in the workplace. (author)

  7. Removal of Cyclohexane from a Contaminated Air Stream Using a Dense Phase Membrane Bioreactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the ability of a dense phase membrane bioreactor to remove cyclohexane, a volatile organic compound in JP-8 jet fuel, from a contaminated air stream using...

  8. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  9. Evaluation of Triple Containment Method for Air Transport of Contaminated Human

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neville, J

    2003-01-01

    A triple containment system intended for transport of biologically contaminated human remains was tested for its ability to maintain integrity during exposure to altitude changes representative of air transport...

  10. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  11. An Assessment of Air As a Source of DNA Contamination Encountered When Performing PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Nina; Rodger, Gillian; Vandesompele, Jo; Benes, Vladimir; Zumla, Alimuddin; Rook, Graham A.; Huggett, Jim F.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive molecular methods, such as the PCR, can detect low-level contamination, and careful technique is required to reduce the impact of contaminants. Yet, some assays that are designed to detect high copy-number target sequences appear to be impossible to perform without contamination, and frequently, personnel or laboratory environment are held responsible as the source. This complicates diagnostic and research analysis when using molecular methods. To investigate the air specifically as...

  12. Potential Air Contamination During CO2 Angiography Using a Hand-Held Syringe: Theoretical Considerations and Gas Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, David R.; Cho, Kyung J.; Hawkins, Irvin F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To assess air contamination in the hand-held syringes currently used for CO 2 delivery and to determine whether there is an association between their position and the rate of air contamination. Methods. Assessment of air contamination in the syringe (20 ml) included theoretical modeling, mathematical calculation, and gas chromatography (GC). The model was used with Fick's first law to calculate the diffusion of CO 2 and the amount of air contamination. For GC studies, the syringes were placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions and gas samples were obtained after 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. All trials with each position for each sampling time were performed five times. Results. The amounts of air contamination with time calculated mathematically were 5-10% less than those of GC. With the diffusivity of air-CO 2 at 0.1599 cm 2 /sec (9.594 cm 2 /min), air contamination was calculated to be 60% at 60 min. With GC air contamination was 13% at 5 min, 31% at 20 min, 43% at 30 min, and 68% at 60 min. There was no difference in air contamination between the different syringe positions. Conclusion. Air contamination occurs in hand-held syringes filled with CO 2 when they are open to the ambient air. The amounts of air contamination over time are similar among syringes placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions

  13. Potential air contamination during CO2 angiography using a hand-held syringe: theoretical considerations and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, David R; Cho, Kyung J; Hawkins, Irvin F

    2006-01-01

    To assess air contamination in the hand-held syringes currently used for CO2 delivery and to determine whether there is an association between their position and the rate of air contamination. Assessment of air contamination in the syringe (20 ml) included theoretical modeling, mathematical calculation, and gas chromatography (GC). The model was used with Fick's first law to calculate the diffusion of CO2 and the amount of air contamination. For GC studies, the syringes were placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions and gas samples were obtained after 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. All trials with each position for each sampling time were performed five times. The amounts of air contamination with time calculated mathematically were 5-10% less than those of GC. With the diffusivity of air-CO2 at 0.1599 cm2/sec (9.594 cm2/min), air contamination was calculated to be 60% at 60 min. With GC air contamination was 13% at 5 min, 31% at 20 min, 43% at 30 min, and 68% at 60 min. There was no difference in air contamination between the different syringe positions. Air contamination occurs in hand-held syringes filled with CO2 when they are open to the ambient air. The amounts of air contamination over time are similar among syringes placed in the upright, horizontal, and inverted positions.

  14. Contamination of the Arctic by exotic air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.; Landers, D.

    1991-01-01

    Various kinds of atmospheric pollutants are commonly known to occur in arctic environments. These include organic contaminants, pollutants associated with fossil fuel combustion, smelting, industrial development, and radionuclides. Recently, additional concern has arisen from studies suggesting that at least some atmospheric contaminants may be susceptible to poleward redistribution as a result of their physical and chemical properties. Thus, contamination of the arctic may be exacerbated by the tendency of selected contaminants produced at lower latitudes to be transported to polar regions and incorporated into high latitude food chains. Although awareness of exotic contaminants in high latitude food chains is not new, regional baseline data are needed to document the spatial extent and magnitude of this potentially serious problem. The US Arctic is little studied in this regard relative to several other circumpolar nations (e.g., Canada, Sweden); over the next year the authors will be designing a regional survey to begin remedying this information gap. A major focus of this activity will be to ensure compatibility with both ongoing international studies of arctic contamination, and the USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Issues related to sampling design will be outlined and discussed

  15. Measurement of radioactive soil contamination from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loman, A.C.; Kuile, C.R. ter; Slaper, H.

    1990-09-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry can be used to determine the qualitative and quantitative deposition of radioactive materials on the ground surface. By applying the in-situ spectrometry method using either a helicopter or an airplane, large areas can be scanned in a short period of time. In this report the results of in-situ gamma spectroscopic measurements taken from a helicopter are described. Measurements were carried out using a single point source, a field of 36 point sources, and using the present ground contamination due to fall-out from the Chernobyl accident and atom bombs. The results of these measurements were used to determine calibration factors, which were in agreement with a calibration obtained using more simple (and less expensive) laboratory measurements in combination with flux calculations. Detection limits for the measurement of surface contamination were determined. At a height of 50 meters above the surface and using a measurement time of 2 minutes, the minimally detectable surface contamination was 1.1 kBqm -2 for a Cs-137 contamination and 2.1 kBqm -2 for I-131 contamination. Fall-out determinations based on measurements taken at a height of 50 meters were in agreement with determinations taken at a height of 1 meter, and with the results obtained measuring soil samples. The in-situ gamma spectroscopy, using helicopter or airplane, is a fast and powerful method for mapping surface contamination. (author). 13 refs.; 18 figs.; 13 tabs

  16. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D’Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis®μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis®μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis®μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis®μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations. PMID:28640202

  17. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-06-22

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis ® μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis ® μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis ® μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis ® μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations.

  18. Traffic flow and microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a major teaching hospital in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, M. T.; Bediako-Bowan, A.; Andersen, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    . Aim: To assess microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a Ghanaian teaching hospital and the association with door-openings and number of people present. Moreover, we aimed to document reasons for door-opening. Methods: We conducted active air-sampling using an MAS 100® portable impactor...

  19. INFLUENCE OF BACKGROUND AIR ON MICROBIAL-CONTAMINATION DURING SIMULATED IV-ADMIXTURE PREPARATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; BAKKER, JH; MEEVIS, RF; MARSKAMP, A

    The effect of the cleanliness of environmental air on the microbial contamination of a simulated i.v.-admixture during its preparation by aseptic transfer was studied under three conditions: (i) in a laminar air flow (LAF) bench situated in a class 1000 clean room, (ii) in an LAF bench in a

  20. Air monitoring data reveal previously unknown contamination at radioactive waste disposal area, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of 238 Pu were essentially unaffected which was puzzling because both 238 Pu and 239 Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated, and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings did not provide an adequate explanation for the elevations, a gamma-survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found that in February 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter or so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the firs rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils, which were probably the source of the air contamination, were very low in 238 Pu which explains why we saw very little 238 Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am dropped considerably, they have

  1. [Contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas and prevention from the contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatani, A; Akutsu, T; Yamaguchi, K; Onodera, Y; Manaka, Y; Takahashi, K

    1996-04-01

    99mTc-gas (TECHNEGAS) is a 99mTc-labeled micro-aerosol which is considered to have different behavior from 133Xe or 81mKr gas. In order to estimate contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas, filtered expired air during administration and 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 min after the administration were collected in each polyethylene bag. Radioactivities of the polyethylene bags, used filter and the lung were measured with 3-head scintillation camera. The activity of the expired air diminished within 6-10 min and about 5% of whole discharged 99mTc-gas was released to room air. The activity of the used filter was two times of the lung. According to these results, it is recommended that the 99mTc-gas may be administrated in a exclusive room. The administrated patient and used filter must be remain in the exclusive room.

  2. Techniques for the measurement of the contamination of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.

    1960-01-01

    This lecture has been given at the International Symposium of Riso 1959. Methods for measuring radioactive content of the atmosphere are described, and main results found at Saclay are given, for the following contaminants: Rn, Tn and their daughter, H-3, C-14, A-41, Kr-85, I-131, and fission products as a whole. (author) [fr

  3. Cadmium contamination of atmospheric air in the Silesian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Moździerz; Małgorzata Juszko-Piekut; Jerzy Stojko

    2014-01-01

    Background. For many years, researchers have evaluated environmental damage caused by heavy metals, including cadmium, as well as health risks in the population exposed to them. Thus the aim of our study was to evaluate cadmium levels in the atmospheric air in 2009, including summer and winter heating season. A comparative analysis was performed using the corresponding data from 2005–2008. Material and Methods. In the study, we used the statistical output data of air p...

  4. [Bacterial contamination of the indoor air in a transplant unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, Ivanka; Holý, Ondřej

    2013-12-01

    For one year (August 2010 to July 2011), microbial contamination of the indoor air in the Transplant Unit of the Haemato-Oncology Clinic, Olomouc University Hospital was monitored monthly. Twenty sampling sites were singled out and a total of 240 indoor air samples were collected. An MAS-100 air sampler (Merck, GER) was used, air flow rate of 100 liters per minute, 1 minute. The measured values of indoor air temperature were stable. The relative air humidity ranged from 17% to 68%. The highest average value of microbial air contamination was found in the "staff entry room" (1170 CFU/m3). The lowest microbial air contamination (150-250 CFU/m3) was measured in the patient isolation units. The most frequently isolated bacterial strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (94.3%), followed by Micrococcus spp. (67%) and Bacillus subtilis (11%). It can be assumed that the -source of these airborne bacterial strains are both patients and medical staff. They are classified as -opportunistic pathogens and as such can cause hospital infections among haemato-oncology patients.

  5. The Future Institutional Research Office: Brave New Workplace or Electronic Sweatshop? AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Jeffrey D.

    Information technology is changing the workplace. Forecasts range from wondrous visions of future capabilities to dark scenarios of employment loss and dehumanization. Some predict revolutionary impacts, while others conclude that the way we do business will change only gradually if much at all. The less positive visions of the future workplace…

  6. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E. F.; Mironov, V. P.; Drugachenok, M. A.; Kudryashov, V.P; Grushevich, L.E; Adamovich, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m 2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and air contamination during total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, A.S.; Nilsson, B.; Walder, M.H.; Osterberg, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet (uv) radiation of the operating room was assessed bacteriologically in an open randomized study of 30 total hip procedures. Volumetric air-sampling demonstrated that the number of colony forming units (cfu m-3) were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) by uv light, both close to the wound and in the periphery of the operating room. No adverse effects of the uv-irradiation were observed either in the patients or the staff. In operating rooms fitted with a zonal ventilation system and with an air change rate of about 70 h-1, the addition of uv irradiation during surgery may achieve ultra clean air. However, in conventionally ventilated operating rooms uv-irradiation alone is probably not sufficient to do so

  8. Effect of mobile unidirectional air flow unit on microbial contamination of air in standard urologic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Stefania; Pasquarella, Cesira; Fornia, Samanta; Saccani, Elisa; Signorelli, Carlo; Vitali, Pietro; Sansebastiano, Giuliano Ezio

    2009-12-01

    Infection is one of the most feared complications of surgery. New instrumentation is being developed to reduce deposition of bacteria. We investigated 45 major surgical procedures (21 radical nephrectomies [RN] and 24 radical retropubic prostatectomies [RRP]) in our urology department during 2007. In about one-half of the interventions, an ultraclean air flow mobile (UAF) unit was used. Bacterial sedimentation was evaluated by nitrocellulose membranes placed on the instrument tray and by settle plates positioned at four points in the operating room. In 27 operations, an additional membrane was located near the incision. Bacterial counts on the nitrocellulose membranes during RN were 230 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(2)/h with the UAF unit and 2,254 cfu/m(2)/h without the unit (p = 0.001). During RRP, the values were 288 cfu/m(2)/h and 3,126 cfu/m(2)/h respectively (p = 0.001). The membrane placed near the incision during RN showed a microbial count of 1,235 cfu/m(2)/h with the UAF unit and 5,093 cfu/m(2)/h without the unit (p = 0.002); during RRP, the values were 1,845 cfu/m(2)/h and 3,790 cfu/m(2)/h, respectively (difference not significant). Bacterial contamination detected by settle plates during RN showed a mean value of 2,273 cfu/m(2)/h when the UAF unit was used and 2,054 cfu/m(2)/h without the unit; during RRP, the values were 2,332 cfu/m(2)/h and 2,629 cfu/m(2)/h with and without the UAF unit, respectively (NS). No statistically significant differences were detected in the clinical data registered in patients operated on under standard conditions and while the UAF unit was functioning. The UAF appears able to reduce microbial contamination at the operating table, reaching a bacterial number obtained in ultraclean operating theatres.

  9. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  10. Air-borne heavy metal contamination to dietary vegetables: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, J; Pandey, Richa; Shubhashish, K

    2009-12-01

    Contamination of edible parts of three dietary vegetables, Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) by air-borne cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) was determined using pot culture experiments at three sites in the city of Varanasi, India. The data revealed that although Cr and Cu in vegetables remained below their safe limits, about 68% of the total samples contained Cd, Ni, and Pb above their respective safe limits of 1.5, 1.5, and 2.5 μg g(-1). Site wise synchrony and air accumulation factor (AAF) indicated that atmospheric deposition was the main contributor of metal contamination to vegetables. The study suggests that if the present trends of atmospheric deposition are continued, air-borne heavy metals will contaminate the agricultural produce with long-term health implications.

  11. Atmospheric air contamination monitoring. Monitoring station ASS-500, GIG Katowice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained during the period of 1991-1993 in monitoring station ASS-500 working in Katowice have been presented. The concentration of 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and dustiness in atmospheric air have been shown. Some proposals about the modifications of monitoring station ASS-500 have been introduced. 3 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Biological air contamination in elderly care centers: geria project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Lívia; Mendes, Ana; Pereira, Cristiana; Neves, Paula; Mendes, Diana; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) affects health particularly in susceptible individuals such as the elderly. It has been estimated that the older population spends approximately 19-20 h/d indoors, and the majority of the elderly spend all of their time indoors in elderly care centers (ECC). Older individuals may be particularly at risk of exposure to detrimental effects from pollutants, even at low concentrations, due to common and multiple underlying chronic diseases that increase susceptibility. This study, aimed to assess the impact of indoor biological agents in 22 ECC located in Porto, was conducted during summer and winter from November 2011 to August 2013 at a total of 141 areas within dining rooms, drawing rooms, medical offices, and bedrooms (including the bedridden). Air sampling was carried out with a microbiological air sampler (Merck MAS-100) and using tryptic soy agar for bacteria and malt extract agar for fungi. The results obtained were compared with the recently revised Portuguese standards. In winter, mean fungi concentration exceeded reference values, while bacteria concentrations were within the new standards in both seasons. The main fungi species found indoors were Cladosporium (73%) in summer and Penicillium (67%) in winter. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus, known potential pathogenic/toxigenic species, were also identified. Although the overall rate and mean values of bacteria and fungi found in ECC indoor air met Portuguese legislation, some concern is raised by the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Simple measures, like opening windows and doors to promote air exchange and renewal, may improve effectiveness in enhancing IAQ.

  13. A longitudinal study of air contaminants in a newly built preschool. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, B. (Univ. of Stockholm, Sweden); Johansson, I.; Lindvall, T.

    1982-01-01

    The air quality in a newly built preschool was investigated in a longitudinal study. Typical air contaminants emanating from building materials were determined, their variation over time (0-18 months) was measured, and the influence of the ventilation system (81%-91% recirculation of return air) on contaminant concentrations was studied. Volatile organic compounds were sampled by adsorption on porous polymer, analysed by a GC/FID system, and identified by MS. A spatial build-up in concentration (ppb or ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ levels) is evident for all the organic compounds, as well as for CO/sub 2/, from the outdoor air, through the ventilation system, and through the rooms to the exhaust air. The longitudinal comparison over time shows that all the organic compounds decline in concentration mainly within the first 6 months of occupancy: 1-buttanol 4-14 times, toluene and pentanal + hexanal 2-4 times, while formaldehyde remained at a constant low level of 90 ppb (110 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/). It is difficult to believe that the problems of poor air quality in 100 preschools in Stockholm are caused by the organic compounds alone unless interactions occur. A preschool building needs to be gassed off during the first 6 months after its construction with no recirculation of return air allowed (outdoor air rate approx 4-5 ach). During at least 1-2 additional years, it is desired that the recirculation rate of return air is restricted, perhaps to 50%.

  14. Techniques for the measurement of the contamination of air; Technique de mesure de la contamination de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This lecture has been given at the International Symposium of Riso 1959. Methods for measuring radioactive content of the atmosphere are described, and main results found at Saclay are given, for the following contaminants: Rn, Tn and their daughter, H-3, C-14, A-41, Kr-85, I-131, and fission products as a whole. (author) [French] Ce texte est celui d'une conference-rapport prononcee au Colloque International de Riso en 1959. On indique les techniques de mesures de la contamination radioactive de l'atmosphere et les principaux resultats obtenus jusqu'ici au CEA pour: Rn et Tn et leurs derives, H-3, C-14, A-41, Kr-85, I-131, et l'ensemble des produits de fission. (auteur)

  15. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Concomitant Contamination of Air and Environmental Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Luis A; Masuda, Eriko; Sfeir, Maroun; Berbel Caban, Ana; Bueno, Maria X; dePascale, Dennise; Spychala, Caressa N; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Doi, Yohei; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout). DESIGN Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms. SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. PATIENTS Consecutive A. baumannii-colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014. METHODS Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii-colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates. RESULTS A total of 25 A. baumannii-colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09). CONCLUSIONS Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:777-781.

  16. Indoor air mycoflora of residential dwellings in Jos metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The quality of air in the environment where one lives or works can have potential effects on human health. There are strong indications that in many parts of the world, our homes, schools and workplaces are heavily contaminated with air-borne molds and other biological contaminants. Objectives: This study ...

  17. Assessment of the bacterial contamination of hand air dryer in washrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh Hussein; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Zayed, M E; Al-Johny, Bassam O; Wainwright, Milton

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out, using standard techniques, to identify and count the bacterial contamination of hand air dryers, used in washrooms. Bacteria were isolated from the air flow, outlet nozzle of warm air dryers in fifteen air dryers used in these washrooms. Bacteria were found to be relatively numerous in the air flows. Bacterially contaminated air was found to be emitted whenever a warm air dryer was running, even when not being used for hand drying. Our investigation shows that Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Bacillus cereus and Brevundimonad diminuta/vesicularis were emitted from all of the dryers sampled, with 95% showing evidence of the presence of the potential pathogen S. haemolyticus. It is concluded that hot air dryers can deposit pathogenic bacteria onto the hands and body of users. Bacteria are distributed into the general environment whenever dryers are running and could be inhaled by users and none-users alike. The results provide an evidence base for the development and enhancement of hygienic hand drying practices.

  18. A device for determining air contamination with radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, I.; Krejcik, S.; Chabera, T.; Vitha, F.

    1990-01-01

    The device consists of a sampling section with a pump, an aerosol filter and a flowmeter, a semiconductor detector, a spectroscopic preamplifier, and an amplifier. The amplifier output is interfaced to the inputs of at least three independent discriminators. The output signals from the discriminators are processed by an evaluating unit. The device is so designed that the effects of external disturbances and of radionuclides other that radon in air are eliminated. The threshold of the first discriminator is determined by the noise conditions of the device. The device works with low voltage solely. (M.D.). 1 fig

  19. Infrequent air contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii of air surrounding known colonized or infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Clare; Harris, Anthony D; Johnson, J Kristie; Bischoff, Werner E; Thom, Kerri A

    2015-07-01

    Using a validated air sampling method we found Acinetobacter baumannii in the air surrounding only 1 of 12 patients known to be colonized or infected with A. baumannii. Patients' closed-circuit ventilator status, frequent air exchanges in patient rooms, and short sampling time may have contributed to this low burden.

  20. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Dai Woon [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung Man; Heo, Gwi Suk [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air.

  1. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tedlar bag/solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) in ambient and workplace air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Lee, Dai Woon; Hwang, Seung Man; Heo, Gwi Suk

    2002-01-01

    SPME techniques have proven to be very useful tools in the analysis of wide VOCs in the air. In this study, we estimated VOCs in ambient and workplace air using a Tedlar ba/SPME/GC/MS system. The calibration curve was set to be linear over the range of 1-30 ppbv. The detection limits ranged from 10 pptv 0.93 ppbv for all VOCs. Reproducibility of TO-14 target gas mixtures by SPME/GC/MS averaged at 8.8 R.S.D (%). Air toxic VOCs (hazardous air pollutants, HAPs) containing a total of forty halohydrocarbons, aromatics, and haloaro-matic carbons could be analyzed with significant accuracy, detection limit and linearity at low ppbv level. Only reactive VOCs with low molecular weight, such as chloromethane, vinylchloride, ethylchloride and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, yielded relatively poor results using this technique. In ambient air samples, ten VOCs were identified and quantified after external calibration. VOC concentration in ambient and workplace air ranged from 0.04 to 1.85 ppbv. The overall process was successfully applied to identify and quantify VOCs in ambient/workplace air

  2. Contamination of hospital compressed air with nitric oxide: unwitting replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, M R; Genc, F; Lee, K H; Delgado, E

    1997-06-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) at levels between 5 and 80 ppm has been used experimentally to treat a variety of conditions. NO also is a common environmental air pollutant in industrial regions. As compressed hospital air is drawn from the local environment, we speculated that it may contain NO contamination, which, if present, would provide unwitting inhaled NO therapy to all subjects respiring this compressed gas. NO levels were measured twice daily from ambient hospital air and compressed gas sources driving positive pressure ventilation from two adjacent hospitals and compared with NO levels reported daily by local Environmental Protection Agency sources. An NO chemiluminescence analyzer (Sievers 270B; Boulder, Colo) sensitive to > or =2 parts per billion was used to measure NO levels in ambient air and compressed gas. NO levels in ambient air and hospital compressed air covaried from day to day, and absolute levels of NO differed between hospitals with the difference never exceeding 1.4 ppm (range, 0 to 1.4 ppm; median, 0.07 ppm). The hospital with the highest usage level of compressed air had the highest levels of NO, which approximated ambient levels of NO. NO levels were lowest on weekends in both hospitals. We also documented inadvertent NO contamination in one hospital occurring over 5 days, which corresponded to welding activity near the intake port for fresh gas. This contamination resulted in system-wide NO levels of 5 to 8 ppm. Hospital compressed air contains highly variable levels of NO that tend to covary with ambient NO levels and to be highest when the rate of usage is high enough to preclude natural degradation of NO in 21% oxygen. Assuming that inhaled NO may alter gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics, and outcome from acute lung injury, the role of unwitting variable NO of hospital compressed air needs to be evaluated.

  3. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  4. Air-Seawater Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Sediment Plume of a Large Contaminated River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Nizzetto, Luca; Ma, Chuanliang; Chen, Yingjun

    2015-05-05

    Gaseous exchange fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the air-water interface of the coastal East China Sea were determined in order to assess whether the contaminated plume of the Yangtze River could be an important regional source of OCPs to the atmosphere. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs in air and water. Air-water exchange was mainly characterized by net volatilization for all measured OCPs. The net gaseous exchange flux ranged 10-240 ng/(m2·day) for γ-HCH, 60-370 ng/(m2·day) for trans-CHL, 97-410 ng/(m2·day) for cis-CHL, and ∼0 (e.g., equilibrium) to 490 ng/(m2·day) for p,p'-DDE. We found that the plume of the large contaminated river can serve as a significant regional secondary atmospheric source of legacy contaminants released in the catchment. In particular, the sediment plume represented the relevant source of DDT compounds (especially p,p'-DDE) sustaining net degassing when clean air masses from the open ocean reached the plume area. In contrast, a mass balance showed that, for HCHs, contaminated river discharge (water and sediment) plumes were capable of sustaining volatilization throughout the year. These results demonstrate the inconsistencies in the fate of HCHs and DDTs in this large estuarine system with declining primary sources.

  5. Numerical Study of Contaminant Effects on Combustion of Hydrogen, Ethane, and Methane in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H. T.; Thomas, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to assess the effects of vitiated air on the chemical kinetics of hydrogen, ethane, and methane combustion with air. A series of calculations in static reacting systems was performed, where the initial temperature was specified and reactions occurred at constant pressure. Three different types of test flow contaminants were considered: NP, H2O, and a combustion of H2O and CO2. These contaminants are present in the test flows of facilities used for hypersonic propulsion testing. The results were computed using a detailed reaction mechanism and are presented in terms of ignition and reaction times. Calculations were made for a wide range of contaminant concentrations, temperatures and pressures. The results indicate a pronounced kinetic effect over a range of temperatures, especially with NO contamination and, to a lesser degree, with H2O contamination. In all cases studied, CO2 remained kinetically inert, but had a thermodynamic effect on results by acting as a third body. The largest effect is observed with combustion using hydrogen fuel, less effect is seen with combustion of ethane, and little effect of contaminants is shown with methane combustion.

  6. Distribution of Exhaled Contaminants and Personal Exposure in a Room using Three Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Adana, M. Ruiz de

    2012-01-01

    The level of exposure to human exhaled contaminants in a room depends not only on the air distribution system but also on people’s different positions, the distance between them, people’s activity level and height, direction of exhalation, and the surrounding temperature and temperature gradient...... between the manikins are changed to study the influence on the level of exposure. The results show that the air exhaled by a manikin flows a longer distance with a higher concentration in case of displacement ventilation than in the other two cases, indicating a significant exposure to the contaminants....... Human exhalation is studied in detail for different distribution systems: displacement and mixing ventilation as well as a system without mechanical ventilation. Two thermal manikins breathing through the mouth are used to simulate the exposure to human exhaled contaminants. The position and distance...

  7. Studies on an efficient method for determining 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the workplace air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: 3,3’-Dimethylbenzidene (DMB is a substance classified into the group of carcinogens. The value of maximum admissible concentration for this substance in the workplace air is not specified in Poland. Bearing in mind that DMB is used in domestic companies there is a need to develop a sensitive method for determining 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the work environment. Material and Methods: The method consists in passing DMB-containing air through sulfuric acid-treated glass fiber filters, washing out the substance settled on the filter, using water and solution of sodium hydroxide, liquid–liquid extraction with toluene, replacing dissolvent with acetonitrile and analyzing the obtained solution. Studies were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. An Agilent Technologies chromatograph, series 1200, with a diode-array detector (DAD and a fluorescence detector (FLD was used in the experiment. In the test, an Ultra C18 column of dimensions: 250×4.6 mm, particle diameter (dp = 5 μm (Restek was applied. Results: The method is linear (r = 0.999 within the investigated working range of concentration 1.08–21.6 μg/ml, which is equivalent to air concentrations 2–40 μg/m3 for a 540 l air sample. The limit of detection (LOD of quantification determination is 5.4 ng/ml and the limit of quantification (LOQ – 16.19 ng/ml. Conclusions: The analytical method described in this paper allows for selective determination of 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the workplace air in the presence of 1,4-phenylenediamine, benzidine, aniline, 3,3’-dimethoxybenzidine, 2-nitrotoluene, 3,3’-dichlorobenzidine and azobenzene. The method is characterized by good precision and good accuracy, it also meets the criteria for procedures involving the measurement of chemical agents, listed in EN 482:2012. Med Pr 2016;67(1:43–50

  8. Contamination of Ambient Air with Acinetobacter baumannii on Consecutive Inpatient Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Luis A; Doi, Yohei; Bonomo, Robert A; De Pascale, Dennise; Viau, Roberto A; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-07-01

    Acinetobacter-positive patients had their ambient air tested for up to 10 consecutive days. The air was Acinetobacter positive for an average of 21% of the days; the rate of contamination was higher among patients colonized in the rectum than in the airways (relative risk [RR], 2.35; P = 0.006). Of the 6 air/clinical isolate pairs available, 4 pairs were closely related according to rep-PCR results. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Effect of Air Stability on the Dispersal of Exhaled Contaminant in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunwen; Gong, Guangcai; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    the manikin, indicating that the person who exhales the contaminant may not be polluted by himself as the protective effect of the thermal boundary layer around the body, especially in stable condition with two concentration zones and clean air drawn from the inlets. However, other persons facing......Experiments are conducted in a full-scale chamber equipped with whole floor and whole ceiling supply or exhaust to form approximately zero and larger temperature gradients corresponding to unstable and stable air conditions. It can be observed that the air with smoke exhaled from a life...

  10. Comparison of direct alpha spectrometry and neutron activation analysis of aerosol filters for determination of workplace thorium air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany); Riedmann, W.; Weinmueller, K. [Strahlenschutz und Isotopentechnik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Direct alpha spectrometry with three different filter types was investigated for the determination of thorium air concentrations at workplaces in the manufacturing process of discharge lamps containing thoriated tungsten electrodes. The method was compared with neutron activation analysis over an activity range of five orders of magnitude. Within the experimental limits of error, both methods were found to be comparable with respect to sensitivity and accuracy. The advantage of direct alpha spectrometry, however, is that it is less laborious than neutron activation analysis and that it supplies information on the degree of radioactive equilibrium of the thorium series, which is important with regard to the estimation of dose. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Quantitative assessment of bio-aerosols contamination in indoor air of University dormitory rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayleeyesus, Samuel Fekadu; Ejeso, Amanuel; Derseh, Fikirte Aklilu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide insight into how students are exposed to indoor bio-aerosols in the dormitory rooms and to figure out the major possible factors that govern the contamination levels. The Bio-aerosols concentration level of indoor air of thirty dormitory rooms of Jimma University was determined by taking 120 samples. Passive air sampling technique; the settle plate method using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed to collect sample twice daily. The range of bio-aerosols contamination detected in the dormitory rooms was 511-9960 CFU/m(3) for bacterial and 531-6568 CFU/m(3) for fungi. Based on the criteria stated by WHO expert group, from the total 120 samples 95 of the samples were above the recommended level. The statistical analysis showed that, occupancy were significantly affected the concentrations of bacteria that were measured in all dormitory rooms at 6:00 am sampling time (p-value=0.000) and also the concentrations of bacteria that were measured in all dormitory rooms were significantly different to each other (p-value=0.013) as of their significance difference in occupancy (p-value=0.000). Moreover, there were a significant different on the contamination level of bacteria at 6:00 am and 7:00 pm sampling time (p=0.015), whereas there is no significant difference for fungi contamination level for two sampling times (p= 0.674). There is excessive bio-aerosols contaminant in indoor air of dormitory rooms of Jimma University and human occupancy produces a marked concentration increase of bacterial contamination levels and most fungi species present into the rooms air of Jimma University dormitory were not human-borne.

  12. The effect of stable bedding materials on dust levels, microbial air contamination and equine respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-Stenzel, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Dorota; Sowińska, Janina; Stopyra, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The choice of bedding material affects the quality of air in a stable and, consequently, the respiratory health of horses and humans. The risk of respiratory problems can be mitigated by improving the quality of air in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions where horses are kept indoors throughout the year. This study examined the impact of three bedding materials: straw (S), peat with shavings (PS), and crushed wood pellets (CWP). The investigated factors were air contamination, including dust contamination and microbial (bacterial and fungal) contamination, and the condition of the equine respiratory tract. The condition of the respiratory tract was evaluated based on the results of arterial blood biochemistry tests and endoscopic evaluations of the upper respiratory tract. Mechanical dust contamination was lowest for PS (1.09mg/m 3 ) and highest for CWP (4.07mg/m 3 ). Bacterial contamination (in CFU - colony forming units) was highest for PS (5.14log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and lowest for CWP (4.81log 10 CFU/m 3 ). Fungal air contamination was lowest for CWP (4.54log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and highest for S (4.82log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and PS (4.88log 10 CFU/m 3 ). An analysis of physiological indicators revealed that all horses were clinically healthy regardless of the type of applied bedding. The type of bedding material did not exert a clear influence on arterial blood biochemistry or the results of endoscopic evaluations of the respiratory tract; however, the use of alternative for straw bedding materials improved endoscopy results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The circulating air barrier: Effective prevention of liquid contaminant movement through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.; Towers, T.; Johnson, H.; Overbey, W.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental cleanup task facing the United States Department of Energy (DOE) presents enormous technical, planning and institutional challenges, including the need to develop new technologies that are faster, better, safer, and cheaper, in order to expedite site cleanup. Characterization of contaminated sediments resulting from past tank leaks, continued safe operations of the tanks, total confinement of leaking materials, secondary waste minimization, and final closure of the single shell tanks are five of the many facets of the storage tank issue at Hanford and elsewhere in the nation. Each of these issues are considered in the development of the Circulating Air Barrier (CAB). The Circulating Air Barrier system is a desiccant-type barrier designed to prevent the movement of liquid contaminants toward the groundwater by using an air circulation and processing system to lower the water saturation in a targeted subsurface zone below the saturation level required for liquid flow. Vertical or horizontal wells can be installed to create a matrix of air injection and production so that air flows across the target barrier zone to the production wells. In the event of a tank leak, the system serves as a tool for early detection and provides a means to withdraw volatile contaminants to the surface for treatment. Demonstration and full-scale CAB systems have been designed for the Hanford Site. This includes chemical and geological characterization; model development, sensitivity analysis and performance optimization; subsurface configuration and surface processing equipment design; and development of a test program with associated cost estimates

  14. Ozone production by a dc corona discharge in air contaminated by n-heptane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarek, S

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial purposes of ozone such as elimination of odours, harmful bacteria and mildew can be used for transportation of food, fruits and vegetables with the aim to extend their storage life. To date the main technique used for this purpose in the transportation of these commodities, e.g. by trucks, was cooling. Here a combination of cooling together with the supply of ozone into containers with these commodities is considered. For these purposes we studied the effect of air contamination by n-heptane (part of automotive fuels) and humidity on ozone production by a dc hollow needle to mesh corona discharge. We found that, for both polarities of the needle electrode, addition of n-heptane to air (a) decreases ozone production; (b) causes discharge poisoning to occur at lower current than for air; (c) does not substantially influence the current for which the ozone production reaches the maximum. Finally the maximum ozone production for the discharge in air occurs for the same current as the maximum ozone production for the discharge contaminated by n-heptane. We also found that humidity decreases ozone production from air contaminated by n-heptane irrespective of the polarity of the coronating needle electrode. This dependence is stronger for the discharge with the needle biased positively

  15. Measurement of air contamination in different wards of public sector hospital, Sukkur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Badaruddin AllahDino; Bhutto, Gul Hassan; Rizvi, Wajid Hussain

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess the index of bacterial contamination in different wards of the Public Sector Hospital of Sukkur (Teaching) Pakistan; whether or not the air contamination was statistically different from the acceptable level using active and passive sampling. In addition to this main hypothesis, other investigations included: occurrence of the most common bacteria, whether or not the bacterial contamination in the wards was a persistent problem and identification of the effective antibiotics against the indentified bacteria. The evidence sought based on the One Sample T test suggests that there is a (statistically) significant difference between the observed (higher) than the acceptance level (pcontamination problem was persistent as there was no significant difference among observed contamination of all three visits at (p>0.01) and the result of antibiotic susceptibility test highlights sensitivity and resistance level of antibiotics for the indentified bacteria.

  16. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, Ai; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, Azf; Nizar, Am; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, Aa; Yunos, Ma Syafiq; Anita, Ar; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, Ms; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, Mn Mohamad; Azizan, Hs; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, Ft

    2012-01-01

    To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ

  17. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  18. Identifying risk sources of air contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzlik, Jiri; Bozek, Frantisek; Pawelczyk, Adam; Licbinsky, Roman; Naplavova, Magdalena; Pondelicek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This article is directed to determining concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are sorbed to solid particles in the air. Pollution sources were identified on the basis of the ratio of benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiPe) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Because various important information is lost by determining the simple ratio of concentrations, least squares linear regression (classic ordinary least squares regression), reduced major axis, orthogonal regression, and Kendall-Theil robust diagnostics were utilized for identification. Statistical evaluation using all aforementioned methods demonstrated different ratios of the monitored PAHs in the intervals examined during warmer and colder periods. Analogous outputs were provided by comparing gradients of the emission factors acquired from the measured concentrations of BghiPe and BaP in motor vehicle exhaust gases. Based on these outputs, it was possible plausibly to state that the influence of burning organic fuels in heating stoves is prevalent in colder periods whereas in warmer periods transport was the exclusive source because other sources of PAH emissions were not found in the examined locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sampling strategies for the analysis of reactive low-molecular weight compounds in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneken, H.

    2006-01-01

    Within this thesis, new sampling and analysis strategies for the determination of airborne workplace contaminants have been developed. Special focus has been directed towards the development of air sampling methods that involve diffusive sampling. In an introductory overview, the current

  20. Forced-air warming: a source of airborne contamination in the operating room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert; Leaper, David

    2009-10-10

    Forced-air-warming (FAW) is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room.We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25) in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower's internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17) and rinsing (n=9) techniques.Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 µm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 µm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers.The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 µm) that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site.

  1. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mitigation of trichloroethylene contaminated air streams through biofiltration: a pilot-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, L.W.; Gamble, J.R.; Boles, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of abundant usage and improper disposal practices, trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most prevalent groundwater contaminants. Traditional cleanup methods of aquifers contaminated with TCE include pumping the water to the surface and treating with stripper technology, soil vapor extraction, and air sparging. As a result of each of these mitigation schemes, TCE is transferred from the aqueous to the gas phase. As regulations associated with air emission tighten, development of technologies both technically feasible and cost effective for remediating TCE laden gas streams becomes imperative. This project demonstrated the use of biofiltration technology to mitigate TCE contaminated air streams. A pilot-scale biofilter system was designed, constructed, and subsequently installed at the Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), Anniston, AL. The system was inoculated with a propane-oxidizing microbial consortium that had previously been shown to degrade TCE as well as other short-chained chlorinated aliphatics and a variety of one-and two-ring aromatic compounds. Critical process variables were identified and their effects on system performance analyzed. Results indicated that the process scheme used to introduce propane into the biofiltration system had a significant impact on the observed TCE removal efficiency. The inlet contaminant concentration as well as the loading rate also had an impact on observed TCE degradation rates. Results suggest that biofilter performance and economics are generally improved by manipulating a specific waste stream so as to increase the TCE concentration and decrease the volumetric flow rate of the contaminated air fed to the biofilter. Through manipulation of process variables, including the empty bed contact time, TCE degradation efficiencies greater than 99.9 percent were sustained. No microbial inhibition was observed at inlet TCE concentrations as high as 87 parts per million on a volume basis (ppmv). (author)

  3. Performance of personalized ventilation in a room with an underfloor air distribution system: transport of contaminants between occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    the workplaces has not been studied in detail. This paper presents a study on the performance of a personalized ventilation system installed in a full-scale test room with an underfloor air distribution system. Transport of human-produced airborne pollutants (in real life they can be infectious agents) between......Studies have documented that personalized ventilation, which provides clean air at each office workplace, is able to improve substantially the quality of air inhaled by occupants. However, the interaction between the airflow generated by personalized ventilation and the airflow pattern outside...... two occupants was examined using a tracer-gas. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants. The results show that the tested combination of personalized and underfloor ventilation was not able to decrease concentration of the human-produced airborne pollutants in air inhaled...

  4. NAA of ion exchanged sodium polyacrylate for monitoring air quality in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigot, W.L.; Cutie, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    Sodium polyacrylate is a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) which is widely used in the manufacturing of disposable diapers. Workplace exposure to respirable dust produced from the handling of these polymers is becoming more of a concern as more data relating occupational exposures to health effects are becoming available. An approach that utilizes the fundamental ion exchange properties of the polymer combined with the sensitivity of instrumental neutron activation analysis has been developed which eliminates interferences from sodium species that are ubiquitous to manufacturing facilities. The technique involves exchanging the sodium that is associated with the polymer with europium and analyzing the exchanged polymer by neutron activation analysis. The technique is simple to run, provides excellent sensitivity and is specific to sodium polyacrylate. (author)

  5. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirvioe, Sari; Savolainen, Kai, E-mail: sari.sirvio@ttl.fi [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-06

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  6. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-07-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  7. NANODEVICE: Novel Concepts, Methods, and Technologies for the Production of Portable, Easy-to-use Devices for the Measurement and Analysis of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirvioe, Sari; Savolainen, Kai

    2011-01-01

    NANODEVICE is a research project funded by the European Commission in the context of the 7th Framework Programme. The duration is 48 months starting 1st of April 2009. Due to their unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are now used for a myriad of novel applications, and have a great economic and technological importance. However, some of these properties, especially their surface reactivity, have raised health concerns due to their potential health effects. There is currently a shortage of field-worthy, cost-effective ways - especially in real time - for reliable assessment of exposure levels to ENP in workplace air. NANODEVICE will provide new information on the physico-chemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) and information about their toxicology. The main emphasis of the project is in the development of novel measuring devices to assess the exposure to ENP's from workplace air. The purpose of the project is also to promote the safe use of ENP through guidance, standards and education, implementing of safety objectives in ENP production and handling, and promotion of safety related collaborations through an international nanosafety forum. The main project goal is to develop innovative concepts and reliable methods for characterizing ENP in workplace air with novel, portable and easy-to-use devices suitable for workplaces.

  8. Environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, A; Verani, M; Lombardi, R; Casini, B; Privitera, G

    2011-03-01

    The presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. Direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. The aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis C virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with measurements of total bacterial count and haemoglobin presence. In total, 114 surface and 62 air samples were collected. Bacterial contamination was very low (air was 282 cfu/m(3). Overall, 19 (16.7%) surface samples tested positive for viral nucleic acids: one for norovirus, one for human adenovirus and 17 (14.9%) for torque teno virus (TTV). Only this latter virus was directly detected in 10 air samples (16.1%). Haemoglobin was found on two surfaces. No relationship was found between viral, biochemical or bacterial indicators. The data obtained confirm the difficulty of assessing viral contamination using bacterial indicators. The frequent detection of TTV suggests its possible use as an indicator for general viral contamination of the environment. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Petrol contaminated groundwater treatment with air-stripper in Balassagyarmat, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Peter; Bernath, Balazs

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater is a common environmental problem in Hungary. Leakage of underground storage tanks, pipe break or illegal tapping as well as lorry accidents can be mentioned as main reasons. MEGATERRA Ltd. elaborated, adopted and tested several groundwater clean-up methods. These methods are based on detailed survey and investigation, sampling and analysis, delineation of contaminated groundwater, risk assessment, establishment of monitoring wells, pumping tests and remediation action plan. One of these methods was implemented by MEGATERRA Ltd. in Balassagyarmat, Hungary. Contamination source was a 10 m 3 vol. simple wall underground fuel-storage tank, which had been emptied. When the remediation started in April 1998, the petrol had already been accumulated on the ground water table forming a 5-7 m wide and 10-15 m long plume being expanded to SSE-NNW direction. The area of the dissolved hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater-body was 1 000 m 2 and its concentration reached up to 30-40 mg/l TPH. The free-phase hydrocarbon layer was 10 cm thick. For the remediation of contaminated groundwater MEGATERRA Ltd. applied pump and treat method, namely groundwater pumping using extraction well, skimming of free-phase hydrocarbon, stripping of the contaminated ground water in air-stripper tower and draining of the treated groundwater into a drainage ditch. In the centre of the plume we established an extraction well with 300 mm diameter in a 500 mm borehole. Peristaltic skimmer pump was used inside the extraction well to remove the free phase petrol from the ground water surface.Because of the intense volatility of the pollutant we applied aeration (stripping) technology. The extracted contaminated groundwater was cleaned in air-stripper equipment being able to eliminate efficiently the volatile pollutants from the water. The aeration tower is a compact cylindrical shaped column with 650 mm in diameter. Its height depends on the pollutant's type The

  10. Radiation risks to human health during air pollution from wildfires in contaminated zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvornik, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the investigation of radiation hazard of forest fires in the radioactive contaminated areas are presented in the article. Airborne concentration of Cs 137 produced by the combustion of forest fuel materials with different contamination density can exceed the permissible activity levels of Cs 137 in air. The emission containing radionuclides deposited on the fine aerosol fractions is particularly dangerous. Inhalation of radionuclides can generate additional internal doses both for fire-fighters, near the source of ignition, and for citizens, at a distance from the source. (authors)

  11. Traffic flow and microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a major teaching hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, M T; Bediako-Bowan, A; Andersen, L P; Opintan, J A; Labi, A-K; Kurtzhals, J A L; Bjerrum, S

    2018-07-01

    Current literature examining the relationship between door-opening rate, number of people present, and microbial air contamination in the operating room is limited. Studies are especially needed from low- and middle-income countries, where the risk of surgical site infections is high. To assess microbial air contamination in operating rooms at a Ghanaian teaching hospital and the association with door-openings and number of people present. Moreover, we aimed to document reasons for door-opening. We conducted active air-sampling using an MAS 100 ® portable impactor during 124 clean or clean-contaminated elective surgical procedures. The number of people present, door-opening rate and the reasons for each door-opening were recorded by direct observation using pretested structured observation forms. During surgery, the mean number of colony-forming units (cfu) was 328 cfu/m 3 air, and 429 (84%) of 510 samples exceeded a recommended level of 180 cfu/m 3 . Of 6717 door-openings recorded, 77% were considered unnecessary. Levels of cfu/m 3 were strongly correlated with the number of people present (P = 0.001) and with the number of door-openings/h (P = 0.02). In empty operating rooms, the mean cfu count was 39 cfu/m 3 after 1 h of uninterrupted ventilation and 52 (51%) of 102 samples exceeded a recommended level of 35 cfu/m 3 . The study revealed high values of intraoperative airborne cfu exceeding recommended levels. Minimizing the number of door-openings and people present during surgery could be an effective strategy to reduce microbial air contamination in low- and middle-income settings. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0 2 ) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations

  13. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  14. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  15. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  17. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  18. Microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination in ambulances during patient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Pipitsangjan, Sirikun

    2015-03-01

    We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram's stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m(3) and 522±581cfu/m(3), respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m(3) and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m(3). Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm(2) and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm(2), respectively (pair samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal) in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs. Additionally, bacterial and fungal counts in ambulance air showed a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and allocated areas. Further studies should be conducted to determine the optimal intervention to reduce

  19. Traffic in the operating room: a review of factors influencing air flow and surgical wound contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Marian; Byers, Karin

    2013-06-01

    Surgical wound contamination leading to surgical site infection can result from disruption of the intended airflow in the operating room (OR). When personnel enter and exit the OR, or create unnecessary movement and traffic during the procedure, the intended airflow in the vicinity of the open wound becomes disrupted and does not adequately remove airborne contaminants from the sterile field. An increase in the bacterial counts of airborne microorganisms is noted during increased activity levels within the OR. Researchers have studied OR traffic and door openings as a determinant of air contamination. During a surgical procedure the door to the operating room may be open as long as 20 minutes out of each surgical hour during critical procedures involving implants. Interventions into limiting excessive movement and traffic in the OR may lead to reductions in surgical site infections in select populations.

  20. DFT Study On Effects of CO2 Contamination in Non-Aqueous Li-Air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Vegge, Tejs

    2013-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) contamination at the cathode of rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries, where the insulating material Lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is the main discharge product. The Li2O2 growth mechanism and overpotentials are investig...... and result in an increased battery capacity. However, CO2 contamination on the Li2O2 surface confirms an asymmetric increase in the overpotentials; particularly the charging overvoltage exhibits sustantial increase, which would reduce the efficiency of the Li-air battery.......Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) contamination at the cathode of rechargeable non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries, where the insulating material Lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is the main discharge product. The Li2O2 growth mechanism and overpotentials...

  1. Elements of a unified prognostic model for secondary air contamination by resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnus, F.; Garger, E.; Gordeev, S.; Hollaender, W.; Kashparov, V.; Martinez-Serrano, J.; Mironov, V.; Nicholson, K.; Tschiersch, J.; Vintersved, I.

    1996-01-01

    Based on results of several joint experimental campaigns and an extensive literature survey, a prognostic model was constructed capable of predicting airborne activity concentrations and size distributions as well as soil surface activity concentrations as a function of time and meteorological conditions. Example scenario calculations show that agricultural practices are of lesser importance to secondary air contamination than dust storms immediately after primary deposition and forest fires

  2. [Investigation of microbial contamination of the air and equipment of a biological waste water purification station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikbaeva, L A; Figurovskiĭ, A P; Vasil'ev, O D; Ermolaev-Makovskiĭ, M A; Merkur'eva, M A

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a study of ambient air microbiological pollution in the working premises and equipment surfaces in the main shops of the biological waste water purification station of a cardboard-polygraphic plant. The findings suggest that there is high microbial contamination of the working environment, which should be born in mind on developing measures to optimize working conditions and on studying morbidity rates among the workers.

  3. Microbial Air Contamination in Indoor and Outdoor Environment of Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring a good air quality in pig farms is important for the health of animals and human workers. The aim of this study was the assessment of the microbiological quality of the air inside the pig houses and outside of these. The study was accomplished in two pig-fattening farms in Cluj County. The microbiological air quality was assessed in the cold and warm season, by determination of the total counts of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The bacterial and fungal counts varied in the air of the investigated farms. In relation to the season the mean counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher (P 0.05 were found between the values of the parameters determined from the indoor air and those obtained outside, from a distance of 5 m from the pig houses. The numbers of the bacteria and fungi in the outdoor air lowered as the distance from the farms increased, the differences being significant at 25 and 50 m (P < 0.05. The results of the study show a high bacterial contamination of the indoor and outdoor air of the pig farms.

  4. [Biological contamination in office buildings related to ventilation/air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bródka, Karolina; Sowiak, Małgorzata; Kozajda, Anna; Cyprowski, Marcin; Irena, Szadkowska-Stańczyk

    2012-01-01

    Indoor air is contaminated with microorganisms coming from both the atmospheric air and sources present in premises. The aim of this study was to analyze the concentrations of biological agents in office buildings, dependending on ventilation/air conditioning system and season. The study covered office buildings (different in the system of ventila-tion/air conditioning). Air samples for assessing the levels of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, were taken at the selected stationary points of each building during summer and winter. The air was sampled for 6 h, using portable sets consisting of the GilAir 5 pump and the head filled with a filter of fiber glass. The samples for the presence of airborne bacteria and fungi were collected twice during the day using the impaction method. Average concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in office premises were 0.09 mg/m3, 6.00 x 10(2) cfu/m3, 4.59 x 10(1) cfu/m3, 0.42 ng/m3 and 3.91 ng/m3, respectively. Higher concentrations of the investigated agents were found in summer. In premises with air conditioning concentrations of airborne fungi, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans and inhalable dust were significantly lower in winter. In summer the trend was reverse except for (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Concentrations of biological agents were affected by the season and the presence of air conditioning. Concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, observed inside the office buildings, were significantly higher in summer than in winter. The presence of the air conditioning system modified in various ways the levels of biological agents. Its influence was greater on the concentration of fungi and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans than on that of bacteria and endotoxins.

  5. Identifying Key Workplace Stressors Affecting Twentieth Air Force: Analyses Conducted from December 2012 Through February 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    24-hour basis include nursing , air traffic control, manufacturing, police service, and fire protection. Many studies have shown that evening, night...of occupational injuries for a variety of jobs, including construction workers, nurses , miners, truck drivers, firefighters, and nuclear power plant...lish a strict schedule of AFS-specific focus group times in advance. We could not reschedule if the times proved inconvenient for participants

  6. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  7. Calculation of conversion coefficients using Chinese adult reference phantoms for air submersion and ground contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Bo; Liu, Huan; Ren, Li; Li, Junli

    2017-03-21

    The effective and organ equivalent dose coefficients have been widely used to provide assessment of doses received by adult members of the public and by workers exposed to environmental radiation from nuclear facilities under normal or accidental situations. Advancements in phantom types, weighting factors, decay data, etc, have led to the publication of newer results in this regard. This paper presents a new set of conversion coefficients for air submersion and ground contamination (with the use of Geant4) for photons from 15 keV to 10 MeV using the Chinese and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adult reference male and female phantoms. The radiation fields, except for energy spectrum at low energies, were validated by the data obtained from the Monte Carlo code YURI. The effective dose coefficients of monoenergetic photons, obtained for the ICRP adult reference phantoms, agree well with recently published data for air submersion and ground contamination with a plane source at a depth of 0.5 g cm -2 in soil, but an average difference of 36.5% is observed for ground surface contamination with the abovementioned radiation field. The average differences in organ equivalent dose coefficients between the Chinese and the ICRP adult reference phantoms are within 6% for most organs, but noticeable differences of up to 70% or even higher are found at photon energies below 30 keV under air submersion. The effective dose coefficients obtained with the Chinese adult reference phantoms are greater than those of the ICRP adult reference phantoms above 30 keV and 0.5 MeV for ground contamination and air submersion, respectively; the average differences from the Chinese adult reference phantoms are about 3.6% and 0.4% in the whole energy range with maximum differences of 31.8% and 27.6% at 15 keV for air submersion and ground contamination respectively. These differences are attributed to anatomical discrepancies in overlying tissue mass of an

  8. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  9. Modeling emissions and dispersion of contaminants from cleanup activities at a mixed waste site to estimate air impacts and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.; Menlove, S.

    1993-09-01

    The transport and dispersion of contaminants via the air pathway is a major concern during cleanup of contaminated sites. Impacts to air quality and human health during cleanup were evaluated for the Weldon Spring site by using site-specific information for source areas, activities, and receptor locations. In order to ensure protection of human health and the environment, results are being used to focus on those cleanup activities for which release controls should be emphasized

  10. Use of a horizontal air-dispersion system to enhance biodegradation of diesel fuel contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.N.; Nickerson, D.A.; Guest, P.R.; Portele, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    A horizontal air-dispersion system was designed and installed to enhance the natural biodegradation of residual diesel fuel contaminated soils at an underground storage tank (UST) facility in Seattle, Washington. This system was designed to operate in conjunction with an existing free-product recovery system which exposes more heavily contaminated soils at the capillary fringe to injected air. Results of a pilot study conducted at the facility indicate that an initial biodegradation rate of 2,200 mg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kg of soil per year will be achieved, making in-situ biodegradation a feasible remedial alternative for contaminated site soils. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon vapor concentrations have been monitored since full-scale startup in September 1992, using a series of vapor monitoring points (VMPs) installed in the vicinity of the aerated beds and around the perimeter of the facility. Recent monitoring data indicate that the system is capable of aerating soils at distances greater than 80 feet from the aerated beds. Oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production measured during post-startup respiration tests indicate microbial activity has increased as a result of seven months of full-scale system operation

  11. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    workplace setting.Design: A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia.Method: A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach.Result: Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint, which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort.Conclusion: This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a categorizing method for further IAQ investigations and complaints procedures.Keywords: office, indoor environment quality, indoor air quality assessor, Industry Code of Practice on

  12. The importance of determining the air exchange rate in flats and buildings for calculations of the averted indoor inhalation doses arising from contaminated outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, Karel; Thomas, J.; Bulanek, B.; Lenk, J.; Marikova, S.

    2015-01-01

    The indoor-outdoor air exchange rate is an important parameter when refining estimates of the averted inhaled doses to population in houses and buildings after an emergency event resulting in contamination of outdoor air with a radioactive material. The air exchange rates measured in 70 occupied houses and in 20 unoccupied houses using N 2 O as the tracer gas are presented, and the results of modelling the averted doses in the residential buildings for both gaseous and aerosol outdoor contaminants are demonstrated. (orig.)

  13. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Simon J; Beggs, Clive B; Smith, Caroline F; Kerr, Kevin G; Noakes, Catherine J; Sleigh, P Andrew

    2010-04-12

    presence of the ionizer. The findings of the study suggest that the action of negative air ionizers significantly alters the electrostatic landscape of the clinical environment, and that this has the potential to cause any Acinetobacter-bearing particles in the air to be strongly repelled from some plastic surfaces and attracted to others. In so doing, this may prevent critical items of equipment from becoming contaminated with the bacterium.

  14. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kevin G

    2010-04-01

    acrylonitrile, did however develop a positive charge in the presence of the ionizer. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that the action of negative air ionizers significantly alters the electrostatic landscape of the clinical environment, and that this has the potential to cause any Acinetobacter-bearing particles in the air to be strongly repelled from some plastic surfaces and attracted to others. In so doing, this may prevent critical items of equipment from becoming contaminated with the bacterium.

  15. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Aromaa, Mikko; Koponen, Ismo K.; Fransman, Wouter; Jensen, Keld A.; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10 6 cm −3 . During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO 2 or Cu x O y nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10 6 to 40 × 10 6 cm −3 , and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm −3 . However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm −3 . The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10 6 , which is more than 40 × 10 3 times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly

  16. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Antti J., E-mail: jok@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Aromaa, Mikko [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Fransman, Wouter [TNO (Netherlands); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mäkelä, Jyrki M. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Hämeri, Kaarle J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO{sub 2} or Cu{sub x}O{sub y} nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 40 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}, and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm{sup −3}. However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm{sup −3}. The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10{sup 6}, which is more than 40 × 10{sup 3} times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly.

  17. Possible negative consequences of the secondary air contamination on the quality of accumulated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova Ambrozova, J.; Hubackova, J.; Cihakova, I.

    2008-01-01

    At the present time when requirements on quality of drinking water are increased, it is necessary not only to put stress on technological processes used in its preparation, but also there is a need to secure that water is distributed even to the consumer in that quality as it leaves a water station. Through a systematic surveillance of water-supply companies within the framework of biological audits it has been found out that the important points in a distribution network where the quality of water is deteriorated are the water reservoirs. Deterioration in quality of accumulated water is jointly caused by elements of technological, constructional and biological nature. The secondary air contamination has a substantial influence on the creation of bio-films on walls and the presence of microorganisms in accumulated drinking water. To this end, a water twin-compartment reservoir has been systematically evaluated during operation, cleaning meantime and before cleaning. The results of hydro-biological and microbiological analysis have confirmed the input of particles and microorganisms through air, their presence in surface level of accumulated water as well as scrapings from accumulation walls. The surveillance considered also the situation without a fixed filter unit, without door lining etc. On fixing a tested filter system into ventilation duct the risk of air contamination was lowered to minimum. (authors)

  18. Data Assimilation in Air Contaminant Dispersion Using a Particle Filter and Expectation-Maximization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiao Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of air contaminant dispersion is essential to air quality monitoring and the emergency management of contaminant gas leakage incidents in chemical industry parks. Conventional atmospheric dispersion models can seldom give accurate predictions due to inaccurate input parameters. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of dispersion models, two data assimilation methods (i.e., the typical particle filter & the combination of a particle filter and expectation-maximization algorithm are proposed to assimilate the virtual Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV observations with measurement error into the atmospheric dispersion model. Two emission cases with different dimensions of state parameters are considered. To test the performances of the proposed methods, two numerical experiments corresponding to the two emission cases are designed and implemented. The results show that the particle filter can effectively estimate the model parameters and improve the accuracy of model predictions when the dimension of state parameters is relatively low. In contrast, when the dimension of state parameters becomes higher, the method of particle filter combining the expectation-maximization algorithm performs better in terms of the parameter estimation accuracy. Therefore, the proposed data assimilation methods are able to effectively support air quality monitoring and emergency management in chemical industry parks.

  19. Detection of the contamination of air by tritiated water vapour around the reactor EL3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouleux, P.; Ardellier, A.; Valero, S.

    1968-01-01

    The authors describe the apparatus used for the detection of the tritiated water vapour contamination in the air around the reactor EL 3. The apparatus consists of two air-circulation ionisation chambers; the air in one of these is dried by passage through a silica-gel column. By carrying out a differential measurement of the ionization currents, it is possible to measure the tritiated water vapour concentration. A theoretical study of the response of the chambers is carried out for two types of emission of the tritiated water vapour: continuous, or in bursts. The experimental work comprises: calibration in the measurement range employed; study of the selectivity for other active gases; study of typical accidents; the interpretation of the results in the case of discontinuous emission, taking into account the desorption from the walls of the measurement chamber, a phenomenon which is observed during the emptying process. The authors give finally actual examples of how to use the results. The apparatus built makes it possible to detect, in less than ten minutes, contamination by tritiated water vapour in the presence of other active gases, in a measurement range of between 3 and 2200 MPC, and with an accuracy of about 25 per cent. A transposition to calculations of the risk to workers should be made with the utmost caution; an envelope of this risk can be drawn up more or less accurately depending on particular cases. (authors) [fr

  20. Three-dimensional modeling, estimation, and fault diagnosis of spacecraft air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, A P; Ramirez, W F

    1998-01-01

    A description is given of the design and implementation of a method to track the presence of air contaminants aboard a spacecraft using an accurate physical model and of a procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. Because our objective is to monitor the contaminants in real time, we make use of a state estimation procedure that filters measurements from a sensor system and arrives at an optimal estimate of the state of the system. The model essentially consists of a convection-diffusion equation in three dimensions, solved implicitly using the principle of operator splitting, and uses a flowfield obtained by the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the cabin geometry, assuming steady-state conditions. A novel implicit Kalman filter has been used for fault detection, a procedure that is an efficient way to track the state of the system and that uses the sparse nature of the state transition matrices.

  1. Forced-air warming design: evaluation of intake filtration, internal microbial buildup, and airborne-contamination emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mike; Kimberger, Oliver; McGovern, Paul D; Albrecht, Mark C

    2013-08-01

    Forced-air warming devices are effective for the prevention of surgical hypothermia. However, these devices intake nonsterile floor-level air, and it is unknown whether they have adequate filtration measures to prevent the internal buildup or emission of microbial contaminants. We rated the intake filtration efficiency of a popular current-generation forced-air warming device (Bair Hugger model 750, Arizant Healthcare) using a monodisperse sodium chloride aerosol in the laboratory. We further sampled 23 forced-air warming devices (same model) in daily hospital use for internal microbial buildup and airborne-contamination emissions via swabbing and particle counting. Laboratory testing found the intake filter to be 63.8% efficient. Swabbing detected microorganisms within 100% of the forced-air warming blowers sampled, with isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, mold, and micrococci identified. Particle counting showed 96% of forced-air warming blowers to be emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contaminants out of the hose end. These findings highlight the need for upgraded intake filtration, preferably high-efficiency particulate air filtration (99.97% efficient), on current-generation forced-air warming devices to reduce contamination buildup and emission risks.

  2. Development of a room air monitor system and workplace transuranic aerosol measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.; Balmer, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    A room air monitor under development at Rocky Flats will detect transuranic aerosols with improved sample collection and alpha particle counting efficiencies. The new instrument will be integrated into present building sampling systems replacing older commercial units now in service. The collection filter medium has been designed to simplify handling and identification procedures. Operating parameters for the system include a sampling rate of 50 liters per minute, with a counting geometry of at least twenty percent. Projected sensitivity is about 0.3 MPC-day. Estimated cost is $2,000.00 for a sampling head with a 1700mm 2 are ion-impacted detector, filter holder and package. This cost includes the electronics counting system with local alarms and battery backup. The sampling head will be produced in quantity as an aluminum casting. A front panel liquid crystal display scalar will indicate the net count obtained from long-lived emitters in the presence of radon interference. The unit includes the option of plug-in high-power audio and visual alarm outputs. A working prototype will be available for inspection and evaluation at the October Workshop. 6 figures, 1 table

  3. Potential contamination of shipboard air samples by diffusive emissions of PCBs and other organic pollutants: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jaward, Foday M; Durham, Louise; Barber, Jonathan L; Ockenden, Wendy; Jones, Kevin C; Bruhn, Regina; Lakaschus, Soenke; Dachs, Jordi; Booij, Kees

    2004-07-15

    Air samples were taken onboard the RRS Bransfield on an Atlantic cruise from the United Kingdom to Halley, Antarctica, from October to December 1998, with the aim of establishing PCB oceanic background air concentrations and assessing their latitudinal distribution. Great care was taken to minimize pre- and post-collection contamination of the samples, which was validated through stringent QA/QC procedures. However, there is evidence that onboard contamination of the air samples occurred,following insidious, diffusive emissions on the ship. Other data (for PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs)) and examples of shipboard contamination are presented. The implications of these findings for past and future studies of global POPs distribution are discussed. Recommendations are made to help critically appraise and minimize the problems of insidious/diffusive shipboard contamination.

  4. [Disinfectants and main sanitary and preventive measures for protection of ventilation and air-conditioning systems from Legionella contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, V N; Golov, E A; Khramov, M V; Diatlov, I A

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to selection and assessment of disinfecting preparations for prevention of contamination by Legionella. Using system of criteria for quality assessment of disinfectants, seven newdomestic ones belonging to quaternary ammonium compounds class or to oxygen-containing preparations and designed for disinfecting of air-conditioning and ventilation systems were selected. Antibacterial and disinfecting activities of working solutions of disinfectants were tested in laboratory on the test-surfaces and test-objects of premises' air-conditioning and ventilation systems contaminated with Legionella. High antimicrobial and disinfecting activity of new preparations "Dezactiv-M", "ExtraDez", "Emital-Garant", "Aquasept Plus", "Samarovka", "Freesept", and "Ecobreeze Oxy" during their exposure on objects and materials contaminated with Legionella was shown. Main sanitary and preventive measures for defending of air-conditioning and ventilation systems from contamination by Legionella species were presented.

  5. Molecular-level removal of proteinaceous contamination from model surfaces and biomedical device materials by air plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, K K; Kumar, S; Bremmell, K E; Griesser, H J

    2010-11-01

    Established methods for cleaning and sterilising biomedical devices may achieve removal of bioburden only at the macroscopic level while leaving behind molecular levels of contamination (mainly proteinaceous). This is of particular concern if the residue might contain prions. We investigated at the molecular level the removal of model and real-life proteinaceous contamination from model and practical surfaces by air plasma (ionised air) treatment. The surface-sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to assess the removal of proteinaceous contamination, with the nitrogen (N1s) photoelectron signal as its marker. Model proteinaceous contamination (bovine serum albumin) adsorbed on to a model surface (silicon wafer) and the residual proteinaceous contamination resulting from incubating surgical stainless steel (a practical biomaterial) in whole human blood exhibited strong N1s signals [16.8 and 18.5 atomic percent (at.%), respectively] after thorough washing. After 5min air plasma treatment, XPS detected no nitrogen on the sample surfaces, indicating complete removal of proteinaceous contamination, down to the estimated XPS detection limit 10ng/cm(2). Applying the same plasma treatment, the 7.7at.% nitrogen observed on a clinically cleaned dental bur was reduced to a level reflective of new, as-received burs. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy also indicated complete molecular-level removal of the proteinaceous contamination upon air plasma treatment. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of air plasma treatment for removing proteinaceous contamination from both model and practical surfaces and offers a method for ensuring that no molecular residual contamination such as prions is transferred upon re-use of surgical and dental instruments. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  7. Use of dust fall filters as passive samplers for metal concentrations in air for communities near contaminated mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, P I; Sugeng, A J; Kelly, M D; Lothrop, N; Klimecki, W; Wilkinson, S T; Loh, M

    2014-05-01

    Mine tailings are a source of metal exposures in many rural communities. Multiple air samples are necessary to assess the extent of exposures and factors contributing to these exposures. However, air sampling equipment is costly and requires trained personnel to obtain measurements, limiting the number of samples that can be collected. Simple, low-cost methods are needed to allow for increased sample collection. The objective of our study was to assess if dust fall filters can serve as passive air samplers and be used to characterize potential exposures in a community near contaminated mine tailings. We placed filters in cylinders, concurrently with active indoor air samplers, in 10 occupied homes. We calculated an estimated flow rate by dividing the mass on each dust fall filter by the bulk air concentration and the sampling duration. The mean estimated flow rate for dust fall filters was significantly different during sampling periods with precipitation. The estimated flow rate was used to estimate metal concentration in the air of these homes, as well as in 31 additional homes in another rural community impacted by contaminated mine tailings. The estimated air concentrations had a significant linear association with the measured air concentrations for beryllium, manganese and arsenic (p passive air sampler is a simple low-cost method to assess potential exposures near contaminated mining sites.

  8. In situ treatment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater by air sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsting, Joseph H; McBean, Edward A

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a major problem in some areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh where it is caused by reducing conditions in the aquifer. In situ treatment, if it can be proven as operationally feasible, has the potential to capture some advantages over other treatment methods by being fairly simple, not using chemicals, and not necessitating disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. In this study, the potential for in situ treatment by injection of compressed air directly into the aquifer (i.e. air sparging) is assessed. An experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate conditions of arsenic-rich groundwater under anaerobic conditions, and in situ treatment by air sparging was employed. Arsenic (up to 200 μg/L) was removed to a maximum of 79% (at a local point in the apparatus) using a solution with dissolved iron and arsenic only. A static "jar" test revealed arsenic removal by co-precipitation with iron at a molar ratio of approximately 2 (iron/arsenic). This is encouraging since groundwater with relatively high amounts of dissolved iron (as compared to arsenic) therefore has a large theoretical treatment capacity for arsenic. Iron oxidation was significantly retarded at pH values below neutral. In terms of operation, analysis of experimental results shows that periodic air sparging may be feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Air contamination measurements for the evaluation of internal dose to workers in nuclear medicine departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massimi, B.; Bianchini, D.; Sarnelli, A.; D'Errico, V.; Marcocci, F.; Mezzenga, E.; Mostacci, D.

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides handled in nuclear medicine departments are often characterized by high volatility and short half-life. It is generally difficult to monitor directly the intake of these short-lived radionuclides in hospital staff: this makes measuring air contamination of utmost interest. The aim of the present work is to provide a method for the evaluation of internal doses to workers in nuclear medicine, by means of an air activity sampling detector, to ensure that the limits prescribed by the relevant legislation are respected. A continuous air sampling system measures isotope concentration with a Nal(TI) detector. Energy efficiency of the system was assessed with GEANT4 and with known activities of 18F. Air is sampled in a number of areas of the nuclear medicine department of the IRST-IRCCS hospital (Meldola- Italy). To evaluate committed doses to hospital staff involved (doctors, technicians, nurses) different exposure situations (rooms, times, radionuclides etc) were considered. After estimating the intake, the committed effective dose has been evaluated, for the different radionuclides, using the dose coefficients mandated by the Italian legislation. Error propagation for the estimated intake and personal dose has been evaluated, starting from measurement statistics.

  10. Uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by plants: removal of volatile indoor air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprapat, Wararat; Suksabye, Parinda; Areephak, Sirintip; Klantup, Polawat; Waraha, Atcharaphan; Sawattan, Anuchit; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2014-04-01

    Air borne uptake of toluene and ethylbenzene by twelve plant species was examined. Of the twelve plant species examined, the highest toluene removal was found in Sansevieria trifasciata, while the ethylbenzene removal from air was with Chlorophytum comosum. Toluene and ethylbenzene can penetrate the plant׳s cuticle. However, the removal rates do not appear to be correlated with numbers of stomata per plant. It was found that wax of S. trifasciata and Sansevieria hyacinthoides had greater absorption of toluene and ethylbenzene, and it contained high hexadecanoic acid. Hexadecanoic acid might be involved in toluene and ethylbenzene adsorption by cuticles wax of plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis or the potential quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in toluene exposed plants showed no significant differences between the control and the treated plants, whereas plants exposed to ethylbenzene showed significant differences or those parameters, specifically in Dracaena deremensis (Lemon lime), Dracaena sanderiana, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Cordyline fruticosa. The Fv/Fm ratio can give insight into the ability of plants to tolerate (indoor) air pollution by volatile organic chemicals (VOC). This index can be used for identification of suitable plants for treating/sequestering VOCs in contaminated air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A large research and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the ambient air sampling program for collection, analysis, and reporting of radioactive air contaminants in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Particulate matter and water vapor are sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These samples are collected every two weeks and then analyzed for tritium, and gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma ray radiation. The alpha, beta, and gamma measurements are used to detect unexpected radionuclide releases. Quarterly composites are analyzed for isotopes of uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U), plutonium ( 238 Pu, 239/249 Pu), and americium ( 241 Am). All of the data is stored in a relational database with hard copies as the official records. Data used to determine environmental concentrations are validated and verified before being used in any calculations. This evaluation demonstrates that the sampling and analysis process can detect tritium, uranium, plutonium, and americium at levels much less than one percent of the public dose limit of 10 millirems. The isotopic results also indicate that, except for tritium, off-site concentrations of radionuclides potentially released from LANL are similar to typical background measurements

  12. Measurements of the spatial distribution of tritium in air above a chronically contaminated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, W.J.G.; Davis, P.A.; Wood, M.J.; Barry, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium in air (HTO) concentrations were measured over a 13 month period above a surface that is chronically contaminated by tritium-bearing groundwater from a waste management area. The measurements were made using passive diffusion samplers, which were sited at six locations (about 100 m apart) at 0.15, 0.9, and 1.8 m above ground level. The diffusion samplers were compact, sampled at a known rate, and required no external power source. They are ideal for remote locations and require a minimum of effort to collect and analyze the data. HTO-in-air concentration peaked in the summer at 500-1500 Bq.m -3 and decreased in the winter to 1-120 Bq.m -3 . In general, concentration decreased with height above ground level, implying that HTO is being lost from the surface to the atmosphere. The flux of tritium to the atmosphere must, therefore, be taken into account to estimate the tritium mass balance for a contaminated area. (Author) 3 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs

  13. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  14. Impact of clay mineral on air oxidation of PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Kouadio, Olivier; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Faure, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    This work investigated the impact of a clay mineral (bentonite) on the air oxidation of the solvent extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the PAHs from contaminated soils. EOMs were isolated from two coking plant soils and mixed with silica sand or bentonite. These samples, as well as raw soils and bentonite/soil mixtures, were oxidized in air at 60 and 100 °C for 160 days. Mineralization was followed by measuring the CO2 produced over the experiments. EOM, polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC), including PAH, contents were also determined. Oxidation led to a decrease in EOM contents and PAH concentrations, these diminutions were enhanced by the presence of bentonite. Transfer of carbon from EOM to insoluble organic matter pointed out a condensation phenomenon leading to a stabilization of the contamination. Higher mineralization rates, observed during the oxidation of the soil/bentonite mixtures, seem to indicate that this clay mineral had a positive influence on the transformation of PAC into CO2.

  15. A comparative study on laser induced shock cleaning of radioactive contaminants in air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Biswas, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from stainless steel surface was effected by Nd-YAG laser induced plasma shock waves in air as well as in water environment. The propagation velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Monitoring of the alpha activity of the sample with a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector before and after the laser exposure allowed the estimation of decontamination efficiency defined as the percentage removal of the initial activity. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures, orientation of the sample, the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The most optimised cleaning was found to occur when the laser beam impinged normally on the sample that was immersed in water and placed at a distance of ∼0.7 mm from the laser focal spot. Analysis of the cleaned surface by optical microscopes established that laser induced shock cleaning in no way altered the surface property. The shock force generated in both air and water has been estimated theoretically and has been found to exceed the Van der Waal's binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

  16. Detoxification, endocrine, and immune responses of tree swallow nestlings naturally exposed to air contaminants from the Alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Fernie, Kim J; Soos, Catherine; Harner, Tom; Getachew, Fitsum; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-01-01

    Changes in environmental and wildlife health from contaminants in tailings water on the Canadian oil sands have been well-studied; however, effects of air contaminants on wildlife health have not. A field study was conducted to assess biological costs of natural exposure to oil sands-related air emissions on birds. Nest boxes for tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were erected at two sites; within 5 km of active oil sands mining and extraction, and ≥ 60 km south, at one reference site. Passive air monitors were deployed at the nest boxes to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nestlings were examined at day 9 post hatching to assess T cell function and morphometry. At day 14 post hatching, a subset of nestlings was euthanized to measure detoxification enzymes, endocrine changes, and histological alterations of immune organs. Except for ozone, all air contaminants were higher at the two oil sands sites than the reference site (up to 5-fold). Adult birds had similar reproductive performance among sites (p>0.05). Nestlings from industrial sites showed higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) induction (pfeather corticosterone (p>0.6), and no histological alterations in the spleen or bursa of Fabricius (p>0.05). This is the first report examining toxicological responses in wild birds exposed to air contaminants from industrial activity in the oil sands. It is also the first time that small, individual air contaminant monitors have been used to determine local contaminant levels in ambient air around nest boxes of wild birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contact angles at the water-air interface of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofinskaya, O. A.; Kosterin, A. V.; Kosterina, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Contact angles at the water-air interface have been measured for triturated preparations of clays and soils in order to assess changes in their hydrophobic properties under the effect of oil hydrocarbons. Tasks have been to determine the dynamics of contact angle under soil wetting conditions and to reveal the effect of chemical removal of organic matter from soils on the hydrophilicity of preparations. The potentialities of static and dynamic drop tests for assessing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of soils have been estimated. Clays (kaolinite, gumbrine, and argillite) have been investigated, as well as plow horizons of soils from the Republic of Tatarstan: heavy loamy leached chernozem, medium loamy dark gray forest soil, and light loamy soddy-calcareous soil. The soils have been contaminated with raw oil and kerosene at rates of 0.1-3 wt %. In the uncontaminated and contaminated chernozem, capillary water capacity has been maintained for 250 days. The contact angles have been found to depend on the degree of dispersion of powdered preparation, the main type of clay minerals in the soil, the presence and amount of oxidation-resistant soil organic matter, and the soil-water contact time. Characteristic parameters of mathematical models for drop behavior on triturated preparations have been calculated. Contamination with hydrocarbons has resulted in a reliable increase in the contact angles of soil preparations. The hydrophobization of soil surface in chernozem is more active than in soils poorer in organic matter. The complete restoration of the hydrophilic properties of soils after hydrocarbon contamination is due to the oxidation of easily oxidizable organic matter at the low content of humus, or to wetting during several months in the absence of the mazut fraction.

  18. Assessment of correlation between leucocytes migration reaction and level of inhalation exposure to priority air contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Masnavieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays each forth person suffers from allergic diseases and allergic pathology prevalence is constantly growing. There are compounds in air which are generally toxic, or have sensitizing or allergenic effects on a body. For example, we can name formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. Our research goal was to reveal a correlation between reaction of leucocytes migration inhibition to formaldehyde and level of inhalation exposure to the examined chemicals. We examined 410 teenag-ers who permanently lived in industrial cities in Irkutsk region. We studied individual load as per formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. We estimated eosinophils content in nasal mucus and determined indexes of leucocytes migration inhibition to for-maldehyde. Index of formaldehyde effects danger was detected to exceed 1 in 54% teenagers. The greatest value of danger coefficient in terms of exposure to this substance was equal to 1.76. anger index in terms of exposure to nitrogen dioxide didn't exceed 0.7 in the examined teenagers. The obtained results prove that inhalation formaldehyde load influences teenag-ers from industrial centers as sensitization to this substance evolves in them. We found out that true inhibition reaction of leucocytes migration in a reaction with formaldehyde more frequently occurred in people with danger index in terms of ex-posure to this substance being lower than 1. We obtained models which described correlation between level of sensitization to formaldehyde and a number of eosinophils in nasal mucus and it allowed us to detect that sensitization depended on the examined contaminants content in the air. The sensitization to chemical air contaminants which we revealed in teenagers calls for necessary activities aimed at reducing risks of allergenic pathology evolvement in them.

  19. Nitric oxide contamination of hospital compressed air improves gas exchange in patients with acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P Seow Koon; Genc, F; Delgado, E; Kellum, J A; Pinsky, M R

    2002-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that NO contamination of hospital compressed air also improves PaO(2) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and following lung transplant (LTx). Prospective clinical study. Cardiothoracic intensive care unit. Subjects following cardiac surgery (CABG, n=7); with ALI (n=7), and following LTx (n=5). Four sequential 15-min steps at a constant FiO(2) were used: hospital compressed air-O(2) (H1), N(2)-O(2) (A1), repeat compressed air-O(2) (H2), and repeat N(2)-O(2) (A2). NO levels were measured from the endotracheal tube. Cardiorespiratory values included PaO(2) were measured at the end of each step. FiO(2) was 0.46+/-0.05, 0.53+/-0.15, and 0.47+/-0.06 (mean+/-SD) for three groups, respectively. Inhaled NO levels during H1 varied among subjects (30-550 ppb, 27-300 ppb, and 5-220 ppb, respectively). Exhaled NO levels were not detected in 4/7 of CABG (0-300 ppb), 3/6 of ALI (0-140 ppb), and 3/5 of LTx (0-59 ppb) patients during H1, whereas during A1 all but one patient in ALI and three CABG patients had measurable exhaled NO levels (P<0.05). Small but significant decreases in PaO(2) occurred for all groups from H1 to A1 and H2 to A2 (132-99 Torr and 128-120 Torr, P <0.01, respectively). There was no correlation between inhaled NO during H1 and exhaled NO during A1 or the change in PaO(2) from H1 to A1. Low-level NO contamination improves PaO(2) in patients with ALI and following LTx.

  20. Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of 238 Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the 238 Pu and 239 Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little 238 Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of 239 Pu and 241 Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels

  1. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-06

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  2. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings.......In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...

  3. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  4. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-06-02

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth

  5. A prospective survey of air and surface fungal contamination in a medical mycology laboratory at a tertiary care university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, Marc; Dalle, Frédéric; Olivieri, Claire; L'ollivier, Coralie; Enderlin, Emilie; Salome, Elsa; Chovelon, Isabelle; Vagner, Odile; Sixt, Nathalie; Fricker-Pap, Véronique; Aho, Serge; Fontaneau, Olivier; Cachia, Claire; Bonnin, Alain

    2009-04-01

    Invasive filamentous fungi infections resulting from inhalation of mold conidia pose a major threat in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis is based on direct smears, cultural symptoms, and culturing fungi. Airborne conidia present in the laboratory environment may cause contamination of cultures, resulting in false-positive diagnosis. Baseline values of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory have not been determined to date. A 1-year prospective survey of air and surface contamination was conducted in a clinical mycology laboratory during a period when large construction projects were being conducted in the hospital. Air was sampled with a portable air system impactor, and surfaces were sampled with contact Sabouraud agar plates. The collected data allowed the elaboration of Shewhart graphic charts. Mean fungal loads ranged from 2.27 to 4.36 colony forming units (cfu)/m(3) in air and from 0.61 to 1.69 cfu/plate on surfaces. Strict control procedures may limit the level of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory even in the context of large construction projects at the hospital site. Our data and the resulting Shewhart graphic charts provide baseline values to use when monitoring for inappropriate variations of the fungal contamination in a mycology laboratory as part of a quality assurance program. This is critical to the appropriate management of the fungal risk in hematology, cancer and transplantation patients.

  6. The Calculation of Self-Disposal Date by Analyzing the Radioactive Contamination of Air Filters Disused in Radioisotope Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Bu Hyung; Kwon, Soo Il

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to decrease the diffusion of air contamination which occurred in radiation work places handle radioisotope under the permissible level. Accordingly, we replaced used air filter with a new one at the appropriate time , and computed disposal dates for disposing used air filters by calculate radioactive contamination. Air filter contaminated by radioactivity is possible to be self-disposed on condition that all detected nuclides is below permissible level according to Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) notification No. 2014-003. Radioisotope, produced by 30, 50 MeV cyclotron and carried from other institutions, is used to treat patients, diagnose diseases, and research technology in Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). With unsealed sources generate radioactive contamination in air, it is important to use fume hood or hot cell. The accurate date needs to be calculated by the equation for calculation of self disposal date. If disposal date is in 1000 days, disposal for external institution is required. With increasing the number of medical institute which was related to use the radioisotopes, the importance of radioactive safety management was increased. As disposing radioactive waste, in particular, is the procedure of inspecting for releasing radioactive waste to outside, appropriate action and continuous research are required at a radioactive safety management.

  7. Heavy metals contamination of air and soil in Karak solid waste disposal site, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiries, A. G.; Jaradat, Q. M.; Momani, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The level of air and soil pollution in the municipal solid waste disposal site of Karak(Jordan) were investigated during spring of 1995 by monitoring the amounts of heavy metals. The concentration (mg/kg)of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the upper soil were found to have a range of 15.3-39.3, 21.2-38.0 and 60.0-127.0 respectively. However, for the lower soil, the ranges are 13.4-18.9, 18.5-23.7, and 50.6-90.4, respectively. The soil contamination with heavy metals was almost confined to the upper soil in the locations closely surrounding the burning site, which could be accounted to the arid climate conditions of the area. (authors). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Impact of ventilation/pressurization on indoor air contaminants in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, R.J.; Levetin, E.; Fisher, E.J.; Ligman, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a continuing technology development effort to control radon in schools, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) School Evaluation Program (SEP) team in cooperation with U.S. EPA's Region 6 office has performed radon mitigation in two Southwestern United States schools utilizing the method of ventilation/pressurization control technology. Schools were inspected and IAQ measurements made with respect to carbon dioxide, bioaerosols, volatile organic compounds, and respirable particles. Premitigation results indicated poor ventilation conditions existed throughout the school buildings. Elevated levels of respirable particles were measured, yet no conclusions with respect to health could be implied. Post-mitigation results support, but do not prove the hypothesis that improved ventilation to control radon will also reduce other indicator indoor air contaminants. (orig.). (9 refs., 4 tabs.)

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  10. Numerical Simulation of Inter-Flat Air Cross-Contamination under the Condition of Single-Sided Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Niu, Jianlei; Perino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    ventilated room, the renormalization group based k-ε model, together with carbon dioxide used as a tracer, is chosen to reveal this air cross-contamination. The simulation results are in agreement with our prior on-site tracer-gas measurements, revealing that the windows flush with a flat fa ade can...... be a major route of the air cross-contamination in high-rise residential buildings. Finally, an assessment index is proposed to evaluate the potential infection risks associated with this inter-flat air flow occurring in high-rise residential buildings....... the two sides, each of which has a flat fa ade with openable windows. When the wind speed is extremely low, with doors closed and windows opened, the flats become single-sided naturally ventilated driven by buoyancy effects. The air pollutants can travel from a lower flat to a vertically adjacent upper...

  11. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-04-03

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation.

  12. Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  13. Hot air vapor extraction system for remediation of petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, D.; Karr, L.; Fann, S.; Mathews, A.P.; Price, P.A.; Linginemi, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a demonstration of a technology entitled ''Hot Air Vapor Extraction (HAVE)'' at the Hydrocarbon National Test Site (HNTS), Port Hueneme, California. The demonstration of the HAVE technology at HNTS was conducted over a 3-month period between August 21, 1995 and November 22, 1995 and the lessons learned from the demonstration are discussed in details to guide the Department of Defense decision makers in analyzing the applicability of this technology to their contaminated sites. This technology demonstration was conducted under the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) as part of the National Environmental Technology Demonstration Program (NETDP). The primary objectives of the demonstration were to (1) validate the efficacy of the HAVE technology to treat a wide range of hydrocarbons contaminated soils, (2) gather data to estimate treatment costs, and (3) develop engineering guidance needed to apply this remediation technology DoD-wide. Test runs were made on 5 different treatment cells containing various fuel hydrocarbons, ranging from gasoline to heavier petroleum fractions such as lubricating oil. Computer modeling was conducted to analyze the test results and also to optimize the HAVE system design. An economic analysis conducted for various remediation project sizes ranging from 750 to 9,000 cubic yards, the per cubic yard treatment costs are found to vary from $64.05 down to $36.54 respectively

  14. Development and Testing of an Air Fluorescence Imaging System for the Detection of Radiological Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inrig, Elizabeth; Koslowsky, Vern; Andrews, Bob; Dick, Michael; Forget, Patrick; Ing, Harry; Hugron, Roger; Wong, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Detection of radionuclides emitting short-range radiation, such as α and low-energy β particles, has always presented a challenge, particularly when such radionuclides are dispersed over a wide area. In this situation, conventional detection methods require the area of interest to be surveyed using a fragile probe at very close range--a slow, error-prone, and potentially dangerous process that may take many hours for a single room. The instrument under development uses a novel approach by imaging radiation-induced fluorescence in the air surrounding a contaminated area, rather than detecting the radiation directly. A robust and portable system has been designed and built that will allow contaminated areas to be rapidly detected and delineated. The detector incorporates position-sensitive photo-multiplier tubes, UV filters, a fast electronic shutter and an aspherical phase mask that significantly increases the depth-of-field. Preliminary tests have been conducted using sealed 241 Am sources of varying activities and surface areas. The details of the instrument design will be described and the results of recent testing will be presented.

  15. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  16. [The balance of harmful trace contaminants between the air humidity condensate and air in a simulator of the Mir orbit station moisture condensation unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotopol'skiĭ, V M; Smolenskaia, T S

    2000-01-01

    Subject of the investigation was the balance of harmful trace contaminants (HTC) between the air moisture condensate and air in a simulator of the MIR moisture condensation unit. Experiments involved various classes of water-solvent compounds including alcohols (C1-C4), ketons (C1-C2), aldehydes (C1-C2), fatty acids (C2-C4), esters (acetates C4-C6), and ammonium. For most of the compounds, removal efficiency correlates with air humidity and virtually does not depend on the HTC concentration within the range of 0.25 to 59.1 mg/m3.

  17. Assessment of the environmental microbiological cross contamination following hand drying with paper hand towels or an air blade dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margas, E; Maguire, E; Berland, C R; Welander, F; Holah, J T

    2013-08-01

    This study compared the potential for cross contamination of the surrounding environment resulting from two different hand-drying methods: paper towels and the use of an air blade dryer. One hundred volunteers for each method washed their hands and dried them using one of the two methods. Bacterial contamination of the surrounding environment was measured using settle plates placed on the floor in a grid pattern, air sampling and surface swabs. Both drying methods produced ballistic droplets in the immediate vicinity of the hand-drying process. The air blade dryer produced a larger number of droplets which were dispersed over a larger area. Settle plates showed increased microbial contamination in the grid squares which were affected by ballistic droplets. Using the settle plates counts, it was estimated that approx. 1.7 × 10(5) cfu more micro-organisms were left on the laboratory floor (total area approx. 17.15 m(2)) after 100 volunteers used an air blade dryer compared to when paper towels were used. The two drying methods led to different patterns of ballistic droplets and levels of microbial contamination under heavy use conditions. Whilst the increase in microbial levels in the environment is not significant if only nonpathogenic micro-organisms are spread, it may increase the risk of pathogen contamination of the environment when pathogens are occasionally present on people's hands. The study suggests that the risk of cross contamination from the washroom users to the environment and subsequent users should be considered when choosing a hand-drying method. The data could potentially give guidance following the selection of drying methods on implementing measures to minimise the risk of cross contamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...... quality with personalized and mixing ventilation was higher or at least similar compared to mixing ventilation alone. In the case of PV combined with displacement ventilation, the interaction caused mixing of the room air, an increase in the transport of bioeffluents and exhaled air between occupants and...... ventilation. In total, 80 L/s of clean air supplied at 20°C was distributed between the ventilation systems at different combinations of personalized airflow rate. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants in a full-scale test room. Regardless of the airflow interaction, the inhaled air...

  19. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Air purification from TCE and PCE contamination in a hybrid bioreactors and biofilter integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernacka, Agnieszka; Zborowska, Ewa; Lebkowska, Maria; Borawski, Maciej

    2014-01-15

    A two-stage waste air treatment system, consisting of hybrid bioreactors (modified bioscrubbers) and a biofilter, was used to treat waste air containing chlorinated ethenes - trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The bioreactor was operated with loadings in the range 0.46-5.50gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 2.16-9.02gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. The biofilter loadings were in the range 0.1-0.97gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 0.2-2.12gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. Under low pollutant loadings, the efficiency of TCE elimination was 23-25% in the bioreactor and 54-70% in the biofilter. The efficiency of PCE elimination was 44-60% in the bioreactor and 50-75% in the biofilter. The best results for the bioreactor were observed one week after the pollutant loading was increased. However, the process did not stabilize. In the next seven days contaminant removal efficiency, enzymatic activity and biomass content were all diminished. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photo-acoustic sensor for detection of oil contamination in compressed air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Mikael; Harder, David Baslev; Brusch, Anders; Nielsen, Ole Stender; Heikens, Dita; Persijn, Stefan; Petersen, Jan C

    2017-02-06

    We demonstrate an online (in-situ) sensor for continuous detection of oil contamination in compressed air systems complying with the ISO-8573 standard. The sensor is based on the photo-acoustic (PA) effect. The online and real-time PA sensor system has the potential to benefit a wide range of users that require high purity compressed air. Among these are hospitals, pharmaceutical industries, electronics manufacturers, and clean room facilities. The sensor was tested for sensitivity, repeatability, robustness to molecular cross-interference, and stability of calibration. Explicit measurements of hexane (C6H14) and decane (C10H22) vapors via excitation of molecular C-H vibrations at approx. 2950 cm-1 (3.38 μm) were conducted with a custom made interband cascade laser (ICL). For the decane measurements a (1 σ) standard deviation (STD) of 0.3 ppb was demonstrated, which corresponds to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient for the prototype PA sensor of 2.8×10-9 W cm-1 Hz1/2.

  2. Application of the biological forced air soil treatment (BIOFAST trademark) technology to diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, K.A.; Leavitt, M.E.; Graves, D.A.; Stanish, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    A subsurface Biological Forced Air Soil Treatment (BIOFAST trademark) system was constructed at the Yellow Freight System, Inc. (Yellow Freight) New Haven facility in Connecticut as a means of expediting the remediation of soils impacted by a diesel fuel release. Prior to beginning construction activities the soils were evaluated for the feasibility of bioremediation based on soil characteristics including contaminant degrading bacteria, moisture content, and pH. Based on results of stimulant tests with oxygen and nutrients, the addition of fertilizer during the construction of the cell was recommended. Following the removal of underground storage tanks, the bioremediation cell was constructed by lining the enlarged excavation with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and backfilling alternating layers of nutrient-laden soil and pea gravel. Passive and active soil vapor extraction (SVE) piping was included in the gravel layers and connected to a blower and vapor treatment unit, operated intermittently to supply oxygen to the subsurface cell. Operating data have indicated that the bacteria are generating elevated levels of CO 2 , and the SVE unit is evacuating the accumulated CO 2 from the soils and replacing it with fresh air. These data suggest that the bioremediation process is active in the soils. Soil samples collected from within the soil pit subsequent to installation and again after 10 months of operation indicate that TPH concentrations have decreased by as much as 50%

  3. Air sparging as a supporting measure to redevelopment of a LCFC-contaminated industrial site; Air-Sparging als begleitende Sanierungsmassnahme an einem LCKW-kontaminierten Industriestandort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breh, W.; Suttheimer, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie; Holub, B. [G.U.T Linz (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    On a company ground in Vorchdorf, Austria, from the 23{sup rd} to 26{sup th} of July 1996 an air-sparging experiment has been carried out as a supporting measure to a running redevelopment of an LCKW-contamination case. On this occasion compressed air, from which the oil had been extracted, was blown into the contaminated aquifer through a well with a maximum excess pressure of 0,6 MPa. The blowing-in of compressed air caused a mobilisation of the harmful substances in the ground water and the soil air. As a result circa 2,7 kg LCKW could be removed from the underground through neighbouring ground water and soil air wells. For the observed period of time this meant a tripling of the rate of discharge. On the basis of the obtained data we suggested a routine interval of blowing in compressed air into the well 1516. A blowing-in of compressed air into the highly contaminated wells 1617 and 1625 can not be realised until the construction of upstream situated injection wells, because of the danger of an uncontrollable spread of the harmful substances. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf einem Firmengelaende in Vorchdorf, Oesterreich, wurde vom 23.07. bis 26.07.1996 ein Air-Sparging-Versuch als unterstuetzende Massnahme zur laufenden hydraulisch-pneumatischen Sanierung eines LCKW-Schadensfalles durchgefuehrt. Hierbei wurde entoelte Druckluft ueber einen Brunnen mit einem maximalen Ueberdruck von 600 mbar in den kontaminierten Aquifer eingeblasen. Die Drucklufteinblasung fuehrte zu einer Mobilisierung von Schadstoffen im Grundwasser und in der Bodenluft, so dass ueber benachbarte Grundwasser- und Bodenluftfoerderbrunnen ca. 2,7 kg LCKW aus dem Untergrund entfernt werden konnten. Fuer den Beobachtungszeitraum bedeutet dies eine Verdreifachung des Schadstoffaustrags. Aufgrund der gewonnenen Daten wird ein routinemaessiger Intervallbetrieb der Drucklufteinblasung in einen der Brunnen vorgeschlagen. Fuer zwei kontaminierte Brunnen ist eine Drucklufteinblasung wegen der Gefahr einer

  4. Assessment of air and water contamination by disinfection by-products at 41 indoor swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Robert; Catto, Cyril; Haddad, Sami; Simard, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the profiles (occurrence and speciation) of disinfection by-product (DBP) contamination in air and water of a group of 41 public indoor swimming pools in Québec (Canada). The contaminants measured in the water included the traditional DBPs [i.e., four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acids (HAAs)] but also several emergent DBPs [i.e., halonitriles, halonitromethanes, haloketones and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)]. Those measured in the air comprised THMs and chloramines (CAMs). Overall, extremely variable DBP levels were found from one pool to another (both quantitatively and in terms of speciation). For instance, in water, among the four THMs, chloroform was usually the most abundant compound (37.9±25.7µg/L). Nevertheless, the sum of the three other brominated THMs represented more than 25% of total THMs at almost half the facilities visited (19 cases). In 13 of them, the levels of brominated THMs (66±24.2µg/L) even greatly outweighed the levels of chloroform (15.2±6.31µg/L). Much higher levels of HAAs (294.8±157.6µg/L) were observed, with a consistent preponderance of brominated HAAs in the swimming pools with more brominated THMs. NDMA levels which were measured in a subset of 8 pools ranged between 2.8ng/L and 105ng/L. With respect to air, chloroform was still the most abundant THM globally (119.4±74.2µg/m(3)) but significant levels of brominated THMs were also observed in various cases, particularly in the previously evoked group of 13 swimming pools with preponderant levels of brominated THMs in water. CAM levels (0.23±0.15mg/m(3)) varied highly, ranging from not detected to 0.56mg/m(3). Overall, the levels were generally relatively high compared to current guidelines or reference values from several countries, and they point to a relatively atypical presence of brominated compounds, and to significant levels of emergent DBPs for which health risk is less documented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  6. System calibration for air control of radioactive gases [contamination control]; Kalibracija sistema za kontrolu vazduha na radioaktivne gasove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V; Milosevic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    Testing of the system for air contamination control at the RA reactor was done and calibrated by Ar{sup 41}. This report contains the report on testing and calibration. This activity was necessary in order to achieve its performance with existing dosimetry system in the RA reactor building.

  7. Forced-air warming blowers: An evaluation of filtration adequacy and airborne contamination emissions in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert L; Belani, Kumar; Litchy, Mark; Leaper, David

    2011-05-01

    Forced-air warming (FAW) is widely used to prevent hypothermia during surgical procedures. The airflow from these blowers is often vented near the operative site and should be free of contaminants to minimize the risk of surgical site infection. Popular FAW blowers contain a 0.2-μm rated intake filter to reduce these risks. However, there is little evidence that the efficiency of the intake filter is adequate to prevent airborne contamination emissions or protect the internal air path from microbial contamination buildup. Five new intake filters were obtained directly from the manufacturer (Bair Hugger 505, model 200708D; Arizant Healthcare, Eden Prairie, MN), and 5 model 200708C filters currently in hospital use were removed from FAW devices. The retention efficiency of these filters was assessed using a monodisperse sodium chloride aerosol. In the same hospitals, internal air path surface swabs and hose outlet particle counts were performed on 52 forced-air warming devices (all with the model 200708C filter) to assess internal microbial buildup and airborne contamination emissions. Intake filter retention efficiency at 0.2 μm was 93.8% for the 200708C filter and 61.3% at for the 200708D filter. The 200708D filter obtained directly from the manufacturer has a thinner filtration media than the 200708C filter in current hospital use, suggesting that the observed differences in retention efficiency were due to design changes. Fifty-eight percent of the FAW blowers evaluated were internally generating and emitting airborne contaminants, with microorganisms detected on the internal air path surfaces of 92.3% of these blowers. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and methicillin-resistant S aureus were detected in 13.5%, 3.9%, and 1.9% of FAW blowers, respectively. The design of popular FAW devices using the 200708C filter was found to be inadequate for preventing the internal buildup and emission of microbial contaminants into the

  8. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...

  9. Mobile laminar air flow screen for additional operating room ventilation: reduction of intraoperative bacterial contamination during total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, D; Dagnino, G; Sanguineti, F; Franchin, F

    2011-12-01

    Surgical site infections are important complications in orthopedic surgery. A mobile laminar air flow (LAF) screen could represent a useful addition to an operating room (OR) with conventional turbulent air ventilation (12.5 air changes/h), as it could decrease the bacterial count near the operating field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LAF efficacy at reducing bacterial contamination in the surgical area during 34 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The additional unit was used in 17 operations; the LAF was positioned beside the operating table between two of the surgeons, with the air flow directed towards the surgical area (wound). The whole team wore conventional OR clothing and the correct hygiene procedures and rituals were used. Bacterial air contamination (CFU/m(3)) was evaluated in the wound area in 17 operations with the LAF unit and 17 without the LAF unit. The LAF unit reduced the mean bacterial count in the wound area from 23.5 CFU/m(3) without the LAF to 3.5 CFU/m(3) with the LAF (P contamination of the wound area significantly decreased to below the accepted level for an ultraclean OR, preventing SSI infections.

  10. Air sampling methods to evaluate microbial contamination in operating theatres: results of a comparative study in an orthopaedics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, C; Tafuri, S; Montenegro, L; Cassano, M; Notarnicola, A; Lattarulo, S; Montagna, M T; Moretti, B

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the level of microbial contamination of air in operating theatres using active [i.e. surface air system (SAS)] and passive [i.e. index of microbial air contamination (IMA) and nitrocellulose membranes positioned near the wound] sampling systems. Sampling was performed between January 2010 and January 2011 in the operating theatre of the orthopaedics department in a university hospital in Southern Italy. During surgery, the mean bacterial loads recorded were 2232.9 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(2)/h with the IMA method, 123.2 cfu/m(3) with the SAS method and 2768.2 cfu/m(2)/h with the nitrocellulose membranes. Correlation was found between the results of the three methods. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 12 of 60 operations (20%) with the membranes, five (8.3%) operations with the SAS method, and three operations (5%) with the IMA method. Use of nitrocellulose membranes placed near a wound is a valid method for measuring the microbial contamination of air. This method was more sensitive than the IMA method and was not subject to any calibration bias, unlike active air monitoring systems. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  12. Contamination in fractured-rock aquifers: Research at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Tiedeman, Claire; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Shapiro, Allen M.; Chapelle, Francis H.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and cooperators are studying chlorinated solvents in a fractured sedimentary rock aquifer underlying the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, New Jersey. Fractured-rock aquifers are common in many parts of the United States and are highly susceptible to contamination, particularly at industrial sites. Compared to 'unconsolidated' aquifers, there can be much more uncertainty about the direction and rate of contaminant migration and about the processes and factors that control chemical and microbial transformations of contaminants. Research at the NAWC is improving understanding of the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-rock aquifers and will compare the effectiveness of different strategies for contaminant remediation.

  13. Air Monitoring to Control the Intake of Airborne Radioiodine-131 Contaminants by Nuclear Medicine Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiemwutthisak, P.; Sritongkul, N.; Chaudakshetrin, P.; Kanchanaphiboon, P.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of radioiodine-131 is the largest cause of internal dose to nuclear medicine workers. The concentration of radioiodine-131 in air is limited by the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 416.67 Bq/m3. In this study air monitoring shall be performed to measure the radioiodine-131 contaminant in air by sample collection and analysis. Air samples were drawn from areas where there is a potential for I-131 airborne radioactivity e.g. in the hot laboratory, radioiodine treatment rooms, radioactive waste collection areas and waste water treatment plant. A portable battery-operated air sampler, Gilian BDX II with carbon- impregnated cellulose filters was used for air sampling. The flow rate was adjusted to 3 liters per minute and the sampler run for 180 minutes. Iodine-131 radioactivity on filter was measured for 10 minutes by 2 NaI(Tl) gamma counters, Perkin Elmer Wallac Wizard 1480 (3''x3'') and Atomlab 950 PC (2''x2'') with and objective for inter comparison. Counting efficiency of the counters are 57 and 39 percent respectively. Agreeable results of I-131 radioactivity were obtained from both gamma counters. The mean I-131 concentrations measured by Wallac(Atomlab) were 31.59±16.31 (29.84±14.74) Bq/m 3 in radioiodine fume hood for treatment dose dispensing, 8.98±4.33 (7.58±5.10) Bq/m 3 in fume hood accommodated with a dose calibrator, 7.80±5.39 (7.54±5.04) Bq/m 3 in radioactive waste storage area, 0.03±0.54 (0.03±0.57) Bq/m 3 in patient waiting area, 2.94±3.60 (2.55±2.98) Bq/m 3 in hospital ward waste collection area and 0.03±0.01 (0.03±0.01) Bq/m 3 in the water treatment plant area. Radioiodine concentrations in patient's room increases linearly as the administered dose was increasing. Mean±SD of the measured concentrations were 11.63±9.30 (9.86±8.98) Bq/m 3 , 18.57±13.24 (17.35±12.33) Bq/m 3 and 31.90±22.32 (30.90±22.49) Bq/m 3 for the administered doses of 3.7, 5.55 and 7.4 Bq respectively. Radioiodine concentrations in all specified areas

  14. Sampling and analysis considerations for the determination of hexavalent chromium in workplace air; Reflexions sur le prelevement et l'analyse du chrome hexavalent dans l'air des lieux de travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, K.E. [CDC/NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Howe, A.M. [HSL, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Demange, M. [INRS - Centre de Lorraine, Departement Metrologie des polluants, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Nygren, O. [NIWL, Umea (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a known human respiratory carcinogen and allergen. Workers in a variety of industries may be exposed to airborne hexavalent chromium, with exposures frequently occurring via inhalation and/or dermal contact. Analytical methods for the measurement of Cr(VI) compounds in workplace samples, rather than for the determination of total elemental chromium in workplace air, are often desired because exposure limit values for Cr(VI) compounds are much lower than for total Cr. For years, sampling and analytical test methods for airborne Cr(VI) have been investigated so as to provide means for occupational exposure assessment to this highly toxic species. Inter-conversion of trivalent chromium Cr(III) and Cr(VI) can sometimes occur during sampling and sample preparation, and efforts to minimize unwanted redox reactions involving these chromium valences have been sought. Because of differences in toxicity, there is also interest in the ability to differentiate between water soluble and insoluble forms of Cr(VI), and procedures that provide solubility information concerning Cr(VI) compounds have been developed. This paper reviews the state of the art concerning the measurement of airborne Cr(VI) compounds in workplace aerosols and related samples. (authors)

  15. Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor for Air Quality and Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilekar, Saurabh; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, gaseous compounds such as methane, carbon monoxide, and trace contaminants have posed challenges for maintaining clean air in enclosed spaces such as crewed spacecraft cabins as they are hazardous to humans and are often difficult to remove by conventional adsorption technology. Catalytic oxidizers have provided a reliable and robust means of disposing of even trace levels of these compounds by converting them into carbon dioxide and water. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA - Marshall (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI's patented Microlith® technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Current efforts have focused on integrating the HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight while also reducing its energy requirements. Previous efforts relied on external heat exchangers to recover the waste heat and recycle it to the oxidizer to minimize the system's power requirements; however, these units contribute weight and volume burdens to the overall system. They also result in excess heat loss due to the separation of the HTCO and the heat recuperator, resulting in lower overall efficiency. Improvements in the recuperative efficiency and close coupling of HTCO and heat recuperator lead to reductions in system energy requirements and startup time. Results from testing HTCO units integrated with heat recuperators at a variety of scales for cabin air quality control and heat melt compactor applications are reported and their benefits over previous iterations of the HTCO and heat recuperator assembly are quantified in this paper.

  16. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  17. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by

  18. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhova, O.N.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Larionova, N.V.; Tur, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on “Degelen” site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere, vegetation–atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area “Degelen”. - Highlights: ► The basic mechanisms for tritium distribution in the air of nuclear testing sites were examined. ► We researched the distribution of tritium in the systems such as water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere and vegetation–atmosphere. ► An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere was performed. ► We experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in

  19. Status of environmental response efforts at radioactively contaminated sites in the united states air force installation restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D. Jr.; McEntee, T.E. Jr.; Johnson, B.; Manning, L.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Air Force has identified approximately 170 radioactively contaminated sites at its domestic installations. These sites contain a variety of low level radioactive and mixed wastes and are classified as burial sites, landfills, buildings, and other disposal sites. Of these 170, approximately 70 are presently being evaluated under the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Removal and/or remedial actions have been taken at specific sites using site-specific residual radioactivity criteria. The remaining sites are either under investigation to determine the need for possible action or have been classified as response complete based on restricted or unrestricted future use. This paper describes past Air Force operations that generated radioactive waste materials; examines the current inventory of resulting radioactively contaminated sites in the Air Force IRP; reviews criteria used to evaluate sites for removal and/or remedial actions; provides summary information on actions taken at sites; and focuses on response actions and cleanup levels at two completed sites. The paper concludes with an assessment of outstanding issues relevant to the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. (author)

  20. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size

  1. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  2. Cost-benefit functions for the allocation of security sensors for air contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, James H.; Farrington, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study various functional forms of the cost-benefit function in a context of risk analysis and multi-objective decision-making for the allocation of hazard protection. An approach of benefit-cost analysis under uncertainty is used. The study identifies measures of hazard intensity and population exposure as well as additional parameters that influence assessments of benefits and costs. Parameter uncertainties are propagated by numerical interval analysis. Several tiers of the uncertainty of the benefit-to-cost ratio are generated to compare hazard intensity and population exposure in multi-objective tradeoff analysis. We develop an example application with the allocation of chemical, biological, and radiological air contaminant sensors throughout a region. The sensors provide local protection to non-identical sectors of the population that are exposed to non-identical intensities of the hazard. The results illuminate the significance of the cost-benefit function for the allocation of sensors. The paper has implications for anti-terrorism, disaster preparedness, transportation safety, and other areas of public safety

  3. Forecast of common air contaminants in Alberta (1995 to 2020) : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    In this document, a distinction is made between anthropogenic sources (industrial, residential, commercial, institutional, transportation, and area sources) and natural sources (forest fires and biogenic sources). Nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and carbon monoxide are caused by both sources, but their ratio varies. The emphasis of this report was on the growth in anthropogenic emissions in Alberta from industrial sources. For the purpose of this forecast, the natural sources were kept constant at 1995 levels. An inventory of common air contaminants (CAC) in Alberta was obtained in 1995 and formed the starting point of this forecast. Under business as usual scenario, CAC emissions in Alberta are expected to increase. The increase is expected to be in the 18 per cent range by 2010 and 32 per cent range by 2020 over the levels of 1995. Anticipated energy efficiency improvements, as well as a shift toward less CAC-intensive fuels like natural gas explain this slower growth. In the context of improved vehicle emission standards, reduced emissions from transportation were anticipated. There are wide differences for the magnitude of the projected change for each of the CACs. The greatest increase was forecasted for total particulate emissions caused in large part by road dust. A decrease was forecasted for sulphur oxides and carbon monoxide emissions as a result of improved fuel and vehicle emission standards. For each of Alberta's 19 census divisions or regions, estimates of forecasted 2010 emissions from each source category were included. 24 refs., 77 tabs

  4. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1985, Part -2, Annex 2b, Environmental Radioactivity control, Control of air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patic, D.; Smiljanic, R.; Zaric, M.; Savic, Z.; Ristic, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the period from November 1984 - November 1985, within the radioactivity control on the Vinca Institute site air contamination radioactive aerosol contents was measured. Control was done on 4 measuring stations, two in the Institute and two locations in the direction of wind i.e. Belgrade, 2 km and 7 km away from the Institute respectively. This position of the measuring locations enables control of radiation safety of the Institute, as well as environment of Belgrade taking into account the existence of the reactor and other possible contaminants in the Institute [sr

  5. "It Was Not Me That Was Sick, It Was the Building": Rhetorical Identity Management Strategies in the Context of Observed or Suspected Indoor Air Problems in Workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finell, Eerika; Seppälä, Tuija; Suoninen, Eero

    2018-07-01

    Suffering from a contested illness poses a serious threat to one's identity. We analyzed the rhetorical identity management strategies respondents used when depicting their health problems and lives in the context of observed or suspected indoor air (IA) problems in the workplace. The data consisted of essays collected by the Finnish Literature Society. We used discourse-oriented methods to interpret a variety of language uses in the construction of identity strategies. Six strategies were identified: respondents described themselves as normal and good citizens with strong characters, and as IA sufferers who received acknowledge from others, offered positive meanings to their in-group, and demanded recognition. These identity strategies located on two continua: (a) individual- and collective-level strategies and (b) dissolved and emphasized (sub)category boundaries. The practical conclusion is that professionals should be aware of these complex coping strategies when aiming to interact effectively with people suffering from contested illnesses.

  6. Effects of H2O, CO2, and N2 Air Contaminants on Critical Airside Strain Rates for Extinction of Hydrogen-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, G. L.; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.; Guerra, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Coaxial tubular opposed jet burners (OJB) were used to form dish shaped counterflow diffusion flames (CFDF), centered by opposing laminar jets of H2, N2 and both clean and contaminated air (O2/N2 mixtures) in an argon bath at 1 atm. Jet velocities for flame extinction and restoration limits are shown versus wide ranges of contaminant and O2 concentrations in the air jet, and also input H2 concentration. Blowoff, a sudden breaking of CFDF to a stable ring shape, occurs in highly stretched stagnation flows and is generally believed to measure kinetically limited flame reactivity. Restore, a sudden restoration of central flame, is a relatively new phenomenon which exhibits a H2 dependent hysteresis from Blowoff. For 25 percent O2 air mixtures, mole for mole replacement of 25 percent N2 contaminant by steam increased U(air) or flame strength at Blowoff by about 5 percent. This result is consistent with laminar burning velocity results from analogous substitution of steam for N2 in a premixed stoichiometric H2-O2-N2 (or steam) flame, shown by Koroll and Mulpuru to promote a 10 percent increase in experimental and calculated laminar burning velocity, due to enhanced third body efficiency of water in: H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M. When the OJB results were compared with Liu and MacFarlane's experimental laminar burning velocity of premixed stoichiometric H2 + air + steam, a crossover occurred, i.e., steam enhanced OJB flame strength at extinction relative to laminar burning velocity.

  7. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. © The Author 2015

  8. Vocal Ergonomics in the Workplace: Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Method Influences on Vocal Comfort and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Rahn, Keith A.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning method on voice function following a voicing task using ecologically valid offices, one with radiant HVAC and one with forced air. Method: A total of 12 consented participants (6 women, 6 men) narrated a video in each of 4…

  9. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  10. EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF THE AEROSOL METHOD OF DISINFECTION OF AIR AND SURFACES CONTAMINATED BY M. TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzin

    2018-01-01

    instead of disinfectant for control tests treating the tests objects contaminated in the same manner.Results. The good disinfection properties of Green Dez aerosol were proved during the simulation of M. tuberculosis, H37Rv strain, disinfection on the surfaces and in the air.The efficiency analysis of the aerosol method of disinfection proved the reduction of disinfectant consumption by 4-5 times versus wiping and irrigation, due to this the aerosol treatment can be regarded as a safer and more environmentally friendly method.The finely dispersed disinfectant aerosol, produced by MNC, effectively decontaminated the whole space, including the remote and hard-to-reach places. Full automation of disinfection implies no human presence providing high safety of disinfection. 

  11. Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Akella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.

  12. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  13. Predicting soil, water and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally; multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results. We consider the advantages of multimedia models relative to environmental monitoring data. (au)

  14. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out

  15. Predicting soil, water, and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally: Multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-10-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water, and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results

  16. Biodegradation of formaldehyde from contaminated air using a laboratory scale static-bed bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Hajizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of an aerobic fixed-bed bioreactor (FBR enriched with microorganisms of sewage sludge in biodegradation of formaldehyde in air stream with various retention times and airflow rates in laboratory scale. Materials and Methods: An aerobic biofilter 60 cm in height and 14 cm internal diameter made of steel was constructed and packed with a mixture of pumice and compost as a medium and utilized in this study. The microorganism′s growth, which is derived from the sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was initiated by adding nutrient. During the first few days of run, the airflow containing different concentrations of formaldehyde (from 24 ± 3 to 224 ± 5 mg/m 3 was introduced to the reactor to ensure biological adaptation. Sampling was performed through a series of two impingers containing adsorbent, and analyzed by chromotropic acid assay using DR-5000. Results: The maximum removal and elimination capacity of formaldehyde was yielded at 0.48 ± 0.06 g/m 3 /h inlet loading rate and 180 s of empty bed retention time (EBRT. These values for stabilized days were almost 88% and 0.42 g/m 3 /h, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that by increasing the inlet concentration of formaldehyde and reducing the EBRT, the formaldehyde removal capacity of the system decreases. Aerobic bioreactor with appropriate bed volume and compatible with inlet pollutant mass flow rate in optimum retention time will admissibly degrade and reduce the formaldehyde concentration from contaminated gas phase, such as gases produced in municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

  17. Identification of the source of PFOS and PFOA contamination at a military air base site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias E, Victor A; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Although the use of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-based aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFF) has been banned due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity to biota, PFOS and PFOA are still present at significant levels in the environment due to their past usage. This study investigated the reasons for detection of PFOS and PFOA in an evaporation pond used to collect the wastewater arising from fire-fighting exercises at a military air base despite the replacement of PFOS/PFOA-based foam with no PFOS/PFOA-foam about 6 years ago. Concentrations in the wastewater stored in this pond ranged from 3.6 to 9.7 mg/L for PFOS and between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/L for PFOA. The hypothesis tested in a laboratory study was that PFOS and PFOA have accumulated in the sediments of the pond and can be released into the main body of the water. Concentrations detected in the sediments were 38 and 0.3 mg/g for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. These values exceed the recently reported average global values for sediments (0.2-3.8 ng/g for PFOS and from 0.1 to 0.6 ng/g for PFOA) by a factor of several thousands. PFOS and PFOA distribution coefficients were derived for the organic content of the pond sediment (1.6%). Identification of the source of contamination and knowledge of the partition between soil and aqueous phases are vital first steps in developing a sustainable remediation technology to remove the source from the site. This study clearly suggests that unless the sediment is cleaned of PFOS/PFOA, these chemicals will continue to be detected for a long period in the pond water, with potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem.

  18. Radiological Emergency Preparedness after the Early Phase of an Accident : Focusing on an Air Contamination Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Joon; Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2010-01-01

    Toxic materials in an urban area can be caused by a variety of events, such as accidental releases on industrial complexes, accidents during the transportation of hazardous materials and intentional explosions. Most governments around the world and their citizens have become increasingly worried about intentional accidents in urban area after the 911 terrorist attack in the United States of America. Even though there have been only a few attempted uses of Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs), accidental releases have occurred many times at commercial nuclear power plants and nuclear waste disposal sites. When an intentional release of radioactive materials occurs in an urban area, air quality for radioactive materials in the environment is of great importance to take action for countermeasures and environmental risk assessments. Atmospheric modeling is part of the decision making tasks and that it is particularly important for emergency managers as they often need to take actions quickly on very inadequate information(1). A simple model such as HOTSPOT required wind direction and source term would be enough to support the decision making in the early phase of an accident, but more sophisticated atmospheric modeling is required to adjust decontamination area and relocation etc after the early phase of an accidental event. In this study, we assume an explosion of 137 Cs using RDDs in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea. California Puff Model (CALPUFF) is used to calculate an atmospheric dispersion and transport for 137 Cs. Atmospheric dispersion and quantitative radiological risk analysis for 137 Cs were performed assuming an intentional explosion in the metropolitan area of Soul, South Korea after the early phase of emergency. These kinds of atmospheric modeling and risk analysis could provide a means for decision makers to take action on important issues such as the cleanup of the contaminated area and countermeasures to protect the public caused by

  19. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanlu, Gou [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  20. Characterization and remediation of a mixed waste-contaminated site at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.; Thacker, M.S.; DeWitt, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the area of environmental restoration, one of the most challenging problems is the task of remediating mixed waste-contaminated sites. This paper discusses a successful Interim Corrective Measure (ICM) performed at a mixed waste-contaminated site on Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The site, known as RW-68, Cratering Area and Radium Dump/Slag Piles, was used during the late 1940s and early 1950s for the destruction and incineration of captured World War II aircraft. It contained 19 slag piles totaling approximately 150 tons of slag, ash, refractory brick, and metal debris. The piles were contaminated with radium-226 and RCRA-characteristic levels of heavy metals. Therefore, the piles were considered mixed waste. To eliminate the threat to human health and the environment, an ICM of removal, segregation, stabilization, and disposal was conducted from October through December 1996. Approximately 120 cubic yards (cu yds) of mixed waste, 188 cu yds of low-level radioactive-contaminated soil, 1 cu yd of low-level radioactive-contaminated debris, 5 cu yds of RCRA-characteristic hazardous waste, and 45 tons of nonhazardous debris were stabilized and disposed of during the ICM. To render the RCRA metals and radionuclides insoluble, stabilization was performed on the mixed and RCRA-characteristic waste streams. All stabilized material was subjected to TCLP analysis to verify it no longer exhibited RCRA-characteristic properties. Radiological and geophysical surveys were conducted concurrently with site remediation activities. These surveys provided real-time documentation of site conditions during each phase of the ICM and confirmed successful cleanup of the site. The three radioactive waste streams, stabilized mixed waste, low-level radioactive-contaminated soil, and low-level radioactive-contaminated debris, were disposed of at the Envirocare low-level radioactive disposal facility

  1. Contamination by cadmium and lead of some fruits and vegetables exposed to polluted air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohra, R.

    2004-01-01

    Author.Global air pollution and particularly in the urban cities derives from vehicle transportation (cars, buses, trucks) and electric generators. In Lebanon, many people use fuel diesel and leaded gasoline in the engines of their vehicles. Indeed, the fuel used in our country, contains thirteen times more pollutants than that used legally in the developed countries (Magazine de l'environnement, 2002). This contributes to the pollution of the air that we breathe as well as the fruits and vegetables exposed to air. 762 samples of four kinds of different fruits (peaches, apples, strawberries and grapes) and two kinds of vegetables (parsleys and cucumbers) were taken twice and during different periods from eight different places in laps of time of seven days. The samples were analyzed in the laboratories of IRAL at Fanar and Tal-Amara, using the Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption method. The analysis included two groups of samples: the first one comprises 192 samples of fruits and vegetables without peeling and the second one comprises 570 samples of fruit and vegetables with peeling. The average values of the non washed samples were between 0.13 ±0.012 and 0.6 ppm ± 0.02 for lead and 0.06 ± 0.015 and 0.18 ppm ± 0.02 for cadmium. Those of the non washed peelings were between 0.08 ± 0.015 and 0.38 ppm ±0.025 for lead and 0.03 ±0.006 and 0.11 ppm ± for cadmium. On the other hand, those of the non-washed peeled samples were between 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.27 ppm ± 0.016 for lead and 0.03 ± 0.016 and lead and 0.03 ± 0.06 and 0.07 ppm ± 0.015 for cadmium. Once these samples were washed , the average values were marked between 0.03 ± 0.006 and 0.15 ppm ± 0.02 for the lead and 0.02 ± 0.006 and 0.06 ppm ± 0.015 for the cadmium. Then, after drying them, concentrations revealed to be comprised between 0.02 ± 0.005 and 0.1 ppm ± 0.02 for the lead and 0.01 and 0.04 ppm ± 0.006 for the cadmium and that of the washing water was concentrated between 0.09 ± 0.016 and 0

  2. Liquid Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofma, Christian Casper; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    workplaces we are going from a more collective to individual feeling of presence in the workplace. The first contribution is to close the knowledge gap that exists in the academic literature on IVEs in a work context. Second, practitioners will have a better understanding of the changes IVEs have...

  3. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Marcotrigiano, Vincenzo; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2012-08-02

    Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC) was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity) and in operational (during surgery). The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256) and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7) for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  4. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. Methods The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity and in operational (during surgery. Results The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256 and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7 for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  5. Extensive Viable Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus Contamination in Air and Surrounding Environment in MERS Isolation Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Han; Chang, So Young; Sung, Minki; Park, Ji Hoon; Bin Kim, Hong; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Jae-Phil; Choi, Won Suk; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-08-01

    The largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015 and resulted in 186 laboratory-confirmed infections, including 36 (19%) deaths. Some hospitals were considered epicenters of infection and voluntarily shut down most of their operations after nearly half of all transmissions occurred in hospital settings. However, the ways that MERS-CoV is transmitted in healthcare settings are not well defined. We explored the possible contribution of contaminated hospital air and surfaces to MERS transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surfaces in 2 hospitals treating MERS-CoV patients. The samples were tested by viral culture with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using MERS-CoV Spike antibody, and electron microscopy (EM). The presence of MERS-CoV was confirmed by RT-PCR of viral cultures of 4 of 7 air samples from 2 patients' rooms, 1 patient's restroom, and 1 common corridor. In addition, MERS-CoV was detected in 15 of 68 surface swabs by viral cultures. IFA on the cultures of the air and swab samples revealed the presence of MERS-CoV. EM images also revealed intact particles of MERS-CoV in viral cultures of the air and swab samples. These data provide experimental evidence for extensive viable MERS-CoV contamination of the air and surrounding materials in MERS outbreak units. Thus, our findings call for epidemiologic investigation of the possible scenarios for contact and airborne transmission, and raise concern regarding the adequacy of current infection control procedures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  7. The Contaminant Distribution in a Ventilated Room with Different Air Terminal Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The room ventilation is investigated for three different air terminal devices under isothermal conditions. Velocity distribution in the occupied zone is measured for each air terminal device at different air exchange rates. The maximum air exchange rate is determined on the base of both the throw...... of the jets and the comfort requirements applied to measured air velocities in the occupied zone. Normalized concentration distribution in the test room is determined along a vertical line through the middle of the room as a function of the air exchange rate and the density of the tracer gas. The relative...... ventilation efficiency, , based on the room average concentration is also determined as a function of the air exchange rate and the density of the tracer gas. The influence from the position of the return opening on the relative ventilation efficiency is found for one air terminal device....

  8. Nitric Oxide and Oxygen Air-Contamination Effects on Extinction Limits of Non-Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames for a HIFiRE Scramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Dawson, Lucy C.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2009-01-01

    Unique nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen air-contamination effects on the extinction Flame Strength (FS) of non-premixed hydrocarbon (HC) vs. air flames are characterized for 7 gaseous HCs, using a new idealized 9.3 mm straight-tube Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) at 1 atm. FS represents a laminar strain-induced extinction limit based on cross-section-average air jet velocity, Uair, that sustains combustion of a counter jet of gaseous fuel just before extinction. Besides ethane, propane, butane, and propylene, the HCs include ethylene, methane, and a 64 mole-% ethylene / 36 % methane mixture, the writer s previously recommended gaseous surrogate fuel for HIFiRE scramjet tests. The HC vs. clean air part of the work is an extension of a May 2008 JANNAF paper that characterized surrogates for the HIFiRE project that should mimic the flameholding of reformed (thermally- or catalytically-cracked) endothermic JP-like fuels. The new FS data for 7 HCs vs. clean air are thus consolidated with the previously validated data, normalized to absolute (local) axial-input strain rates, and co-plotted on a dual kinetically dominated reactivity scale. Excellent agreement with the prior data is obtained for all 7 fuels. Detailed comparisons are also made with recently published (Univ. Va) numerical results for ethylene extinction. A 2009-revised ethylene kinetic model (Univ. Southern Cal) led to predicted limits within approx. 5 % (compared to 45 %, earlier) of this writer s 2008 (and present) ethylene FSs, and also with recent independent data (Univ. Va) obtained on a new OJB system. These +/- 5 % agreements, and a hoped-for "near-identically-performing" reduced kinetics model, would greatly enhance the capability for accurate numerical simulations of surrogate HC flameholding in scramjets. The measured air-contamination effects on normalized FS extinction limits are projected to assess ongoing Arc-Heater-induced "facility test effects" of NO production (e.g., 3 mole-%) and resultant oxygen

  9. Contaminative Influence of Beef Due to the Inhalation of Air and the Ingestion of Soil of Livestock from an Acute Release of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Jeong, Hyo Jeon; Han, Moon Hee

    2004-01-01

    The contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of livestock, both of which are dealt with as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may not be neglected, was comprehensively investigated with the improvement of the Korean food chain model DYNACON. As the results, it was found that both pathways can not be neglected at all in the contamination of beef in the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period of livestock. The ingestion of soil was more influential in the contamination of beef than the inhalation of air over most time following an release. If precipitation is encountered during an accidental release, contaminative influence due to the ingestion of soil was far greater compared with the cases of no precipitation. This fact was more distinct for a long-lived radionuclide 137 Cs than a short-lived radionuclide '1 31 I (elemental iodine). Compared with the results for milk performed prior to this study, the contaminative pathways due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil were more important in beef because of longer biological half-lives. On the other hand, in the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of livestock, radioactive contamination due to the ingestion of pasture was dominant irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release. It means that contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil is negligible, like the cases of milk.

  10. Contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle in an accidental release of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Kim, E. H.; Seo, K. S.; Jung, H. J.; Lee, S. M.; Hang, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle, both of which are dealt with as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may not be neglected, was comprehensively investigated with the improvement of the Korean dynamic food chain model DYNACON. As the results, it was found that both pathways can not be neglected at all in the contamination of beef in the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period of cattle. The ingestion of soil was more influential in the contamination of beef than the inhalation of air over most time following an release. If precipitation is encountered during an accidental release, contaminative influence due to the ingestion of soil was far greater compared with the cases of no precipitation. This fact was more distinct for a long-lived radionuclide 137 Cs than a short-lived radionuclide 131 I (elemental iodine). Compared with the results for milk performed prior to this study, the contaminative pathways due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil were more important in beef because of longer biological half-lives. In the meantime, in the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of cattle, radioactive contamination due to the ingestion of pasture was dominant irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release. It means that contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil is negligible like the cases of milk

  11. Selective Detection of Target Volatile Organic Compounds in Contaminated Humid Air Using a Sensor Array with Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-01-01

    We investigated selective detection of the target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nonanal, n-decane, and acetoin for lung cancer-related VOCs, and acetone and methyl i-butyl ketone for diabetes-related VOCs, in humid air with simulated VOC contamination (total concentration: 300 μg/m3). We used six “grain boundary-response type” sensors, including four commercially available sensors (TGS 2600, 2610, 2610, and 2620) and two Pt, Pd, and Au-loaded SnO2 sensors (Pt, Pd, Au/SnO2), and two “bulk-response type” sensors, including Zr-doped CeO2 (CeZr10), i.e., eight sensors in total. We then analyzed their sensor signals using principal component analysis (PCA). Although the six “grain boundary-response type” sensors were found to be insufficient for selective detection of the target gases in humid air, the addition of two “bulk-response type” sensors improved the selectivity, even with simulated VOC contamination. To further improve the discrimination, we selected appropriate sensors from the eight sensors based on the PCA results. The selectivity to each target gas was maintained and was not affected by contamination. PMID:28753948

  12. [Air contamination in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires: the current risk or future climate change, a false option].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrutzky, Rosana; Dawidowski, Laura; Murgida, Ana; Natenzon, Claudia Eleonor

    2014-09-01

    Based on the theoretical framework of environmental risk, this article discusses the management of air quality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires in relation to current and potential impacts of toxic gases and global climate change on the health of the population. Information on historical and current management of the air was linked to the results of the South American Emissions, Megacities and Climate research project to assess danger, exposure, vulnerability and uncertainty as the dimensions of risk. By contextualizing public policies developed in recent decades on this subject, it was possible to identify emerging configurations of risk and uncertainties as accelerators of social vulnerability. On the one hand, the fact that there is a positive correlation between mortality, changes in temperature and air pollution was confirmed. On the other hand, it became clear that there is a disconnect between air quality management and health care management, while limitations were found in the proposed mitigation measures relating to emissions of greenhouse gases produced by fuel, revealing uncertainties regarding their efficacy.

  13. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions. Part I: Chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium in the workplace air of stainless steel welders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bencko, V.; Papayova, A.; Saligova, D.; Tejral, J.; Borska, L.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to workplace airborne pollutants was examined in a group of 20 workers dealing mainly with welding, polishing, drilling and assembling of stainless steel constructions. Monitoring of airborne particulate matter (ARM) was performed using both personal and stationary samplers. For the personal full-shift monitoring, a SKC 224 PCRX-4 constant flow rate pump was used which was connected to a sampling head with mixed cellulose matched-weight filters having a diameter of 32 mm and a 0.8 μm pore size. The constant flow rate amounted to 2 L min -1 . For the stationary sampling, the ''Gent'' stacked filter unit PM10 sampler was used, operating at a flow rate of 16 L min -1 . It collects particles having an equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD) of less than 10,um in the separate ''coarse'' (2-10 μm EAD) and ''fine'' (< 2 μm EAD) size fractions on two sequential polycarbonate (Costar, Nuclepore) filters with a 47 mm diameter. The filters of both types were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Of the elements determined, results for chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium are presented. Procedures for quality assurance of both sampling and analytical stages are described. Sampling of biological material for elemental analysis (hair, nails, urine and blood and/or serum) of exposed and control persons in contamination-free conditions was also performed. In addition, saliva samples were collected for studying immunological and genotoxicity aspects of occupational exposure. (author)

  14. [Global air monitoring study: a multi-country comparison of levels of indoor air pollution in different workplaces results from Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Cheryl; Travers, Mark; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Dresler, Carolyn

    2007-09-01

    In 1986, a report of the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that second hand smoke is a cause of disease in healthy non smokers. Subsequent many nations including Tunisia implement smoke-free worksite regulations. The aim of our study is to test air quality in indoor ambient air venues in Tunisia. A TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor was used to sample, record the levels of respirable suspended particles (RSP) in the air and to assess the real-time concentration of particles less than 2.5 microm in micrograms per cubic meter, or PM2.5. Thirty three venues were sampled in Tunis. The venues were selected to get a broad range of size, location and type of venue. Venues included restaurants and cafés, bars, bus stations, hospitals, offices, and universities. The mean level of indoor air pollution was 296 microg/m3 ranged from 11 microg/m3 to 1,499 microg/m3. The level of indoor air pollution was 85% lower in venues that were smoke-free compared to venues where smoking was observed (ppollution were found in hospitals, offices and universities (52 microg/m3) and the highest level was found in a bar (1,499 micro/m3). Hospitality venues allowing indoor air smoking in Tunisia are significantly more polluted than both indoor smoke-free sites and outdoor air in Tunisia. This study demonstrates that workers and patrons are exposed to harmful levels of a known carcinogen and toxin. Policies that prohibit smoking in public worksites dramatically reduce second hand smoke exposure and improve worker and patron health.

  15. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n=112 to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5±7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n=52 were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r=0.69, n=66. Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r=0.58, n=28. These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  16. First characterization of the endocrine-disrupting potential of indoor gaseous and particulate contamination: comparison with urban outdoor air (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziol, Lucie; Alliot, Fabrice; Botton, Jérémie; Bimbot, Maya; Huteau, Viviane; Levi, Yves; Chevreuil, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The composition of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the ambient air of indoor environments has already been described, but little is known about the inherent endocrine-disrupting potential of indoor air contamination. We therefore aimed to study the distribution of bioactive EDCs in the gaseous and particulate phases of indoor air using a cellular bioassay approach that integrates the interaction effects between chemicals. Organic air extracts, both gaseous and particulate, were taken from three indoor locations (office, apartment, and children's day care) in France and sampled in two different seasons in order to study their interference with the signaling of estrogen, androgen, and thyroid receptors. The experiments were also conducted on aerial extracts from an outdoor site (urban center). We found that gaseous and/or particulate extracts from all locations displayed estrogenicity, anti-androgenicity, and thyroidicity. Overall, indoor air extracts had a higher endocrine-disrupting potential compared to outdoor ones, especially during winter and in the day care. The biological activities were predominant for the gaseous extracts and tended to increase for the particulate extracts in cool conditions. In conclusion, our data confirmed the presence of bioactive EDCs in a gaseous state and highlighted their indoor origin and concentration, especially in the cold season.

  17. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study wa...

  18. Vocal Ergonomics in the Workplace: Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning Method Influences on Vocal Comfort and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J; Rahn, Keith A; Smith, Audrey G

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning method on voice function following a voicing task using ecologically valid offices, one with radiant HVAC and one with forced air. A total of 12 consented participants (6 women, 6 men) narrated a video in each of 4 environmental conditions in a within-between repeated-measures design. Acoustic data were collected with an ambulatory phonation monitor and perceived phonatory effort was determined following the voicing task. Data were analyzed using a within-between repeated-measures analysis of variance with significance set at α spaces despite significant acoustic findings. Future research should address longer exposure to environmental differences combined with a longer voicing task within ecologically valid work spaces as well as the recruitment of participants who have particular vulnerability to environmental perturbations.

  19. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regular employee meetings. What protections does OSHA offer? The Occupational Safety and Health Act’s ( OSH Act ) General Duty Clause requires employers to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all workers covered by the OSH Act . ...

  20. Distribution pathways of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a soil-plant-air system. A case study with Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp. plants grown in a contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvelo Pereira, R.; Monterroso, C.; Macias, F.; Camps-Arbestain, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the main routes of distribution and accumulation of different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (mainly α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH) in a soil-plant-air system. A field assay was carried out with two plant species, Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp., which were planted either: (i) directly in the HCH-contaminated soil; or (ii) in pots filled with uncontaminated soil, which were placed in the HCH-contaminated soil. Both plant species accumulated HCH in their tissues, with relatively higher accumulation in above-ground biomass than in roots. The β-HCH isomer was the main isomer in all plant tissues. Adsorption of HCH by the roots from contaminated soil (soil → root pathway) and adsorption through the aerial biomass from either the surrounding air, following volatilization of the contaminant (soil → air → shoot pathway), and/or contact with air-suspended particles contaminated with HCH (soil particles → shoot pathway) were the main mechanisms of accumulation. These results may have important implications for the use of plants for reducing the transfer of contaminants via the atmosphere. - Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are preferentially accumulated in above-ground tissues of plants grown in a heavily contaminated site

  1. 21Pb dating of sediments in a heavily contaminated drainage channel to the La Plata estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Curutchet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of 21 Pb and 137 Cs in sediment samples collected from two cores at a drainage channel to the La Plata river estuary in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were measured using ultralow-background detection systems. The 21 Pb data were used to determine the rate of sediment accumulation of the sites. These results were correlated with some heavy metal (chromium and lead) concentrations of the samples in an attempt to characterize the historical input of contaminants due to the industrial development, which has taken place in this area over the last century. The 137 Cs measurements demonstrate that cesium dating is not adequate in regions of the southern hemisphere

  2. [Indoor air studies of mould fungus contamination of homes of selected patients with bronchial asthma (with special regard to evaluation problems)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkpiel, K; Kurowski, V; Ohgke, H

    1996-02-01

    Investigations of indoor air of the homes of seven patients with asthma bronchiale who showed up with positive reactions following intracutaneous application of fungal allergens revealed that their places of residence were contaminated by fungal and bacterial spores. The number of colony forming units of mesophilic fungal spores of the indoor air ranged from 100 to 1000 CFU/m3 and this was much higher than the mould flora of the outdoor air determined simultaneously. The major fungi species found by the indoor investigation were: Penicillium sp. > Aspergillus sp. > Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Chrysonilia sp., Verticillium sp. > Geotrichum sp., Trichoderma sp. In two cases Thermoactinomyces species could be detected in the indoor air. The main cause of fungal contamination were moist building materials on room walls, insufficient air ventilation, bad maintenance of the circulating air-machines and insufficient room hygiene (e.g. biological garbage in the kitchen).

  3. Emission of formaldehyde by particleboard : effect of ventilation rate and loading on air-contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Myers; Muneo Nagaoka

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic tests for determining the formaldehyde emission behavior of UF-bonded boards involve the measurement of formaldehyde concentration in the air within a vessel which contains a specified board loading L (m2 of board area per m3 of vessel free volume) and is being ventilated at a specified air exchange rate N (hr.-1). Such tests constitute a primary...

  4. Studies on the tritium contamination of the ambient air near nuclear facilities with large tritium inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.; Knieper, J.; Printz, H.; Sauermann, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    A part of gaseous T is converted to HTO with the humidity in the air. Since HTO has considerably more radiotoxicity than T-gas it is very important to know the extent of this conversion. This question was studied on a 14-MeV-neutron generator with open target system in which, as we know, a major part of the gaseous T originally contained in the T-target is released into the waste air via the vacuum system. The exchange rates in the breathing air in working rooms, in the waste air duct and in the free atmosphere under different meteorological conditions were measured. Furthermore the exchange rate in closed test-circulations was tested in dependence on air humidity, temperature, T-concentration, and time. The T-test instruments were calibrated with gaseous T. (orig./HP) [de

  5. The effect of laminar air flow and door openings on operating room contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric B; Raphael, Ibrahim J; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Honsawek, Sittisak; Dolan, Kyle; Younkins, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    We evaluate the association of laminar airflow (LAF) and OR traffic with intraoperative contamination rates. Two sterile basins were placed in each room during 81 cases, one inside and one outside the LAF. One Replicate Organism Detection and Counting (RODAC) plate from each basin was sent for culture at successive 30-minute intervals from incision time until wound closure. At successive 30-minute intervals more plates were contaminated outside than inside the LAF. A negative binomial model showed that the bacteria colony forming units (CFU) depended on whether there were any door openings (P=0.02) and the presence of LAF (P=0.003). LAF decreases CFU by 36.6%. LAF independently reduces the risk of contamination and microbial counts for surgeries lasting 90 minutes or less. © 2013.

  6. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii following cataract surgery: a presumed operating room air-conditioning system contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti; Raivio, Virpi; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Tommila, Petri; Ralli, Reijo; Merenmies, Lauri; Immonen, Ilkka

    2004-04-01

    To report a case of delayed fungal endophthalmitis by Paecilomyces variotii following uncomplicated cataract surgery. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of postoperative endophthalmitis by this species. We report the longterm clinical follow-up of an 83-year-old female who underwent uncomplicated sutureless, small-incision cataract surgery. She developed recurring uveitis 4 months after surgery. Vitreous tap and finally complete vitrectomy with removal of the capsular bag including the intraocular lens were performed. Fungi were studied by histopathology and culture. At histopathological examination, the fungi were found to be closely related with the capsular bag. A few mononuclear inflammatory cells were encountered. At culture, Paecilomyces variotii, a common ubiquitous non-pathogenic saprophyte, was identified. Despite systemic, intravitreal and topical antifungal therapy after vitrectomy the uveitis recurred several times, but no fungal organisms were isolated from the repeat intraocular specimen. At 18 months postoperatively the subject's visual acuity was finger counting at 2 metres. At the time of surgery the operating room air-conditioning system was undergoing repairs. Cases of fungal endophthalmitis after contamination from air-conditioning ventilation systems have been reported before, but none of the cases reported have been caused by P. variotii. P. variotii, a non-pathogenic environmental saprophyte, may be disastrous if introduced into the eye. International recommendations on the environmental control of the operating room air-conditioning ventilation system should be strictly followed. No intraoperative surgery should be undertaken while the air-conditioning system is undergoing repairs or service.

  7. Air and surface contamination patterns of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on eight acute hospital wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, E; Shore, A C; Deasy, E C; Galvin, S; Dolan, A; Walley, N; McHugh, S; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Sullivan, D J; Cunney, R; Coleman, D C; Humphreys, H

    2014-03-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be recovered from hospital air and from environmental surfaces. This poses a potential risk of transmission to patients. To investigate associations between MRSA isolates recovered from air and environmental surfaces with those from patients when undertaking extensive patient and environmental sampling. This was a prospective observational study of patients and their environment in eight wards of a 700-bed tertiary care hospital during 2010 and 2011. Sampling of patients, air and surfaces was carried out on all ward bays, with more extended environmental sampling in ward high-dependency bays and at particular times of the day. The genetic relatedness of isolates was determined by DNA microarray profiling and spa typing. MRSA was recovered from 30/706 (4.3%) patients and from 19/132 (14.4%) air samples. On 9/132 (6.8%) occasions both patient and air samples yielded MRSA. In 32 high-dependency bays, MRSA was recovered from 12/161 (7.4%) patients, 8/32 (25%) air samples, and 21/644 (3.3%) environmental surface samples. On 10/132 (7.6%) occasions, MRSA was isolated from air in the absence of MRSA-positive patients. Patient demographic data combined with spa typing and DNA microarray profiling revealed four likely transmission clusters, where patient and environmental isolates were deemed to be very closely related. Air sampling yielded MRSA on frequent occasions, especially in high-dependency bays. Environmental and air sampling combined with patient demographic data, spa typing and DNA microarray profiling indicated the presence of clusters that were not otherwise apparent. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of internal contamination problems associated with bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Bounds, B. Keith; Gardner, Warren

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is to characterize the mechanisms of bioregenerative revitalization of air and water as well as to assess the possible risks associated with such a system in a closed environment. Marsh and aquatic plants are utilized for purposes of wastewater treatment as well as possible desalinization and demineralization. Foliage plants are also being screened for their ability to remove toxic organics from ambient air. Preliminary test results indicate that treated wastewater is typically of potable quality with numbers of pathogens such as Salmonella and Shigella significantly reduced by the artificial marsh system. Microbiological analyses of ambient air indicate the presence of bacilli as well as thermophilic actinomycetes.

  9. The effect of storage in damp air and damp argon on pond water contaminated CAGR fuel cladding steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, P.W.G.

    1986-10-01

    Retention of the mechanical integrity of fuel element assemblies during dry storage forms part of the strategy for any dry-store and is important for the ease of eventual reprocessing or disposal. This report describes a number of corrosion experiments which have been carried out on coupons of unirradiated CAGR fuel cladding steel which have been contaminated with simulated pond water. Two potential dry-store problem areas have been addressed. First is the possibility of failure of the dry-store mild steel container, allowing damp air to replace the nominally dry argon cover gas. Second is the possibility of water-logged failed fuel being inadvertently containerised giving rise to a humid argon atmosphere within the dry-store container. Specimens of niobium stabilised and titanium nitride strengthened CAGR fuel cladding steels in virgin, pre-oxidised and laboratory sensitised states have been exposed at temperatures of 150 0 C and 400 0 C, to air saturated with water at 10 0 C and to argon saturated at 25 0 C. Most specimens were contaminated with simulated pond water deposits containing chloride anion concentrations up to 10 ppm. No deleterious effects were observed either gravimetrically or metallographically after exposures between 10039 hours and 13152 hours. However, the absence of stress and radiation in these experiments means that caution should be exercised in applying the results to situations in which those conditions are present. (author)

  10. Distribution pathways of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a soil-plant-air system. A case study with Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp. plants grown in a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R Calvelo; Monterroso, C; Macías, F; Camps-Arbestain, M

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on the main routes of distribution and accumulation of different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (mainly alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH) in a soil-plant-air system. A field assay was carried out with two plant species, Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp., which were planted either: (i) directly in the HCH-contaminated soil; or (ii) in pots filled with uncontaminated soil, which were placed in the HCH-contaminated soil. Both plant species accumulated HCH in their tissues, with relatively higher accumulation in above-ground biomass than in roots. The beta-HCH isomer was the main isomer in all plant tissues. Adsorption of HCH by the roots from contaminated soil (soil-->root pathway) and adsorption through the aerial biomass from either the surrounding air, following volatilization of the contaminant (soil-->air-->shoot pathway), and/or contact with air-suspended particles contaminated with HCH (soil particles-->shoot pathway) were the main mechanisms of accumulation. These results may have important implications for the use of plants for reducing the transfer of contaminants via the atmosphere.

  11. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, A. M.; Homer, M. L.; Ksendzov, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  12. Intregrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; Homer, Margie L.; Manfreda, Allison M.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  13. A pilot study to determine medical laser generated air contaminant emission rates for a simulated surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John; Conroy, Lorraine; Breskey, John; Esmen, Nurtan; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to estimate the emission rates of gases and particles associated with LGACs during a simulated surgical procedure. Two medical lasers (Holmium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Ho:YAG] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) were set to a range of plausible medical laser operational parameters in a simulated surgery to pyrolyze porcine skin generating plume in the emission chamber. Power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and beam diameter were evaluated to determine the effect of each operational parameter on emission rate using a fractional factorial design. The plume was sampled for particulate matter and seven gas phase combustion byproduct contaminants (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide): the gas phase emission results are presented here. Most of the measured concentrations of gas phase contaminants were below their limit of detection (LOD), but detectable measurements enabled us to determine laser operation parameter influence on CO2 emissions. Confined to the experimental conditions of this screening study, results indicated that beam diameter was statistically significantly influential and power was marginally statistically significant to emission rates of CO2 when using the Ho:YAG laser but not with the carbon dioxide laser; PRF was not influential vis-a-vis emission rates of these gas phase contaminants.

  14. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  15. Workplace suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.

    2009-01-01

    The adaptation of workplaces can be defined as an integral service aimed at adapting all work areas to current legislation. At present, these activities involve the restoration of the areas and equipment in all the disciplines, achieving substantial improvements in terms of quality, safety, radiation protection and maintenance. The integral workplace adaptation service has been implemented in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power plant for more than five years and has succeeded in adapting a third of all the cubicles to current legislation. The goal is to continue with these activities until adaption of 100% of the plant cubicles is completed. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of fungal air contamination in selected wards of two tertiary hospitals in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kamali Sarwestani

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the frequency and diversity of fungal spores in hospital wards were different. In addition, since the fungal contamination in the hospital environment are affected by various environmental factors and the efficiency of ventilation systems, some of these wards require better ventilation system as well as regular monitoring to remove these fungal bioaerosols in order to maintain the health of patients and health care workers.

  17. Recommended radiological air sampling and internal contamination control at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.; Ritter, P.D.; Martz, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    It has long been recognized by the NRC Technical Staffs that estimating the quantity of radioactivity inhaled by an individual worker involved large uncertainties. General air samples usually produce concentrations lower than those in the workers Breathing Zone (BZ). NRC guides have recognized this problem by specifying air monitoring programs which sample the Breathing Zone or concentrations known to be higher than that actually inhaled. In addition the availability of suitable samplers to obtain BZ samples and the practicality of requiring their use was somewhat in question to the NRC technical staff. AN NRC development contract was issued to provide a detailed review of the technical aspects of the problems and recommendations for practical upgrade of federal guidance. This project accomplished a review of the nuclear industry experience and knowledge through a literature search, site visits to representative licensed facilities, telephone surveys of many others, laboratory testing of personal air samplers (lapel samplers) and aerosol diffusion experiments to verify key conclusions and assumptions

  18. Measurement of underground contamination of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) on the basis of the radon concentration in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated whether measurements of radon concentrations in ground level air are a suitable method of detecting sub-surface soil contamination with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The working postulation was that, due to the very high solubility of radon in NAPLs, and the resulting accumulation of radon in NAPLs, radon exhalation to the ground level air in the proximity of such NAPL contamination should be locally reduced, thus indicating contamination of sub-surface soils with NAPLs. The research work reported was to verify the working theory by way of experiments, and to finally develop a reliable detection method for NAPL contaminations. The investigations comprised theoretical studies, laboratory experiments, experiments in defined soil columns, and extensive field studies [de

  19. Evaluation of the soil-to-indoor air exposure pathway at petroleum contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W. B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Results of two approaches for evaluating human exposure to benzene inside a former gasoline station converted into a strip mall were discussed. Using passive air sampling, benzene levels inside the mall were evaluated. It was found that contrary to expectations the levels inside the mall were lower than the average levels in Canadian homes. The second approach, i.e. modeling of soil vapour entry, confirmed the findings of the passive air test by showing that incremental exposure conditions for mall workers was no worse than what they receive by inhalation in their own homes. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Evaluation of the soil-to-indoor air exposure pathway at petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindzierski, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of two approaches for evaluating human exposure to benzene inside a former gasoline station converted into a strip mall were discussed. Using passive air sampling, benzene levels inside the mall were evaluated. It was found that contrary to expectations the levels inside the mall were lower than the average levels in Canadian homes. The second approach, i.e. modeling of soil vapour entry, confirmed the findings of the passive air test by showing that incremental exposure conditions for mall workers was no worse than what they receive by inhalation in their own homes. 14 refs., 2 figs

  1. Endocrinair : contamination de l'air ambiant : Contamination de l’air ambiant par les perturbateurs endocriniens en Ile de France et caractérisation d’effets toxiques associés

    OpenAIRE

    Chevreuil , Marc; Oziol , Lucie

    2012-01-01

    National audience; En Ile de France, la contamination permanente de l’air ambiant soulève de nouvelles interrogations quant à l’exposition de l’Homme à des perturbateurs endocriniens par cette voie et à la possibilité d’effets sur sa santé, même si ceux-ci sont à faible concentration (micropolluants). Ce qui constitue l’aspect innovant de ce programme, c’est la recherche de molécules semi-volatiles à l’état gazeux ou liées à des particules à l’extérieur et à l’intérieur de locaux (appartement...

  2. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at the significant level of p<0.050. Results: Means and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal contamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, p<0.001. The bacterial and fungal contamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively. For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusion: High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards.

  3. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD FOR PCR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following air sampling, fungal DNA needs to be extracted and purified to a state suitable for laboratory use. Our laboratory has developed a simple method of extraction and purification of fungal DNA appropriate for enzymatic manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appli...

  4. Advanced air distribution method combined with deodorant material for exposure reduction to bioeffluents contaminants in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Mizutani, Chiyomi; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    -bed hospital patient room at reduced background ventilation rare of 1.6 air changes per hour. The bed of the patient was equipped with the ventilated mattress (VM) having an exhaust opening from which bioeffluents generated from human body were sucked and discharged from the room. To enhance the pollutant...

  5. Nonstandard usage of ASS-500 station filters for determination of ground-level air contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, K.; Jasinska, M.; Kwiatek, W.; Mietelski, J.W.; Dutkiewicz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The work describes nonstandard application of filters from ASS-500 station for the determination of the element content in the samples collected by PIXE method. Determination of gamma radioactive isotopes and alpha radioactive plutonium is also reviewed. Authors conclude that ASS-500 workstation allows collection of representative samples from the ground level air. These samples are suitable for the complex analysis of industrial pollution

  6. Influences of ammonia contamination on leaching from air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Zhenzhen; Chen, Dezhen; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Application of selective non-catalytic reduction systems at municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) often involves over-stoichiometric injection of ammonia into flue gases. Un-reacted ammonia may be deposited on fly ash particles and can ultimately influence the leaching behaviour of air...

  7. Changing Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on changing workplaces. "Women Entrepreneurs: Maintaining Business Success through Human Resource Development" (Dominic G. Kamau , Gary N. McLean, Alexander Ardishvili) investigates contributions of human resource development (HRD) to business success and reports the following: (1) women can be…

  8. Changing Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the changing workplace and its relationship to human resource development (HRD). In "Globalization, Immigration and Quality of Life Dynamics for Reverse Brain Drains" (Ben-Chieh Liu, Maw Lin Lee, Hau-Lien), the factors responsible for the brain drain from Taiwan to the United States…

  9. Radioactive Mapping Contaminant of Alpha on The Air in Space of Repair of Hot Cell and Medium Radioactivity Laboratory in Radio metallurgy Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf-Nampira; Endang-Sukesi; S-Wahyuningsih; R-Budi-Santoso

    2007-01-01

    Hot cell and space of acid laboratory medium activity in Radio metallurgy Installation are used for the examination preparation of fuel nuclear post irradiation. The sample examined is dangerous radioactive material representing which can disseminate passing air stream. The dangerous material spreading can be pursued by arranging air stream from laboratory space to examination space. To know the performance the air stream arrangement is hence conducted by radioactive mapping contaminant of alpha in laboratory / space of activity place, for example, medium activity laboratory and repair space. This mapping radioactivity contaminant is executed with the measurement level of the radioactivity from sample air taken at various height with the distance of 1 m, various distance and from potential source as contaminant spreading access. The mapping result indicate that a little spreading of radioactive material happened from acid cupboard locker to laboratory activity up to distance of 3 m from acid cupboard locker and spreading of radioactive contaminant from goods access door of the hot cell 104 to repair space reach the distance of 2 m from goods door access. Level of the radioactive contamination in the space was far under maximum limitation allowed (20 Bq / m 3 ). (author)

  10. Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), air sampler - Results from the Space Transport System (STS-2) flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P. N.; Hester, H. B.; Bertsch, W.; Mayfield, H.; Zatko, D.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation involving sampling the rapidly changing environment of the Shuttle cargo bay is considered. Four time-integrated samples and one rapid acquisition sample were collected to determine the types and quantities of contaminants present during ascent and descent of the Shuttle. The sampling times for the various bottles were controlled by valves operated by the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) of the IECM. Many of the observed species were found to be common solvents used in cleaning surfaces. When the actual volume sampled is taken into account, the relative mass of organics sampled during descent is about 20 percent less than during ascent.

  11. Exposure to secondhand smoke in Germany: air contamination due to smoking in German restaurants, bars, and other venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Seibold, Bjoern; Schunk, Susanne; Jentzsch, Elmar; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Dresler, Carolyn; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    This study quantified exposure to secondhand smoke in German restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues by determining the concentration of respirable suspended particles measuring 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5) in indoor air. The measurements were taken using an inconspicuous device placed on the investigator's table in the venue. The concentration of particulate matter in the indoor air was measured for a minimum of 30 min. A total of 39 restaurants, 20 coffee bars, 12 bars, 9 discothèques, and 20 restaurant cars in trains were visited throughout Germany from September 30 to October 31, 2005. The readings disclosed a median PM2.5 of 260 microg/m3 and an arithmetic mean PM2.5 of 333 microg/m3. Median values were 378 microg/m3 in bars, 131 microg/m3 in cafes, and 173 microg/m3 in restaurants. The highest medians were measured in discothèques and restaurant cars, with values averaging 432 microg/m3 and 525 microg/m3 PM2.5, respectively. This study was the first to show the magnitude and extent of exposure to secondhand smoke on such an extensive scale in Germany. The contaminated air due to smoking is a human carcinogenic and major health hazard, which would be prevented most effectively and completely by implementing a ban on smoking. This study is important for the ongoing national debate in Germany as well as for debates in all countries without smoke-free air legislation, which includes most countries around the world.

  12. Air analysis in the assessment of fumonisin contamination risk in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Gubiani, Rino; Firrao, Giuseppe; Cividino, Sirio; Locci, Romano; Gobbi, Emanuela

    2010-03-15

    In maize-growing areas where fumonisin contamination is endemic, there is an urgent need for novel methods to assess the quality of grain lots before their delivery to common drying and storage collection centres. Aerobiological samples of fungal spores released during harvest were analysed to establish a relationship between fumonisin contamination and the abundance of pathogen propagules collected in the combine harvester using a cyclone and membrane filters. Filter-captured propagules were analysed by direct plating, immunoenzymatic assay of specific Fusarium extracellular polysaccharides and real time polymerase chain reaction of the extracted DNA using fum1, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of fumonisin, as a target. The results showed that time of harvest and environmental conditions strongly influenced the efficiency and performance of the collection system. The data obtained were informative in comparing individual samples collected under similar conditions. The immunoenzymatic assay provided the most reliable data, which improved the ability of a neural network to predict the fumonisin content of lots, when added to agronomic, environmental and phytosanitary data. This is the first attempt to evaluate the Fusarium propagules dispersed during harvesting as a predictive means to assess maize quality. A method based on cyclone/filter capture and immunological detection has been shown to be feasible and to have the potential for the development of a continuous monitoring system, but the prediction capabilities in the present implementation were limited.

  13. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  14. Integration of processes induced air flotation and photo-Fenton for treatment of residual waters contaminated with xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Syllos S. da; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de; Nascimento, Claudio A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have studied the treatment of wastewater contaminated with hydrocarbons represented by the xylene, using these processes in an integrated mode: induced air flotation and photo-Fenton. ► We have selected xylene as representative contaminant due to properties of toxicity, solubility in water and vapor pressure. ► The manuscript presents a series of accurate experimental data that can be useful for material and energy optimization purposes in the xylene removal aiming the treatment of oil field produced water. - Abstract: Produced water in oil fields is one of the main sources of wastewater generated in the industry. It contains several organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX), whose disposal is regulated by law. The aim of this study is to investigate a treatment of produced water integrating two processes, i.e., induced air flotation (IAF) and photo-Fenton. The experiments were conducted in a column flotation and annular lamp reactor for flotation and photodegradation steps, respectively. The first order kinetic constant of IAF for the wastewater studied was determined to be 0.1765 min −1 for the surfactant EO 7. Degradation efficiencies of organic loading were assessed using factorial planning. Statistical data analysis shows that H 2 O 2 concentration is a determining factor in process efficiency. Degradations above 90% were reached in all cases after 90 min of reaction, attaining 100% mineralization in the optimized concentrations of Fenton reagents. Process integration was adequate with 100% organic load removal in 20 min. The results of the integration of the IAF with the photo-Fenton allowed to meet the effluent limits established by Brazilian legislation for disposal.

  15. Integration of processes induced air flotation and photo-Fenton for treatment of residual waters contaminated with xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Syllos S. da [Departamento Engenharia Quimica, NUPEG, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, Natal 59066-800, RN (Brazil); Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo, E-mail: osvaldo@eq.ufrn.br [Departamento Engenharia Quimica, NUPEG, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, Natal 59066-800, RN (Brazil); Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de [Departamento Engenharia Quimica, NUPEG, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, Natal 59066-800, RN (Brazil); Nascimento, Claudio A.O. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied the treatment of wastewater contaminated with hydrocarbons represented by the xylene, using these processes in an integrated mode: induced air flotation and photo-Fenton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have selected xylene as representative contaminant due to properties of toxicity, solubility in water and vapor pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manuscript presents a series of accurate experimental data that can be useful for material and energy optimization purposes in the xylene removal aiming the treatment of oil field produced water. - Abstract: Produced water in oil fields is one of the main sources of wastewater generated in the industry. It contains several organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX), whose disposal is regulated by law. The aim of this study is to investigate a treatment of produced water integrating two processes, i.e., induced air flotation (IAF) and photo-Fenton. The experiments were conducted in a column flotation and annular lamp reactor for flotation and photodegradation steps, respectively. The first order kinetic constant of IAF for the wastewater studied was determined to be 0.1765 min{sup -1} for the surfactant EO 7. Degradation efficiencies of organic loading were assessed using factorial planning. Statistical data analysis shows that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration is a determining factor in process efficiency. Degradations above 90% were reached in all cases after 90 min of reaction, attaining 100% mineralization in the optimized concentrations of Fenton reagents. Process integration was adequate with 100% organic load removal in 20 min. The results of the integration of the IAF with the photo-Fenton allowed to meet the effluent limits established by Brazilian legislation for disposal.

  16. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus using a high-volume air sampler with glass fiber filters and a five-stage impactor that separates the aerosols into five sizes. The filters were extracted in water to dissolve anions and the solution was analyzed using high-pressure liquid ion chromatography. Only trace amounts of chloride with no distinct patterns in size were detected. In total, nitrate content ranged from 0.12 to 2.10 μg/m3 and sulfate content ranged from 0.44 to 6.45 μg/m3 over a 3-month period. As for fine particles, a higher concentration of sulfate was observed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model determines air mass origin, and in this study, higher total sulfate content was observed when the air mass moved out of the southwest, and higher total nitrate content was observed when the air mass originated from the southeast. The author concluded that small particles resulted in sulfate from sulfur dioxide, typically from gas to particle conversion. High sulfur dioxide levels are directly correlated with coal-burning power plant density. Small particulate sulfate found in West Lafayette, Indiana, was determined to originate primarily from power plants in southwest Indiana. Though the results do show a significant amount of potentially harmful aerosols in West Lafayette, there is still further research to be done concerning isotopic composition of those particles in attempts to better explain the chemical pathways.

  17. Air, water, and surface bacterial contamination in a university-hospital autopsy room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maujean, Géraldine; Malicier, Daniel; Fanton, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Today, little is known about the bacteriological environment of the autopsy room and its potential interest for medico-legal practices. Seven hundred fifty microbiological samples were taken from surface (n = 660), air (n = 48), and water (n = 42) to evaluate it in a French University Forensic Department. Median bacterial counts were compared before and during autopsy for air samples, and before and after autopsy for surface samples, using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. Bacterial identification relied on traditional phenotypic methods. Bacterial counts in the air were low before autopsy, increased significantly during procedure, and seemed more linked to the number of people in the room than to an important production of aerosol-containing bacteria. Despite cleaning, human fecal flora was omnipresent on surfaces, which revealed insufficient disinfection. Bacteriological sampling is an easy way to monitor cleaning practices in postmortem rooms, but chiefly a way to improve the reliability of medico-legal proofs of infectious deaths. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Measurement and on line control of radioactive contamination of the air using ASS-500 stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.; Zak, A.; Biernacka, M.; Isajenko, K.; Lipinski, P.

    1998-01-01

    The method of continuous monitoring of artificial radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere, used for early warning system in care of nuclear emergencies, is presented. The system consist of the scintillation spectrometer AS-01 mounted in the ASS-500 station cabinet. The results of calibrations and operational tests are given. For continuous operation mode the lower activity concentration limit is 0.44 Bq/m 3 for 131 I and 0.79 Bq/m 3 for 137 Cs. The activity concentration in the air of 10 Bq/m 3 for artificial radionuclides is used as the alarm threshold value. The ASS-500 station equipped with AS-01 spectrometer allows obtaining of the immediate information on the presence of artificial radionuclides in the air. The sampling process is not disturbed by AS-01 spectrometer. Therefore, the determination of the activity concentration in the air on the level of few μBq/m 3 by means of HPGe spectrometers is possible (author)

  19. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Field Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    An environmental investigation of ground water conditions has been undertaken at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Ohio to obtain data to assist in the evaluation of a potential removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, migration of the contaminated ground water across Base boundaries. Field investigations were limited to the central section of the southwestern boundary of Area C and the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B. Further, the study was limited to a maximum depth of 150 feet below grade. Three primary activities of the field investigation were: (1) installation of 22 monitoring wells, (2) collection and analysis of ground water from 71 locations, (3) measurement of ground water elevations at 69 locations. Volatile organic compounds including trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and/or vinyl chloride were detected in concentrations exceeding Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) at three locations within the Area C investigation area. Ground water at the Springfield Pike boundary of Area B occurs in two primary units, separated by a thicker-than-expected clay layers. One well within Area B was determined to exceed the MCL for trichloroethylene.

  20. Enclosure design for flock-level, chronic exposure of birds to air contaminant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle A; Kinniburgh, David W; Smits, Judit E G

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to design an enclosure suitable for studying the ecotoxicological effects of vehicle emissions on groups of wild birds without compromising welfare. Two, adjacent enclosures sheltered from sunlight, wind and rain, were bird-proofed and wrapped with thick polyethylene sheeting. Emissions were directed into the treatment enclosure from the exhaust of a light-duty gasoline truck, using flexible, heat-proof pipe, with joins sealed to prevent leakage. During active exposure, the engine was idled for 5 h/day, 6 days/week for 4 weeks. Fans maintained positive pressure (controls) and negative pressure (treatment), preventing cross-contamination of enclosures and protecting investigators. Four sets of passive, badge-type samplers were distributed across each enclosure, measuring nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds (NO 2 , SO 2 and VOCs, respectively), and were complemented by active monitors measuring VOCs and particulate matter (2.5 µm diameter, PM 2.5 ). We found that the concentrations of NO 2 , SO 2 and PM 2.5 were not different between treatment and control enclosures. Volatile organic compounds (e.g. benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) were approximately six times higher in the treatment enclosure than control (13.23 and 2.13 µg m -1 , respectively). In conclusion, this represents a successful, practical design for studying the effects of sub-chronic to chronic exposure to realistic mixtures of vehicle exhaust contaminants, in groups of birds. Recommended modifications for future research include a chassis dynamometer (vehicle treadmill), to better replicate driving conditions including acceleration and deceleration.

  1. Novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen: reduction of microbial-contaminants and OH radicals in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Hideo; Park, Rae-Eun; Kwon, Jun-Hyoun; Suh, Inseon; Jeon, Junsang; Ha, Eunju; On, Hyeon-Ki; Kim, Hye-Ryung; Choi, KyoungHui; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik-Lin; Jung, Hoon; Kang, Shin Jung; Namba, Shinichi; Takiyama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen has been developed. This device has specific properties such as (1) deactivation of airborne microbial-contaminants, (2) neutralization of indoor OH radicals and (3) being harmless to the human body. It consists of a ceramic plate as a positive ion generation electrode and a needle-shaped electrode as an electron emission electrode. Release of atomic hydrogen from the device has been investigated by the spectroscopic method. Optical emission of atomic hydrogen probably due to recombination of positive ions, H + (H 2 O)n, generated from the ceramic plate electrode and electrons emitted from the needle-shaped electrode have been clearly observed in the He gas (including water vapour) environment. The efficacy of the device to reduce airborne concentrations of influenza virus, bacteria, mould fungi and allergens has been evaluated. 99.6% of airborne influenza virus has been deactivated with the operation of the device compared with the control test in a 1 m 3 chamber after 60 min. The neutralization of the OH radical has been investigated by spectroscopic and biological methods. A remarkable reduction of the OH radical in the air by operation of the device has been observed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The cell protection effects of the device against OH radicals in the air have been observed. Furthermore, the side effects have been checked by animal experiments. The harmlessness of the device has been confirmed

  2. Mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow screen reduces air contamination in a simulated setting for intra-vitreal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Traversari, Roberto; van der Linden, Jan Willem; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Lapid, Oren; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a mobile ultra-clean laminar airflow screen reduces the air-borne particle counts in the setting of a simulated procedure of an intra-vitreal injection. A mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow (UDF) screen was tested in a simulated procedure for intra-vitreal injections in a treatment room without mechanical ventilation. One UDF was passed over the instrument tray and the surgical area. The concentration of particles was measured in the background, over the instrument table, and next to the ocular area. The degree of protection was calculated at the instrument table and at the surgical site. Use of the UDF mobile screen reduced the mean particle concentration (particles > 0.3 microns) on the instrument table by a factor of at least 100.000 (p air contamination. Mobile UDF screen reduces the mean particle concentration substantially. The mobile UDF screen may therefore allow for a safer procedural environment for ambulatory care procedures such as intra-vitreal injections in treatment rooms.

  3. PCDD, PCDF, and PCB contamination of air and inhalable particulate in Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, L.; Carere, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Fuselli, S.; Iacovella, N.; Rodriguez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The isomer specific determination of PCDD, PCDF and PCB was carried out on samples of air and inhalable particulate from Rome. Samples were taken daily for six months and pooled to yield two samples per month. Normal PCDD + PCDF concentrations expressed in TEQ ranged from 48 to 87 fg/m 3 , while total PCB ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 ng/m 3 . The 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted PCDD and PCDF congener pattern is shown together with the PCB congener pattern. (orig.)

  4. Workplace threats to health and job turnover among women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucer, Patricia W; Oliver, Marc; McDiarmid, Melissa

    2003-07-01

    Is job turnover related to concern about workplace health risks? Using data from a national sample of working women, we examined the relationships among workplace risk communications, worker concerns about workplace threats from hazardous substances, indoor air quality, and job change. Eight percent reported changing a job as a result of concern over workplace threats to health. Previous workplace injury predicted concern about hazardous materials and indoor air quality as well as job change, but employer communication about workplace health risks was associated with less job change and less concern about indoor air quality. Women worry about workplace threats to their health enough to change their jobs, but employers may have the power to cut turnover costs and reduce disruption to workers' lives through the use of risk communication programs.

  5. Analysis of an Air Conditioning Coolant Solution for Metal Contamination Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Exercise Simulating an Industrial Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-life analytical assignment is presented to students, who had to examine an air conditioning coolant solution for metal contamination using an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). This hands-on access to a real problem exposed the undergraduate students to the mechanism of AAS, and promoted participation in a simulated industrial activity.

  6. Effects of low-pressure air on oxygen contamination and lithium corrosion of a tantalum alloy, T-111, at 980 and 1260 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of low-pressure air on contamination and corrosion in the tantalum alloy T-111/lithium system at 980 and 1260 C. Capsules of T-111 containing lithium were exposed to six vacuum levels between 1 x 10 to the 8th power and 0.0003 torr by controlled air leakage into a vacuum system. Capsules exposed at 980 C and 0.0002 torr failed from intragranular oxidation. The remainder of the capsules completed the 96-hour tests. The depth of oxygen contamination was greater at 980 C than at 1260 C. Tests made at 0.0001 and 0.00001 torr levels caused large increases in the oxygen content of the T-111. Tests at 0.000001 torr or less produced no significant contamination. No lithium corrosion of the T-111 was observed under any of the conditions.

  7. Effect of Medicinal Smokes on Reduction of Fungal Indoor Air Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fouladi Fard

    2016-12-01

    Results: The indoor fungal removal percent by Espand smoke in 1, 3, and 5 minutes after smoking were 52.75 %, 64.72 %, and 77.28 %, respectively; and for the Anbarnasa smoke at these times were 54.6 %, 59.4 %, and 74 %. Increase in smoking time caused a significant increase (p < 0.05( in fungi removal, but change in the mass and the kind of smoking matter (Espand or Anbarnasa did not cause any significant change in the removal. Conclusion: Smoking with Espand and Anbarnasa as well as duration of smoking can decrease the building's ambient air fungi burden significantly. Of course it is better to perform smoking in enclosed spaces especially in toilets and without the presence of the person.

  8. Monitoring and analysis PET/CT workplace radioactivity level in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Gao Linfeng; Qian Aijun; Yao Jie; Shen Jinfu; Ji Guiyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the PET/CT basic information in Shanghai, through monitoring radioactivity level of PET/CT workplace, to get the radiological protection information about PET/CT place. Methods: Through the γ radiation air absorbed dose rate and the β surface contamination to investigate PET/CT medical institutions in Shanghai. Results: By the end of 2011, there were 13 sets of PET/CT. Detecting show that γ radiation air absorbed dose rate is at relatively higher level in waiting room and the injection rooms, the date of waiting room door was up to 19552 nSv/h, the maximum value of injection room desk surface was 6136 nSv/h, the middle of injection room was up to 5408 nSv/h. Any date was certain the limits of national standard of β surface contamination, the middle of in the injection room. It is still higher on the window and wastes barrel. Conclusion: The radiation protection of PET/CT workplace is proper, surface contamination levels can be controlled within in the standard limits, but there are a blank of limits about nuclear medicine place of γ radiation absorbed dose rate air in the national standard, and external exposure protection is still the key of radiation protection. (authors)

  9. A survey of an air monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this report is to compare personal air sampling data to stationary air sampling data and to bioassay data that was taken during the decontamination and decommissioning of sixty-one plutonium glove boxes at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1995. An air monitoring program administered at Argonne National Laboratory was assessed by comparing personal air sampler (PAS) data, stationary air sampler (SAS) data, and bioassay data. The study revealed that the PAS and SAS techniques were equivalent when averaged over all employees and all workdays, but the standard deviation was large. Also, large deviations were observed in individual samples. The correlation between individual PAS results and bioassay results was low. Personal air samplers and bioassay monitoring played complementary roles in assessing the workplace and estimating intakes. The PAS technique is adequate for detection and evaluation of contaminated atmospheres, whereas bioassay monitoring is better for determining individual intakes

  10. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Aiempradit, Natkitta; Vatanasomboon, Pisit

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards. This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram's stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient at the significant level of pcontamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, pcontamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively). For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively. High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards.

  11. Indoor Air Contamination from Hazardous Waste Sites: Improving the Evidence Base for Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jill; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2015-11-27

    At hazardous waste sites, volatile chemicals can migrate through groundwater and soil into buildings, a process known as vapor intrusion. Due to increasing recognition of vapor intrusion as a potential indoor air pollution source, in 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new vapor intrusion guidance document. The guidance specifies two conditions for demonstrating that remediation is needed: (1) proof of a vapor intrusion pathway; and (2) evidence that human health risks exceed established thresholds (for example, one excess cancer among 10,000 exposed people). However, the guidance lacks details on methods for demonstrating these conditions. We review current evidence suggesting that monitoring and modeling approaches commonly employed at vapor intrusion sites do not adequately characterize long-term exposure and in many cases may underestimate risks. On the basis of this evidence, we recommend specific approaches to monitoring and modeling to account for these uncertainties. We propose a value of information approach to integrate the lines of evidence at a site and determine if more information is needed before deciding whether the two conditions specified in the vapor intrusion guidance are satisfied. To facilitate data collection and decision-making, we recommend a multi-directional community engagement strategy and consideration of environment justice concerns.

  12. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Abbasi, M.S.; Mehmood, F.; Jahangir, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimated that 362 tonnes of dental mercury are consumed annually worldwide. Dental mercury amalgams also called silver fillings and amalgam fillings are widely done. These fillings gave off mercury vapours. Estimated average absorbed concentrations of mercury vapours from dental fillings vary from 3,000 to 17,000 ng Hg. Mercury (Hg) also known as quick silver is an essential constituent of dental amalgam. It is a toxic substance of global concern. A persistent pollutant, mercury is not limited to its source but it travels, on time thousands of kilometers away from the source. Scientific evidence, including, UNEP Global Mercury report, establishes mercury as an extremely toxic substance, which is a major threat to wildlife, ecosystem and human health, at a global scale. Children are more at risk from mercury poisoning which affects their neurological development and brain. Mercury poisoning diminishes memory, attention, thinking and sight. In the past, a number of studies at dental sites in many countries have been carried out and reported which have been reviewed and briefly described. This paper describes and discusses the recent investigations, regarding mercury vapours level in air, carried out at 18 dental sites in Pakistan and other countries. It is evident from the data of 42 dental sites in 17 countries, including, selected dental sites in five main cities of Pakistan, described and discussed in this paper that at most dental sites in many countries including Pakistan, the indoor mercury vapours levels exceed far above the permissible limit, recommended for safe physical and mental health. At these sites, public, in general, and the medical, paramedical staff and vulnerable population, in particular, are at most serious risk to health resulting from exposure to toxic and hazardous mercury. (author)

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications. © 2013.

  14. Microbial contamination of central supply systems for medical air Contaminação microbiana dos sistemas centrais de abastecimento de ar medicinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Machado Andrade

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many standards and recommendations for breathing air quality associated with respiratory protection equipment, but little has been done regarding the possible microbial contamination of medical air. The present study demonstrates quantitatively and qualitatively that pipelines might be incriminated as source of microbial contamination of compressed and synthetic air for medical use. Air samples were drawn into an especially pressure-resistant device and the bacterial and fungi contents were identified after growth on agar plates. The bacterial flora isolated from peripheral air outlets was virtually the same as that found in the central air-generating installations, consisting of a mixture of pathogens and normal skin bacteria. Several factors contributing to microbial contamination of medical air are mentioned and preventive measures are discussed.Existem vários padrões e recomendações para a qualidade do ar respirável relacionado aos equipamentos de proteção respiratória, mas pouco tem sido feito em relação a uma possível contaminação microbiana do ar medicinal. O presente trabalho demonstra quantitativa e qualitativamente que as linhas de ar estão relacionadas à contaminação microbiológica do ar comprimido e ar sintético para uso medicinal. Amostras de ar foram coletadas por um equipamento especialmente resistente a pressão, e o conteúdo bacteriano e fúngico foi identificado após crescimento em placa. A flora bacteriana isolada tanto dos sistema periféricos de ar foi virtualmente a mesma encontrada nas instalações centralizadas, sendo uma mistura de patógenos e bactérias normais da pele. Vários fatores contribuintes para a contaminação microbiana do ar medicinal e medidas preventivas são discutidas.

  15. Environment of care: Is it time to reassess microbial contamination of the operating room air as a risk factor for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Javad; Barnes, Sue; Shohat, Noam; Edmiston, Charles E

    2017-11-01

    In the modern operating room (OR), traditional surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are viewed as effective in reducing airborne microbial populations. Intraoperative sampling of airborne particulates is rarely performed in the OR because of technical difficulties associated with sampling methodologies and a common belief that airborne contamination is infrequently associated with surgical site infections (SSIs). Recent studies suggest that viable airborne particulates are readily disseminated throughout the OR, placing patients at risk for postoperative SSI. In 2017, virtually all surgical disciplines are engaged in the implantation of selective biomedical devices, and these implants have been documented to be at high risk for intraoperative contamination. Approximately 1.2 million arthroplasties are performed annually in the United States, and that number is expected to increase to 3.8 million by the year 2030. The incidence of periprosthetic joint infection is perceived to be low (<2.5%); however, the personal and fiscal morbidity is significant. Although the pharmaceutic and computer industries enforce stringent air quality standards on their manufacturing processes, there is currently no U.S. standard for acceptable air quality within the OR environment. This review documents the contribution of air contamination to the etiology of periprosthetic joint infection, and evidence for selective innovative strategies to reduce the risk of intraoperative microbial aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity of Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Systems to Potable Water Constituents, Contaminants and Air Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Trevino, Luis A.; Fritts, Sharon; Tsioulos, Gus

    2008-01-01

    The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is the baseline heat rejection technology selected for development for the Constellation lunar suit. The first SWME prototype, designed, built, and tested at Johnson Space Center in 1999 used a Teflon hydrophobic porous membrane sheet shaped into an annulus to provide cooling to the coolant loop through water evaporation to the vacuum of space. This present study describes the test methodology and planning and compares the test performance of three commercially available hollow fiber materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME, in particular, a porous hydrophobic polypropylene, and two variants that employ ion exchange through non-porous hydrophilic modified Nafion. Contamination tests will be performed to probe for sensitivities of the candidate SWME elements to ordinary constituents that are expected to be found in the potable water provided by the vehicle, the target feedwater source. Some of the impurities in potable water are volatile, such as the organics, while others, such as the metals and inorganic ions are nonvolatile. The non-volatile constituents will concentrate in the SWME as evaporated water from the loop is replaced by the feedwater. At some point in the SWME mission lifecycle as the concentrations of the non-volatiles increase, the solubility limits of one or more of the constituents may be reached. The resulting presence of precipitate in the coolant water may begin to plug pores and tube channels and affect the SWME performance. Sensitivity to macroparticles, lunar dust simulant, and air bubbles will also be investigated.

  17. Index analysis and human health risk model application for evaluating ambient air-heavy metal contamination in Chemical Valley Sarnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawoyin, Richard; Schweitzer, Linda; Zhang, Kuangyuan; Okareh, Oladapo; Slates, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    The impacts of air emissions as a consequence of industrial activities around communities of human habitation have been extensively reported. This study is the first to assess potential adverse human health effects in the Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS) area, around the St. Clair River, using health risk models, ecological and pollution indices. Large quantities of particulate matters (PM) are generated from anthropogenic activities, which contain several heavy metals in trace quantities with potentially adverse effects to humans and environmental health. The distribution, and human health impact assessment of trace element concentrations in PM fractions were examined. Elemental concentrations of As, Cd, Cr (VI), Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn were determined in the PM size-segregated samples collected from the CVS area between 2014 and 2017. The results showed relatively high concentration of PM air quality guidelines. Pb concentration (143.03 ± 46.87ηg/m 3 ) was 3.6 times higher than the air quality standards of NAAQS. Cr (VI) showed moderate to considerable contamination ( C f =4) in the CVS while Cr (VI), Pb, and Ni had enrichment factor E f < 3 (minimal), signifying contributions from anthropogenic activities. Pollution load index (P Li ) value observed was 1.4 indicating human health risk from the PM, especially for the children in the area. The deposition fluxes (DΦ) showed that PM-bound metals could potentially bypass the head airways and cause damages to the tracheobronchial tree, increasing the human health risks of nephroblastomasis development. The main route of entry for the heavy metal bound PM in humans were observed as through ingestion and inhalation. The highest total excess cancer risks observed for children (6.7×10 -4 ) and adult (1.0×10 -4 ) indicating potential cancer effects. The Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) increased from Pb < Ni < Cd < Cr (VI) < As. Overall, children are more likely to develop carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health

  18. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  19. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in sheep from the area contaminated by depleted uranium during NATO air strikes in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišter Svetlana L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of cytogenetic studies in sheep from the region of Bujanovac that was contaminated by depleted uranium during the NATO air strikes in 1999. The study was conducted on sheep blood lymphocytes, in order to determine the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and to assess the presence of genetic risk as a result of the possible impact of depleted uranium. Blood samples for lymphocyte cultures were taken at random from the 20 animals of the households in the village of Borovac, near Bujanovac. The animals were chosen because they were pastured, fed, and watered in the NATO bombing area. With the purpose of comparing the results two control groups were cytogenetically analyzed, each consisted of 20 sheep from Zemun and Ovča, two northern localities that were not contaminated with depleted uranium. The established structural chromosomal changes were of breaks and gap types, and their frequencies in sheep of all surveyed localities were within the range of basic level values that are commonly found in the sheep lymphocyte cultures analyses. Significant differences are apparent between the values defined in the sheep from Bujanovac compared to those obtained in the sheep from the northern locality (Zemun, probably as a result of breeding of animals in the farm conditions and their being less exposed to the impact of environmental agents. There were neither elevated values of polyploid and aneuploid cells nor significant differences between the sites. According to earlier known data, depleted uranium was below the detection limit of the method applied both in the soil and feed given to cytogenetically analyzed animals. Based on the low-level changes that are in the range of the basic level changes, commonly observed in sheep lymphocytes control cultures, it cannot be said with certainty that it was depleted uranium that caused the changes, or that it is wide-spread in the region of Bujanovac. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  20. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions. Part I: Chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium in the workplace air of stainless steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, J; Bencko, V; Pápayová, A; Saligová, D; Tejral, J; Borská, L

    2001-11-01

    Exposure to workplace airborne pollutants was examined in a group of 20 workers dealing mainly with welding, polishing, drilling and assembling of stainless steel constructions. Airborne particulate matter (APM) collected using both personal and stationary samplers was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Quality assurance procedures of both sampling and analytical stages are described. Of the elements determined, results are presented for chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium. The median values of element concentrations exceeded the maximum admissible limits for workplace pollutants only for chromium, while for nickel the limit was exceeded in several individual cases. Sampling of hair, nails, blood, urine and saliva to be used for biological monitoring of the exposed and control groups is also described.

  1. Involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division in contaminated air and water handling at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; King, L.J.

    1979-08-01

    The President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) generate documents concerning two areas in which ORNL personnel provided on-site assistance following the accident on March 28, 1979. These are: instrumentation diagnostics, and the treatment of radioactive wastes and liquid effluents stemming from the accident. This report describes the involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division (CTD) in contaminated air and water handling at Three Mile Island

  2. Steam and hot air injection for thermal rehabilitation of contaminated sites; Wasserdampf- und Heissluftinjektion zur thermischen Sanierung kontaminierter Standorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R

    2001-07-01

    Thermal in situ rehabilitation technologies are a promising alternative to conventional methods of cleaning up contaminated sites. The fact that an increase in temperature changes the physical properties of materials makes it possible, in principle, to release large quantities of pollutants within short time periods. The use of pure steam or steam/air mixtures as fluid thermal carriers permits converting subterranean non-aqueous-phase pollutants into the gas phase through increased vapour pressure and transporting them to the surface by means of soil air aspiration for further treatment. The purpose of the present two-stage research project was to systematically develop a thermal in situ rehabilitation technology using steam as fluid heat carrier and use it for land rehabilitation operations on a pilot basis. In the first, fundamental project phase aspects of heat transport (Faerber, 1997) and pollutant behaviour (Betz, 1998)in homogenous porous media upon pure steam injection were explored at a laboratory and technical scale using containers of different sizes (1D, 2D, 3D). The results were used to derive application criteria for this technology. [German] Thermische In-situ-Sanierungstechnologien stellen bei der Reinigung kontaminierter Standorte eine vielversprechende Alternative zu konventionellen Verfahren dar. Die Veraenderung physikalischer Stoffeigenschaften mit steigender Temperatur ermoeglicht grundsaetzlich hohe Schadstoffaustraege innerhalb kurzer Zeitraeume. Beim Einsatz von reinem Wasserdampf oder Wasserdampf-Luft-Gemischen als Waermetraegerfluid koennen im Untergrund in nicht waessriger Phase vorliegende Schadstoffe hauptsaechlich wegen der erhoehten Dampfdruecke in die Gasphase ueberfuehrt, ueber eine Bodenluftabsaugung an die Oberflaeche transportiert und dann einer weiteren Behandlung zugefuehrt werden. Zielsetzung eines zweistufigen Forschungsvorhabens war die systematische Entwicklung einer thermischen In-situ-Sanierungstechnologie unter

  3. Air contaminants and litter fall decomposition in urban forest areas: The case of São Paulo - SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamano Ferreira, Maurício; Portella Ribeiro, Andreza; Rodrigues Albuquerque, Caroline; Ferreira, Ana Paula do Nascimento Lamano; Figueira, Rubens César Lopes; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Urban forests are usually affected by several types of atmospheric contaminants and by abnormal variations in weather conditions, thus facilitating the biotic homogenization and modification of ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling. Peri-urban forests and even natural forests that surround metropolitan areas are also subject to anthropogenic effects generated by cities, which may compromise the dynamics of these ecosystems. Hence, this study advances the hypothesis that the forests located at the margins of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, have high concentrations of atmospheric contaminants leading to adverse effects on litter fall stock. The production, stock and decomposition of litter fall in two forests were quantified. The first, known as Guarapiranga forest, lies closer to the urban area and is located within the MRSP, approximately 20km from the city center. The second, Curucutu forest, is located 70km from the urban center. This forest is situated exactly on the border of the largest continuum of vegetation of the Atlantic Forest. To verify the reach of atmospheric pollutants from the urban area, levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu) adsorbed on the litter fall deposited on the soil surface of the forests were also quantified. The stock of litter fall and the levels of heavy metals were generally higher in the Guarapiranga forest in the samples collected during the lower rainfall season (dry season). Non-metric multidimensional scaling multivariate analysis showed a clear distinction of the sample units related to the concentrations of heavy metals in each forest. A subtle difference between the units related to the dry and rainy seasons in the Curucutu forest was also noted. Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that both site and season of the year (dry or rainy) were important to differentiate the quantity of heavy metals in litter fall stock, although the analysis did not show the interaction between these two

  4. Combined in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils by closed-loop soil vapor extraction and air injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.S.; Buckler, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment and restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at a bulk petroleum above-ground storage tank (AST) site in Michigan is being conducted through in-situ and ex-situ closed-loop soil vapor extraction (SVE), soil vapor treatment, and treated air injection (AI) processes. The soil vapor extraction process applies a vacuum through the petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils in the ex-situ bio-remediation pile (bio-pile) and along the perimeter of excavated area (in-situ area) to remove the volatile or light petroleum hydrocarbons. This process also draws ambient air into the ex-situ bio-pile and in-situ vadose zone soil along the perimeter of excavated area to enhance biodegradation of light and heavy petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. The extracted soil vapor is treated using a custom-designed air bio-remediation filter (bio-filter) to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in the soil vapor extraction air streams. The treated air is then injected into a flush grade soil bed in the backfill area to perform final polishing of the air stream, and to form a closed-loop air flow with the soil vapor extraction perforated pipes along the perimeter of the excavated area

  5. Energy distribution and quantum yield for photoemission from air-contaminated gold surfaces under ultraviolet illumination close to the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Ziegler, Tobias; Biswas, Indro; Seibel, Christoph; Schulze, Mathias; Brandt, Nico; Schöll, Achim; Bergner, Patrick; Reinert, Friedrich T.

    2012-06-01

    The kinetic energy distributions of photo-electrons emitted from gold surfaces under illumination by UV-light close to the threshold (photon energy in the order of the material work function) are measured and analyzed. Samples are prepared as chemically clean through Ar-ion sputtering and then exposed to atmosphere for variable durations before quantum yield measurements are performed after evacuation. During measurements, the bias voltage applied to the sample is varied and the resulting emission current measured. Taking the derivative of the current-voltage curve yields the energy distribution which is found to closely resemble the distribution of total energies derived by DuBridge for emission from a free electron gas. We investigate the dependence of distribution shape and width on electrode geometry and contaminant substances adsorbed from the atmosphere, in particular, to water and hydro-carbons. Emission efficiency increases initially during air exposure before diminishing to zero on a timescale of several hours, whilst subsequent annealing of the sample restores emissivity. A model fit function, in good quantitative agreement with the measured data, is introduced which accounts for the experiment-specific electrode geometry and an energy dependent transmission coefficient. The impact of large patch potential fields from contact potential drops between sample and sample holder is investigated. The total quantum yield is split into bulk and surface contributions which are tested for their sensitivity to light incidence angle and polarization. Our results are directly applicable to model parameters for the contact-free discharge system onboard the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder spacecraft.

  6. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide by contamination of compressed air: physiologic effects and interference with intended nitric oxide inhalation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, A; Loop, T; Mols, G; Geiger, K

    1999-10-01

    Compressed air from a hospital's central gas supply may contain nitric oxide as a result of air pollution. Inhaled nitric oxide may increase arterial oxygen tension and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, the authors wanted to determine whether unintentional nitric oxide inhalation by contamination of compressed air influences arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance and interferes with the therapeutic use of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide concentrations in the compressed air of a university hospital were measured continuously by chemiluminescence during two periods (4 and 2 weeks). The effects of unintended nitric oxide inhalation on arterial oxygen tension (n = 15) and on pulmonary vascular resistance (n = 9) were measured in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome by changing the source of compressed air of the ventilator from the hospital's central gas supply to a nitric oxide-free gas tank containing compressed air. In five of these patients, the effects of an additional inhalation of 5 ppm nitric oxide were evaluated. During working days, compressed air of the hospital's central gas supply contained clinically effective nitric oxide concentrations (> 80 parts per billion) during 40% of the time. Change to gas tank-supplied nitric oxide-free compressed air decreased the arterial oxygen tension by 10% and increased pulmonary vascular resistance by 13%. The addition of 5 ppm nitric oxide had a minimal effect on arterial oxygen tension and pulmonary vascular resistance when added to hospital-supplied compressed air but improved both when added to tank-supplied compressed air. Unintended inhalation of nitric oxide increases arterial oxygen tension and decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The unintended nitric oxide inhalation interferes with the

  7. Assessment of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at sites FT03, LF13, and WP14/LF15, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality, aquifer-sediment, and hydro-logic data were used to assess the effectiveness of natural attenuation of ground-water contamination at Fire Training Area Three, the Rubble Area Landfill, the Liquid Waste Disposal Landfill, and the Receiver Station Landfill in the East Management Unit of Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. These sites, which are contaminated with chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons, are under-going long-term monitoring to determine if natural attenuation continues to sufficiently reduce contaminant concentrations to meet regulatory requirements. This report is the first assessment of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at these sites since long-term monitoring began in 1999, and follows a preliminary investigation done in 1995?96. This assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force.Since 1995?96, additional information has been collected and used in the current assessment. The conclusions in this report are based primarily on ground-water samples collected from January through March 2000. Previous analytical results from selected wells, available geologic and geo-physical well logs, and newly acquired information such as sediment organic-carbon measurements, hydraulic-conductivity measurements determined from slug tests on wells in the natural attenuation study area, and water-level measurements from surficial-aquifer wells also were used in this assessment. This information was used to: (1) calculate retardation factors and estimate contaminant migration velocities, (2) improve estimates of ground-water flow directions and inferred contaminant migration pathways, (3) better define the areal extent of contamination and the proximity of contaminants to discharge areas and the Base boundary, (4) develop a better under-standing of the vertical variability of contaminant concentrations and redox conditions, (5) evaluate the effects of temporal changes on concentrations in the plumes and

  8. Assessing learning at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    • Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion

  9. [Workplace mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljan, Ivana; Josipović-Jelić, Zeljka; Jelić Kis, I Anita

    2008-03-01

    Workplace mobbing is a hostile and unethical communication, systematically aimed from one or more individuals towards mostly one individual, who are forced into a helpless position and are held in it by constant bullying. This article describes some of the most important characteristics of mobbing: offensive behaviour, organizational and non-organizational causes of this behaviour, the victim and the consequences. Modern business environment is complex, dynamic, volatile, and requires better ability to adjust. Constant changes are a part of organizational reality, but they also produce an ideal environment for all kinds of conflicts. Conflicts are inevitable in every organization, but the task of its management is to identify them and resolve before they affect the workforce, productivity and costs. The idea is to avert psychological abuse and aberrant behaviour such as mobbing which that may cause physical and mental disorders. Mobbing is a problem of the modern society; as a violation of human rights it is relatively new and unrecognised in Croatia. Abuse is mostly psychological: it affects the victim's health and life, quality of work, productivity, profitability, and may lead to significant economic losses in the community. Mobbing can be averted by joint forces that would involve employee and management, medical and legal professionals, and even community as a whole. The more an organization pursues excellence based on trust and business ethics, the higher the probability that mobbing will be averted or stopped.

  10. Surveillance of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the French air force: an example with a workplace study concerning the flight personnel on the E-3F; Surveillance de l'exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants dans l'armee de l'air. Exemple d'une etude de poste concernant les personnels navigants sur E-3F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amabile, J.C.; Castagne, X.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Laroche, P. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-12-15

    This workplace study was first based on measurements of the ambient dose rates on board the E-3F (2000 to 2001). These results have been complemented by a series of measurements of individual exposure using passive and active gamma and neutrons dosimeters (2004 to 2005). We show that, from level 300 and after more than 200 flying hours per year, the air-crews of the French Air Force flying on board the E-3F are likely to annually receive an effective dose higher than 1 mSv. It is therefore necessary to organize a specific radiological and medical survey in favour of the air-crews of the E-3F and other aircraft with the same flight criteria. (authors)

  11. Research on establishment of emergency transportation of heavy-injured and radiation-exposed and contaminated patients. Toward rapid, contamination-preventive and safe land and air transportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Tomoyasu, Y.; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Toru

    2004-01-01

    The authors has continued researches on countermeasures against various disasters including nuclear or radiation accident. Present paper deals with the following items; (1) Significance of preparation of a manual on countermeasures against disasters in relation to medical drills, (2) Status and prospects of disaster simulations and disaster drills, (3) Promotion and education on medical knowledge when nuclear disasters occur, (4) Network system study of broad area medicines throughout the country. (5) Study on how to approach mental an psychological cares, (6) Specialities of radioactive contamination in the general contamination of NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) disasters, (7) New concept and preparation of triage tags, and (8) Queueing theory application to many patients in a hospital. (H. Yokoo)

  12. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  13. A new experimental facility for studying aerosol sampling in workplace environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Witstchger, O.

    2000-01-01

    The european council directive 96/29/EURATOM requires its implementation into national regulations. This directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. This directive allows to use aerosol characteristics (particle size distribution, airborne concentration, morphology and chemical composition) measured in workplace to assess the effective radiation dose of workers resulting from the intake by inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Tests of performances of instruments used for the health-related sampling of particles in workplace are usually carried out in a wind tunnel or a calm air chamber. In these test conditions, instruments are exposed to uniform wind and steady homogeneous aerosol. In a real workplace situation, these instruments are usually exposed to highly non-uniform airflows and local emissions of particles. Moreover, it is not clear how differences in airflow pattern, proximity of the localised contamination source, worker location or activity would affect the personal/static measurement ratio. The objective of our experimental work is to investigate the relevant parameters that affect the aerosol characteristics in the microenvironment of a worker (including breathing zone) and in the workplace. The first part of that study was to design and built an experimental room CEPIA (french acronym for room for studying personal and area samplers). The ventilated chamber (volume 36 m 3 ) is equipped with an air delivery system to insure different ventilation patterns and flowrates. The CEPIA chamber should offer possibilities for performing experiments in situations representing a workplace environment, with airflows and aerosol parameters well controlled and characterised. (authors)

  14. Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, T M; Barry, P J; Jahangir, A; Finn, C; Buckley, B M; El-Gammal, A

    2011-01-01

    Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a 'mixed' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO₂ in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO₂, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Leak testing. Environment and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Workplaces specified for leak testing are divided into clean workplaces of the 1st degree, clean workplaces of the second degree, clean workplaces of the third degree and semi-clean workplaces. Clean workplaces are further subdivided into permanent and temporary workplaces. For all said types of workplaces the standard sets the following provisions: basic equipment, machines and instrumentation, permitted and prohibited working activities and principles for maintenance and inspection. (E.S.)

  16. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proactive approach to these issues by educating our customers on prevention of the repetitive stress injuries that ... workplaces, environments, job tasks, equipment, and processes in relationship to human capabilities and interactions in the workplace. ...

  17. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  18. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  19. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James

    2004-09-01

    How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

  1. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...

  2. A personalized healthy workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  3. Airflow patterns in complex workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Selby, J.M.; Lynch, T.P.; Langer, G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    There are many considerations in obtaining an accurate evaluation of aerosols. One aspect that has been neglected is the study of airflow patterns within the workplace. In many nuclear facilities, the operations performed required extensive equipment (e.g., glove boxes, piping) that create complex arrangements of physical barriers to flow. To provide samples of the airborne materials, particularly particles, knowledge of these complex airflow patterns is required for sampler placement. Recent studies have shown that materials introduced into the air flow within a workplace act as plumes embedded in major airflow streams. Portions of the plumes can recycle through the ventilated area, be lost to dead air pockets, or exhaust through unusual, unexpected outlets. Unusual flow patterns are observed even in relatively uncomplicated arrangements of equipment. This behavior must be factored into sampling/monitoring programs for evaluation of the airborne hazard to personnel within the workplace consistent with the objective of the program. Other factors that also must be considered to provide valid samples of airborne particulate materials are objectives of the sampling program, characteristics of the airborne particulate materials, nonsegregatory transport for the extracted materials, and requirements for the measurement techniques used

  4. Toxicokinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to metal-contaminated soils under different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; Loureiro, Susana; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated how different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), reflecting realistic climate change scenarios, affect the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Earthworms were exposed for 21 d to two metal-contaminated soils (uptake phase), followed by 21 d incubation in non-contaminated soil (elimination phase). Body Zn and Cd concentrations were checked in time and metal uptake (k 1 ) and elimination (k 2 ) rate constants determined; metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated as k 1 /k 2 . Earthworms showed extremely fast uptake and elimination of Zn, regardless of the exposure level. Climate conditions had no major impacts on the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn, although a tendency towards lower k 1 and k 2 values was observed at 25 °C + 30% WHC. Earthworm Cd concentrations gradually increased with time upon exposure to metal-contaminated soils, especially at 50% WHC, and remained constant or slowly decreased following transfer to non-contaminated soil. Different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content changed the bioaccumulation kinetics of Cd, leading to higher k 1 and k 2 values for earthworms incubated at 25 °C + 50% WHC and slower Cd kinetics at 25 °C + 30% WHC. This resulted in greater BAFs for Cd at warmer and drier environments which could imply higher toxicity risks but also of transfer of Cd within the food chain under the current global warming perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of indoor air quality and contaminants on respiratory health of older people living in long-term care residences in Porto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Carreiro-Martins, Pedro; Bonassi, Stefano; Caires, Iolanda; Palmeiro, Teresa; Aguiar, Lívia; Pereira, Cristiana; Neves, Paula; Mendes, Diana; Botelho, Maria Amália Silveira; Neuparth, Nuno; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    persons who are 65 years or older often spend an important part of their lives indoors thus adverse indoor climate might influence their health status. to evaluate the influence of indoor air quality and contaminants on older people's respiratory health. cross-sectional study. 21 long-term care residences (LTC) in the city of Porto, Portugal. older people living in LTC with ≥65 years old. the Portuguese version of BOLD questionnaire was administered by an interviewer to older residents able to participate (n = 143). Indoor air contaminants (IAC) were measured twice, during winter and summer in 135 areas. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to study the association between the health questionnaire results and the monitored IAC, adjusted for age, smoking habits, gender and number of years living in the LTC. cough (23%) and sputum (12%) were the major respiratory symptoms, and allergic rhinitis (22%) the main self-reported illness. Overall particulate matter up to 2.5 micrometres in size median concentration was above the reference levels both in winter and summer seasons. Peak values of particulate matter up to 10 micrometres in size (PM10), total volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, bacteria and fungi exceeded the reference levels. Older people exposed to PM10 above the reference levels demonstrated higher odds of allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.2). high levels of PM10 were associated with 3-fold odds of allergic rhinitis. No association was found between indoor air chemical and biological contaminants and respiratory symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao Jin [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Wan, Pingyu [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Foley, Roy [Department of Environment and Climate Change, Environmental Forensic and Analytical Science Section, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Effect of sample digestion, air filter contamination, and post-adsorption on the analysis of trace elements in air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao Jin; Wan, Pingyu; Foley, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma MS are the major analytical tools for trace elements in environmental matrices, however, the underestimate of certain trace elements in analysis of air particulate matter by these two techniques has long been observed. This has been attributed to incomplete sample digestion. Here, we demonstrate that the combined effects of sample digestion, air filter impurities, and post-adsorption of the analytes contribute to the interference of the analysis. Particular attention should be paid to post-adsorption of analytes onto air filters after acid digestion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivan, V.; Egger, K.P.; Hausbeck, R.; Schmid, W.

    1986-01-01

    Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results. (orig.) [de

  9. Difficulties in radon measurements at workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, Norbert; Kovacs, Tibor; Nemeth, Csaba; Szabo, Tibor; Gorjanacz, Zoran; Varhegyi, Andras; Hakl, Jozsef; Somlai, Janos

    2006-01-01

    Different legislation systems can be found in the world concerning radon levels at workplaces. Following the European Union suggestion, a reference level for radon concentration in the air at workplaces was established in several European countries. In Hungary, the relevant legislation has come into effect on 1 January 2003. The determination of average radon concentration might present a problem, especially in places where the monthly average concentrations vary to a great extent. For example, the monthly averages measured in a hospital cave used for treating respiratory diseases showed a 24-fold difference depending on the chosen month. In such cases, attention should be paid when choosing the months and using the results of measurements for dose assessment. Another uncertainty emerges when estimating the annual dose, based on the data coming from long-term measurements, usually using integrated methods such as track detectors. There is a considerable difference between the averages measured during the working hours and over the total time (including nights and weekends), mostly in the cases of rooms with frequent air change like schools, kindergartens and ventilated workplaces. This can lead to a significant overestimation in dose calculation. Special attention needs to be paid to workplaces such as mines, tunnels and open air uranium tailings sites. This paper discusses the possible inaccuracies caused by the improper selection of time periods and methods in the measurements of the average radon concentration at workplaces

  10. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  11. Model for Predicting DC Flashover Voltage of Pre-Contaminated and Ice-Covered Long Insulator Strings under Low Air Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijin Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a multi-arc predicting model for DC critical flashover voltage of iced and pre-contaminated long insulator strings under low atmospheric pressure is developed. The model is composed of a series of different polarity surface arcs, icicle-icicle air gap arcs, and residual layer resistance. The calculation method of the residual resistance of the ice layer under DC multi-arc condition is established. To validate the model, 7-unit and 15-unit insulator strings were tested in a multi-function artificial climate chamber under the coexistent conditions of low air pressure, pollution, and icing. The test results showed that the values calculated by the model satisfactorily agreed with those experimentally measured, with the errors within the range of 10%, validating the rationality of the model.

  12. Operation of a catalytic reverse flow reactor for the purification of air contamined with volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beld, L.; van de Beld, L.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation in a reverse flow reactor is an attractive process for the decontamination of air polluted with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper several aspects of operating this type of reactor for air purification under strongly varying conditions will be discussed. For a

  13. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  14. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air and soil from a high-altitude pasture in the Italian Alps: evidence of CB-209 contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Paolo; Guazzoni, Niccolò; Comolli, Roberto; Parolini, Marco; Lazzaro, Serena; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    This study analyses the seasonal trend of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in air and soil from a high-altitude mountain pasture in the Italian Alps. PCB concentrations in soil were generally comparable to background levels and were lower than those previously measured in the same area. Only CB-209 unexpectedly showed high concentrations with respect to the other congeners. GC-MS-MS identification was very clear, rising a new problem of increasing PCB contamination concerning only CB-209, which is not present in commercial mixtures used in the past in Italy and Europe. Considering all of the congeners, seasonal PCB trends were observed both in air and in soil that were related to the temperature and precipitation measured specifically in the study area. Highly significant relationships were found between the temperature-normalised concentrations in soil and the precipitation amounts. A north/south enrichment factor was present only in soil with rapid early summer re-volatilisation kinetics from soil to air and autumn re-deposition events from air to soil. Fugacity ratio calculations confirmed these trends. Surface soils respond rapidly to meteorological variables, while subsurface soils respond much more slowly. Seasonal trends were different for the northern and southern sides of the mountain. A detailed picture of the interactions among temperature, precipitation, mountain aspects and soil features was obtained.

  16. Smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free air in the workplace: a study from the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Zlatev, Martin; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2012-10-01

    Identify the psychosocial variables that predict smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies at work, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free rights in Greek and Bulgarian workplaces. Data were collected from employees in Greece and Bulgaria. The main outcome measures were smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness intentions. Demographic variables, tobacco use and dependence, as well as beliefs about second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoking at work were also assessed. Regression analyses showed that smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies was predicted by age, perceived health risks of smoking, and beliefs related to the benefits of smoking at work. Non-smokers’ assertiveness was predicted by annoyance from exposure to SHS at work, and assertiveness-related social cognitions (e.g., attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy). Interventions to promote support for tobacco control policies at work in Greece and Bulgaria may benefit from targeting smokers’ beliefs about the actual effects of tobacco use on health and job performance. Accordingly, efforts to promote non-smokers assertiveness should build stronger assertiveness-related attitudes, convey anti-smoking normative messages, and strengthen self-efficacy skills.

  17. Potential of the Trad-MCN assay applied with inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida 'Purpurea' for evaluating air contamination by naphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine clastogenic responses of Tradescantia pallida cv. Purpurea to naphthalene (NAPH) by means of the bioassay Trad-MCN with inflorescences of T. pallida cv. Purpurea and to verify if this assay might be an indicator of the potential risk imposed in a workplace, where solid insecticide containing NAPH is usually applied. The clastogenic potential of NAPH was assessed by using static and dynamic experimental systems. In both systems, increased micronucleus frequencies were observed in inflorescences submitted to increasing concentrations of solid or gaseous NAPH. The evident clastogenicity verified in inflorescences exposed experimentally to 25-50 mg m(-3) of NAPH during 6h points to a narrow threshold of plant sensitivity, indicating risks under lower NAPH levels than the standards established by OSHA and therefore revealing its suitability for biomonitoring purposes. However, the clastogenic risk should be carefully investigated by other monitoring methods if human health is taken into consideration.

  18. Development and performance assessment of a luminex xMAP® direct hybridization assay for the detection and identification of indoor air fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Xavier; Packeu, Ann; Bureau, Fabrice; Roosens, Nancy H; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2017-01-01

    Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the representativeness of the fungal population detected in an analyzed sample as this includes the dead and uncultivable fraction. Moreover, culture-based protocols are often time-consuming. In this context, molecular tools are a powerful alternative, especially those allowing multiplexing. In this study a Luminex xMAP® assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of 10 fungal species which are most frequently in indoor air and that may cause health problems. This xMAP® assay was found to be sensitive, i.e. its limit of detection is ranging between 0.05 and 0.01 ng of gDNA. The assay was subsequently tested with environmental air samples which were also analyzed with a classical protocol. All the species identified with the classical method were also detected with the xMAP® assay, however in a shorter time frame. These results demonstrate that the Luminex xMAP® fungal assay developed in this study could contribute to the improvement of public health and specifically to the indoor fungal contamination treatment.

  19. Development and performance assessment of a luminex xMAP® direct hybridization assay for the detection and identification of indoor air fungal contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Libert

    Full Text Available Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the representativeness of the fungal population detected in an analyzed sample as this includes the dead and uncultivable fraction. Moreover, culture-based protocols are often time-consuming. In this context, molecular tools are a powerful alternative, especially those allowing multiplexing. In this study a Luminex xMAP® assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of 10 fungal species which are most frequently in indoor air and that may cause health problems. This xMAP® assay was found to be sensitive, i.e. its limit of detection is ranging between 0.05 and 0.01 ng of gDNA. The assay was subsequently tested with environmental air samples which were also analyzed with a classical protocol. All the species identified with the classical method were also detected with the xMAP® assay, however in a shorter time frame. These results demonstrate that the Luminex xMAP® fungal assay developed in this study could contribute to the improvement of public health and specifically to the indoor fungal contamination treatment.

  20. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m-3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10-4-10-3 Ω-1·m-1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31-98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  1. Effects of warming on uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Qiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has received growing attentions about its potential threats to human in recent, however little is known about its effects on transfer of heavy metals in agro-ecosystem, especially for Cd in rice. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate Cd/Cu translocation in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI). The results showed that warming gradually decreased soil porewater pH and increased water-soluble Cd/Cu concentration, reduced formation of iron plaque on root surface, and thus significantly increased total uptake of Cd/Cu by rice. Subsequently, warming significantly promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, and increased Cd distribution percentage in shoot, while Cu was not significantly affected. Enhanced Cd uptake and translocation synergistically resulted in higher rice grain contamination with increasing concentration from 0.27 to 0.65 and 0.14-0.40 mg kg(-1) for Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. However increase of Cu in brown grain was only attributed to its uptake enhancement under warming. Our study provides a new understanding about the food production insecurity of heavy metal contaminated soil under the future global warming. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Development of a Computer-Based Air Force Installation Restoration Workstation for Contaminant Modeling and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    IS EXPECTED. K: SITE LOCATED IN KARST TYPOGRAPHY , OR IS UNDERLAIN BY CAVERNOUS LIMESTONE. M: MOUNDING OF THE WATER TABLE BENEATH A CONTAMINATION SITE...mulatjc~rs). The developers have endeavored to design the Systemn, as i-ar as pos,’sible, to run on any brand of parson-Al computer that operates under

  3. A Qualitative and Quantitative Survey on Air-Transmitted Fungal Contamination in Different Wards of Kamkar Hospital in Qom, Iran, in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizifar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Fungi spores can be found everywhere. The amount and variety of fungal spores and their vast spread could be a preliminary step to the initiation of different diseases in people with different levels of health.

    Methods: In the present study six wards including nephrology, internal ward for women, surgery ward for men, operating theater for E.N.T., ophthalmology, infectious diseases ward and the laboratory were chosen for sampling on the basis of their types of activities and their in-patients. We used Anderson sampling method, collected samples within two minutes with flow rate of 28.3 L/Min in sabouraud medium.

    Results: Maximum contamination in the infectious diseases ward was 300 CFU/m3 and minimum contamination in E.N.T. was 94 CFU/m3. The maximum percentage of fungal spores in the hospital air was observed to be as follows: penicillin with 36.36%, Cladosporium 24.74%, A.niger 17.97%, Rhizopus 10.57% and A.flavus 2.74A%.

    Conclusion: Fungal contamination concentration in hospital indoor air in this study was higher than the recommended limits and other similar studies from a quantitative point of view, but it was similar to other studies in terms of identified species.

  4. Operating theatre ventilation systems and microbial air contamination in total joint replacement surgery: results of the GISIO-ISChIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodi, A; Auxilia, F; Barchitta, M; Cristina, M L; D'Alessandro, D; Mura, I; Nobile, M; Pasquarella, C

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have shown a higher rate of surgical site infections in hip prosthesis implantation using unidirectional airflow ventilation compared with turbulent ventilation. However, these studies did not measure the air microbial quality of operating theatres (OTs), and assumed it to be compliant with the recommended standards for this ventilation technique. To evaluate airborne microbial contamination in OTs during hip and knee replacement surgery, and compare the findings with values recommended for joint replacement surgery. Air samplings were performed in 28 OTs supplied with unidirectional, turbulent and mixed airflow ventilation. Samples were collected using passive sampling to determine the index of microbial air contamination (IMA). Active sampling was also performed in some of the OTs. The average number of people in the OT and the number of door openings during the sampling period were recorded. In total, 1228 elective prosthesis procedures (60.1% hip and 39.9% knee) were included in this study. Of passive samplings performed during surgical activity in unidirectional airflow ventilation OTs (U-OTs) and mixed airflow OTs (M-OTs), 58.9% and 87.6% had IMA values >2, respectively. Of samplings performed during surgical activity in turbulent airflow OTs (T-OTs) and in turbulent airflow OTs with the surgical team wearing Steri-Shield Turbo Helmets (TH-OTs), 8.6% and 60% had IMA values ≤ 2, respectively. Positive correlation was found between IMA values and the number of people in the OT and the number of door openings (P systems always provide acceptable airborne bacterial counts. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  6. Longitudinal study of the contamination of air and of soil surfaces in the vicinity of pig barns by livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jochen; Friese, Anika; Klees, Sylvia; Tenhagen, Bernd A; Fetsch, Alexandra; Rösler, Uwe; Hartung, Jörg

    2012-08-01

    During 1 year, samples were taken on 4 days, one sample in each season, from pigs, the floor, and the air inside pig barns and from the ambient air and soil at different distances outside six commercial livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA)-positive pig barns in the north and east of Germany. LA-MRSA was isolated from animals, floor, and air samples in the barn, showing a range of airborne LA-MRSA between 6 and 3,619 CFU/m(3) (median, 151 CFU/m(3)). Downwind of the barns, LA-MRSA was detected in low concentrations (11 to 14 CFU/m(3)) at distances of 50 and 150 m; all upwind air samples were negative. In contrast, LA-MRSA was found on soil surfaces at distances of 50, 150, and 300 m downwind from all barns, but no statistical differences could be observed between the proportions of positive soil surface samples at the three different distances. Upwind of the barns, positive soil surface samples were found only sporadically. Significantly more positive LA-MRSA samples were found in summer than in the other seasons both in air and soil samples upwind and downwind of the pig barns. spa typing was used to confirm the identity of LA-MRSA types found inside and outside the barns. The results show that there is regular airborne LA-MRSA transmission and deposition, which are strongly influenced by wind direction and season, of up to at least 300 m around positive pig barns. The described boot sampling method seems suitable to characterize the contamination of the vicinity of LA-MRSA-positive pig barns by the airborne route.

  7. Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

    2006-01-01

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

  8. Researching workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both...

  9. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  10. Increased prevalence of IgG-induced sensitization and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (humidifier lung) in nonsmokers exposed to aerosols of a contaminated air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Richter, G; Pethran, A; Czuppon, A B; Schwaiblmair, M

    1992-01-01

    Specific IgG antibodies against antigens of a contaminated air conditioner were estimated in serum of 134 workers of a printing company. Altogether 64% of the workers investigated revealed significantly elevated levels (> 3 U/ml) of IgG antibodies specific to these antigens as compared to a nonexposed control group. The occurrence of IgG antibodies for microbial extracts were 25% for Fusarium, 23% for Penicillium notatum, 13% for Alternaria tenuis, 12% for Aureobasidium pullulans, 9% for Sphaeropsidales species, 3% for Micropolyspora faeni, 2% for Aspergillus fumigatus and 2% for Thermoactionomyces vulgaris. Out of the 86 workers with elevated IgG antibodies for air conditioner antigens, 59 were nonsmokers. Considering a cut-off level of 10 U/ml IgG for high values, the proportion of smokers to nonsmokers becomes even more pronounced (6 to 36 respectively, binominal test p air conditioners are the best choice as antigen source for the diagnosis of humidifier lung in exposed workers. Nonsmokers are shown to have a high risk for immunological sensitization.

  11. Comparison of arterial and venous blood gases and the effects of analysis delay and air contamination on arterial samples in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are often sampled incorrectly, leading to a \\'mixed\\' or venous sample. Delays in analysis and air contamination are common. OBJECTIVES: We measured the effects of these errors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and controls. METHODS: Arterial and venous samples were analyzed from 30 patients with COPD exacerbation and 30 controls. Venous samples were analysed immediately and arterial samples separated into non-air-contaminated and air-contaminated specimens and analysed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 180 min. RESULTS: Mean venous pH was 7.371 and arterial pH was 7.407 (p < 0.0001). There was a correlation between venous and arterial pH (r = 0.5347, p < 0.0001). The regression equation to predict arterial pH was: arterial pH = 4.2289 + 0.43113 . venous pH. There were no clinically significant differences in arterial PO associated with analysis delay. A statistically significant decline in pH was detected at 30 min in patients with COPD exacerbation (p = 0.0042) and 90 min in controls (p < 0.0001). A clinically significant decline in pH emerged at 73 min in patients with COPD exacerbation and 87 min in controls. Air contamination was associated with a clinically significant increase in PO in all samples, including those that were immediately analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial and venous pH differ significantly. Venous pH cannot accurately replace arterial pH. Temporal delays in ABG analysis result in a significant decline in measured pH. ABGs should be analysed within 30 min. Air contamination leads to an immediate increase in measured PO, indicating that air-contaminated ABGs should be discarded.

  12. Modeled effectiveness of ventilation with contaminant control devices on indoor air quality in a swine farrowing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, T Renée; Altmaier, Ralph; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Because adverse health effects experienced by swine farm workers in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been associated with exposure to dust and gases, efforts to reduce exposures are warranted, particularly in winter seasons when exposures increase due to decreased ventilation. Simulation of air quality and operating costs for ventilating swine CAFO, including treating and recirculating air through a farrowing room, was performed using mass and energy balance equations over a 90-day winter season. System operation required controlling heater operation to achieve room temperatures optimal to ensure animal health (20 to 22.5 °C). Five air pollution control devices, four room ventilation rates, and five recirculation patterns were examined. Inhalable dust concentrations were easily reduced using standard industrial air pollution control devices, including a cyclone, filtration, and electrostatic precipitator. Operating ventilation systems at 0.94 m3 s(-1) (2000 cfm) with 75 to 100% recirculation of treated air from cyclone, electrostatic precipitator, and shaker dust filtration system achieves adequate particle control with operating costs under $1.00 per pig produced ($0.22 to 0.54), although carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations approach 2000 ppm using in-room ventilated gas fired heaters. In no simulation were CO2 concentrations below industry recommended concentrations (1540 ppm), but alternative heating devices could reduce CO2 to acceptable concentrations. While this investigation does not represent all production swine farrowing barns, which differ in characteristics including room dimensions and swine occupancy, the simulation model and ventilation optimization methods can be applied to other production sites. This work shows that ventilation may be a cost-effective control option in the swine industry to reduce exposures.

  13. Method and device for the containment of air-smoke-mixtures contaminated radioactively or with poisonous material in case of fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlock, G.; Wiesemes, J.; Bachner, D.

    1977-01-01

    The devices of this method prevent the emission of radioactive or poisonous polutants to the environment, e.g. of a nuclear power plant, even then if the filters normally designed for this purpose become in effective through the influence of the fire. Smoke alarms and/or temperature sensors guide the contaminated air-smoke mixture through rooms with frothing agents by means of controlled valves and additional ventilators; the foam to be produced absorbes the polutants. The ventilators generate the required flow direction as well as sufficient flow rate. Water pools arranged between the valves and the foam tanks totally or pastly ret din water-soluble or not volatile substances before the foam is applied and/or extinguish glowing particles. (HP) [de

  14. Nuclear and Physical Methods of Control For soil and Near-ground Air Contamination With Plutonium and Americium-241 in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroshevich, O.I.; Boulyga, S.F.; Zhuk, I.V.; Kievets, M.K.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Kudrayashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident considerable territories of Belarus have been contaminated with Pu and 2 41A m. The absence of instrumental techniques for a direct analysis of transuranium elements (TUE) in the objects of the environment has made the using of laborious radiochemical methods inevitable what, in its turn, has limited a necessary scale of investigations on TUE problem. The paper presents the more cheap and express instrumental nuclear and physical techniques for Pu and 2 41A m analysis in soils and near-ground layer of air having been developed at the Institute of Power Engineering Problems / National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (IPEP NASB), as well as some results having been obtained using these techniques

  15. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  16. The internationalised workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian

    2017-01-01

    The Danish workplace is becoming more and more international. Not only has the number of foreign employees living and working in Denmark increased over the past few years, there is also a significant number of commuters crossing the border every day to go to their workplace in Denmark. In total...

  17. Canadian Chefs' Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier-MacBurnie, Paulette; Doyle, Wendy; Mombourquette, Peter; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs' learning strategies and outcomes as well as the barriers to and facilitators of their workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is based on in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured…

  18. Voices from the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseman, John, Comp.

    This publication focuses on the stories of learners in workplace literacy programs in New Zealand. Nine adults give their perspectives on the changing nature of work, their attitude toward and experience of formal schooling, and the impetus that led them to participate in literacy learning opportunities established in their workplace. They talk…

  19. Evaluating Workplace Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Don

    The Workplace Project (WPP) at Alpena Community College, in Michigan, uses a range of assessment instruments to measure learner performance in workplace classes. The Test of Adult Basic Education is administered at the beginning of the course to establish a baseline standardized test score, and again at the end of course to measure gains. Also,…

  20. Detection, simulation, assessing environmental influences. Climate/shock/irradiation/vibrations/electromagnetism/air contamination/biological influences. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Investigations using environmental simulation are designed to reveal cause-and-effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Issues of artificial ageing and timelapsing play an important role. The 29 contributions to the 21st Annual Conference deal in particular with the topics: strategies in environmental simulation, irradiation and exposure testing of polymers, atmospheric influences and air ingredients, and mechanical environmental influences. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.; Oksanen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.) [de

  2. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  3. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  4. Pregnancy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, H M; Myers, J; August, E M

    2012-03-01

    Women constitute a large percentage of the workforce in industrialized countries. As a result, addressing pregnancy-related health issues in the workplace is important in order to formulate appropriate strategies to promote and protect maternal and infant health. To explore issues affecting pregnant women in the workplace. A systematic literature review was conducted using Boolean combinations of the terms 'pregnant women', 'workplace' and 'employment' for publications from January 1990 to November 2010. Studies that explicitly explored pregnancy in the workplace within the UK, USA, Canada or the European Union were included. Pregnancy discrimination was found to be prevalent and represented a large portion of claims brought against employers by women. The relationship between environmental risks and exposures at work with foetal outcomes was inconclusive. In general, standard working conditions presented little hazard to infant health; however, pregnancy could significantly impact a mother's psychosocial well-being in the workplace. Core recommendations to improve maternal and infant health outcomes and improve workplace conditions for women include: (i) shifting organizational culture to support women in pregnancy; (ii) conducting early screening of occupational risk during the preconception period and (iii) monitoring manual labour conditions, including workplace environment and job duties.

  5. Workplace design: Conceptualizing and measuring workplace characteristics for motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M.; Michaelides, George

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE – Although both job design and its broader context are likely to drive motivation, little is known about the specific workplace characteristics that are important for motivation. The purpose of this paper is to present the Workplace Characteristics Model, which describes the workplace characteristics that can foster motivation, and the corresponding multilevel Workplace Design Questionnaire.\\ud \\ud DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The model is configured as nine workplace attributes desc...

  6. Workplaces slow to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Oksanen, E.

    1992-01-01

    Regulations on radon in workplaces are based on the Radiation Act, which came into force in Finland at the beginning of 1992. An employer is required to have the working conditions investigated if it is suspected that the radon concentration exceeds the maximum. The annual average in regular work must not exceed 400 becquerels per cubic metre. Employers have shown so little interest in radon measurements that the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has had to send letters prompting employers in the worst radon areas to conduct measurements at workplaces. According to preliminary estimates, thousands of workplaces have concentrations exceeding the permissible maximum. (orig.)

  7. Determination of cyanamide in workplace air by high-performance liquid chromatography%工作场所空气中氨基氰测定的高效液相色谱法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉萍; 李清钊; 郑国颖; 关维俊; 王茜; 马冬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determining cyanamide in workplace air by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Methods Air samples were collected from the workplace using the shock absorption tube containing water solution at a rate of 2.8~3.0 ml/min for 60 min; dansyl chloride was used as a derivatization reagent to conduct pre-column derivatization,and the procedure was as follows:acetone solution (2.5 ml),mixed solution (1.0 ml) containing 0.016 mol/L Na2CO3 and 0.184 mol/L NaHC03,and 10 mg/ml acetone solution of dansyl chloride (0.5 ml) were added into the samples,and reaction proceeded in a water bath (50 ℃) for 1 h.HPLC was performed on an ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (35:65) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and a column temperature of 25℃; a fluorescence detector was used at an excitation wavelength of 360 nm and an emission wavelength of 495 nm.Results The minimum detectable concentration of cyanamide was 0.05 μg/ml; a good linear relationship was noted when the concentration of cyanamide was 0.2~100.0 μg/ml; the intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.28%~1.18%,and the interday RSD was 0.22~2.16%; the recovery rate was 95.7%~ 103.0%,and the sampling efficiency was 95.8%~96.9%.Water solution of cyanamide (pH<6.5) could be stable in the dark at room temperature for 7 d.Conclusion This method is stable,reliable,easy to operate,and highly sensitive and suitable for determination of cyanamide in workplace air.%目的 建立工作场所空气中氨基氰测定的高效液相色谱法.方法 工作场所空气样品以水溶液作吸收液,用冲击式吸收管,以2.8~3.0 ml/min速度采集60 ain,以丹磺酰氯为衍生试剂,进行柱前衍生,衍生方法为待测样品中加入2.5 ml丙酮溶液,1.0 ml含0.016 mol/L碳酸钠和0.184 mol/L碳酸氢钠混合溶液,0.5 ml丹磺酰氯丙酮溶液(浓度为10 mg/ml),50℃水浴中反应1h

  8. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m 3 , while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m 3 . In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m 3 . These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  9. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Mohammed, Azad; Massey Simonich, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9–126 ng/m3 (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05–0.71 ng/m3 (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1–3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses.

  10. Sexual harassment in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...

  11. MRSA and the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the Workplace NIH Research on MRSA Handwashing Posters from Washington Department of Health PubMed search for Community-Associated MRSA ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  12. Novel method for determining DDT in vapour and particulate phases within contaminated indoor air in a malaria area of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudé, Yvette; Rohwer, Egmont R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present a novel denuder for the determination of DDT in contaminated indoor air. ► Single step concentration of vapour phase on PDMS, particulate phase on filter. ► Solvent-free green technique, sample extraction not required. ► Ratios of airborne p,p′-DDD/p,p′-DDT and of o,p′-DDT/p,p′-DDT are unusual. ► Insecticidal efficacy of technical DDT may be compromised. - Abstract: The organochlorine insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still used for malaria vector control in certain areas of South Africa. The strict Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) allows spraying on the inside of traditional dwellings with DDT. In rural villages contaminated dust presents an additional pathway for exposure to DDT. We present a new method for the determination of DDT in indoor air where separate vapour and particulate samples are collected in a single step with a denuder configuration of a multi-channel open tubular silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) trap combined with a micro quartz fibre filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap section of the denuder concentrates vapour phase insecticide whereas particle associated insecticide is transferred downstream where it is collected on a micro-fibre filter followed by a second multi-channel PDMS trap to capture the blow-off from the filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap and filter combination are designed to fit a commercial thermal desorber for direct introduction of samples into a GC–MS. The technique is solvent-free. Analyte extraction and sample clean-up is not required. Two fractions, vapour phase and particulate phase p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT; p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDD; p,p′-DDE and o,p′-DDE in 4 L contaminated indoor air, were each quantitatively analysed by GC–MS using isotopically labelled ring substituted 13 C 12 –p,p′-DDT as an internal standard. Limits of detection were 0.07–0.35 ng m −3 for p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, p

  13. Novel method for determining DDT in vapour and particulate phases within contaminated indoor air in a malaria area of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naude, Yvette, E-mail: yvette.naude@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Rohwer, Egmont R., E-mail: egmont.rohwer@up.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a novel denuder for the determination of DDT in contaminated indoor air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single step concentration of vapour phase on PDMS, particulate phase on filter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-free green technique, sample extraction not required. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of airborne p,p Prime -DDD/p,p Prime -DDT and of o,p Prime -DDT/p,p Prime -DDT are unusual. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecticidal efficacy of technical DDT may be compromised. - Abstract: The organochlorine insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still used for malaria vector control in certain areas of South Africa. The strict Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) allows spraying on the inside of traditional dwellings with DDT. In rural villages contaminated dust presents an additional pathway for exposure to DDT. We present a new method for the determination of DDT in indoor air where separate vapour and particulate samples are collected in a single step with a denuder configuration of a multi-channel open tubular silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) trap combined with a micro quartz fibre filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap section of the denuder concentrates vapour phase insecticide whereas particle associated insecticide is transferred downstream where it is collected on a micro-fibre filter followed by a second multi-channel PDMS trap to capture the blow-off from the filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap and filter combination are designed to fit a commercial thermal desorber for direct introduction of samples into a GC-MS. The technique is solvent-free. Analyte extraction and sample clean-up is not required. Two fractions, vapour phase and particulate phase p,p Prime -DDT, o,p Prime -DDT; p,p Prime -DDD, o,p Prime -DDD; p,p Prime -DDE and o,p Prime -DDE in 4 L contaminated indoor air, were each quantitatively analysed by GC-MS using

  14. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-11-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls - on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. © 2013 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  15. Analytical method for the evaluation of the outdoor air contamination by emerging pollutants using tree leaves as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Pedro José; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    In this work, an analytical method, based on sonication-assisted extraction, clean-up by dispersive solid-phase extraction and determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 15 emerging pollutants in leaves from four ornamental tree species. Target compounds include perfluorinated organic compounds, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardant, and preservatives. The method was optimized using Box-Behnken statistical experimental design with response surface methodology and validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, and method detection and quantification limits. Quantification of target compounds was carried out using matrix-matched calibration curves. The highest recoveries were achieved for the perfluorinated organic compounds (mean values up to 87%) and preservatives (up to 88%). The lowest recoveries were achieved for plasticizers (51%) and brominated flame retardant (63%). Method detection and quantification limits were in the ranges 0.01-0.09 ng/g dry matter (dm) and 0.02-0.30 ng/g dm, respectively, for most of the target compounds. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the target compounds on leaves from four tree species used as urban ornamental trees (Citrus aurantium, Celtis australis, Platanus hispanica, and Jacaranda mimosifolia). Graphical abstract Analytical method for the biomonitorization of emerging pollutants in outdoor air.

  16. Integration of processes induced air flotation and photo-Fenton for treatment of residual waters contaminated with xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Syllos S; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; de Barros Neto, Eduardo L; Nascimento, Claudio A O

    2012-01-15

    Produced water in oil fields is one of the main sources of wastewater generated in the industry. It contains several organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX), whose disposal is regulated by law. The aim of this study is to investigate a treatment of produced water integrating two processes, i.e., induced air flotation (IAF) and photo-Fenton. The experiments were conducted in a column flotation and annular lamp reactor for flotation and photodegradation steps, respectively. The first order kinetic constant of IAF for the wastewater studied was determined to be 0.1765 min(-1) for the surfactant EO 7. Degradation efficiencies of organic loading were assessed using factorial planning. Statistical data analysis shows that H(2)O(2) concentration is a determining factor in process efficiency. Degradations above 90% were reached in all cases after 90 min of reaction, attaining 100% mineralization in the optimized concentrations of Fenton reagents. Process integration was adequate with 100% organic load removal in 20 min. The results of the integration of the IAF with the photo-Fenton allowed to meet the effluent limits established by Brazilian legislation for disposal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Workplace exposure to traffic-derived nanoscaled particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, M; DIez, S; Alastuey, A; Querol, X; Reche, C

    2011-01-01

    Workplace exposure to traffic-derived nanoscaled particulates was determined at a chemical research facility. Sub-micron particles were monitored by means of a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and a laser spectrometer (GRIMM 1107), providing 10-minute black carbon (BC) concentrations and 15-minute PM 1 concentrations, respectively, over a 4-month period (22/03/2010 - 28/07/2010). BC levels were simultaneously monitored during 1-day periods using a handheld aethalometer (Magee AE51), with excellent agreement between both techniques (MAAP and AE51, r 2 = 0.96, y = 0.84x).The studied laboratory is located on the 5th floor of an 8-storey building in an urban background environment in Barcelona, Spain. The laboratory was not in use during the study period, and both of its doors were kept open at all times in order to ensure air circulation between the study laboratory and the remaining offices and laboratories on the same floor (where workers were exposed). Windows were kept closed at all times. Indoor BC and PM 1 concentrations were compared with ambient BC and PM 1 levels from an outdoor monitoring station located at 1 (1.76 to 1.02), suggesting that it is necessary to monitor the variability of penetration factors as a function of time. BC emission sources in the workplace still need to be determined, but could be related to printer/photocopier toner emissions and laboratory work. Potential contamination due to the monitoring instruments (pumps) was discarded through the analysis of daily indoor BC cycles.

  18. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Furukawa, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujitaka, K.; Pan, J.; Kurosawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218 Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  19. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  20. Monitoring impacts of air pollution: PIXE analysis and histopathological modalities in evaluating relative risks of elemental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Sohail; Camer, Gerry Amor; Anwar, Khaleeq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Environmental toxicants invariably affect all biological organisms resulting to sufferings ranging from subclinical to debilitating clinical conditions. This novel research aimed to determine the toxic burdens of increased environmental elements in some vital organs/tissues of the wild animals (starling, owl, crow and pigeon), exposed to air polluted environment were assessed using particle induced X-ray emission and histopathological approaches. The presence of significantly elevated amounts of elemental toxicants namely: Aluminum (Al), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Silicon (Si) and Vanadium (V) from the skin, muscle, lungs, liver and kidney of sampled animals were in concurrence with the observed histopathological changes. The skin of sampled starling, owl, pigeon and crow spotlighted highly significant increase (P < 0.001) in Al, Cl, Mg and Si. Muscle samples with myodegenerative lesions and mineral depositions highlighted substantial augmentation (P < 0.001) in the amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Si and V. The lungs of starling, owl, and pigeon were severely intoxicated (P < 0.001) with increased amount of Al, Fe, K, Mn and Si producing pulmonary lesions of congestion, edema, pneumonitis and mineral debris depositions. Liver samples revealed that the sampled animals were laden with Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and V with histopathological profound degenerative changes and hepatic necrosis. Kidney sections presented severe tubular degenerative and necrotic changes that may be attributed to increased amounts of Cl and Fe. These current findings implied that the environmental/elemental toxicants and the accompanying lesions that were discerned in the organs/tissues of sampled birds may as well be afflicting people living within the polluted area. Further assessment to more conclusively demonstrate correlations of current findings to those of the populace within the area is encouraged.

  1. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  2. Operating manual for Ford's Farm Range air samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Halverson, M.A.

    1980-10-01

    An air-sampling program was designed for a target enclosure at the Ford's Farm Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, where the Army test-fires tungsten and depleted-uranium armor penetrators. The primary potential particle inhalation hazard is depleted uranium. The sampling program includes workplace and filtered exhaust air sampling. Conventional isokinetic stack sampling was employed for the filtered exhaust air. Because of the need for rapid monitor response to concentration increases and decreases, conventional radioactive particle monitors were not used. Instead, real-time aerosol monitors employing a light-scattering technique were used for monitors requiring a fast response. For other monitoring functions, piezoelectric and beta-attenuation respirable-particle sampling techniques were used. The application of these technologies to the monitoring of airborne radioactive contaminants is addressed. Sampler installation and operation are detailed

  3. Simulated workplace neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, V.; Taylor, G.; Rottger, S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of simulated workplace neutron fields, which aim at replicating radiation fields at practical workplaces, is an alternative solution for the calibration of neutron dosemeters. They offer more appropriate calibration coefficients when the mean fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients of the simulated and practical fields are comparable. Intensive Monte Carlo modelling work has become quite indispensable for the design and/or the characterization of the produced mixed neutron/photon fields, and the use of Bonner sphere systems and proton recoil spectrometers is also mandatory for a reliable experimental determination of the neutron fluence energy distribution over the whole energy range. The establishment of a calibration capability with a simulated workplace neutron field is not an easy task; to date only few facilities are available as standard calibration fields. (authors)

  4. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  5. Workplace photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)

  6. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...... be an important asset in workforce work ability and job satisfaction....

  7. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  8. Women and the Violent Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Sharon Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Globally workplace violence is a pressing concern. It is an ever increasing problem and thus an extensive field to research. Despite an increase in interest, there are specific areas of workplace violence that remain relatively unexplored, and this is further compounded because workplace violence is not clearly defined and neither is it readily understood (Dolan 2000, Webster et al 2007). Women’s experiences of workplace violence have been overlooked, primarily because women exist within a...

  9. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less.

  10. Teacher learning as workplace learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, J.; Van Veen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of increasing attention in teacher professional development programs for situating teacher learning in the workplace, an overview is given of what is known in general and in educational workplace learning literature on the characteristics and conditions of the workplace.

  11. Competence and the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Dweck, Carol S.; Yeager, David S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this chapter on competence at the workplace is on workers’ willingness to perform, which is defined as individuals’ psychological characteristics that affect the degree to which they are inclined to perform their tasks. People may be motivated by either the positive, appetitive

  12. Diversity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines…

  13. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  14. COPEWORK - COPESTRESS Workplace Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Netterstrøm, Bo; Langer, Roy

    2012-01-01

    "COPEWORK – COPESTRESS Workplace Study" er en undersøgelse af hvad der sker på arbejdspladser, når en medarbejder sygemeldes med stress. I undersøgelsen indgik 64 ledere og arbejdsmiljørepræsentanter fra fra 38 danske arbejdspladser. Alle arbejdspladser havde haft minimum én stresssygemeldt...

  15. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  16. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  17. Workplace Communication: Meaningful Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Lisa; Watkins, Lisa

    This learning module emphasizes workplace communication skills with a special focus on the team environment. The following skills are addressed: speaking with clarity, maintaining eye contact, listening carefully, responding to questions with patience and an open mind, showing a willingness to understand, giving instructions clearly, and…

  18. Environmental Workplace Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental workplace assessments as tools in developing customized training, highlighting the group process and individual interview techniques. Suggests that, by assessing the cultural climate of an organization, education providers can gather essential baseline information on an organization and thereby provide a guide for further…

  19. Making the Workplace Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast demonstrates the importance of workplace support in managing diabetes in a corporate diabetes program.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/8/2007.

  20. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  1. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  2. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  3. [Concept analysis of workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.

  4. Safety against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The ALWIT anticontamination suit is briefly described, consisting of lasting antistatic ''NDMEX III''. It was specially developed for the fire brigade who are exposed to a particular kind of contamination while carrying out radiation measurements during fire fighting, rescue and clearing up work. The ALWIT suit reliably prevents radioactive contamination of the surface of the body while wearing a breathing apparatus, independent of the ambient air. Tightly fitting cuffs on the neck, arms and legs together with zippers placed behind prevent contamination even with extreme movement. (P.F.K.)

  5. Managing Workplace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.

  6. Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Kevin C

    2003-02-01

    In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable.

  7. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech, E-mail: dmuchowski@ob.neostrada.p [Botanical Garden-Center for Conservation of Biological Diversity, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2 Prawdziwka St., 02-973 Warszawa (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warszawa (Poland); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  8. Long-term (1992-2004) record of lead, cadmium, and zinc air contamination in Warsaw, Poland: Determination by chemical analysis of moss bags and leaves of Crimean linden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2004, air contamination with lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in Warsaw, Poland, was monitored annually with moss (Sphagnum fallax) bags on a network of 230 sites covering the entire city. During the study the highest contamination was near the Warszawa Steel Mill, northwestern Warsaw. Lead concentrations in moss bags decreased in time, while those of Cd and Zn did not show clear trends. Between 1994 and 2004, Pb, Cd, and Zn were also monitored in the Crimean linden (Tilia Euchlora) foliage along the main city avenue and in a northwestern warsaw park. Lead concentrations decreased more near the avenue than in the park, indicating that the phasing-out of leaded gasoline had a major effect on reduced Pb contamination in Warsaw. At the same time, foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn in both areas decreased much less. - Between 1992 and 2004, concentrations of Pb decreased, while those of Cd and Zn remained little changed in moss bags and linden foliage exposed to ambient air in Warsaw, Poland.

  9. Workplace flexibility across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pieter; Jansen, Paul G W

    2016-01-01

    As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations and workers arelooking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has beenintroduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until theirretirement ages. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibilityacross the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across differentdisciplines, and postulates a definitio...

  10. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  11. Radon studies in selected workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radon progeny levels were measured in coal mines, a hard rock mine and two underground hydro power stations, to indicate if there is a health problem associated with exposure to radon and radon progeny in these workplaces. The average alpha concentrations ranged from 37 to 276 Bq m -3 , with the highest levels being found in a mine with no ventillation that was being decommissioned. Average dosages were calculated to be 0.1 - 0.7 mSv y -1 . Radon progeny levels in coal mines measured in the return air circuit are indicative of levels to which a worker at the face would be exposed. They were well below international guidelines for intervention in New Zealand mines, as were the slightly higher levels in two underground hydro power stations. These results confirm that radon levels in New Zealand are low. Even in the extreme situation represented by the Sullivan mine with no ventillation the levels do not warrant concern. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  13. Experienced teachers' informal workplace learning and perceptions of workplace conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of

  14. Workplace Bullying in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Mary; Young, Christopher J; Shepherd, Heather L; Mak, Cindy; Saw, Robyn P M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and nature of workplace bullying among General Surgery trainees and consultants in Australia. An online questionnaire survey of General Surgery trainees and consultant surgeons in Australia was conducted between March and May 2012. Prevalence of bullying was measured using both a definition of workplace bullying and the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R). Sources of bullying were also examined, as well as the barriers and outcomes of formal reporting of bullying. The response rate was 34 % (370/1084) with 41 % (n = 152) of respondents being trainees. Overall, 47 % (n = 173) of respondents reported having been bullied to some degree and 68 % (n = 250) reported having witnessed bullying of surgical colleagues in the last 12 months. The prevalence of bullying was significantly higher in trainees and females, with 64 % of trainees and 57 % of females experiencing some degree of bullying. The majority of respondents (83 %) had experienced at least one negative behavior in the last 12 months, but 38 % experienced at least one negative behavior on a weekly or daily basis. The persistent negative behaviors that represent work-related bullying most commonly experienced were 'having opinions ignored' and 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload.' Consultant surgeons were the most common source of bullying for both trainees and consultants, with administration the next common source. Of those who reported being bullied, only 18 % (n = 32) made a formal complaint. Despite increased awareness and interventions, workplace bullying remains a significant problem within General Surgery in Australia. The findings in this study serve as a baseline for future questionnaires to monitor the effectiveness of implemented anti-bullying interventions.

  15. The psychiatric epidemic in the American workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, C M

    1988-01-01

    Several characteristics help distinguish MPI in the workplace from illness outbreaks due to physical causes: no laboratory or physical findings confirming an specific organic cause evidence of specific physical or psychological stressors victims are mostly women and those of lower socioeconomic status in the workplace hyperventilation-type symptoms are prominent apparent transmission by audiovisual cues rapid spread of the illness followed by rapid remission of symptoms, unless symptoms are fixed by physicians and litigation benign morbidity If a physical or chemical cause of the illness is not obvious and if episodes recur, the illness remains a mystery and the workplace becomes a breeding ground for anxiety, confusion, fear, and rumor. Economic pressures to resume normal operations are counteracted by fears that an environmental contaminant still exists. Once all physical explanations have been ruled out, investigators may turn to psychological explanations and focus on mass hysteria, but that explanation is primarily based on the absence of physical evidence rather than the presence of agreed-upon psychosocial conditions. Some reports suggest that the diagnosis of MPI is really an excuse for not conducting an adequate evaluation of low-level environmental contaminants. The disability in some workers is prolonged and points to non-work-related factors that may be contributing. Were it not for the unverifiable physical complaints and the workers' insistence that the symptoms are the result of physical disease and their concern about the complaints and their reactions to dismissal of their complaints, we would not consider these patients to have a mental disorder. These individuals are reinforced in their beliefs by some physicians and attorneys, and resultant litigation tends to fix their symptoms. In fact, a "conspiracy theory" evolves when there are enough convinced people--and enough people trying to dissuade them. Group phenomena reinforce their beliefs and

  16. WORKPLACE HARASSMENT. MOBBING PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ezer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moral harassment at the workplace has become in the last period a very often met phenomenon that severely affects the work relations and represents a significant health and safety danger. This problem has become in the last period an important issue for the European Union which has initiated a series of studie for analyzing the consequences of this pehenomenon on the normal process of the work relations, that has lead, in its turn to an awareness of this new dimenion of harassment between the employees at the internal level.

  17. Emotion in the library workplace

    CERN Document Server

    Matteson, Miriam; Hines, Samantha Schmehl

    2017-01-01

    Authors explore application of the study of emotion in the library workplace and look at future trends in the area. Library managers will take away knowledge about how the library workplace can and should operate with consideration toward emotion, and will glean ideas for implementation with their own staff and services.

  18. Workplace incivility: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures.

  19. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between…

  20. The Toll of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…

  1. Information Literacy in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Inskip, C.

    2015-01-01

    This talk aims to provide an overview of thinking and practice in workplace information literacy, an important developing area. It will consider the semantic gap between education and workplace settings and identify key issues around the challenges to library and information professionals in bridging that gap.

  2. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  3. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S S [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  4. Development and validation of a highly sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric screening method for the simultaneous determination of nanogram levels of fentanyl, sufentanil and alfentanil in air and surface contamination wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nimmen, Nadine F J; Veulemans, Hendrik A F

    2004-05-07

    A highly sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analytical method for the determination of the opioid narcotics fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil in industrial hygiene personal air samples and surface contamination wipes was developed and comprehensively validated. Sample preparation involved a single step extraction of the samples with methanol, fortified with a fixed amount of the penta-deuterated analogues of the opioid narcotics as internal standard. The GC-MS analytical procedure using selected ion monitoring (SIM) was shown to be highly selective. Linearity was shown for levels of extracted wipe and air samples corresponding to at least 0.1-2 times their surface contamination limit (SCL) and accordingly to 0.1-2 times their time weighted average occupational exposure limit (OEL-TWA) based on a full shift 9601 air sample. Extraction recoveries were determined for spiked air samples and surface wipes and were found to be quantitative for both sampling media in the entire range studied. The air sampling method's limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.4 ng per sample for fentanyl and sufentanil and 1.6 ng per sample for alfentanil, corresponding to less than 1% of their individual OEL for a full shift air sample (9601). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 1.4, 1.2, and 5.0 ng per filter for fentanyl, sufentanil, and alfentanil, respectively. The wipe sampling method had LODs of 4 ng per wipe for fentanyl and sufentanil and 16 ng per wipe for alfentanil and LOQs of respectively, 14, 12, and 50 ng per wipe. The analytical intra-assay precision of the air sampling and wipe sampling method, defined as the coefficient of variation on the analytical result of six replicate spiked media was below 10 and 5%, respectively, for all opioids at all spike levels. Accuracy expressed as relative error was determined to be below 10%, except for alfentanil at the lowest spike level (-13.1%). The stability of the opioids during simulated

  5. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  6. Preliminary assessment of using tree-tissue analysis and passive-diffusion samplers to evaluate trichloroethene contamination of ground water at Site SS-34N, McChord Air Force Base, Washington, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Two low-cost innovative sampling procedures for characterizing trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in ground water were evaluated for use at McChord Air Force Base (AFB) by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force McChord Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program, in 2001. Previous attempts to characterize the source of ground-water contamination in the heterogeneous glacial outwash aquifer at McChord site SS-34N using soil-gas surveys, direct-push exploration, and more than a dozen ground-water monitoring wells have had limited success. The procedures assessed in this study involved analysis of tree-tissue samples to map underlying ground-water contamination and deploying passive-diffusion samplers to measure TCE concentrations in existing monitoring wells. These procedures have been used successfully at other U.S. Department of Defense sites and have resulted in cost avoidance and accelerated site characterization. Despite the presence of TCE in ground water at site SS-34N, TCE was not detected in any of the 20 trees sampled at the site during either early spring or late summer sampling. The reason the tree tissue procedure was not successful at the McChord AFB site SS-34N may have been due to an inability of tree roots to extract moisture from a water table 30 feet below the land surface, or that concentrations of TCE in ground water were not large enough to be detectable in the tree tissue at the sampling point. Passive-diffusion samplers were placed near the top, middle, and bottom of screened intervals in three monitoring wells and TCE was observed in all samplers. Concentrations of TCE from the passive-diffusion samplers were generally similar to concentrations found in samples collected in the same wells using conventional pumping methods. In contrast to conventional pumping methods, the collection of ground-water samples using the passive-diffusion samples did not generate waste purge water that would require hazardous

  7. Workplace Violence and Components of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rod; Heybrock, Denise

    2017-01-01

    As episodes of workplace-centered violence have increased in the United States, a focus on emotional and mental health matters is more essential than ever. It is imperative for organizations to be proactive about violence prevention and have a plan that is supported by top management and understood by all managers and employees. Employers can take a number of steps in collaboration with a comprehensive violence prevention plan to promote a supportive and safe work environment. This article addresses workplace violence, risk factors and the components of a violence prevention plan as well as the importance of building a psychologically healthy workplace.

  8. Enhancement of the microbial community biomass and diversity during air sparging bioremediation of a soil highly contaminated with kerosene and BTEX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kabelitz, N.; Macháčková, I.; Imfeld, G.; Brennerová, Mária; Pieper, D. H.; Heipieper, H. J.; Junca, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2009), s. 565-577 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : btex * air sparging * bioremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2009

  9. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  10. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  11. Exposure and risk analysis to particulate matter, metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon at different workplaces in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Lerner, Jorge Esteban; Elordi, Maria Lucila; Orte, Marcos Agustin; Giuliani, Daniela; de Los Angeles Gutierrez, Maria; Sanchez, EricaYanina; Sambeth, Jorge Enrique; Porta, Atilio Andres

    2018-03-01

    In order to estimate air quality at work environments from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we determined both the concentration of particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as the heavy metals in the composition of the particulate matter. Three SMEs located in the city of La Plata, Argentina, were selected: an electromechanical repair and car painting center (ERCP), a sewing work room (SWR), and a chemical analysis laboratory (CAL). The results evidenced high levels of PM exceeding the limits allowed by the USEPA and the presence of benzo(k)fluoranthene in all the analyzed sites and benzo(a)pyrene in the most contaminated site (ERCP). Regarding metals, the presence of Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Mn, mainly in the fraction of PM 2.5 , in the same workplace was found. As far as risk assessment at all the workplaces surveyed is concerned, risk values for contracting cancer throughout life for exposed workers (LCR) did not comply with the parameters either of USEPA or of WHO (World Health Organization).

  12. Dispersion of Contaminants in Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In rooms ventilated by mixing ventilation, in order to remove contaminants from the occupied zone, the goal of the air distribution system is to achieve a low and even concentration distribution in the room. The experiments showed that the contaminant distribution in a room always will depend...... on the location of the contamination source and in practice also on the supplied air flow rate and the contaminant density. The results showed that it is important for the removal of contaminants in a room that the ventilation system is working in the same direction as the existing buoyancy forces....

  13. Radon in workplaces and schools in Hungary and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, Csaba; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Reacting upon the increasing concern of possible harmful effects due to radon, more and more countries established, or intend to establish in the near future, legislation for the radon level both for homes and workplaces. The dose due to radon seems to be more complicated to assess for workplaces than for homes, although the basic principles of dose estimation are the same. The doses at workplaces need to be estimated by individual approaches, but such requirement is usually not reflected in the legislations. The present study deals with characteristic situations and refers to findings and considerations in the cases of offices, schools, underground workplaces, and open air working situations with relatively high radon level. It discusses the possible inaccuracies caused by the improper selection of time periods and methods in the measurements of the average radon concentration. The purpose of this paper is to provide some examples (mainly based on the authors' experiences) to show difficulties that might emerge in the determination of average radon concentrations in various workplaces. This will help choose the proper measurement methods for each case and contribute to the regulator's work in the precise and unambiguous legislation phrasing. (author)

  14. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  15. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  16. Multicriteria ranking of workplaces regarding working conditions in a mining company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Dejan; Stanković, Vladimir; Urošević, Snežana; Stojanović, Miloš

    2016-12-01

    Ranking of workplaces with respect to working conditions is very significant for each company. It indicates the positions where employees are most exposed to adverse effects resulting from the working environment, which endangers their health. This article presents the results obtained for 12 different production workplaces in the copper mining and smelting complex RTB Bor - 'Veliki Krivelj' open pit, based on six parameters measured regularly which defined the following working environment conditions: air temperature, light, noise, dustiness, chemical hazards and vibrations. The ranking of workplaces has been performed by PROMETHEE/GAIA. Additional optimization of workplaces is done by PROMETHEE V with the given limits related to maximum permitted values for working environment parameters. The obtained results indicate that the most difficult workplace is on the excavation location (excavator operator). This method can be successfully used for solving similar kinds of problems, in order to improve working conditions.

  17. Understanding good practice in workplace coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumpopoulou, Dimitra

    2017-01-01

    Workplace coaching is growing rapidly and many organisations use it as a way to motivate and support their employees in their careers. This paper is a theoretical paper that draws upon the authors' experiences of workplace coaching. The author discusses the main aspects of successful workplace coaching while it summarises the most important behaviours and attitudes of an effective workplace coach.

  18. Workplace Learning as a Cultural Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Nicky

    2001-01-01

    Despite the raised status of learning in workplace culture, workplace learning may be experienced as oppressive or disempowering when it must conform to cultural norms or learner differences are made invisible. Workplace educators should understand culture as an evolving entity and challenge oppressive workplace practices. (Contains 16…

  19. Workplace bullying: the effectiveness of a workplace program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel J; Jones, Ruth A; Speroni, Karen Gabel

    2013-08-01

    Workplace bullying can not only cost thousands of dollars to replace an affected nurse, but also have detrimental economic effects on health care organizations. Occupational health nurses can provide leadership in preventing or eliminating workplace bullying. This pilot study determined that attendance at a cognitive rehearsal program decreased workplace bullying. The study used an Internet-based survey administered 6 months after nurses completed the 2-hour cognitive rehearsal program. Half of the nurses reported witnessing bullying behaviors since attending the program; 70% of the nurses reported changing their own behaviors following the course; and 40% of the nurses reported a decrease in bullying behaviors during the past 6 months. Although 70% of the nurses believed they could intervene in bullying situations, only 16% reported they responded to bullying at the time of occurrence. This study illuminates the need to continue searching for other effective methods to prevent and manage workplace bullying. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  1. Prognostication of the radioactive contamination with iodine 131, strontium 90 and cesium 137 of the air and soil after commissioning the ''Kozloduj'' nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, M; Paskalev, Z [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1975-01-01

    The content of iodine 131, strontium 90 and cesium 137 in the air (curie/l) and soil (curie/m/sup 2/ sec) in the area of the Kozloduj atomic power station (at a distance from 3 to 75 km from the chimney-stack of the power station) was determined. The concentrations of these radionuclides are determined under different meteorologic conditions: air temperature from -20/sup 0/C to +20/sup 0/C and a wind speed from 2 m/sec to 30 m/sec. The data show that at -20/sup 0/C radionuclide concentrations in the air decrease with increasing distance from the chimney-stack, regardless of the speed of the wind. At +20/sup 0/C radionuclide concentrations in the air increase with the distance from the chimney-stack, peak at a definite distance and then decrease. At 2 m/sec and speed this maximum is at a distance of 50 km from station. As the speed of the air increases, the peak moves nearer and remains about 30 km from the power station. Results on ground surface concentrations show that a trend is observed toward persistent decrease with distance from the power station. In rainy weather they are almost four times higher than in dry weather. The radionuclide concentrations on the ground surface will be comparable to their global deposits.

  2. Associations between psychological distress, workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates associations between psychological distress and workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes. The Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was distributed to employees of 58 large employers. A total of 60,556 full-time employees were eligible for analysis. The HPQ probed whether the respondent had, in the past 30-days, a workplace accident, success or failure ("yes" or "no"). Psychological distress was quantified using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale and categorised into low, moderate and high psychological distress. Three binomial logistic regressions were performed with the dependent variables being workplace accident, success or failure. Covariates in the models were K6 category, gender, age, marital status, education level, job category, physical health and employment sector. Accounting for all other variables, moderate and high psychological distress significantly (P work failures and decrease the OR of workplace successes at similar levels. As the prevalence of moderate psychological distress is approximately double that of high psychological distress moderate distress consequentially has a greater workplace impact.

  3. Air conditioning systems to clean radioactive air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports a study by the Institutes fuer Klimatechnik and Umweltschutz Giessen that shows that air conditioning systems not only make the atmosphere more comfortable, they also extract dust particles. This cleaning action is also valid for radioactively contaminated air. (G.T.H./Auth.)

  4. Recessions are Bad for Workplace Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Wuellrich, J.P.; Zweimuller, J.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace accidents are an important economic phenomenon. Yet, the pro-cyclical fl uctuations in workplace accidents are not well understood. They could be related to fluctuations in effort and working hours, but workplace accidents may also be affected by reporting behavior. Our paper uses unique data on workplace accidents from an Austrian matched worker-firm dataset to study in detail how economic incentives affect workplace accidents. We find that workers who reported an accident in a par...

  5. Workplace Communication Practices and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...... symbolic power and this is reflected in the linguistic ecosystem of the various work settings. In this chapter, we discuss issues around language use, language policy and language ideology in the workplace as well as gatekeeping. We draw on our recently completed and ongoing work as well as illustrative...

  6. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    2010-01-01

    some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part......Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key...... words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find...

  7. Health promotion in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiv...

  8. GENDER ISSUES IN WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    STAICULESCU Ana Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to the problem of workplace gender violence and the power relationships between males and females in organizational theory. Victimization based on gender is afflicting society as a whole, but is also relevant to the construction of social attitudes at the workplace. Thus, we will present how the context of work relationships can be affected by acts of verbal and physical intimidation engaged by gender inequality and what are the consequences for managers. Moreover, we...

  9. Visual ergonomics in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed.

  10. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  11. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  12. Changing families, changing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child

  13. Workplace analysis and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Bosquet, Ph.; Chevillard, S.; Gauron, Ch.; Lallemand, J.; Lombard, J.; Menetrier, F.; Feuardent, J.; Maccia, C.; Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Donnarieix, D.; Garrigou, A.; Gauthereau, V.; Truchi, F.; Chardin, J.; Debouck, F.; Clairand, I.; Amabile, J.Ch.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Roussille, F.; Witschger, O.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Rannou, A.

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Fifteen presentations out of 16 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of doses received by workers (J. Feuardent); 2 - evaluation of extremities dosimetry among interventional radiology practitioners (L. Donadille); 3 - practical guide for the realisation of workplace dosimetry studies presenting a ionizing radiation exposure risk: and example in nuclear medicine (J.L. Rehel); 4 - workplace studies in radiotherapy-curietherapy (D. Donnarieix); 5 - from dosimetry to physical intensity: the case of heat insulation activities (A. Garrigou and C. Piccadaci); 6 - the consideration of human factor during facility modifications (V. Gauthereau); 7 - how to carry out a workplace analysis in gamma-graphy? (F. Truchi); 8 - workplace studies in the framework of dismantling activities (J. Chardin); 9 - team synergy (F. Debouck); 10 - adaptation of individual dosimetry to the workplace: the case of external exposure (I. Clairand); 11 - technical aspects of the evaluation of ionizing radiations exposure induced by a new interventional radiology procedure (J.C. Amabile); 12 - the point of view of a radioprotection skilled person in a nuclear medicine service (J.M. Vrigneaud); 13 - workplace studies for the unique document (F. Roussille); 14 - occupational exposure to manufactured nano-particles: issues and knowledge status (O. Witschger); 15 - toxicological risk of nano-particles: 'health impact'? (S. Chevillard). (J.S.)

  14. [Gender differences in workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.

  15. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  16. Phytovolatilization of Organic Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel

    2016-07-05

    Plants can interact with a variety of organic compounds, and thereby affect the fate and transport of many environmental contaminants. Volatile organic compounds may be volatilized from stems or leaves (direct phytovolatilization) or from soil due to plant root activities (indirect phytovolatilization). Fluxes of contaminants volatilizing from plants are important across scales ranging from local contaminant spills to global fluxes of methane emanating from ecosystems biochemically reducing organic carbon. In this article past studies are reviewed to clearly differentiate between direct- and indirect-phytovolatilization and we discuss the plant physiology driving phytovolatilization in different ecosystems. Current measurement techniques are also described, including common difficulties in experimental design. We also discuss reports of phytovolatilization in the literature, finding that compounds with low octanol-air partitioning coefficients are more likely to be phytovolatilized (log KOA < 5). Reports of direct phytovolatilization at field sites compare favorably to model predictions. Finally, future research needs are presented that could better quantify phytovolatilization fluxes at field scale.

  17. Ombuds’ corner: Workplace incivility

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   In 2011, the Canadian HR Reporter published several articles by Sharone Bar-David on workplace incivility (I would encourage you to read them here). These articles can shed some light on an internal issue here at CERN: what happens when there are violations of the Code of Conduct that we may face every day? Such incivilities can fly under the organizational radar and are not up to the level of any administrative or disciplinary action foreseen in the CERN Staff Rules and Regulations. However, if such breaches in respectful behaviour are tolerated continuously and nothing is done about them, they can create a toxic work climate. Furthermore, such a distortion of human relations...

  18. Comparison of personal air samplers and static air samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.; Lumsden, B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that radioactive air contamination levels calculated from PAS results will always be higher than air contamination levels calculated from SAS results, other conditions being equal. The most probable explanation seems to be in a relationship between the sampling velocity and the particle size of the dust sampled

  19. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  20. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics