WorldWideScience

Sample records for workload balance evaluation

  1. An Efficient Adaptive Load Balancing Algorithm for Cloud Computing Under Bursty Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Issawi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a recent, emerging technology in the IT industry. It is an evolution of previous models such as grid computing. It enables a wide range of users to access a large sharing pool of resources over the internet. In such complex system, there is a tremendous need for an efficient load balancing scheme in order to satisfy peak user demands and provide high quality of services. One of the challenging problems that degrade the performance of a load balancing process is bursty workloads. Although there are a lot of researches proposing different load balancing algorithms, most of them neglect the problem of bursty workloads. Motivated by this problem, this paper proposes a new burstness-aware load balancing algorithm which can adapt to the variation in the request rate by adopting two load balancing algorithms: RR in burst and Random in non-burst state. Fuzzy logic is used in order to assign the received request to a balanced VM. The algorithm has been evaluated and compared with other algorithms using Cloud Analyst simulator. Results show that the proposed algorithm improves the average response time and average processing time in comparison with other algorithms.

  2. Operator Workload: Comprehensive Review and Evaluation of Operator Workload Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    was introduced as part of a more comprehensive human-machine system design aid, Computer Aided Function-Allocation Evaluation System ( CAFES ). WAM Is...development of the NASA-TLX Is presented in Hart and Stavelhnd (1987). Both the MASA -TLX and Bipolar scales have been used In laboratory and operational...single pilot during actual flights in a small two-engine transport aircraft. The flights weae pedfomsed either as tho first flight of the day, after a

  3. Cluster analysis for computer workload evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, K

    1976-01-01

    An introduction to computer workload analysis is given, showing its range of application in computer centre management, system and application programming. Cluster methods are discussed which can be used in conjunction with workload data and cluster algorithms are adapted to the specific set problem. Several samples of CDC 7600- accounting-data-collected at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research-underwent a cluster analysis to determine job groups. The conclusions from resource usage of typical job groups in relation to computer workload analysis are discussed. (17 refs).

  4. Autonomy, Workload, Work-Life Balance and Job Performance among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yean Tan, Fee; Zulkarnain, Zati Iwani Tjik

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of autonomy, workload, and work-life balance on job performance among teachers. A survey was carried out among teachers in public schools in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a quantitative approach to address the research…

  5. Human interaction with robotic systems: performance and workload evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinerman-Jones, L; Barber, D J; Szalma, J L; Hancock, P A

    2017-10-01

    We first tested the effect of differing tactile informational forms (i.e. directional cues vs. static cues vs. dynamic cues) on objective performance and perceived workload in a collaborative human-robot task. A second experiment evaluated the influence of task load and informational message type (i.e. single words vs. grouped phrases) on that same collaborative task. In both experiments, the relationship of personal characteristics (attentional control and spatial ability) to performance and workload was also measured. In addition to objective performance and self-report of cognitive load, we evaluated different physiological responses in each experiment. Results showed a performance-workload association for directional cues, message type and task load. EEG measures however, proved generally insensitive to such task load manipulations. Where significant EEG effects were observed, right hemisphere amplitude differences predominated, although unexpectedly these latter relationships were negative. Although EEG measures were partially associated with performance, they appear to possess limited utility as measures of workload in association with tactile displays. Practitioner Summary: As practitioners look to take advantage of innovative tactile displays in complex operational realms like human-robotic interaction, associated performance effects are mediated by cognitive workload. Despite some patterns of association, reliable reflections of operator state can be difficult to discern and employ as the number, complexity and sophistication of these respective measures themselves increase.

  6. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Pathology laboratories staff workload evaluation in Turkey: a survey study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usubütün, Alp; Uner, Sarp; Harorlu, Fevzi; Ozer, Erdener; Tuzlali, Sıtkı; Ruacan, Arzu; Koç, Orhan; Yörükoğlu, Kutsal

    2011-05-01

    The workload affects the quality of the pathology report. The aim of this study was to investigate the territorial distribution and productivity of pathology laboratories around Turkey and to estimate the staff workload. A survey questioning the workload was sent to all Ministry of Health and university hospitals. Staff workload was questioned according to the hospital classification and educational activity to evaluate the productivity. Data were entered using SPSS 16.0 statistical software package program and the distribution criteria, t-test and one-way anova were used in the analysis to evaluate the differences between the averages. An average of 2.8 pathologists worked at the pathology laboratories. A total of 5.500 biopsies and 3.750 cytology specimens were received and 20.000 blocks prepared per year. Pathologists evaluated 1.935 biopsies and 1.400 cytology specimens on average and this is equivalent to 2.718 biopsies per year. Gynecology and general surgery department materials constituted 57 percent of all biopsies. Each technician prepared 6.200 blocks, 11.500 slides and 1.000 immunohistochemistry preparations on average. An average of 3.4 paraffin blocks was prepared for each biopsy. The efficiency was low in 17% of teaching hospitals and 77.8% of non-teaching hospitals. In contrast 62.5% of teaching hospitals had work overload. The majority (70.5%) of the respondents mentioned staff shortage. There is no pathologist shortage in Turkey and the problem is workload distribution. Pathology residents' overwork would be reduced by using pathology assistants. There is no shortage of technicians or secretaries, but uneven distribution. Pathology staff planning must be tailored taking into account the features of each hospital. Standard planning for all hospitals is not suitable.

  8. Physiological Evaluation of Mental Workload in Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Kyu; Nozawa, Akio; Mizuno, Tota; Ide, Hideto

    There can be seen in many situations where office workers have to make decisions under the time restriction. For example, flight control buisiness, dealing work and so on. Such the time restriction can have the time pressure, which is considerd one of mental workload, on them. In addition, it can cause human error on imformation processing. If mental work load appropriately maintained the work level, office workers would be able to go on the work with moderate tention. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate physiological indexes, which are ECG, EEG, Facial skin thermo image by using adding tasks.

  9. Evaluating and optimizing the NERSC workload on Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T; Cook, B; Deslippe, J; Doerfler, D; Friesen, B; He, Y; Kurth, T; Koskela, T; Lobet, M; Malas, T; Oliker, L; Ovsyannikov, A; Sarje, A; Vay, JL; Vincenti, H; Williams, S; Carrier, P; Wichmann, N; Wagner, M; Kent, P; Kerr, C; Dennis, J

    2017-01-30

    NERSC has partnered with 20 representative application teams to evaluate performance on the Xeon-Phi Knights Landing architecture and develop an application-optimization strategy for the greater NERSC workload on the recently installed Cori system. In this article, we present early case studies and summarized results from a subset of the 20 applications highlighting the impact of important architecture differences between the Xeon-Phi and traditional Xeon processors. We summarize the status of the applications and describe the greater optimization strategy that has formed.

  10. Approximate entropy: a new evaluation approach of mental workload under multitask conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuanzhe; Jiang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    There are numerous instruments and an abundance of complex information in the traditional cockpit display-control system, and pilots require a long time to familiarize themselves with the cockpit interface. This can cause accidents when they cope with emergency events, suggesting that it is necessary to evaluate pilot cognitive workload. In order to establish a simplified method to evaluate cognitive workload under a multitask condition. We designed a series of experiments involving different instrument panels and collected electroencephalograms (EEG) from 10 healthy volunteers. The data were classified and analyzed with an approximate entropy (ApEn) signal processing. ApEn increased with increasing experiment difficulty, suggesting that it can be used to evaluate cognitive workload. Our results demonstrate that ApEn can be used as an evaluation criteria of cognitive workload and has good specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we determined an empirical formula to assess the cognitive workload interval, which can simplify cognitive workload evaluation under multitask conditions.

  11. Pilot workload evaluated with subjective and physiological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate different measures for mental workload. Ten aspirant fighter jet pilots flew several scenarios in a flight simulator. The scenarios were divided into segments with different levels of task load. During the flight, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure

  12. Evaluating Faculty Workload: An Application of Process Control Charts with Supplementary Run Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, R. S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method for evaluating faculty workload (measured by time spent in teaching, research, and service) by using process control charts with supplementary run rules that can identify potential overload or underload. (SK)

  13. Evaluation of drivers\\' behavior performing a curve under mental workload

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Sartori Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Driving under distraction may lead drivers to wrong actions that can result in serious accidents. The objective of this thesis was to apply a driving simulator to verify variations in drivers\\' behavior while driving. Behavior to drive on a curve was measured by variation in drivers\\' speed profile in a virtualized highway. The comparison was performed between two identical simulations, one involving drivers distracted with a mental workload, and other in which they were full aware of driving...

  14. A psychometric evaluation of the Taiwan version of the Individual Workload Perception Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Lin, Chung-Hui; Yeh, Mei Chang; Lin, Shu-Ying; Hwang, Yueh-Jiau

    2011-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale on staff nurses in southern Taiwan. Most psychometric measures of the nursing work environment were developed in North America and reflect nursing practice in Western health care environments. As these instruments are used most often in translation, it is important to inquire whether they appropriately capture the characteristics of nursing work in environments outside of the original contexts. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 June-30 September 2009, with a convenience sample of 344 nurses providing direct patient care at a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was created by translating the original English language Individual Workload Perception Scale-Revised, which is used to measure the staff nurses' perceptions of their work environment. The Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale is a 24-item five-point Likert scale measuring manager support, peer support, unit support, workload and intent to stay. Content validity, construct validity and reliability of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale were evaluated. The content validity index of the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was 0.93. Cronbach's alpha for the total Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale was 0.88, with a range of 0.61-0.85 for the subscales. Factorial validity was supported using a five-factor model solution that accounted for 55.47% of the total variance for nursing work environment. Manager support had the highest explained variance (28.38%). Acceptable reliability and content validity were found; the Taiwan version of the Revised Individual Workload Perception Scale is recommended for measuring nurses' perceptions of their work environment

  15. Workload Balancing on Heterogeneous Systems: A Case Study of Sparse Grid Interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Muraraşu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    Multi-core parallelism and accelerators are becoming common features of today’s computer systems, as they allow for computational power without sacrificing energy efficiency. Due to heterogeneity, tuning for each type of compute unit and adequate load balancing is essential. This paper proposes static and dynamic solutions for load balancing in the context of an application for visualizing high-dimensional simulation data. The application relies on the sparse grid technique for data compression. Its performance critical part is the interpolation routine used for decompression. Results show that our load balancing scheme allows for an efficient acceleration of interpolation on heterogeneous systems containing multi-core CPUs and GPUs.

  16. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  17. Effects of Grading Leniency and Low Workload on Students' Evaluations of Teaching: Popular Myth, Bias, Validity, or Innocent Bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Roche, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses two studies that debunk the popular myths that student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are substantially biased by low workload and grading leniency. Results imply teaching effects were related to SETs. Contrary to predictions workload, expected grades, and their relations to SETs were stable over 12 years. (Author/MKA)

  18. Hospitalist workload influences faculty evaluations by internal medicine clerkship students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. The study reported here was conducted to explore the relationship between clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students. A retrospective correlation analysis of clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was conducted. Internal medicine hospitalists who supervise the third-year inpatient experience for medical students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years participated in the study. Clinical service intensity data in terms of work relative value units (RVUs), patient encounters, and days of inpatient duty were collected for all members of the hospitalist service. Medical students rated hospitalists in the areas of patient rapport, enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, sharing knowledge and skills, encouraging the students, probing student knowledge, stimulating independent learning, providing timely feedback, providing constructive criticism, and observing patient encounters with students. Significant negative correlations between higher work RVU production, total patient encounters, duty days, and learner evaluation scores for enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, probing the student for knowledge and judgment, and observing a patient encounter with the student were identified. Higher duty days had a significant negative correlation with sharing knowledge/skills and encouraging student initiative. Higher work RVUs and total patient encounters were negatively correlated with timely feedback and constructive criticism. The results suggest that

  19. Hospitalist workload influences faculty evaluations by internal medicine clerkship students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson RL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert L Robinson Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA Background: The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. Objective: The study reported here was conducted to explore the relationship between clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students. Design: A retrospective correlation analysis of clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was conducted. Participants: Internal medicine hospitalists who supervise the third-year inpatient experience for medical students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years participated in the study. Measures: Clinical service intensity data in terms of work relative value units (RVUs, patient encounters, and days of inpatient duty were collected for all members of the hospitalist service. Medical students rated hospitalists in the areas of patient rapport, enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, sharing knowledge and skills, encouraging the students, probing student knowledge, stimulating independent learning, providing timely feedback, providing constructive criticism, and observing patient encounters with students. Results: Significant negative correlations between higher work RVU production, total patient encounters, duty days, and learner evaluation scores for enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, probing the student for knowledge and judgment, and observing a patient encounter with the student were identified. Higher duty days had a significant negative correlation

  20. Ergonomic evaluation of workload by milk production - a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claudilaine Caldas; Pereira Moro, Antônio Renato; Ulbricht, Leandra; Belinelli, Marjorie; de Souza, Gilberto F M; Gabriel, Michele; Zattar, Izabel Cristina

    2017-09-21

    The purpose of this study was to select in a structured manner the relevant articles with scientific recognition, and simultaneously identify the characteristics of these publications that may scientifically enrich the theme in a portfolio of papers. The theme involves ergonomics in milk production as a criterion for evaluating and improving organizational performance in the milking sector. The study used ProKnow-C as a theoretical instrument for intervention. The main results show: i) a bibliographic portfolio of 18 items aligned with the view adopted by researchers which served as a theoretical framework for this research; ii) The article entitled "Wrist positions and movements as possible risk factors during machine milking", by Marianne Stål, Gert-Åke Hansson and Ulrich Moritz in 1999 and published in the Journal of Applied Ergonomics presented the highest scientific recognition, iii) the authors highlighted in the bibliographic portfolio or in its references researching the subject are Gert-Åke Hansson, Marianne Stål and Stefan Pinzke, and iv) the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics shows the highest number of scientific articles in the bibliographic portfolio. The studies selected using the methodology indicate research in ergonomics focused on the production of milk in rural areas, specifically in the milking sector, are generally related to the health and safety of the workers.

  1. Evaluating load balancing policies for performance and energy-efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek van den Berg

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more increasingly hard computations are performed in challenging fields like weather forecasting, oil and gas exploration, and cryptanalysis. Many of such computations can be implemented using a computer cluster with a large number of servers. Incoming computation requests are then, via a so-called load balancing policy, distributed over the servers to ensure optimal performance. Additionally, being able to switch-off some servers during low period of workload, gives potential to reduced energy consumption. Therefore, load balancing forms, albeit indirectly, a trade-off between performance and energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce a syntax for load-balancing policies to dynamically select a server for each request based on relevant criteria, including the number of jobs queued in servers, power states of servers, and transition delays between power states of servers. To evaluate many policies, we implement two load balancers in: (i iDSL, a language and tool-chain for evaluating service-oriented systems, and (ii a simulation framework in AnyLogic. Both implementations are successfully validated by comparison of the results.

  2. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2017-02-15

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  3. Evaluation of the effective energy of primary and transmmitted workload weighted X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. C.; Costa, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Current methods for X-ray shielding evaluation for imaging facilities do not take into account the effective energy of the radiation impinging on primary barrier. In addition, the X-ray beam attenuation through the patient is not considered in radiation shielding. The proposed models do not deal with the hardening of the spectra between the primary and transmitted beams. Therefore, the present work proposes the evaluation of X-ray spectra transmitted by an adult patient (anthropomorphic phantom) and a shielding barrier weighted by typical workload distributions. A set of primary spectra produced by a voltage range from 60 to 140 kV was measured with a CdTe spectrometer system. A second set of X-ray spectra transmitted through a 15 mm thickness barite mortar plate was also measured employing the same beam quality and voltage range. The air-kerma was simultaneously measured using an ionization chamber. The primary and transmitted experimental X-ray spectra were weighted by a typical chest examination workload distribution. The resulting weighted spectra represent the superposition of the radiation beams typically used in chest examinations. The effective energy of primary weighted spectra was estimated in 42.4 keV and the effective energy of the corresponding transmitted spectra was estimated in 64.7 keV.

  4. Evaluation of Physiologically-Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    Secondary Score 181.625 5.250 181.031 5.076 Total Score 631.458 20.787 491.113 26.085 Subjective Workload (TLX) 37.404 4.134 42.934 4.025 Heart Rate (Beats...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0075 Evaluation of Physiologically – Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely...16 Interim Report 1 August 2015 – 8 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Physiologically – Based Artificial Neural Network Models to

  5. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity

  6. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of team lifting on work demands, workload and workers' evaluation: an observational field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in work demands, energetic workload and workers' discomfort and physical effort in two regularly observable workdays in ironwork; one where loads up to 50kg were handled with two persons manually (T50) and one where loads up to 100kg were handled manually with four persons (T100). Differences between these typical workdays were assessed with an observational within-subject field study of 10 ironworkers. No significant differences were found for work demands, energetic workload or discomfort between T50 and T100 workdays. During team lifts, load mass exceeded 25kg per person in 57% (T50 workday) and 68% (T100 workday) of the lifts. Seven ironworkers rated team lifting with two persons as less physically demanding compared with lifting with four persons. When loads heavier than 25kg are lifted manually with a team, regulations of the maximum mass weight are frequently violated. Loads heavier than 25kg are frequently lifted during concrete reinforcement work and should be lifted by a team of persons. However, the field study showed that loads above 25kg are most of the time not lifted with the appropriate number of workers. Therefore, loads heavier than 25kg should be lifted mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Student Peer Evaluated Line Balancing Competition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    The Student Peer Evaluated Line Balancing Competition is a 30-minute in-class problem-based learning experiential exercise that challenges student groups to design a feasible and efficient laptop computer assembly line. Each student...

  9. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) to Differentiate Balance Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Horak, Fay B.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Frank, James

    2009-01-01

    Background: Current clinical balance assessment tools do not aim to help therapists identify the underlying postural control systems responsible for poor functional balance. By identifying the disordered systems underlying balance control, therapists can direct specific types of intervention for different types of balance problems.

  10. A colored petri nets based workload evaluation model and its validation through Multi-Attribute Task Battery-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Fang, Weining; Guo, Beiyuan

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposed a colored petri nets based workload evaluation model. A formal interpretation of workload was firstly introduced based on the process that reflection of petri nets components to task. A petri net based description of Multiple Resources theory was given by comprehending it from a new angle. A new application of VACP rating scales named V/A-C-P unit, and the definition of colored transitions were proposed to build a model of task process. The calculation of workload mainly has the following four steps: determine token's initial position and values; calculate the weight of directed arcs on the basis of the rules proposed; calculate workload from different transitions, and correct the influence of repetitive behaviors. Verify experiments were carried out based on Multi-Attribute Task Battery-II software. Our results show that there is a strong correlation between the model values and NASA -Task Load Index scores (r=0.9513). In addition, this method can also distinguish behavior characteristics between different people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue.

  12. The evaluation of team lifting on physical work demands and workload in ironworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Visser, Steven; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Faber, Gert; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    Lifting and carrying heavy loads occur frequently among ironworkers and result in high prevalence and incidence rates of low back complaints, injuries and work-disability. From a health perspective, little information is available on the effect of team lifting on work demands and workload. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of team lifting of maximally 50 kg by two ironworkers (T50) with team lifting of maximally 100 kg by four ironworkers (T100). This study combined a field and laboratory study with the following outcome measures: duration and frequency of tasks and activities, energetic workload, perceived discomfort and maximal compression forces (Fc peak) on the low back. The physical work demands and workload of an individual iron worker during manual handling of rebar materials of 100 kg with four workers did not differ from the manual handling of rebar materials of 50 kg with two workers, with the exception of low back discomfort and Fc peak. The biomechanical workload of the low back exceeded for both T50 and T100 the NIOSH threshold limit of 3400N. Therefore, mechanical transport or other effective design solutions should be considered to reduce the biomechanical workload of the low back and the accompanying health risks among iron workers.

  13. Student Workload: A Case Study of Its Significance, Evaluation and Management at the Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Denise; Thorpe, Mary; Galley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Distance students are time poor and some drop out of their studies because they fall behind with coursework. This raises the issue of how course teams decide upon how many study hours should be included in a course. This article presents a number of Open University projects that have addressed student workload management and relates how learning…

  14. The evaluation of team lifting on physical work demands and workload in ironworkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Visser, Steven; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Faber, Gert; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2012-01-01

    Lifting and carrying heavy loads occur frequently among ironworkers and result in high prevalence and incidence rates of low back complaints, injuries and work-disability. From a health perspective, little information is available on the effect of team lifting on work demands and workload.

  15. Workload: Measurement and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Casner, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Poster: The workload research project has as its task to survey the available literature on: (1) workload measurement techniques; and (2) the effects of workload on operator performance. The first set of findings provides practitioners with a collection of simple-to-use workload measurement techniques along with characterizations of the kinds of tasks each technique has been shown reliably address. This allows design practitioners to select and use the most appropriate techniques for the task(s) at hand. The second set of findings provides practitioners with the guidance they need to design for appropriate kinds and amounts of workload across all tasks for which the operator is responsible. This guidance helps practitioners design systems and procedures that ensure appropriate levels of engagement across all tasks, and avoid designs and procedures that result in operator boredom, complacency, loss of awareness, undue levels of stress, or skill atrophy that can result from workload that distracts operators from the tasks they perform and monitor, workload levels that are too low, too high, or too consistent or predictable. Only those articles that were peer reviewed, long standing and generally accepted in the field, and applicable to a relevant range of conditions in a select domain of interest, in analogous "extreme" environments to those in space were included. In addition, all articles were reviewed and evaluated on uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional considerations. Casner & Gore also examined the notion of thresholds and the conditions that may benefit mostly from the various methodological approaches. Other considerations included whether the tools would be suitable for guiding a requirement-related and design-related question. An initial review of over 225 articles was conducted and entered into an EndNote database. The reference list included a range of conditions in the domain of interest (subjective/objective measures), the seminal works in workload, as

  16. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  17. U.S. Navy Shipyards. An Evaluation of Workload- and Workforce-Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    workload is made for the purposes of financial accounting . Depot work can also include “overflow” intermediate-level or organizational-level work that the...Chris Deegan and CAPT Mark Whitney, both of whom helped get the project underway. Special thanks are due to Michael C. Sydla of NAVSEA 04, whose...funded under the Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy (SCN), accounts . The principal example of SCN-funded depot-level work is the mid-life refueling

  18. The Mental Workload Evaluation in Visualizing Telehealth Indicators on Three-Dimensional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Filho, Amadeu S; Novaes, Magdala A; Gomes, Alex S

    2017-10-27

    As Internet bandwidth has risen, resulting in an exponential increase in the amount of data, one of the challenges is to transform large amounts of unstructured health data into legible information through visualization techniques to facilitate the decision-making between the telehealth managers. Traditionally, data visualization has been two-dimensional (2D), but it is often difficult to visualize and interpret when making decisions with multidimensional data. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques are emerging to address this issue. This study aims to investigate and demonstrate the hypothesis that the use of 3D techniques for information visualization is more effective than some 2D visualization techniques. Hypothesis validation was performed with a usability methodology analyzing of the time, efficiency, effectiveness, and mental workload required in the execution of a task with a developed prototype. A random sample of telehealth professionals was used. Data were collected through observation and usability questionnaires, including the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) mental workload protocol. Data analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study showed that mental workload, despite the time of task execution and effectiveness of the prototype, with 3D technique was less than the 2D technique. The 3D technique required less mental effort than the 2D technique. The 3D environment supports the service manager to verify the telehealth quality of service toward the features provided by 3D environment, especially, its capability to identify trends, clusters of interest, and perform indicators comparison.

  19. Scrutinising usability evaluation: does thinking aloud affect behaviour and mental workload?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Kristin Due; Andersen, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    participants that think aloud in the classic or relaxed way behave differently compared to performing in silence. Results indicate that whereas classic thinking aloud has little or no effect on behaviour apart from prolonging tasks, relaxed thinking aloud affects behaviour in multiple ways. During relaxed...... thinking aloud participants took longer to solve tasks, spent a larger part of tasks on general distributed visual behaviour, issued more commands to navigate both within and between the pages of the websites used in the experiment, and experienced higher mental workload. Implications for usability...

  20. Defining the subjective experience of workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.; Childress, M. E.; Bortolussi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Flight scenarios that represent different types and levels of pilot workload are needed in order to conduct research about, and develop measures of, pilot workload. In order to be useful, however, the workload associated with such scenarios and the component tasks must be determined independently. An initial study designed to provide such information was conducted by asking a panel of general aviation pilots to evaluate flight-related tasks for the overall, perceptual, physical, and cognitive workload they impose. These ratings will provide the nucleus for a data base of flight-related primary tasks that have been independently rated for workload to use in workload assessment research.

  1. Experimental evaluation of dynamic data allocation strategies in a distributed database with changing workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Anna; Leutenegger, Scott T.; Simha, Rahul

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, allocation of data in distributed database management systems has been determined by off-line analysis and optimization. This technique works well for static database access patterns, but is often inadequate for frequently changing workloads. In this paper we address how to dynamically reallocate data for partionable distributed databases with changing access patterns. Rather than complicated and expensive optimization algorithms, a simple heuristic is presented and shown, via an implementation study, to improve system throughput by 30 percent in a local area network based system. Based on artificial wide area network delays, we show that dynamic reallocation can improve system throughput by a factor of two and a half for wide area networks. We also show that individual site load must be taken into consideration when reallocating data, and provide a simple policy that incorporates load in the reallocation decision.

  2. Evaluation of physical fitness and weight status among fisherwomen in relation to their occupational workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pallav; Krajewska-Kulak, Elzbieta

    2014-12-01

    Fisherwomen contribute significantly to the coastal economy of Eastern India; however, data about their physical fitness and weight status are scant. The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status of fisherwomen, which may be influenced by their occupational workload, using morphometric and anthropometric measures. The study was conducted among young fisherwomen (mean age 23.7 years) randomly selected from Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, and among young women who are not engaged in the fishing industry but are residents of Araku, who served as controls (mean age 21.3 years). Measurements of body composition included several anthropometric variables, while physical efficiency parameters included a physical fitness index (PFI), VO2max, total energy expenditure, and anaerobic capacity. A significant difference (pfitness index, total energy expenditure, and anaerobic power was found in fisherwomen compared with controls. Analysis of collected data showed that the majority of the fisherwomen studied have a normal range of BMI (42%), but 6% of them were found to be mildly overweight. They also showed lower fat mass (13.5 [ ± 3.87]kg) and lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index. Additionally, they were found to have a moderate level of physical fitness (64.3 [ ± 1.97]%) and a higher total energy expenditure (4.92 [ ± 0.52]k.cal.min(-2)). This study implies that physical fitness and weight status of young fisherwomen in Eastern India are influenced by their occupational workload. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical evaluation of balance in hemiparetic adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bambirra

    Full Text Available Introduction Hemiparesis is a common post-stroke impairment often associated with balance deficits. Standardized instruments for balance assessment may be useful in identifying individuals at risk of falling and evaluating intervention outcomes. Objectives To identify instruments with adequate psychometric properties and clinical application to assess balance in hemiparetic cases within the scope of physiotherapy and to verify tools most frequently used in studies that evaluated the effects of therapeutic interventions in order to improve the balance of hemiparetic patients. Methods A search was conducted in the Medline, Lilacs, PEDro, and Web of Science databases by two independent researchers, who selected and analyzed studies that evaluated the reliability and validity of balance assessment instruments and intervention results. Results and discussion The Berg Balance Scale was the most frequently used instrument in the intervention studies. Nine single-task tests (timed up and go, functional reach test, step test, four-square step test, side step test, supported standing balance, standing arm raise, static tandem standing, and weight shifting and six multiple-task tests (Berg balance scale, Brunel balance assessment, Fugl-Meyer Assessment/balance section, mini balance evaluation systems test, and postural assessment scale for stroke patients demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and clinical applications to assess balance in hemiparetic individuals. Conclusions The Berg Balance Scale had the most widely studied psychometric properties and was the most frequently used scale in the intervention studies. Further studies are required to validate and adapt other instruments for the Brazilian population.

  4. The evolving role of the radiologist: the Vancouver workload utilization evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanoa, Deljit; Dhesi, Tajinder S; Burton, Kirsteen R; Nicolaou, Savvas; Liang, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The role of the present-day on-site hospital radiologist surpasses image interpretation-related duties. This study characterizes these workload activities, as well as quantifies the type of value-based interactions radiologists experience on a daily basis with allied health personnel. A prospective, observational, randomized study was performed across 3 hospitals in the fall of 2012. One month of observation of 14 staff radiologists was performed by a trained observer. The observer followed the subject radiologists throughout the workday, recording activities using a time and motion methodology. Radiologists spent 36.4% of their time on image interpretation. The proportion of noninterpretative tasks was 43.8%, which includes activities such as protocolling requisitions, supervising and monitoring studies, performing image-guided procedures, consulting with physicians, and directly caring for patients. Total clinical productivity was 87.7%, and radiologists experienced, on average, 6 interactions per hour with other health personnel, of which over 81.2% directly influenced patient care in real time. This study demonstrates a new framework of characterizing the type of work radiologists perform on a daily basis, which helps further define the evolving role of the present-day radiologist to other physicians, administrators, and policy makers. Furthermore, the on-site added value that radiologists deliver suggests that radiologists are central figures in the medical imaging department who are difficult to replace by off-site or nonradiologist image interpreters. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the Fraser Health Balanced Scorecard--a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnardo, Catherine; Jivanni, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Fraser Health (FH), a large, Canadian, integrated health care network, adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to monitor organizational performance in 2006. This paper reports on the results of a formative evaluation, conducted in April, 2008, to assess the usefulness of the BSC as a performance-reporting system and a performance management tool. Results indicated that the BSC has proven to be useful for reporting performance but is not currently used for performance management in a substantial way.

  6. Using Pulse Rate in Estimating Workload Evaluating a Load Mobilizing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pulse rate is a direct indicator of the state of the cardiovascular system, in ad-dition to being an indirect indicator of the energy expended in performing a task. The pulse of a person is the number of pulses recorded in a peripheral artery per unit time; the pulse appears as a pressure wave moving along the blood vessels, which are flexible, “in large arterial branches, speed of 7-10 m/s in the small arteries, 15 to 35 m/s”. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to assess heart rate, using the technique of recording the frequency of the pulse, oxy-gen consumption and observation of work activity in the estimation of the workload in a load handling task for three situations: lift/transfer/deposit; before, during and after the task the pulse rate is recorded for 24 young volunteers (10 women and 14 men under laboratory conditions. We performed a gesture analysis of work activity and lifting and handling strategies. Results: We observed an increase between initial and final fp in both groups and for the two tasks, a dif¬ference is also recorded in the increase in heart rate of 17.5 for charging 75 % of the participants experienced an increase in fp above 100 lat./min. Par 25 kg, registered values indicate greater than 114 lat./min and 17.5 kg than 128 lat./min values. Discussion: The pulse rate method is recommended for its simplicity of use for operational staff, supervisors and managers and indus¬trial engineers not trained in the physiology method can also be used by industrial hygienists.

  7. Evaluation of the external and internal workload in female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Beato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Match analysis technology has been extensively used in football, but there is limited literature on its use in futsal. Despite its increased popularity, the female futsal game model has never been quantified. The aim of this study was to quantify locomotor and mechanical activities performed during a non-competitive female futsal match, measuring the differences between the first and second half. Sixteen female futsal players of the Italian 2nd division were enrolled (age 27±5 years, height 1.65±0.09 m, body weight 56.9±7.7 kg, BMI 20.9±1.9, fat mass 21.5±2.9%. Locomotor and mechanical activities were recorded by means of the 10 Hz GPS StatSports system. Games were performed on a 38x18 m synthetic grass outdoor pitch. Significant differences were found between the first and second half in total distance (1424±114 and 1313±113 m, p<0.05, relative velocity (70±6 and 64±6 m min-1, p<0.05, high speed running (28±16 and 22±19 m, p<0.05 and high metabolic distance (80 ± 29 and 69 ± 28 m, p<0.05. The match analysis of female futsal matches provides useful information about its external load demands. Female futsal players decreased the workload in the second half compared to the first one during this non-competitive match. It was found that fatigue impairs the performance in the second part of the game. Coaches and physical trainers can obtain useful information to design training programmes taking into account the quantification of locomotor and mechanical activities performed in this study.

  8. Balancing workload, motivation and job satisfaction in Rwanda: assessing the effect of adding family planning service provision to community health worker duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Mugeni, Cathy; Nkunda, Denis; Uwizeye, Marie Rose; Stockton, Laurie L; Wesson, Jennifer

    2016-01-06

    Task shifting from higher cadre providers to CHWs has been widely adopted to address healthcare provider shortages, but the addition of any service can potentially add to an already considerable workload for CHWs. Objective measures of workload alone, such as work-related time and travel may not reflect howCHWs actually perceive and react to their circumstances. This study combined perception and objectivemeasures of workload to examine their effect on quality of services, worker performance, and job and clientsatisfaction. Three hundred eighty-three CHWs from control and intervention districts, where the intervention group was trained to provide contraceptive resupply, completed diaries of work-related activities for one month. Interviews were also conducted with a subset of CHWs and their clients. CHW diaries did not reveal significant differences between intervention and control groups in time spent on service provision or travel. Over 90% of CHWs reported workload manageability, job satisfaction, and motivation to perform their jobs. Clients were highly satisfied with CHW services and most stated preference for future services from CHWs. The study demonstrated that adding resupply of hormonal contraceptives to CHWs' tasks would not place undue burden on them. Accordingly, the initiative was scaled up in all 30 districts in the country.

  9. Ghent developmental balance test: a new tool to evaluate balance performance in toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kegel, Alexandra; Baetens, Tina; Peersman, Wim; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2012-06-01

    Balance is a fundamental component of movement. Early identification of balance problems is important to plan early intervention. The Ghent Developmental Balance Test (GDBT) is a new assessment tool designed to monitor balance from the initiation of independent walking to 5 years of age. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric characteristics of the GDBT. To evaluate test-retest reliability, 144 children were tested twice on the GDBT by the same examiner, and to evaluate interrater reliability, videotaped GDBT sessions of 22 children were rated by 3 different raters. To evaluate the known-group validity of GDBT scores, z scores on the GDBT were compared between a clinical group (n = 20) and a matched control group (n = 20). Concurrent validity of GDBT scores with the subscale standardized scores of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (M-ABC-2), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition (PDMS-2), and the balance subscale of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-Second Edition (BOT-2) was evaluated in a combined group of the 20 children from the clinical group and 74 children who were developing typically. Test-retest and interrater reliability were excellent for the GDBT total scores, with intraclass correlation coefficients of .99 and .98, standard error of measurement values of 0.21 and 0.78, and small minimal detectable differences of 0.58 and 2.08, respectively. The GDBT was able to distinguish between the clinical group and the control group (t(38) = 5.456, P<.001). Pearson correlations between the z scores on GDBT and the standardized scores of specific balance subscales of the M-ABC-2, PDMS-2, and BOT-2 were moderate to high, whereas correlations with subscales measuring constructs other than balance were low. The GDBT is a reliable and valid clinical assessment tool for the evaluation of balance in toddlers and preschool-aged children.

  10. Evaluation of the workload and drowsiness during car driving by using high resolution EEG activity and neurophysiologic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, A; Borghini, G; Aricò, P; Borgia, F; Graziani, I; Colosimo, A; Kong, W; Vecchiato, G; Babiloni, F

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and/or a high workload situation can adversely affect driving performance, decreasing a driver's capacity to respond effectively in dangerous situations. In this context, to provide useful feedback and alert signals in real time to the drivers physiological and brain activities have been increasingly investigated in literature. In this study, we analyze the increase of cerebral workload and the insurgence of drowsiness during car driving in a simulated environment by using high resolution electroencephalographic techniques (EEG) as well as neurophysiologic variables such as heart rate (HR) and eye blinks rate (EBR). The simulated drive tasks were modulated with five levels of increasing difficulty. A workload index was then generated by using the EEG signals and the related HR and EBR signals. Results suggest that the derived workload index is sensitive to the mental efforts of the driver during the different drive tasks performed. Such workload index was based on the estimation the variation of EEG power spectra in the theta band over prefrontal cortical areas and the variation of the EEG power spectra over the parietal cortical areas in alpha band. In addition, results suggested as HR increases during the execution of the difficult driving tasks while instead it decreases at the insurgence of the drowsiness. Finally, the results obtained showed as the EBR variable increases of its values when the insurgence of drowsiness in the driver occurs. The proposed workload index could be then used in a near future to assess on-line the mental state of the driver during a drive task.

  11. 78 FR 26374 - An Evaluation of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act Workload Adjuster; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... FDA commitment to contract with an independent ] accounting firm to review the adequacy of the PDUFA... responsibilities are constantly evolving. Moreover, the complexity component of the PDUFA IV workload adjuster was... post-market safety requirements, among others. Given the dynamic nature of drug products and FDA's...

  12. Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Early Arrival Discrete Time Queueing System with Load Balancing Using Geometrical Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Asif AliShah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Load balancing is an efficient technique used to maximize throughput, optimal resource utilization, minimized response time and avoiding congestion. This can be achieved by distributing the workload evenly across two or more network stations, nodes or buffers, links, central processing units, hard drives, or other resources. In this paper, we have modeled and developed a load balancing approach in a discrete-time domain to analyze and evaluate the system of finite network buffers using an early arrival system. Our approach of modeling such a system consists of two steps. The first step is the determination of all system-state stages and their corresponding transition probabilities. Next, we compute various performance measures by utilizing the system state transition probabilities for its steady-state behavior.

  13. [Nursing workload indices TISS-10, TISS-28, and NEMS : Higher workload with agitation and delirium is not reflected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, U; Koegl, F; Theuerkauf, N; Maylahn, J; Andorfer, U; Weykam, J; Muders, T; Putensen, C

    2016-02-01

    Financial resources for the treatment of ICU patients requiring high nursing workload are allocated within the German diagnostic-related groups (DRG) system in part through the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-10 (TISS-10). TISS-10, however, has never been validated. This study evaluated whether delirium and agitation in ICU were reflected by TISS-10, and also by the established workload indices TISS-28 and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower (NEMS). Secondary aims were if indices correlated, and what effects delirium and agitation had on financial balances. Analyses were performed retrospectively in 521 datasets from 152 patients. Nursing workload was assessed with TISS-28, TISS-10, and NEMS, delirium with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units (CAM-ICU), and vigilance with the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). Revenues were retrieved from the institution's patient data management system, and costs calculated with the Budget Calculation Tool 2007 provided by the German Society of Anaesthesiologists. Delirium was found in 36.2 % of patients (n = 55). TISS-28, TISS-10, and NEMS were not higher in patients with delirium, if corrected for mechanical ventilation. TISS-28, TISS-10, and NEMS were significantly higher in deeply sedated and comatose patients (RASS ≤ - 3, p NEMS) do not reflect higher daily workload associated with patients with delirium and agitation.

  14. Longitudinal Study Evaluating Postural Balance of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-02-01

    Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. A public data set of human balance evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana A. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to create a public data set with results of qualitative and quantitative evaluations related to human balance. Subject’s balance was evaluated by posturography using a force platform and by the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Tests. In the posturography test, we evaluated subjects standing still for 60 s in four different conditions where vision and the standing surface were manipulated: on a rigid surface with eyes open; on a rigid surface with eyes closed; on an unstable surface with eyes open; on an unstable surface with eyes closed. Each condition was performed three times and the order of the conditions was randomized. In addition, the following tests were employed in order to better characterize each subject: Short Falls Efficacy Scale International; International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version; and Trail Making Test. The subjects were also interviewed to collect information about their socio-cultural, demographic, and health characteristics. The data set comprises signals from the force platform (raw data for the force, moments of forces, and centers of pressure of 163 subjects plus one file with information about the subjects and balance conditions and the results of the other evaluations. All the data is available at PhysioNet and at Figshare.

  16. Implementation and Performance Evaluation Using the Fuzzy Network Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Lang

    2010-01-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a multi-criteria evaluation concept that highlights the importance of performance measurement. However, although there is an abundance of literature on the BSC framework, there is a scarcity of literature regarding how the framework with dependence and interactive relationships should be properly implemented in…

  17. ACCOUNTING POLICIES EFFECTS ON DEPRECIATION AND EVALUATION OF BALANCE SHEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Elena DREGHICIU

    2016-12-01

    Starting from the diversity of principles and rules that exist within the accounting, this paper aims to form a main problematic frame concerning the principle of the method’s constancy, whose purpose is applying the same registration, evaluation and presentation methods for operations, transactions, and balance sheet elements.

  18. Evaluation of the Display of Cognitive State Feedback to Drive Adaptive Task Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneich, Michael C; Passinger, Břetislav; Hamblin, Christopher; Keinrath, Claudia; Vašek, Jiři; Whitlow, Stephen D; Beekhuyzen, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks. A traditional closed-loop adaptive system includes the decision logic to turn automated adaptations on and off. This work takes a novel approach of replacing the decision logic, normally performed by the automation, with human decisions. The Crew Workload Manager (CWLM) was developed to objectively display the workload between pilots and recommend task sharing; it is then the pilots who "close the loop" by deciding how to best mitigate unbalanced workload. The workload was manipulated by the Shared Aviation Task Battery (SAT-B), which was developed to provide opportunities for pilots to mitigate imbalances in workload between crew members. Participants were put in situations of high and low workload (i.e., workload was manipulated as opposed to being measured), the workload was then displayed to pilots, and pilots were allowed to decide how to mitigate the situation. An evaluation was performed that utilized the SAT-B to manipulate workload and create workload imbalances. Overall, the CWLM reduced the time spent in unbalanced workload and improved the crew coordination in task sharing while not negatively impacting concurrent task performance. Balancing workload has the potential to improve crew resource management and task performance over time, and reduce errors and fatigue. Paired with a real-time workload measurement system, the

  19. Hopper Workload Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, Brian; Butler, Tina; Gerber, Richard; Whitney, Cary; Wright, Nicholas; Yang, Woo-Sun; Zhao, Zhengji

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center is the primary computing facility for the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science. With over 5,000 users and over 600 different applications utilizing NERSC systems, it is critically important to examine the workload running on NERSCs large supercomputers in order to procure systems that perform well for a broad workload. In this paper we show the breakdown of the NERSC workload by science area, algorithm, memory, thread usage and more. We also describe the methods used to collect data from NERSCs Hopper (Cray XE6) system.

  20. Evaluation of nurses' workload in intensive care unit of a tertiary care university hospital in relation to the patients' severity of illness: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljic, Snjezana; Zuvic, Marta; Desa, Kristian; Blagaic, Ana; Sotosek, Vlatka; Antoncic, Dragana; Likic, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Costs of intensive care reach up to 30% of the hospital budget with workforce expenses being substantial. Determining proper nurse-patient ratio is necessary for optimizing patients' health related outcomes and hospitals' cost effective functioning. To evaluate nurses' workload using Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score and Nursing Activities Score scoring systems while assessing correlation between both scores and the severity of illness measured by Simplified Acute Physiology Score II. A Prospective study SETTINGS: Cardiac Surgery Intensive Care Unit of the Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka, Croatia, from October 2014 to February 2015. This Intensive Care Unit has 3 beds that can be expanded upon need. The study included 99 patients treated at this Unit during the study's period. The scores were obtained by 6 nurses, working in 12h shifts. Measurements were obtained for each patient 24h after admission and subsequently twice a day, at the end of the day shift (7pm) and at the end of the night shift (7 am). The necessary data were obtained from the patient's medical records. Nursing Activities Score showed significantly higher number of nurses are required for one 12h shift (Z=3.76, p<0.001). Higher scores were obtained on day shifts vs. night shifts. (Nursing Manpower Use Score, z=3.25, p<0.001; Nursing Activities Score, z=4.16, p<0.001). When comparing Nursing Activities Score and Nursing Manpower Use Score during the week, we calculated higher required number of nurses on weekdays than on weekends and holidays, (Nursing Manpower Use Score, p<0.001; Nursing Activities Score, p<0.001). Correlation analysis of Nursing Activities Score and Nursing Manpower Use Score with Simplified Acute Physiology Score II has shown that Nursing Manpower Use Score positively associated with severity of disease, while Nursing Activities Score shows no association. Both scores can be used to estimate required number of nurses in 12-h shifts, although Nursing Activities Score

  1. Modeling Parallel System Workloads with Temporal Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Tran Ngoc; Wolters, Lex

    In parallel systems, similar jobs tend to arrive within bursty periods. This fact leads to the existence of the locality phenomenon, a persistent similarity between nearby jobs, in real parallel computer workloads. This important phenomenon deserves to be taken into account and used as a characteristic of any workload model. Regrettably, this property has received little if any attention of researchers and synthetic workloads used for performance evaluation to date often do not have locality. With respect to this research trend, Feitelson has suggested a general repetition approach to model locality in synthetic workloads [6]. Using this approach, Li et al. recently introduced a new method for modeling temporal locality in workload attributes such as run time and memory [14]. However, with the assumption that each job in the synthetic workload requires a single processor, the parallelism has not been taken into account in their study. In this paper, we propose a new model for parallel computer workloads based on their result. In our research, we firstly improve their model to control locality of a run time process better and then model the parallelism. The key idea for modeling the parallelism is to control the cross-correlation between the run time and the number of processors. Experimental results show that not only the cross-correlation is controlled well by our model, but also the marginal distribution can be fitted nicely. Furthermore, the locality feature is also obtained in our model.

  2. Evaluation of human dynamic balance in Grassmann manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wereszczyński, Kamil; Mucha, Romualda; Świtoński, Adam; Josiński, Henryk; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-07-01

    The authors present an application of Grassmann manifold to the evaluation of human dynamic balance based on the time series representing movements of hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes. Time series were extracted from gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland using the Vicon system.

  3. Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  4. Evaluation of the exercise workload of broadcast calisthenics for children and adolescents aged 11-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yupeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaoran; Wu, Jian; Zhao, Minghua; Ren, Jingping; Yang, Junqing; Gu, Fang; Wang, Chao

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the exercise workload of the 3rd Series of National Broadcast Calisthenics for Elementary and Middle School Students. Altogether, 120 students aged 11-17 years were randomly selected from elementary and middle schools to participate in the study. Each participant performed a cycle ergometer test to obtain maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2max)) and maximum heart rate values. In the laboratory, oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2)), metabolic equivalents (METs), and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout a calisthenics session performed by the participants. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded. Throughout the calisthenics session, mean percentage of [Vdot]O(2) reserve varied from 30.7% to 41.2%, mean percentage of heart rate reserve from 39.0% to 56.9%, and mean RPE from 9.0 to 10.4. The mean energy cost during most of the segments across the four routines of calisthenics was significantly higher (P Calisthenics for Elementary and Middle School Students session varied from low to moderate. As part of a school-based physical activity intervention project, calisthenics would help to promote an active lifestyle and health in children and adolescents.

  5. Evaluation and physiotherapeutic intervention in older with deficit balance through the Scale of Berg and Wii Balance Board platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Secchi Batista

    Full Text Available Introduction The aging process causes structural and functional changes in the organism. Among these changes, the systems responsible for controlling the balance are also affected, especially in women. This study aims to perform an assessment and physiotherapy intervention in elderly with balance deficits through Berg scale and platform Wii Balance Board. Materials and methods The study was longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention. Held in the city of Passo Fundo, RS - Brazil. Participants were 38 elderly women who had a deficit balance. The instruments used to collect data was a questionnaire to identify, assess balance across the Berg Balance Scale and an intervention program with six games via the Wii Balance Board™ platform. To statistically analyze the effects before and after the intervention were used Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation, with a significance level of p = 0.05. Results In the present study, we observed a statistically significant improvement in the balance of elderly compared before and after intervention, moreover, the six games played also showed statistical significance when comparing the first and twentieth session, highlighting the games Tightrope Walk Table Tilt, Deep Breathing and Soccer Heading. Conclusion The evaluation and balance training with the platform Wii Balance Board were able to provide significant results for the elderly, besides, the game has the potential to treat the health, well-being and functional capacity of older people through the visual representation the game in real time.

  6. The workload of fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    the work environment of Danish fishermen with regard to their physical workload and ergonomic factors. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was performed on a random sample of active Danish commercial fishermen (response rate: 28%) by means of a questionnaire on demographic and self...... on Danish seiners had higher workload scores than fishermen in other vessel types. Conclusions: Despite improved work environment in the Danish fishing industry, fishermen still experience high levels of workload and suboptimal ergonomic conditions, which are known to cause pain and impair musculoskeletal......Background: Fishery has always been perceived as a physically demanding industry of a manual character. In recent years the physical work environment has developed positively and consequently the current situation in not fully described in the existing literature. This study aims to describe...

  7. The water balance questionnaire: design, reliability and validity of a questionnaire to evaluate water balance in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2012-03-01

    There is a need to develop a questionnaire as a research tool for the evaluation of water balance in the general population. The water balance questionnaire (WBQ) was designed to evaluate water intake from fluid and solid foods and drinking water, and water loss from urine, faeces and sweat at sedentary conditions and physical activity. For validation purposes, the WBQ was administrated in 40 apparently healthy participants aged 22-57 years (37.5% males). Hydration indices in urine (24 h volume, osmolality, specific gravity, pH, colour) were measured through established procedures. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered twice to 175 subjects to evaluate its reliability. Kendall's τ-b and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the questionnaire's validity and reliability. The proposed WBQ to assess water balance in healthy individuals was found to be valid and reliable, and it could thus be a useful tool in future projects that aim to evaluate water balance.

  8. Validation of the Balance Board for Clinical Evaluation of Balance During Serious Gaming Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Sholukha, Victor; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Balance and posture can be affected in various conditions or become decreased with aging. A diminution of balance control induces an increase of fall's risk. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board™ (WBB) is used in rehabilitation to perform balance exercises (using commercial video games). The WBB has also been validated to assess balance and posture in static conditions. However, there is currently no study investigating the use of WBB to assess balance during the realization of balance exercises using this device. The aim of this study was to validate the use of WBB, coupled with specially developed serious games, to assess dynamic balance during rehabilitation exercises. Thirty five subjects participated in this study. Subjects were asked to play two specially developed serious games. Center of pressure (CP) displacements were simultaneously recorded with a WBB and a gold standard force plate (FP). Nine parameters were derived from CP displacement. Bland and Altman plots, paired-sample t tests, intraclass correlation coefficient's, and Pearson's coefficient correlations were computed. Excellent correlation between both devices was found for each parameter for the two games (R = 0.95 and 0.96). Unlike previous work on the WBB, these excellent results were obtained without using any calibration procedure. Despite this, results were highly correlated between the WBB and the FP. The WBB could be used in clinics to assess balance during rehabilitation exercises and, thus, allows a more regular patient follow-up.

  9. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  10. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  11. Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged individuals engaged in high-intensity sport activities: implications for workload, yield and economic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menafoglio, Andrea; Di Valentino, Marcello; Porretta, Alessandra Pia; Foglia, Pietro; Segatto, Jeanne-Marie; Siragusa, Patrick; Pezzoli, Reto; Maggi, Mattia; Romano, Gian Antonio; Moschovitis, Giorgio; Gallino, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    The European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation (EACPR) recommends cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged individuals engaged in sport activities. However, very few data exist concerning the impact of such position stand. We assessed the implications on workload, yield and economic costs of this preventive strategy. Individuals aged 35-65 years engaged in high-intensity sports were examined following the EACPR protocol. Athletes with abnormal findings or considered at high-cardiovascular risk underwent additional examinations. The costs of the overall evaluation until diagnosis were calculated according to Swiss medical rates. 785 athletes (73% males, 46.8±7.3 years) were enrolled over a 13-month period. Among them, 14.3% required additional examinations: 5.1% because of abnormal ECG, 4.7% due to physical examination, 4.1% because of high-cardiovascular risk and 1.6% due to medical history. A new cardiovascular abnormality was established in 2.8% of athletes, severe hypercholesterolaemia in 1% and type 2 diabetes in 0.1%. Three (0.4%) athletes were considered ineligible for high-intensity sports, all of them discovered through an abnormal ECG. No athlete was diagnosed with significant coronary artery disease on the basis of a high-risk profile or an exercise ECG. The cost was US$199 per athlete and US$5052 per new finding. Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged athletes detected a new cardiovascular abnormality in about 3% of participants and a high-cardiovascular risk profile in about 4%. Some of these warranted exclusion of the athlete from high-intensity sport. The overall evaluation seems to be feasible at reasonable costs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Balance control in hemiparetic stroke patients: main tools for evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Oliveira, Clarissa Barros; de Medeiros, Italo Roberto Torres; Frota, Norberto Anizio Ferreira; Greters, Mário Edvin; Conforto, Adriana B

    2008-01-01

    Balance problems in hemiparetic patients after stroke can be caused by different impairments in the physiological systems involved in postural control, including sensory afferents, movement strategies...

  13. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  14. Highlights of recent balance of system research and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. G.; Stevens, J. W.

    The cost of most photovoltaic (PV) systems is more a function of the balance of system (BOS) components than the collectors. The exception to this rule is the grid-tied system whose cost is related more directly to the collectors, and secondarily to the inverter/controls. In fact, recent procurements throughout the country document that collector costs for roof-mounted, utility-tied systems (Russell, PV Systems Workshop, 7/94) represent 60% to 70% of the system cost. This contrasts with the current market for packaged stand-alone all PV or PV-hybrid systems where collectors represent only 25% to 35% of the total. Not only are the BOS components the cost drivers in the current cost-effective PV system market place, they are also the least reliable components. This paper discusses the impact that BOS issues have on component performance, system performance, and system cost and reliability. We will also look at recent recommended changes in system design based upon performance evaluations of fielded PV systems.

  15. WBDOC Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Wilkes Barre Data Operation Center. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  16. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies.

  17. Evaluation of a distributed catchment scale water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.

  18. Nursing workload: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the concept 'workload' within the nursing profession in order to arrive at a clear definition of nursing workload based on the evidence in existing literature. Nursing workload is a common term used in the health literature, but often without specification of its exact meaning. Concept clarification is needed to delineate the meaning of the term 'nursing workload'. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of nursing workload. As the subject matter was nursing focused, only one database was searched, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles that did not use 'workload' in the title or abstract were excluded. A model case, contrary case, related case and empirical referents were constructed to clarify the concept and to demonstrate how the workload is captured by the main attributes. The attributes of nursing workload found in the literature fall into five main categories: the amount of nursing time; the level of nursing competency; the weight of direct patient care; the amount of physical exertion; and complexity of care. The attributes were organised according to the leading antecedents, which were identified as the patient, nurse and health institution. Nurse managers need to address the workload issues with regard to the real nature of nursing work; this could increase nurses' productivity, nurses' satisfaction, turnover, work stress and provide sufficient staffing to patient care needs. The concept analysis demonstrated clearly the complexity of the concept and its implications for practice and research. It is believed that the current concept analysis will help to provide a better understanding of nursing workload and contribute towards the standardisation of the nursing workload and the development of a valid and reliable measurement system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparing the Mini-BESTest with the Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laurie A; Priest, Kelsey C; Salarian, Arash; Pierce, Don; Horak, Fay B

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with PD of varying severity. We evaluated (1) the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2) concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3) the sensitivity/specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Subjects. Ninety-seven people with PD were tested for balance deficits using the Berg, Mini-BESTest, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) disease severity classification. Setting. Clinical research facility at Oregon Health & Science University. Results. The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r = 0.79, P < 0.001), but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness -2.30 Berg, -0.93 Mini-BESTest). Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P < 0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P = 0.86 Berg), and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC differential P = 0.06). Conclusion. The Mini-BESTest is a promising tool for discerning balance deficits in patients with PD, most importantly those with more subtle deficits.

  20. Comparing the Mini-BESTest with the Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with PD of varying severity. We evaluated (1 the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2 concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3 the sensitivity/specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Subjects. Ninety-seven people with PD were tested for balance deficits using the Berg, Mini-BESTest, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y disease severity classification. Setting. Clinical research facility at Oregon Health & Science University. Results. The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r=0.79, P<0.001, but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness −2.30 Berg, −0.93 Mini-BESTest. Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P<0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P=0.86 Berg, and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC differential P=0.06. Conclusion. The Mini-BESTest is a promising tool for discerning balance deficits in patients with PD, most importantly those with more subtle deficits.

  1. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  2. [Evaluation of coordination and balance in preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Fernández, Cristina; Mata Zubillaga, Daniel; Rodríguez Fernández, Luis Miguel; Regueras Santos, Laura; Reguera García, Maria Mercedes; de Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Lapeña López de Armentia, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that many preterm children without apparent neurological sequelae present some difficulties in different areas, such as coordination or balance during their school years. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) has demonstrated to be a useful tool to validate the coordination, while the stabilometric platform was the reference standard test for validating the balance. Case-control study carried out on preterm children from 7 to 10 years old and healthy term infant controls of the same ages. The same age band of MABC-2 was applied and the static balance by the stabilometric platform was analysed. A total of 89 subjects were included, 30 preterm children≤1,500g birthweight, 29 preterm children>1,500g birthweight, and 30 controls. Preterm children obtained the lowest scores on an overall basis in hand dexterity and balance tests in MABC-2, regardless of their birthweight. Lower gestational age was associated with poorer outcomes in hand dexterity and total scores in MABC-2. Balance results were similar using the stabilometric platform, regardless of prematurity. A little more than 10% preterm and term children could have coordination disorders or be at risk of developing them using the MABC-2. Despite the visual-motor coordination being similar, preterm children could face greater difficulties in hand dexterity while, in the absence of neurological comorbidity, preterm and term children balance could be comparable. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of postural balance and risk of fall in a healthy adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Doruk Analan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this retrospective study, it was aimed to evaluate the risk of fall and balance, and to determine whether there is a correlation between the risk of fall and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, which are the evaluating the vestibular system, in the healthy adults who are working in a factory. Material and Methods: The data of 69 male participants have been reached. Bilateral Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials data and Berg Balance Scale of the participants have been recorded along with balance tests and risks of fall by using the Tetrax Interactive Balance System. The correlations between these measurements were measured Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between age and the risk of fall. Also, There ere no significant correlation between the values of latency and amplitude of the bilateral Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential waves, Berg Balance Scale, balance tests, and risk of fall. Berg Balance Scale scores showed a considerably good balance while the risk of fall ranged between 0% and 78%. Conclusion: Advanced age may be not alone significant factor for the risk of fall. Berg Balance Scale may not exactly show the risk of fall in the young adult population. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials measurements may not provide a significant contribution to evaluate the risk of fall and balance. Our study underlines that there may be a risk of falling more than expected in the community. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 236-241

  4. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  5. Avaliação da carga mental de trabalho e do desempenho de medidas de mensuração: NASA TLX e SWAT Evaluation of mental workload and performance measurement: NASA TLX and SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Souza Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a carga mental para atividades desempenhadas em empresa catarinense de soluções em energia e busca comparar os resultados da carga mental de trabalho encontrada a partir de dois métodos de mensuração atualmente mais usados - NASA TLX e SWAT. Por meio deste estudo avaliou-se a carga mental exigida tanto pela atividade de montagem manual, quanto de montagem automática de placas eletrônicas. Os resultados da avaliação da carga mental evidenciaram que entre as duas formas de execução da atividade, as exigências mentais mostram-se maiores na atividade de montagem manual. Os métodos de avaliação da carga mental aplicados em estudos da ergonomia possibilitam conhecer as capacidades e limitações do trabalhador, características da organização do trabalho e facilitam a apresentação quantitativa e qualitativa dos resultados. A comparação do desempenho entre os dois métodos de avaliação da carga mental, também se mostrou como uma investigação pertinente para o campo da ergonomia, já que são poucos os estudos comparativos em relação ao desempenho dos métodos. Na comparação do desempenho geral entre os dois métodos, o método NASA TLX possibilita avaliar a carga mental analisando diversas dimensões da situação de trabalho e apresenta vantagens quando comparado ao SWAT, pois pode ser facilmente aplicado e mostrou-se com maior aceitação por parte dos avaliados.This study evaluates the mental workload in some activities in an electricity generation company in Santa Catarina, Brazil and compares the mental workload measurements obtained using two commonly used measurement methods- NASA TLX and SWAT. The mental workload required by both manual and automated assembly of circuit boards was evaluated. The evaluation of the mental workload showed that comparing these two types of activities, the mental requirements appear to be higher during manual assembly tasks. The methods for assessing the mental

  6. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  7. Water balance evaluation, leakage rate and total water loss of Koka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water balance evaluation of Koka Reservoir was attempted by different authors, and different leakage rates were estimated. However, the water balance equation that the previous authors used does not take into account ground water inflow into the reservoir. Koka Reservoir is known to receive groundwater inflow from the ...

  8. Design and experimental evaluation of a dynamically balanced redundant planar 4-RRR parallel manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Krut, Sebastien; Pierrot, Francois; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Shaking forces and shaking moments in high-speed parallel manipulators are a significant cause of base vibrations. These vibrations can be eliminated by designing the manipulator to be shaking-force balanced and shaking-moment balanced. In this article an approach for the design and evaluation of

  9. [Application of the balanced scorecard for evaluating the training process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturoli, Cristiana; Gamberoni, Loredana

    2009-01-01

    A training project in which nurses acted as tutors to novice nurses was introduced in the Ferrara University Hospital, with the aim of helping them to achieve the skills and professional expertise required in an operating theatre environment. Owing to the involvement of all the surgical divisions of the hospital and the continual addition of new staff, the Balanced Scorecard method (BSC) was used to assess the impact of training on the entire organization. The BSC method, a multidimensional method born in the USA in the 1990's, made it possible to assess the utility of training in the light of achieving institutional goals.

  10. Complicity Revisited: Balancing Stakeholder Input and Roles in Evaluation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative study of an educational reform and its external evaluation, I describe how a well-intentioned but poorly conceptualized evaluation helped perpetuate asymmetries in the generation and use of evaluation findings. This article explores this project's failure to clarify evaluator roles, identify intended users and expected…

  11. Crew workload-management strategies - A critical factor in system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy and goals of the NASA/USAF Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program. The philosophical foundation of the program is based on the assumption that an improved understanding of pilot strategies will clarify the complex and inconsistent relationships observed among objective task demands and measures of system performance and pilot workload. The goals are to: (1) develop operationally relevant figures of merit for performance, (2) quantify the effects of strategic behaviors on system performance and pilot workload, (3) identify evaluation criteria for workload measures, and (4) develop methods of improving pilots' abilities to manage workload extremes.

  12. Design of a questionnaire to evaluate the food balance of school menus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Llorens-Ivorra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design a questionnaire to evaluate the food balance of school menus based on an index and a scale that quantifies it. Material and Methods: Instrumental study for the creation and the validation of content of a questionnaire for the evaluation of the food balance and classification of school menus, across recommendations of official organisms and experts’ panel. There was studied frequency of groups of food, culinary technologies, suitable information and combination. It was summarized in an index and a scale of balance. Results: The tool was elaborated by the recommendation of the experts and the new recommendations of official organisms, proposing an index of 17 articles and the scale of 4, of very slightly balanced to balanced. Conclusions: A qualitative complete and easy to use tool was proposed. The validation of the questionnaire, together with the index and the scale proposed for further works, is necessary.

  13. ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS AND BALANCED SCORECARD APPLIED TO THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Reis dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of public health systems is an issue of great concern. After all, to assure people's quality of life, public health systems need different kinds of resources. Balanced Scorecard provides a multi-dimensional evaluation framework. This paper presents the application of the Analytic Network Process and Balanced Scorecard in the performance evaluation of a public health system in a typical medium-sized Southeastern town in Brazil.

  14. Evaluation of Global Sagittal Balance in Koreans Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yongjae

    2017-09-01

    The global sagittal postural patterns as characterized by Roussouly classification have been previously described in various ethnicities, there were no studies investigated in Koreans. To analyze the distribution of the global sagittal postural patterns in Korean adults using Roussouly classification, the author prospectively studied. 252 asymptomatic Korean adults was recruited. Data was obtained by reviewing the films for each subject. Spinopelvic parameters were measured and sagittal postural patterns were then determined according to Roussouly classification. We compared the data across different ethnicities from our study and a previous study to further characterize Korean sagittal postures. The subject included 151 males and 101 females, with mean age of 33.2±8.2 years. The average descriptive results were as below: thoracic kyphosis 28.6±7.7°, lumbar lordosis 48.3±10.2°, sacral slope 37.8±5.8°, pelvic incidence 45.1±7.5°, pelvic tilt 9.4±6.7°, spinosacral angle 130.1±5.4°, and sagittal vertical axis 16.25±22.5 mm. 125 subjects among 252 (49.6%) belonged to Roussouly type 3 (namely neutral). There were also 58 (23%), 33 (13.1%), and 36 (14.3) subjects in type 1, 2, and 4 (namely non-neutral), respectively. Enrolling 252 asymptomatic Korean adults, this prospective study found that 49.6% of asymptomatic Korean adults possessed a sagittal posture of Roussouly type 3. All radiologic parameters follows general concept of spinal sagittal balance pattern. Overall, this study might be a basis for further investigation of spinal sagittal balance.

  15. Total Student Workload: Implications of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System for an Integrated, Problem-Based Medical Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Nosair

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Measuring student total workload in a problem-based program is important for evading the associated overload, and improving the quality of teaching and learning. Calculating student workload in an integrated problem-based curriculum is a challenge. Total student workload is the foundation for determination of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System units. Measuring unstructured student workload (or “out-of-class” learning time is an important component of total student workload. Assigning the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System to problem-based programs improves its quality assurance, and has educational, curricular, and organizational impact. Therefore, student workload in such programs should be regularity monitored and evaluated.

  16. Reliability, Validity, and Ability to Identify Fall Status of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and Brief-Balance Evaluation Systems Test in Older People Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alda; Almeida, Sara; Carvalho, Joana; Cruz, Joana; Oliveira, Ana; Jácome, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability, validity, and ability to identify fall status of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest, compared with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), in older people living in the community. Cross-sectional. Community centers. Older adults (N=122; mean age ± SD, 76±9y). Not applicable. Participants reported on falls history in the preceding year and completed the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. The BBS, BESTest, and the Five Times Sit-To-Stand Test were administered. Interrater (2 physiotherapists) and test-retest relative (48-72h) and absolute reliabilities were explored with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) equation (2,1) and the Bland and Altman method. Minimal detectable changes at the 95% confidence level (MDC95) were established. Validity was assessed by correlating the balance tests with each other and with the ABC Scale (Spearman correlation coefficients-ρ). Receiver operating characteristics assessed the ability of each balance test to differentiate between people with and without a history of falls. All balance tests presented good to excellent interrater (ICC=.71-.93) and test-retest (ICC=.50-.82) relative reliability, with no evidence of bias. MDC95 values were 4.6, 9, 3.8, and 4.1 points for the BBS, BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest, respectively. All tests were significantly correlated with each other (ρ=.83-.96) and with the ABC Scale (ρ=.46-.61). Acceptable ability to identify fall status (areas under the curve, .71-.78) was found for all tests. Cutoff points were 48.5, 82, 19.5, and 12.5 points for the BBS, BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest, respectively. All balance tests are reliable, valid, and able to identify fall status in older people living in the community. Therefore, the choice of which test to use will depend on the level of balance impairment, purpose, and time availability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Faculty Perceptions of Workload: A Human Factor's Approach to Instrument Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2017-04-01

    Research revealed nursing faculty members' perceived workload measures do not adequately capture the complexity of their workload. Using a human factors approach to address the multiple complex dimensions from the subjective perception of the worker, the Nurse Faculty Workload Assessment (NFWA) was developed. Survey data from 565 faculty members were used to establish the instrument's psychometric properties. NWFA Sections 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated reliability and internal consistency. Findings supported interrelationships between activity complexity, performance circumstances, and individual characteristics described in human factors workload literature. The NFWA provides a tool for administrators to evaluate faculty perception of workload expectations. Further study is needed to refine the NFWA and to compare the perception of faculty regarding workload using various workload formula calculations in various nursing programs.

  18. An Evaluation of Controller and Pilot Performance, Workload and Acceptability under a NextGen Concept for Dynamic Weather Adapted Arrival Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Battiste, Vernol

    2012-01-01

    In todays terminal operations, controller workload increases and throughput decreases when fixed standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) are impacted by storms. To circumvent this operational constraint, Prete, Krozel, Mitchell, Kim and Zou (2008) proposed to use automation to dynamically adapt arrival and departure routing based on weather predictions. The present study examined this proposal in the context of a NextGen trajectory-based operation concept, focusing on the acceptability and its effect on the controllers ability to manage traffic flows. Six controllers and twelve transport pilots participated in a human-in-the-loop simulation of arrival operations into Louisville International Airport with interval management requirements. Three types of routing structures were used: Static STARs (similar to current routing, which require the trajectories of individual aircraft to be modified to avoid the weather), Dynamic routing (automated adaptive routing around weather), and Dynamic Adjusted routing (automated adaptive routing around weather with aircraft entry time adjusted to account for differences in route length). Spacing Responsibility, whether responsibility for interval management resided with the controllers (as today), or resided with the pilot (who used a flight deck based automated spacing algorithm), was also manipulated. Dynamic routing as a whole was rated superior to static routing, especially by pilots, both in terms of workload reduction and flight path safety. A downside of using dynamic routing was that the paths flown in the dynamic conditions tended to be somewhat longer than the paths flown in the static condition.

  19. Nurse-patient assignment models considering patient acuity metrics and nurses' perceived workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Mustafa Y; Dundar, Bayram; Barker Steege, Linsey M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2015-06-01

    Patient classification systems (PCSs) are commonly used in nursing units to assess how many nursing care hours are needed to care for patients. These systems then provide staffing and nurse-patient assignment recommendations for a given patient census based on these acuity scores. Our hypothesis is that such systems do not accurately capture workload and we conduct an experiment to test this hypothesis. Specifically, we conducted a survey study to capture nurses' perception of workload in an inpatient unit. Forty five nurses from oncology and surgery units completed the survey and rated the impact of patient acuity indicators on their perceived workload using a six-point Likert scale. These ratings were used to calculate a workload score for an individual nurse given a set of patient acuity indicators. The approach offers optimization models (prescriptive analytics), which use patient acuity indicators from a commercial PCS as well as a survey-based nurse workload score. The models assign patients to nurses in a balanced manner by distributing acuity scores from the PCS and survey-based perceived workload. Numerical results suggest that the proposed nurse-patient assignment models achieve a balanced assignment and lower overall survey-based perceived workload compared to the assignment based solely on acuity scores from the PCS. This results in an improvement of perceived workload that is upwards of five percent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Responsiveness of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in People With Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and convergent validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke have been established, but its responsiveness to rehabilitation has not been examined. The study objective was to compare the responsiveness of the BESTest with those of other clinical balance tools in people with subacute stroke. This was a prospective cohort study. Forty-nine people with subacute stroke (mean age=57.8 years, SD=11.8) participated in this study. Five balance measures-the BESTest, the Mini-BESTest, the Berg Balance Scale, the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, and the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M)-were used to measure balance performance before and after rehabilitation or before discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. The internal responsiveness of each balance measure was classified with the standardized response mean (SRM); changes in Berg Balance Scale scores of greater than 7 were used as the external standard for determining the external responsiveness. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the accuracy and cutoff scores for identifying participants with balance improvement. Participants received 13.7 days (SD=9.3, range=5-44) of physical therapy rehabilitation. The internal responsiveness of all balance measures, except for the CB&M, was high (SRM=0.9-1.2). The BESTest had a higher SRM than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M, indicating that the BESTest was more sensitive for detecting balance changes than the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. In addition, compared with other balance measures, the BESTest had no floor, ceiling, or responsive ceiling effects. The results also indicated that the percentage of participants with no change in scores after rehabilitation was smaller with the BESTest than with the Mini-BESTest and the CB&M. With regard to the external responsiveness, the BESTest had higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and posttest accuracy than

  1. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  2. Evaluation of Advanced Control for Li-ion Battery Balancing Systems using Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    systems are evaluated in this paper by means of convex optimization. More than one hundred cases in a pure EV application are evaluated. Balancing circuits' efficiency models are implemented and realistic cell-to-cell parameter distributions are considered based on experimental data. Different battery...

  3. Evaluating algorithms for the Generation of Referring Expressions using a balanced corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatt, A.; van der Sluis, Ielka; van Deemter, Kees

    2007-01-01

    Despite being the focus of intensive research, evaluation of algorithms that generate referring expressions is still in its infancy. We describe a corpusbased evaluation methodology, applied to a number of classic algorithms in this area. The methodology focuses on balance and semantic transparency

  4. Identifying and Describing Nurse Faculty Workload Issues: A Looming Faculty Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Nancy Phoenix; Bechtel, Cynthia Francis

    The purpose of this project was to address factors contributing to the nurse faculty shortage. There is a demonstrated need to sustain and stabilize faculty currently in the workforce to avoid exacerbating the current and future faculty shortage in nursing. Recommendations of previous studies focus on strategies for recruitment, retention, and ongoing faculty development. A survey was employed to identify and describe the workload of nurse faculty and identify the impact of retirement and other retention issues. Findings showed an aging and nondiverse nursing faculty with increased and variable workload. There was no standard means of calculating workload. With identification of increased workload, faculty are considering retirement at a higher than projected rate. Four primary areas to address the nursing faculty shortage include focus on diversity balance, development of collaborative positions (joint appointments), and clear identification of nursing faculty workload.

  5. Psychometric properties of Brief-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Brief-BESTest) in evaluating balance performance in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meizhen; Pang, Marco Y C

    2017-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Brief-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Brief-BESTest) in individuals with chronic stroke. This was an observational study with repeated measurements involving 50 participants with chronic stroke [mean (SD) age: 59.2 (7.3) years]. Each participant with stroke was evaluated with the Brief-BESTest, Berg balance scale (BBS), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS), Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA), Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Two raters (rater 1 and 2) provided the Brief-BESTest scores of the first 27 participants independently to establish inter-rater reliability. After 15 min of rest, the same 27 participants were evaluated with the Brief-BESTest again by rater 1 to establish intra-rater reliability. The Brief-BESTest scores of the stroke group were also compared with those of the control group [n = 27, mean (SD) age: 56.7 (7.7) years]. The Brief-BESTest had no substantial floor and ceiling effects, good intra-rater (ICC 2,1 = 0.974) and inter-rater (ICC 2,1 = 0.980) reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.818). The minimal detectable change at 95% confidence level was 2 points. The Brief-BESTest showed moderate to very strong correlations with other balance (BBS and PASS) and motor impairment (FMA, CMSA) measures (rs = .547-.911, p balance function in individuals with chronic stroke.

  6. The Evaluation of balance performance for elite male karate athletes after fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem GÜLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to examine the effect of the tiredness in karate athletes, which was created with the help of a special simulation that was organized particularly to the branch in karate athletes, on the balance performance of karate athletes. Material and Methods: 16 male karate athletes were included in the study; these athletes have been doing karate for the Turkish national team and their active sports careers continue (age: 23.31±4.27 years, height: 173.4±4.91 cm, weight: 68.8±8.17 kg, BMI: 22.85±1.96 kg/cm2. Balance test was conducted for the athletes before the exercise test protocol that was prepared particularly for the karate-do sport and in the first 10 minutes and 30 minutes after the protocol ended. Results: As a result of all the parameters recorded, no statistically significant change was observed in the static balance parameters of the karate players participated in the research on their kicking feet, balancing feet and double feet, and also in their dynamic balance parameters on their double feet (p>0.05. The evaluations for the stability limits dynamic balance tests reveal that there is a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test values (of the overall balance, forward-right and forward-left data (p<0.05. Conclusion: Consequently, it was presented that additional time is needed for karate athletes to recover their balance after bout tiredness and the given relaxation time is not enough for some dynamic balance parameters.

  7. Looking for a balance between internal and external evaluation of school quality: evaluation of the SVI model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, H.; Sleegers, P.; Karsten, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study into the utility of the SVI model, a model in which internal and external evaluation are balanced. The model consists of three phases: school self-evaluation, visitation and inspection. Under the guidance of school consultants, 27 Dutch primary schools

  8. Curriculum Change Management and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Aishah

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Saudi teachers have responded or are responding to the challenges posed by a new curriculum. It also deals with issues relating to workload demands which affect teachers' performance when they apply a new curriculum in a Saudi Arabian secondary school. In addition, problems such as scheduling and sharing space…

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Balance Prediction Models for Sit-to-Stand Movement in the Sagittal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar David Pena Cabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of balance control ability would become important in the rehabilitation training. In this paper, in order to make clear usefulness and limitation of a traditional simple inverted pendulum model in balance prediction in sit-to-stand movements, the traditional simple model was compared to an inertia (rotational radius variable inverted pendulum model including multiple-joint influence in the balance predictions. The predictions were tested upon experimentation with six healthy subjects. The evaluation showed that the multiple-joint influence model is more accurate in predicting balance under demanding sit-to-stand conditions. On the other hand, the evaluation also showed that the traditionally used simple inverted pendulum model is still reliable in predicting balance during sit-to-stand movement under non-demanding (normal condition. Especially, the simple model was shown to be effective for sit-to-stand movements with low center of mass velocity at the seat-off. Moreover, almost all trajectories under the normal condition seemed to follow the same control strategy, in which the subjects used extra energy than the minimum one necessary for standing up. This suggests that the safety considerations come first than the energy efficiency considerations during a sit to stand, since the most energy efficient trajectory is close to the backward fall boundary.

  10. The Influence of Nursing Faculty Workloads on Faculty Retention: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty workloads have come to the forefront of discussion in nursing education. The National League of Nursing (NLN) has made nursing faculty workloads a high priority in nursing education. Included in the priorities are areas of creating reform through innovations in nursing education, evaluating reform through evaluation research, and…

  11. Gentamicin treatment in exercised mdx mice: Identification of dystrophin-sensitive pathways and evaluation of efficacy in work-loaded dystrophic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Annamaria; Nico, Beatrice; Rolland, Jean-François; Cozzoli, Anna; Burdi, Rosa; Mangieri, Domenica; Giannuzzi, Viviana; Liantonio, Antonella; Cippone, Valentina; De Bellis, Michela; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2008-11-01

    Aminoglycosides force read through of premature stop codon mutations and introduce new mutation-specific gene-corrective strategies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A chronic treatment with gentamicin (32 mg/kg/daily i.p., 8-12 weeks) was performed in exercised mdx mice with the dual aim to clarify the dependence on dystrophin of the functional, biochemical and histological alterations present in dystrophic muscle and to verify the long term efficiency of small molecule gene-corrective strategies in work-loaded dystrophic muscle. The treatment counteracted the exercise-induced impairment of in vivo forelimb strength after 6-8 weeks. We observed an increase in dystrophin expression level in all the fibers, although lower than that observed in normal fibers, and found a concomitant recovery of aquaporin-4 at sarcolemma. A significant reduction in centronucleated fibers, in the area of necrosis and in the percentage of nuclear factor-kB-positive nuclei was observed in gastrocnemious muscle of treated animals. Plasma creatine kinase was reduced by 70%. Ex vivo, gentamicin restored membrane ionic conductance in mdx diaphragm and limb muscle fibers. No effects were observed on the altered calcium homeostasis and sarcolemmal calcium permeability, detected by electrophysiological and microspectrofluorimetric approaches. Thus, the maintenance of a partial level of dystrophin is sufficient to reinforce sarcolemmal stability, reducing leakiness, inflammation and fiber damage, while correction of altered calcium homeostasis needs greater expression of dystrophin or direct interventions on the channels involved.

  12. Versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train locomotion and balance after neuromotor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire

    2012-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and balance independently during natural walking behaviors in rats. In evaluation mode, the robotic interface affords detailed assessments of pattern generation and dynamic equilibrium after spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke. In enabling mode,the robot acts as a propulsive or postural neuroprosthesis that instantly promotes unexpected locomotor capacities including overground walking after complete SCI, stair climbing following partial SCI and precise paw placement shortly after stroke. In training mode, robot-enabled rehabilitation, epidural electrical stimulation and monoamine agonists reestablish weight-supported locomotion, coordinated steering and balance in rats with a paralyzing SCI. This new robotic technology and associated concepts have broad implications for both assessing and restoring motor functions after CNS disorders, both in animals and in humans.

  13. EEG BASED COGNITIVE WORKLOAD CLASSIFICATION DURING NASA MATB-II MULTITASKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the best possible input EEG feature for classification of the workload while designing load balancing logic for an automated operator. The input features compared in this study consisted of spectral features of Electroencephalography, objective scoring and subjective scoring. Method utilizes to identify best EEG feature as an input in Neural Network Classifiers for workload classification, to identify channels which could provide classification with the highest accuracy and for identification of EEG feature which could give discrimination among workload level without adding any classifiers. The result had shown Engagement Index is the best feature for neural network classification.

  14. A Virtual Machine Migration Strategy Based on Time Series Workload Prediction Using Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at resolving the issues of the imbalance of resources and workloads at data centers and the overhead together with the high cost of virtual machine (VM migrations, this paper proposes a new VM migration strategy which is based on the cloud model time series workload prediction algorithm. By setting the upper and lower workload bounds for host machines, forecasting the tendency of their subsequent workloads by creating a workload time series using the cloud model, and stipulating a general VM migration criterion workload-aware migration (WAM, the proposed strategy selects a source host machine, a destination host machine, and a VM on the source host machine carrying out the task of the VM migration. Experimental results and analyses show, through comparison with other peer research works, that the proposed method can effectively avoid VM migrations caused by momentary peak workload values, significantly lower the number of VM migrations, and dynamically reach and maintain a resource and workload balance for virtual machines promoting an improved utilization of resources in the entire data center.

  15. BALANCED SCORE CARD MODEL EVALUATION: THE CASE OF AD BARSKA PLOVIDBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses creation of Balanced Scorecard, which includes environmental protection elements in AD Barska Plovidba. Firstly,the paper presents proposed models that include elements of conventional Balanced scorecard, and then we start with proposed models evaluation. In fact, as implementation and evaluation of the model in AD Barska Plovidba takes longer period of time, its evaluation and final choice is based on ISO 14598 and ISO 9126 with use of AHP method. Usually those standards are used for quality evaluation of software products, computer programs and databases inside organisation. After all, they serve as support for their development and acceptance because they provide quality evaluation during the phase when software is not yet implemented inside organistaion, what we assume as very important.

  16. The Evaluation of Athlete and Non-Athlete Mentally Retarded Children’s Dynamic Balance Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Akın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balance is an extremely important fundamental skill for the survival of the individual’s life. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic balance of mentally retarded children who participated in sports active and regularly (athlete and did not participate in sports actively (non-athlete. The study group was consisted of total 29 mentally retarded children, 14 athletes and 15 non-athletes. In this study, the average ages of athletes were 13.25 and non-athletes’ were 12.95. As a data collection tool “Star Excursion Balance Test” was used. The obtained data was evaluated using t-test for the independent groups. The results showed a statistically significant difference between groups according to all sub-dimension of star excursion balance test (p< 0.05. It was determined that, the average values of mentally retarded athletes were higher than non-athletes. Consequently, it can be said that regular physical activity has a significant effect for improvement in balance skills of individuals with mentally retarded.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Extension Education Centers in Universities Based on the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance…

  18. Evaluation of energy balance of Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of using milk composition as indicators of energy balance (EB) in dairy cows were evaluated. Milk composition traits (milk protein, fat and lactose percentages) from thirteen (13) primiparous and 47 multiparous (F1) Friesian x Bunaji cows were studied. The milk composition was analyzed weekly from 4 to 300 ...

  19. An evaluation of whole farm nitrogen balances and related indices for efficient nitrogen use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Aarts, H.F.M.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Keulen, van H.; Neeteson, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of nitrogen (N) flows creates awareness among farmers, can help them to re-evaluate N management and may reduce nitrate loss to groundwater. Hence, whole-farm balances play a crucial role in legislation on N management in Netherlands. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of

  20. Measuring Knowledge Management Performance in Organizations: An Integrative Framework of Balanced Scorecard and Fuzzy Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Lyu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of knowledge management (KM, the KM performance evaluation tries to find out the key factors restraining the enhancement of the enterprises' performance. This paper investigates the feasibility of the balanced scorecard (BSC method in enterprise knowledge management and then proposes a simplified and applicable performance evaluation model based on the BSC approach. Finally, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE is used to evaluate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model. The result shows that the model is useful for evaluating the performance of KM in enterprises.

  1. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen Henrik; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-08-13

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshøj Mette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect

  5. Preliminary evaluation of prototype footwear and insoles to optimise balance and gait in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-09-11

    Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. There was no difference in postural sway, limits of stability or gait patterns between the footwear conditions. However, when performing the tandem walking test, there was a significant reduction in step width and end sway when wearing the prototype footwear compared to both the flexible footwear and participants' own footwear. Participants perceived their own footwear to be more attractive, comfortable, well-fitted and easier to put on and off compared to the prototype footwear. Despite this, most participants (n = 18, 60%) reported that they would consider wearing the prototype footwear to reduce their risk of falling. The prototype footwear and insoles used in this study improve balance when performing a tandem walk test, as evidenced by a narrower step width and decreased sway at completion of the task. However, further development of the design is required to make the footwear acceptable to older women from the perspective of aesthetics and comfort. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12617001128381 , 01

  6. Academic context and perceived mental workload of psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The excessive workload of university students is an academic stressor. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate and control the workload in education. This research applies the NASA-TLX scale, as a measure of the workload. The objectives of this study were: (a) to measure the workload levels of a sample of 367 psychology students, (b) to group students according to their positive or negative perception of academic context (AC) and c) to analyze the effects of AC on workload. To assess the perceived AC, we used an ad hoc questionnaire designed according to Demand-Control-Social Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models. Using cluster analysis, participants were classified into two groups (positive versus negative context). The differences between groups show that a positive AC improves performance (p < .01) and reduces feelings of overload (p < .02), temporal demand (p < .02), and nervousness and frustration (p < .001). Social relationships with peers and teachers, student autonomy and result satisfaction were relevant dimensions of the AC (p < .001 in all cases).

  7. Evaluation of spinopelvic balance among patients undergoing surgical treatment for lumbar disk hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Paiva Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate spinopelvic balance using the pelvic incidence, sacral slope and pelvic tilt among patients with lumbar disk hernias who underwent surgical treatment.METHODS: thirty patients at the spinal services of Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória and Hospital Vila Velha were evaluated by measuring their spinopelvic balance from the angles of pelvic tilt, sacral slope and pelvic incidence, with their respective means, on simple lateral-view lumbopelvic radiographs that needed to encompass the lumbar spine, sacrum and proximal third of the femur.RESULTS: the spinopelvic balance measurements obtained from the mean angles of the population studied, for pelvic incidence, sacral slope and pelvic tilt, were 45◦ , 36.9◦ and 8.1◦ , respectively. The confidence interval for the mean pelvic incidence was from 41.9 to 48.1 (95% CI, thus including a reference value that characterized it as low, for an asymptomatic population, thus confirming that the sample was extracted from a population with this characteristic.CONCLUSION: among these patients with lumbar disk hernias who underwent surgical treatment, the average spinopelvic balance was found to have pelvic incidence lower than what has been reported in the literature for an asymptomatic population.

  8. A new technique for evaluating mesospheric momentum balance utilizing radars and satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Frame

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method for evaluating momentum balance in the mesosphere using radar and satellite data is presented. This method is applied to radar wind data from two medium frequency installations (near Adelaide, Australia and Christchurch, New Zealand and satellite temperature data from the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS. Because of limitations in data availability and vertical extent, the technique can only be applied to evaluate the momentum balance at 80 km above the radar sites for May 1992. The technique allows the calculation of the residual terms in the momentum balance which are usually attributed to the effects of breaking gravity waves. Although the results are inconclusive above Adelaide, this method produces values of zonal and meridional residual accelerations above Christchurch which are consistent with expectation. In both locations it is apparent that geostrophic balance is a poor approximation of reality. (This result is not dependent on a mismatch between the radar and satellite derived winds, but rather is inherent in the satellite data alone. Despite significant caveats about data quality the technique appears robust and could be of use with data from future instruments.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; instruments and techniques

  9. Availability of the Two-step Test to evaluate balance in frail people in a day care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kazunori; Kamai, Daisuke; Ishitani, Shogo; Watanabe, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated balance tests in users of a day care service who needed nursing care or support, and investigated the usefulness of the Two-step Test for evaluating balance. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were users of a day care service, and had certified need for long-term care or support. All subjects were able to undergo the balance evaluations. Balance tests included the 3-m Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the one-leg standing time, and the Two-step Test. [Results] The Two-step Test and other balance tests were strongly correlated. [Conclusion] In this study of subjects who needed nursing care or support, the results were the same as in a previous study of subjects who did not need nursing care or support. The Two-step Test should be considered as an indicator of balance ability in elderly individuals requiring nursing care or support.

  10. The evaluation of a strength and balance exercise program for falls prevention in community primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Roden, Amy; Abbott, Jo

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate a strength and balance program delivered in the community. There is little evidence of implementation of evidence-based exercise in practice. The program was a step-down model, designed to encourage long-term exercise in community classes. The program consisted of a fully funded referral only evidence-based 12-week strength and balance (Community Otago) class, followed by an evidence-based continuous open-access community strength and balance class (Active Always). The program was offered to patients: 1) after formal falls rehabilitation (falls and fracture service); 2) after falls rehabilitation in intermediate care; and 3) referred by a GP who were not eligible for rehabilitation (preventative measure). Outcome evaluation used descriptive statistics to report changes in function, confidence in balance, hospital attendance/admission for falls/fractures and transition to community classes. Focus groups established participant experience/satisfaction. Seventy-nine participants were included, aged 56-96, and 53 (67%) were women. About 63.3% of patients transitioned to Active Always classes, demonstrating improvement in maintenance. Follow-up scores from baseline attendance at falls and fracture service to 12-weeks follow-up (24 weeks) in Community Otago showed the majority of patients improved their function (Timed up and Go), confidence (ConfBal) and lowered their falls risk (Tinetti). Follow-up of participants from Community Otago baseline to the end of 12-weeks showed improvement in function and confidence, but only a third of participants lowered their falls risk. Focus groups data suggest that continuity of delivery, the role of the instructor, health professional, and social and physical outcomes were essential for maintenance. A supportive environment can be created which encourages older adults' continued participation in group-based strength and balance, helping the delivery of evidence-based practice.

  11. The CMS workload management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinquilli, M. [CERN; Evans, D. [Fermilab; Foulkes, S. [Fermilab; Hufnagel, D. [Fermilab; Mascheroni, M. [CERN; Norman, M. [UC, San Diego; Maxa, Z. [Caltech; Melo, A. [Vanderbilt U.; Metson, S. [Bristol U.; Riahi, H. [INFN, Perugia; Ryu, S. [Fermilab; Spiga, D. [CERN; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab; Wakefield, Stuart [Imperial Coll., London; Wilkinson, R. [Caltech

    2012-01-01

    CMS has started the process of rolling out a new workload management system. This system is currently used for reprocessing and Monte Carlo production with tests under way using it for user analysis. It was decided to combine, as much as possible, the production/processing, analysis and T0 codebases so as to reduce duplicated functionality and make best use of limited developer and testing resources. This system now includes central request submission and management (Request Manager), a task queue for parcelling up and distributing work (WorkQueue) and agents which process requests by interfacing with disparate batch and storage resources (WMAgent).

  12. Evaluating the balanced scorecard at the University Health Network: an impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Justin; Bell, Robert; Khalfan, Adil; Lindquist, Evert

    2008-01-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) has become increasing popular in healthcare organizations. A recent study conducted at the University Health Network in Toronto explored the extent to which the BSC has focused and aligned various organizational units and departments around shared goals and objectives. The evaluation also assessed the BSC's impact on front-line staff and how the development and rollout of the BSC should be modified in the next planning iteration.

  13. A Procedure for Collecting Mental Workload Data During an Experiment That Is Comparable to IMPRINT Workload Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    workload by the individual’s level of certain physiological measures such as eye tracking, electrocardiogram ( EKG ), electro -encephalogram (EEG), and...galvanic skin response (GSR) measures. During the test, ATC evaluators instrumented two test participants and collected the EEG, EKG , and GSR data. They

  14. OEO SRB Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Security Records Branch in Boyers, PA. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  15. Tracking workload in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Scott; France, Daniel J; Hemphill, Robin; Jones, Ian; Chen, Kong Y; Rickard, Dorsey; Makowski, Renee; Aronsky, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to create a methodology for measuring transient levels of physician workload in a live emergency department (ED) environment. Characterizing, defining, and measuring aspects of this interrupt-driven work environment represent the preliminary steps in addressing impending issues concerning ED overcrowding, efficiency, and patient and provider safety. A time-motion task analysis was conducted. Twenty emergency medicine (EM) physicians were observed for 180-min intervals in an ED of an academic medical center. Near continuous workload measures were developed and used to track changing workload levels in time. These measures were taken from subjective, objective, and physiological perspectives. The NASA-Task Load Index was administered to each physician after observational sessions to measure subjective workload. Physiological measurements were taken throughout the duration of the observation to measure stress response. Additional information concerning physicians' patient quantity and patient complexity was extracted from the ED information system. Graphical workload profiles were created by combining observational and subjective data with system state data. Methodologies behind the creation of workload profiles are discussed, the workload profiles are compared, and quantitative and qualitative analyses are conducted. Using human factors methods to measure workload in a setting such as the ED proves to be challenging but has relevant application in improving the efficiency and safety of EM. Techniques implemented in this research are applicable in managing ED staff and real-time monitoring of physician workload.

  16. Mental workload measurement for emergency operating procedures in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Dong, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload is a major consideration for the design of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) in nuclear power plants. Continuous and objective measures are desired. This paper compares seven mental workload measurement methods (pupil size, blink rate, blink duration, heart rate variability, parasympathetic/sympathetic ratio, total power and (Goals, Operations, Methods, and Section Rules)-(Keystroke Level Model) GOMS-KLM-based workload index) with regard to sensitivity, validity and intrusiveness. Eighteen participants performed two computerised EOPs of different complexity levels, and mental workload measures were collected during the experiment. The results show that the blink rate is sensitive to both the difference in the overall task complexity and changes in peak complexity within EOPs, that the error rate is sensitive to the level of arousal and correlate to the step error rate and that blink duration increases over the task period in both low and high complexity EOPs. Cardiac measures were able to distinguish tasks with different overall complexity. The intrusiveness of the physiological instruments is acceptable. Finally, the six physiological measures were integrated using group method of data handling to predict perceived overall mental workload. The study compared seven measures for evaluating the mental workload with emergency operation procedure in nuclear power plants. An experiment with simulated procedures was carried out, and the results show that eye response measures are useful for assessing temporal changes of workload whereas cardiac measures are useful for evaluating the overall workload.

  17. Evaluation of postural stability of people with Parkinson's disease with Biodex Balance System device

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczyński, Jacek; Kabała, Magdalena; Paprocki, Michał; Rychter, Paweł; Wilczyński, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Wilczyński Jacek, Kabała Magdalena, Paprocki Michał, Rychter Paweł, Wilczyński Igor. Evaluation of postural stability of people with Parkinson's disease with Biodex Balance System device. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(10):365-376. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.163020 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3953       The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item...

  18. Reliability and validity of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) in people with subacute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsongkram, Butsara; Chaikeeree, Nithinun; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Viriyatharakij, Nitaya; Horak, Fay B; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2014-11-01

    The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) is a new clinical balance assessment tool, but it has never been validated in patients with subacute stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the BESTest in patients with subacute stroke. This was an observational reliability and validity study. Twelve patients participated in the interrater and intrarater reliability study. Convergent validity was investigated in 70 patients using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke (PASS), Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M), and Mini-BESTest. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and BBS in classifying participants into low functional ability (LFA) and high functional ability (HFA) groups based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment motor subscale scores. The BESTest showed excellent intrarater reliability and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=.99) and was highly correlated with the BBS (Spearman r=.96), PASS (r=.96), CB&M (r=.91), and Mini-BESTest (r=.96), indicating excellent convergent validity. No floor or ceiling effects were observed with the BESTest. In contrast, the Mini-BESTest and CB&M had a floor effect in the LFA group, and the BBS and PASS demonstrated responsive ceiling effects in the HFA group. In addition, the BESTest showed high accuracy as the BBS and Mini-BESTest in separating participants into HFA and LFA groups. Whether the results are generalizable to patients with chronic stroke is unknown. The BESTest is reliable, valid, sensitive, and specific in assessing balance in people with subacute stroke across all levels of functional disability. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  19. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in elderly women performing aquatic exercise and gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated static and dynamic balance and related motor valences in elderly women who had been undergone gymnastics or aquatic exercise training for at least 6 months, three times a week. Thirty-one women performed water gymnastics (mean age: 69.32 ± 6.57 years and 28 gymnastics (65.57 ± 7.67 years. Height (cm, weight (kg and waist, hip and abdominal circumference (cm were measured and the body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Physical fitness was measured using the “sit and get up in 30 seconds” test (leg endurance and “8-foot up-and-go” test (dynamic balance, both proposed by Rikli and Jones (1999, and the “sit and reach” (flexibility and static balance tests described by Caromano (1998. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t-test and Pearson’s correlation, with a level of significance of 0.05. No significant difference in the anthropometric measures (BMI and WHR was observed between groups. In the physical fitness tests, significant differences were only found in the “8-foot up-and-go” and “sit and get up” tests, with the gymnastics group presenting better results. No correlations within or between groups were observed regarding static and dynamic balance or motor valences. In conclusion, neither type of exercise was superior but the gymnastics group tended to show better results in terms of parameters such as agility, balance and flexibility.

  20. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P Water balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Constitutive equations for energy balance evaluation in metals under inelastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostina, A.; Plekhov, O.; Venkatraman, B.

    2017-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of constitutive equations for energy balance evaluation in plastically deformed metals. The evolution of the defect system is described by a previously obtained model based on the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. In the framework of this model, a collective behavior of mesodefect ensembles is taken into account by the introduction of an internal variable representing additional structural strain. This parameter enables the partition of plastic work into dissipated heat and stored energy. The proposed model is applied to energy balance calculation in a Ti-1Al-1Mn specimen subjected to cyclic loading. Simulation results have shown that the model is able to describe an upward trend in the stored energy value with the increase in the load ratio.

  2. Climatological evaluation of some fluxes of the surface energy and soil water balances over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Choisnel

    Full Text Available This paper presents some statistical evaluations of the surface energy and soil water balance fluxes, for a prairie-type canopy, using the Earth model with a double-reservoir system for the management of the soil water reserve and the regulation of actual evapotranspiration. The mean values of these fluxes are estimated from energy and water balance simulations done on a 30-year climatic reference period (1951–1980. From values of these fluxes calculated for each meteorological synoptic station, mappings of net radiation, actual evapotranspiration, drainage and conduction fluxes have been made over French territory. Lastly, a few conclusions pertaining to the spatial variability of fluxes and to the partition of rainfall between run-off and drainage on the one hand and replenishment of the soil water reserve on the other hand are drawn from these preliminary results.

  3. Applying the Balanced Scorecard Strategic Evaluation Method to a University Athletic Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS, ANDREAS KOTSOVOS & PANAYIOTIS ALEXOPOULOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balanced Scorecard (BSC has been extensively used in manufacturing organisations, service organisations, non-profit organisations, and governmental organizations with outstanding results (Kaplan and Norton, 2001b. Performance measures are at the core of the BSC system.However, financial measurement alone does not reflect the organisational mission of governmental and non-profit organisations; rather the mission of government or non-profitorganisation should be placed at top of the BSC in measuring whether such an organisation has been successful. Hence, the greatest difference between businesses and nonprofit organisations lies in the achievement of the mission.The purpose of this article is to present the evaluation of the performance of a University Athletic Department using the balanced scorecard strategic approach which includes four dimensions such as: (a the customer dimension, (b the financial dimension,(c the learning and growth dimension and (d the internal business process dimension.

  4. Introducing the Evaluation Tools for HSE Management System Performance Using Balanced Score Card Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance of the HSE units has various dimensions Leading to different performances. Thus, any industry should be capable of evaluating these systems. The aim of this study was to design a standard questionnaire in the field of performance evaluation of HSE management system employing Balanced Score Card model. Methods: In this study we, first determined the criteria to be evaluated in the framework of Balanced Score Card model based on the objectives and strategies of HSE Management System and existing standards, and then designed questions on every criterion. We used content validity and Cronbach's Alpha to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Results: The primary questionnaire was comprised of 126 questions some of which were omitted regarding the results obtained from the CVR and CVI values. We obtained the CVI average of environmental dimension to be 0.75 and its CVI average 0.71. Conclusion: With respect to the results of the reliability and validity of this questionnaire,and its standardized design we can suggest using it for evaluation of HSE management system performance in organizations and industries with the mentioned system.

  5. Grouping machines for effective workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrich, P.; Land, M.J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Workload control (WLC) allows the release of new orders to the shop floor as long as workload norms for capacity groups, generally a number of functionally similar machines, are not exceeded. Effective WLC requires a profound decision on the grouping of machines as well as on the norm levels for the

  6. Workload dynamics on clusters and grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a variety of workloads collected on production clusters and Grids. The applications are mostly computational-intensive and each task requires single CPU for processing data, which dominate the workloads on current production Grid systems.

  7. Robust Models for Operator Workload Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    into distinct cognitive channels (visual, auditory, spatial, etc.) based on our ability to multitask effectively as long as no one channel is...between workload levels. For example, recalling two numbers from working memory may be associated with “low” workload, four numbers with “medium...

  8. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  9. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.

  10. Evaluation of Regression Models of Balance Calibration Data Using an Empirical Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Volden, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    An empirical criterion for assessing the significance of individual terms of regression models of wind tunnel strain gage balance outputs is evaluated. The criterion is based on the percent contribution of a regression model term. It considers a term to be significant if its percent contribution exceeds the empirical threshold of 0.05%. The criterion has the advantage that it can easily be computed using the regression coefficients of the gage outputs and the load capacities of the balance. First, a definition of the empirical criterion is provided. Then, it is compared with an alternate statistical criterion that is widely used in regression analysis. Finally, calibration data sets from a variety of balances are used to illustrate the connection between the empirical and the statistical criterion. A review of these results indicated that the empirical criterion seems to be suitable for a crude assessment of the significance of a regression model term as the boundary between a significant and an insignificant term cannot be defined very well. Therefore, regression model term reduction should only be performed by using the more universally applicable statistical criterion.

  11. Designing and evaluating a balanced scorecard for a health information management department in a Canadian urban non-teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W

    2016-06-01

    This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Kamil Denis, Marek; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  13. Filter bank common spatial patterns in mental workload estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaneh, Mahnaz; Umilta, Alberto; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features extracted individually from each EEG channel may not be sufficiently efficient. This problem becomes more pronounced when we use low-cost but convenient EEG sensors with limited stability which is the case in practical scenarios. To address this issue, in this paper, we introduce a filter bank common spatial patterns algorithm combined with a feature selection method to extract spatio-spectral features discriminating different mental workload levels. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we carry out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks using data recorded from an Emotiv EPOC headset which is a mobile low-cost EEG recording device. The experimental results showed that the proposed spatial filtering algorithm outperformed the state-of-the algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy.

  14. Evaluation of postural balance in mild cognitive impairment through a three-dimensional electromagnetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Paula Oliveira; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira; Zaia, José Eduardo; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people with cognitive impairment are at greater risk for falls; thus, an understanding of the earliest stages of cognitive decline is necessary. To compare postural balance between elderly people with and without mild cognitive impairment using a three-dimensional system. Thirty elderly people with mild cognitive impairment and thirty healthy elderly subjects were selected. Static posturography was performed using three-dimensional electromagnetic equipment and the following parameters were evaluated: maximum displacement, mean speed and total trajectory. Open- and closed-eye stabilometric variable comparisons between groups and within each group were carried out, and a relationship between the Mini Mental State Examination and the total trajectory of all elderly subjects was determined. The analysis among open- and closed-eye conditions showed a significant difference in maximum anteroposterior displacement in the control group and a significant difference in all stabilometric variables in the mild cognitive impairment group. A significant difference between the groups in all variables in the closed-eye condition was observed. There was a strong correlation between cognitive performance and total trajectory. Evaluations showed decrease in balance in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. Presence of anteroposterior displacement can be an early sign of postural control impairment, and the evaluation with visual restriction can be useful in detecting small postural instabilities. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. PARAMETERS FOR THE EVALUATION OF CERVICAL SAGITTAL BALANCE IN IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO COELHO LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: There are no values defined as standard in the literature for the parameters of assessment of cervical sagittal balance in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This study describes the sagittal cervical parameters in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: Study carried out in a tertiary public hospital in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, through the evaluation of panoramic radiographs in lateral view. The Cobb method was used to evaluate cervical lordosis from C2 to C7, distance from the center of gravity (COG of the skull to C7, measurement of T1 slope, thoracic inlet angle (TIA, neck tilt, and plumb line from C7 to S1 (SVA C7-S1. A statistical analysis was performed, to demonstrate the relationship between the alignment of the thoracic spine in the sagittal plane and the cervical sagittal balance of patients with scoliosis. Results: Thirty-four patients were female (69.4% and 15 male (30.6%. The mean values for COG-C7 were 0.71 mm (median 0.8 mm/standard deviation [SD]= 0.51 mm. For Cobb C2-C7, the mean was -11.7° (median -10°/SD= 20.4°. The mean slope of T1 was 23.5° (median 25°/SD= 9.5°. The mean cervical version was 58.8° (median 60°/DP= 15.4°. The mean TIA was 81.8° (median 85°/SD= 16.7°. The mean plumb line C7-S1 was -0.28 (-0.3/SD= 1.0. Conclusion: The analysis of the results showed that the mean values for the cervical lordosis are lower than the values described as normal in the literature, suggesting a loss of sagittal cervical balance in these patients.

  16. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Cuadros Carlesi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. Method: quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28 and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. Results: 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919 and rate of falls (r = 0.8770. The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. Conclusions: the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload.

  17. Workload assessment of surgeons: correlation between NASA TLX and blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Jiang, Xianta; Tien, Geoffrey; Meneghetti, Adam; Panton, O Neely M; Atkins, M Stella

    2012-10-01

    Blinks are known as an indicator of visual attention and mental stress. In this study, surgeons' mental workload was evaluated utilizing a paper assessment instrument (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index, NASA TLX) and by examining their eye blinks. Correlation between these two assessments was reported. Surgeons' eye motions were video-recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker while the surgeons performed a laparoscopic procedure on a virtual reality trainer. Blink frequency and duration were computed using computer vision technology. The level of workload experienced during the procedure was reported by surgeons using the NASA TLX. A total of 42 valid videos were recorded from 23 surgeons. After blinks were computed, videos were divided into two groups based on the blink frequency: infrequent group (≤ 6 blinks/min) and frequent group (more than 6 blinks/min). Surgical performance (measured by task time and trajectories of tool tips) was not significantly different between these two groups, but NASA TLX scores were significantly different. Surgeons who blinked infrequently reported a higher level of frustration (46 vs. 34, P = 0.047) and higher overall level of workload (57 vs. 47, P = 0.045) than those who blinked more frequently. The correlation coefficients (Pearson test) between NASA TLX and the blink frequency and duration were -0.17 and 0.446. Reduction of blink frequency and shorter blink duration matched the increasing level of mental workload reported by surgeons. The value of using eye-tracking technology for assessment of surgeon mental workload was shown.

  18. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    he U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, developed spreadsheet mass-balance models for total phosphorus using results from three synoptic sampling periods conducted in the lower Boise River watershed during August and October 2012, and March 2013. The modeling reach spanned 46.4 river miles (RM) along the Boise River from Veteran’s Memorial Parkway in Boise, Idaho (RM 50.2), to Parma, Idaho (RM 3.8). The USGS collected water-quality samples and measured streamflow at 14 main-stem Boise River sites, two Boise River north channel sites, two sites on the Snake River upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Boise River, and 17 tributary and return-flow sites. Additional samples were collected from treated effluent at six wastewater treatment plants and two fish hatcheries. The Idaho Department of Water Resources quantified diversion flows in the modeling reach. Total phosphorus mass-balance models were useful tools for evaluating sources of phosphorus in the Boise River during each sampling period. The timing of synoptic sampling allowed the USGS to evaluate phosphorus inputs to and outputs from the Boise River during irrigation season, shortly after irrigation ended, and soon before irrigation resumed. Results from the synoptic sampling periods showed important differences in surface-water and groundwater distribution and phosphorus loading. In late August 2012, substantial streamflow gains to the Boise River occurred from Middleton (RM 31.4) downstream to Parma (RM 3.8). Mass-balance model results indicated that point and nonpoint sources (including groundwater) contributed phosphorus loads to the Boise River during irrigation season. Groundwater exchange within the Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013 was not as considerable as that measured in August 2012. However, groundwater discharge to agricultural tributaries and drains during non-irrigation season was a large source of discharge and

  19. Working memory’s workload capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heathcote, Andrew; Coleman, James R; Eidels, Ami; Watson, Jason M; Houpt, Joseph; Strayer, David L

    2015-01-01

    ... (Journal of Mathematical Psychology 39: 321–359, 1995) workload capacity measure, which revealed that the decrement in dual two-back performance was mediated by the sharing of a limited amount of processing capacity...

  20. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  1. [Nursing workloads and working conditions: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeller, Roseli; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Neis, Márcia Binder; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2011-06-01

    This study reviews theoretical production concerning workloads and working conditions for nurses. For that, an integrative review was carried out using scientific articles, theses and dissertations indexed in two Brazilian databases, Virtual Health Care Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) and Digital Database of Dissertations (Banco Digital de Teses), over the last ten years. From 132 identified studies, 27 were selected. Results indicate workloads as responsible for professional weariness, affecting the occurrence of work accidents and health problems. In order to adequate workloads studies indicate some strategies, such as having an adequate numbers of employees, continuing education, and better working conditions. The challenge is to continue research that reveal more precisely the relationships between workloads, working conditions, and health of the nursing team.

  2. Evaluating the Potential of Variable Renewable Energy for a Balanced Isolated Grid: A Japanese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a global push to develop renewable energy to further a low-carbon society. However, the nature of variable renewable energy (VRE sources such as wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV systems may create problems because electricity grids require a stable power supply to match demand. To evaluate the potential capacity of VREs that may be installed, we develop an optimized model that balances power supply and demand and also considers grid balancing by battery storage and load frequency control. The model was applied to a case study of an isolated grid on a remote Japanese island. When set to optimize the grid in terms of lowest cost, the model suggested that, compared with the base case, the capacity of wind power should be increased by a factor of 1.7 and 15.8 for situations without and with battery storage, respectively. Since it was always considered to be more expensive than wind power, no change in solar PV capacity was observed. These approaches resulted in a decrease in the total power generation cost of 2% and 24%, respectively, while total CO2 emissions fell by 3% and 52%, primarily driven by decreased used of the existing fossil-fueled thermal plant.

  3. Evaluation of a static granular bed reactor using a chemical oxygen demand balance and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Fox, Peter; Ellis, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    In order to evaluate the static granular bed reactor (SGBR), a chemical oxygen demand (COD) balance was used along with a mathematical model. The SGBR was operated with an organic loading rate (OLR) ranging from 0.8 to 5.5 kg/m(3) day at 24°C. The average COD removal efficiency was 87.4%, and the removal efficiencies of COD, carbohydrates, and proteins increased with an OLR, while the lipids removal efficiency was not a function of an OLR. From the results of the COD balance, the yield of biomass increased with an OLR. The SGBR was modeled using the general transport equation considering advection, diffusion, and degradation by microorganisms, and the first-order reaction rate constant was 0.0166/day. The simulation results were in excellent agreement with experimental data. In addition, the SGBR model provided mechanistic insight into why the COD removal efficiency in the SGBR is proportional to an OLR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test with the Berg Balance Scale in relationship to walking speed and motor recovery post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Bishnoi, Alka

    2017-12-01

    The Mini-BESTest is a recently developed balance assessment tool that incorporates challenging dynamic balance tasks. Few studies have compared the psychometric properties of the Mini-BESTest to the commonly used Berg Balance Scale (BBS). However, the utility of these scales in relationship to post stroke walking speeds has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-BESTest and BBS to evaluate walking speeds in individuals with stroke. A retrospective exploratory design. Forty-one individuals with chronic stroke were evaluated with the Mini-BESTest, BBS, and 10-meter self-selected walk test (10MWT). Based on their self-selected gait speeds (below or above 0.8 m/s), participants were classified as slow and fast walkers. Significant linear correlations were observed between the Mini-BESTest vs. BBS (r = 0.72, p ≤ 0.001), Mini-BESTest vs. 10MWT (r = 0.58, p ≤ 0.001), and BBS vs. 10MWT (r = 0.30, p = 0.05). Independent t-tests comparing the balance scores for the slow and fast walkers revealed significant group differences for the Mini-BESTest (p = 0.003), but not for the BBS (p = 0.09). The Mini-BESTest demonstrated higher sensitivity (93%) and specificity (64%) compared to the BBS (sensitivity 81%, specificity 56%) for discriminating participants into slow and fast walkers. The Mini-BESTest has a greater discriminative ability than the BBS to categorize individuals with stroke into slow and fast walkers.

  5. Workload composition of the organic horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Ribeiro, I A V; Tereso, M J A

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed the characterization of the physical workload of the organic horticulture by determining the frequency of exposure of operators to some activity categories. To do this, an adaptation of the PATH method (Posture, Activities, Tools and Handling) was done to be used in the context of agriculture work. The approach included an evaluation of physical effort demanded to perform the tasks in the work systems from an systematic sampling of work situations from a synchronized monitoring of the heart rate; a characterization of posture repertoire adopted by workers by adapting the OWAS method; an identification of pain body areas using the Corlett diagram; and a subjective evaluation of perceived effort using the RPE Borg scale. The results of the individual assessments were cross correlated and explained from an observation of the work activity. Postural demands were more significant than cardiovascular demands for the studied tasks, and correlated positively with the expressions of bodily discomfort. It is expected that, besides the knowledge obtained of the physical effort demanded by organic horticulture, this project will be useful for the development of new technologies directed to minimize the difficulties of the human work and to raise the work productivity.

  6. Lack of relationship between occupational workload and microscopic alterations in lumbar intervertebral disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschak, Gerald; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Beier, Andre; Meisel, Hans Jörg; Hoell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of occupational workloads on disc surgery specimens. We report the relationship between workload and histological features. Specimens were collected prospectively from patients suffering from lumbar disc prolapse (n=90) or spinal osteochondrosis (n=19). Histomorphology and occupational workload data and histomorphological features were evaluated. Occupational data were collected in a structured, standardized patient interview assessing lifting and carrying loads. In this way the exposure was assessed for each test subject's entire working life up to surgery. There was no association between cumulative workload and histological patterns. In a subgroup of patients with a workload period of 12 months prior to surgery a relevant formation of chondrocyte clusters (p=0.055) was apparent. Chondrocyte cluster formation was found in 83% (n=74) of the prolapse patients and in 58% (n=11) of the osteochondrosis patients (p=0.02). Fibrocyte mediated scar formation was found in 55% of the prolapse patients and in 45% of the spinal stenosis patients. Chondrocyte clusters and their de novo collagen matrix did not integrate biomechanically sufficient with collagen fibers of the disc. Disintegration of clusters from disc matrix and formation of intra-discal sequesters were observed. Matrix degeneration was common but displayed no relationship to occupational workload or other histological features. Scar formation was observed in every second specimen. Regenerative chondrocyte cluster proliferation was a common feature in disc specimens and tended to be associated in patients with a workload one year before surgery.

  7. The workload of riding-school horses during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Spierenburg, A J; van den Broek, E T W

    2006-08-01

    As there are no reports on the real workload of horses that jump fences, this study was undertaken in riding-school horses. To compare the workload of horses jumping a course of fences with that of horses cantering over the same course at the same average speed without jumping fences. The workload variables included heart rate (HR), packed cell volume (PCV), acid-base balance (venous pH, pCO2, HCO3-) and blood lactate (LA), glucose, total protein and electrolyte concentrations. Eight healthy riding-school horses performed test A (a course of approximately 700 m with 12 jumps from 0.8-1.0 m high at an average speed of approximately 350 m/min) and test B (same course at the same speed, but without the rails) in a crossover study with at least 4 h between the 2 tests. Before each test the horses were fitted with a heart rate meter (Polar Electro). Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at rest prior to the test, after warm-up before starting the course, immediately after the course and after recovery. All samples were analysed immediately. The mean +/- s.d maximal HR (beats/min) during the course (184 +/- 17 and 156 +/- 21, respectively) and the mean HR after recovery (75 +/- 6 and 63 +/- 7, respectively) were significantly higher in test A compared to test B (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007 respectively). The mean LA concentrations after the course and after recovery (mmol/l) were significantly higher in test A (3.6 +/- 2.7 and 1.0 +/- 0.9, respectively) compared to test B (0.9 +/- 0.5 and 0.3 +/- 0.1, respectively), (P = 0.016 and P = 0.048 respectively). The mean PCV (I/l) after the course and after recovery was also significantly different between tests A (0.48 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.03, respectively) and B (0.42 +/- 0.04 and 0.36 +/- 0.03, respectively) (PPspeed without fences. This study makes it clear that the extra workload of jumping fences should be taken into account in the training programmes of jumping horses. Further research with more experienced

  8. Personality traits moderate the effect of workload sources on perceived workload in flying column police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eChiorri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that personality traits of the Five Factor Model play a role in worker's response to workload. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of personality traits of first responders with their perceived workload in real-life tasks. A flying column of 269 police officers completed a measure of subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index after intervention tasks in a major public event. Officers' scores on a measure of Five Factor Model personality traits were obtained from archival data. Linear Mixed Modeling was used to test the direct and interaction effects of personality traits on workload scores once controlling for background variables, task type and workload source (mental, temporal and physical demand of the task, perceived effort, dissatisfaction for the performance and frustration due to the task. All personality traits except extraversion significantly interacted at least with one workload source. Perceived workload in flying column police officers appears to be the result of their personality characteristics interacting with the workload source. The implications of these results for the development of support measures aimed at reducing the impact of workload in this category of workers are discussed.

  9. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU. Materials and methods With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA, or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI, Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. Results The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives was found to be satisfactory. Discussion-Conclusion The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change. In our research the employees were pleased to be

  10. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzola, Adriano; Bentivegna, Roberto; Carandina, Gianni; Trevisani, Lucio; Gregorio, Pasquale; Mandini, Alberto

    2009-09-08

    One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU). With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA), or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI), Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives) was found to be satisfactory. The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change.In our research the employees were pleased to be evaluated, not only for the financial outcomes, but also for the satisfaction of improving

  11. Evaluating the granularity balance of hierarchical relationships within large biomedical terminologies towards quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lingyun; Tong, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Mejino, Jose L V; Ouyang, Chunping; Liu, Yongbin

    2017-11-01

    Organizing the descendants of a concept under a particular semantic relationship may be rather arbitrarily carried out during the manual creation processes of large biomedical terminologies, resulting in imbalances in relationship granularity. This work aims to propose scalable models towards systematically evaluating the granularity balance of semantic relationships. We first utilize "parallel concepts set (PCS)" and two features (the length and the strength) of the paths between PCSs to design the general evaluation models, based on which we propose eight concrete evaluation models generated by two specific types of PCSs: single concept set and symmetric concepts set. We then apply those concrete models to the IS-A relationship in FMA and SNOMED CT's Body Structure subset, as well as to the Part-Of relationship in FMA. Moreover, without loss of generality, we conduct two additional rounds of applications on the Part-Of relationship after removing length redundancies and strength redundancies sequentially. At last, we perform automatic evaluation on the imbalances detected after the final round for identifying missing concepts, misaligned relations and inconsistencies. For the IS-A relationship, 34 missing concepts, 80 misalignments and 18 redundancies in FMA as well as 28 missing concepts, 114 misalignments and 1 redundancy in SNOMED CT were uncovered. In addition, 6,801 instances of imbalances for the Part-Of relationship in FMA were also identified, including 3,246 redundancies. After removing those redundancies from FMA, the total number of Part-Of imbalances was dramatically reduced to 327, including 51 missing concepts, 294 misaligned relations, and 36 inconsistencies. Manual curation performed by the FMA project leader confirmed the effectiveness of our method in identifying curation errors. In conclusion, the granularity balance of hierarchical semantic relationship is a valuable property to check for ontology quality assurance, and the scalable evaluation

  12. Evaluation and understanding of Playware Technology – trials with playful balance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due

    further studies exactly how digital technology and games can create play for the elderly, with the ambition of reaching a more substantiated understanding of this process that could then lead to a better and more calculated design of new products. The technology in focus, “MOTO Tiles”, is an example...... of “playware”, which is defined as hardware or software that aims to initiate play and playful experiences among its users. The thesis evaluates MOTO tiles as an example of a relatively new area of research, Games for Health, where digital games are seen as tools for the creation of health-promoting activities....... The thesis starts with a presentation of the results of two different pilot trials done with the MOTO tiles technology which showed remarkable development among the elderly, particularly regarding balance. It further contextualizes MOTO tiles in the research area of "games for health" by an account...

  13. Evaluation of the infrared test method for the olympus thermal balance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, M.; Stpierre, D.; Green, J.; Reeves, M.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the infrared (IR) rig used for the thermal balance testing of the Olympus S/C thermal model is discussed. Included in this evaluation are the rig effects themselves, the IRFLUX computer code used to predict the radiation inputs, the Monitored Background Radiometers (MBR's) developed to measure the absorbed radiation flux intensity, the Uniform Temperature Reference (UTR) based temperature measurement system and the data acquisition system. A preliminary set of verification tests were performed on a 1 m x 1 m zone to assess the performance of the IR lamps, calrods, MBR's and aluminized baffles. The results were used, in part, to obtain some empirical data required for the IRFLUX code. This data included lamp and calrod characteristics, the absorptance function for various surface types, and the baffle reflectivities.

  14. Water balance at an arid site: a model validation study of bare soil evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.L.; Campbell, G.S.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report contains results of model validation studies conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The model validation tests consisted of using unsaturated water flow models to simulate water balance experiments conducted at the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The BWTF is a lysimeter facility designed to collect field data on long-term water balance and radionuclide tracer movement. It has been operated by PNL for the NLLWMP since 1978. An experimental test case, developed from data collected at the BWTF, was used to evaluate predictions from different water flow models. The major focus of the validation study was to evaluate how the use of different evaporation models affected the accuracy of predictions of evaporation, storage, and drainage made by the whole model. Four evaporation models were tested including two empirical models and two mechanistic models. The empirical models estimate actual evaporation from potential evaporation; the mechanistic models describe water vapor diffusion within the soil profile and between the soil and the atmosphere in terms of fundamental soil properties, and transport processes. The water flow models that included the diffusion-type evaporation submodels performed best overall. The empirical models performed poorly in their description of evaporation and profile water storage during summer months. The predictions of drainage were supported quite well by the experimental data. This indicates that the method used to estimate hydraulic conductivity needed for the Darcian submodel was adequate. This important result supports recommendations for these procedures that were made previously based on laboratory results.

  15. Reliability and validity of a force-instrumented treadmill for evaluating balance: A preliminary study of feasibility in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yuntao, Zhou; Kondo, Izumi; Mukaino, Masahiko; Tanabe, Shigeo; Teranishi, Toshio; Ii, Takuma; Oono, Kensuke; Koyama, Soichiro; Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Saitoh, Eiichi

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the development of computer technology, computerized dynamic posturography provides objective assessments of balance and posture control under static and dynamic conditions. Although a force-instrumented treadmill-based balance assessment is feasible for balance evaluations, currently no data exists. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the reliability and validity of balance evaluations using a force-instrumented treadmill. Methods: Ten healthy adults partici...

  16. A New Load Residual Threshold Definition for the Evaluation of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2016-01-01

    A new definition of a threshold for the detection of load residual outliers of wind tunnel strain-gage balance data was developed. The new threshold is defined as the product between the inverse of the absolute value of the primary gage sensitivity and an empirical limit of the electrical outputs of a strain{gage. The empirical limit of the outputs is either 2.5 microV/V for balance calibration or check load residuals. A reduced limit of 0.5 microV/V is recommended for the evaluation of differences between repeat load points because, by design, the calculation of these differences removes errors in the residuals that are associated with the regression analysis of the data itself. The definition of the new threshold and different methods for the determination of the primary gage sensitivity are discussed. In addition, calibration data of a six-component force balance and a five-component semi-span balance are used to illustrate the application of the proposed new threshold definition to different types of strain{gage balances. During the discussion of the force balance example it is also explained how the estimated maximum expected output of a balance gage can be used to better understand results of the application of the new threshold definition.

  17. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  18. Evaluation of Relationship between Trunk Muscle Endurance and Static Balance in Male Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Amirhossein; Safarcherati, Afsaneh; Aghayari, Azar; Azizi, Faeze; Abbasi, Hamed

    2013-12-01

    Fatigue of trunk muscle contributes to spinal instability over strenuous and prolonged physical tasks and therefore may lead to injury, however from a performance perspective, relation between endurance efficient core muscles and optimal balance control has not been well-known. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of trunk muscle endurance and static balance. Fifty male students inhabitant of Tehran university dormitory (age 23.9±2.4, height 173.0±4.5 weight 70.7±6.3) took part in the study. Trunk muscle endurance was assessed using Sørensen test of trunk extensor endurance, trunk flexor endurance test, side bridge endurance test and static balance was measured using single-limb stance test. A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to test if the trunk muscle endurance measures significantly predicted the static balance. There were positive correlations between static balance level and trunk flexor, extensor and lateral endurance measures (Pearson correlation test, r=0.80 and Pstatic balance, the linear combination of trunk muscle endurance measures was significantly related to the static balance (F (3,46) = 66.60, Pstatic balance level. The regression model which included these factors had the sample multiple correlation coefficient of 0.902, indicating that approximately 81% of the variance of the static balance is explained by the model. There is a significant relationship between trunk muscle endurance and static balance.

  19. Surface mass balance model evaluation from satellite and airborne lidar mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterley, T. C.; Velicogna, I.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    We present estimates of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface elevation change from a novel combination of satellite and airborne laser altimetry measurements. Our method combines measurements from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) and ICESat-1 to generate elevation change rates at high spatial resolution. This method allows to extend the records of each instrument, increases the overall spatial coverage compared to a single instrument, and produces high-quality, coherent maps of surface elevation change. In addition by combining the lidar datasets, we are able to investigate seasonal and interannual surface elevation change for years where Spring and Fall Operation IceBridge campaigns are available. We validate our method by comparing with the standard NSIDC elevation change product calculated using overlapping Level-1B ATM data. We use the altimetry-derived mass changes to evaluate the uncertainty in surface mass balance, particularly in the runoff component, from two Regional Climate Models (RCM's), the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) and the Modéle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR), and one Global Climate Model (GCM), MERRA2/GEOS-5. We investigate locations with low ice sheet surface velocities that are within the estimated ablation zones of each regional climate model. We find that the surface mass balance outputs from RACMO and MAR show good correspondence with mass changes derived from surface elevation changes over long periods. At two sites in Northeast Greenland (NEGIS), the MAR model has better correspondence with the altimetry estimate. We find that the differences at these locations are primarily due to the characterization of meltwater refreeze within the ice sheet.

  20. EVALUATION OF MULTI CRITERIA ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING BY MCDM APPROACHES: A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Sharma; G. Thakar; R.C. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    This research paper gives an up-to-date review and discusses the development of the multi criteria assembly line balancing (ALB) and also gives a detailed list of different criteria for the purpose of comparing different assembly line balancing techniques. This paper is structured in six ections. Section one is introduction which gives the details of basic contributions of different researchers. Section two gives basic problem of assembly line balancing and its detailed classifications. In Se...

  1. Positive correlation of postural balance evaluation by two different devices in community dwelling women

    OpenAIRE

    Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Luna,Natália Mariana Silva; Alonso, Angélica Castilho; Greve, Júlia María D'Andréa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the convergent validity or relationship of the Balance Master® as balance assessment device by comparing its performance results with those obtained from the AccuSway Plus® force plate. METHOD: Cross-sectional observational study, without intervention, of 126 postmenopausal women (60.3 ± 3.2 years; body mass index = 27.6 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Two devices were used for the independent assessments of static balance: (a) Static postural balance assessment (posturography) was per...

  2. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  3. Digital Workload In A Large Radiology Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Bauman, Roger A.; Lodwick, Gwilym S.

    1986-06-01

    As Radiology becomes more invested in direct digital imaging techniques, the potential for moving these images throughout the department, interpreting them directly in digital mode and archiving them in computer form is a topic of high current interest. A fundamental consideration is the amount of digital data to be handled. Even the low and medium resolution images now handled in digital mode require immense amounts of digital storage space. The first quantification of the amount of digital data was by Dwyer, et al, in a report concerning the workload in a 614-bed hospital. Their assumptions and calculations are reviewed and applied to the workload data from a 1082-bed hospital. Storage requirements for PET and MRI workload are calculated, and an estimate of digital radiography data is presented. The digitization of plain film radiographs will virtually increase the storage requirements by a factor of 10.

  4. EVALUATION OF MULTI CRITERIA ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING BY MCDM APPROACHES: A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper gives an up-to-date review and discusses the development of the multi criteria assembly line balancing (ALB and also gives a detailed list of different criteria for the purpose of comparing different assembly line balancing techniques. This paper is structured in six ections. Section one is introduction which gives the details of basic contributions of different researchers. Section two gives basic problem of assembly line balancing and its detailed classifications. In Section three objectives (criteria's are shown in tabulated manner with reference as a result of extensive literature survey. Section four portrays assembly line balancing techniques for the solution of ALB Problems. Section five gives the information about the gaps in the literature for prioritizing different assembly line balancing techniques. Finally Section six, concludes the research work and gives information about possible future implications.

  5. Configuring balanced scorecards for measuring health system performance: evidence from 5 years' evaluation in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H

    2011-07-01

    In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0-100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3-84.5, pfinancial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4-95.7, pperformance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  6. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, pscorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  7. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Tulder, van M.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  8. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Paul Harris, Thomas William Teasdale, Morten Arendt Rasmussen. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):331-41. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161324....

  9. Workload-Aware and CPU Frequency Scaling for Optimal Energy Consumption in VM Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the problem of VMs consolidation for cloud energy saving, different workloads will ask for different resources. Thus, considering workload characteristic, the VM placement solution will be more reasonable. In the real world, different workload works in a varied CPU utilization during its work time according to its task characteristics. That means energy consumption related to both the CPU utilization and CPU frequency. Therefore, only using the model of CPU frequency to evaluate energy consumption is insufficient. This paper theoretically verified that there will be a CPU frequency best suit for a certain CPU utilization in order to obtain the minimum energy consumption. According to this deduction, we put forward a heuristic CPU frequency scaling algorithm VP-FS (virtual machine placement with frequency scaling. In order to carry the experiments, we realized three typical greedy algorithms for VMs placement and simulate three groups of VM tasks. Our efforts show that different workloads will affect VMs allocation results. Each group of workload has its most suitable algorithm when considering the minimum used physical machines. And because of the CPU frequency scaling, VP-FS has the best results on the total energy consumption compared with the other three algorithms under any of the three groups of workloads.

  10. Survey of Workload and Job Satisfaction Relationship in a Productive Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maghsoudipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Promotion of workers’ health and safety is one of the main tasks of managers and planners. One of the important sciences that can assist managers to achieve this gool is ergonomics. This article presents results of workload and job satisfaction survey in a heavy metal components manufacturing company in Tehran, in 2010. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted by survey of all operational workers. Workload is survived by NASA-TLX questionnaire that contained six dimensions and job satisfaction evaluated by short version of Minnesota questionnaire . Results: Job satisfaction questionnaire ’s reliability which assessed by Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.91. In addition, data analysis results declare that the average job satisfaction scale was 65 and at medium level and workload with 85.11 as average scale was at the high level. Effort and physical loads were two dimensions which have high amount in the workload In addition, no statistical significant relation was observed between the total job satisfaction score and workload score. (p<0.05. While the performance dimension showed a positive relationshipwith job satisfaction, frustration demonstrated a negative relationship with job satisfaction. Conclusion: In order to improve the work conditions the administrative and technological controls should be implemented and actions need to be taken to modify workload dimensions specially, two dimensions with the high amount and dimensions that have relationship with job satisfaction.

  11. A worldwide evaluation of basin-scale evapotranspiration estimates against the water balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Li, Yanzhong; Sun, Fubao; Fu, Guobin; Li, Xiuping; Sang, Yan-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a critical role in linking the water and energy cycles but is difficult to estimate at regional and basin scales. In this study, we present a worldwide evaluation of nine ET products (three diagnostic products, three land surface model (LSM) simulations and three reanalysis-based products) against reference ET (ETwb) calculated using the water balance method corrected for the water storage change at an annual time scale over the period 1983-2006 for 35 global river basins. The results indicated that there was no significant intra-category discrepancy in the annual ET estimates for the 35 basins calculated using the different products in 35 basins, but some products performed better than others, such as the Global Land surface Evaporation estimated using the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM_E) in the diagnostic products, ET obtained from the Global Land Data Assimilation System version 1 (GLDAS 1) with the Community Land Model scheme (GCLM_E) in LSM simulations, and ET from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis dataset (MERRA_E) in the reanalysis-based products. Almost all ET products (except MERRA_E) reasonably estimated the annual means (especially in the dry basins) but systematically underestimated the inter-annual variability (except for MERRA_E, GCLM_E and ET simulation from the GLDAS 1 with the MOSAIC scheme - GMOS_E) and could not adequately estimate the trends (e.g. GCLM_E and MERRA_E) of ETwb (especially in the energy-limited wet basins). The uncertainties in nine ET products may be primarily attributed to the discrepancies in the forcing datasets and model structural limitations. The enhancements of global forcing data (meteorological data, solar radiation, soil moisture stress and water storage changes) and model physics (reasonable consideration of the water and energy balance and vegetation processes such as canopy interception loss

  12. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. L. Rae

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB, and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution general circulation models (GCMs. This is the first time an intercomparison has been carried out of RCM results for Greenland climate and SMB. Output from RCM simulations for the recent past with the four RCMs is evaluated against available observations. The evaluation highlights the importance of using a detailed snow physics scheme, especially regarding the representations of albedo and meltwater refreezing. Simulations with three of the RCMs for the 21st century using SRES scenario A1B from two GCMs produce trends of between −5.5 and −1.1 Gt yr−2 in SMB (equivalent to +0.015 and +0.003 mm sea level equivalent yr−2, with trends of smaller magnitude for scenario E1, in which emissions are mitigated. Results from one of the RCMs whose present-day simulation is most realistic indicate that an annual mean near-surface air temperature increase over Greenland of ~ 2°C would be required for the mass loss to increase such that it exceeds accumulation, thereby causing the SMB to become negative, which has been suggested as a threshold beyond which the ice sheet would eventually be eliminated.

  13. Workload Management Strategies for Online Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Tena B.; Wilkinson, Kelly; Hemby, K. Virginia; McCannon, Melinda; Wiedmaier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    With increased use of online education, both students and instructors are adapting to the online environment. Online educators must adjust to the change in responsibilities required to teach online, as it is quite intensive during the designing, teaching, and revising stages. The purpose of this study is to examine and update workload management…

  14. Parameters and sensitivity in workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Both practitioners and scientists have recognized the importance of workload control (WLC) for job shop practices. WLC principles have been integrated into a comprehensive concept, which receives a lot of attention in scientific literature in recent years. Though meant as a robust concept for

  15. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    Mark H. Chignell. "Mental Workload Dynamics in Adaptive Interface Design." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 18, no. 4 (1988): 647-658...J. Colombi, D. Jacques, and J. Miller. "Human Systems Integration within the DOD Architecture Framework." IIE Annual Conference and Expo

  16. Dynamic workload peak detection for slack management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutinovic, A.; Goossens, Kees; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kuper, Jan; Kuper, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an analytical study on dynamism and possibilities on slack exploitation by dynamic power management is presented. We introduce a specific workload decomposition method for work required for (streaming) application processing data tokens (e.g. video frames) with work behaviour patterns

  17. The Design Fabrication Installation & Evaluation of the Balance Probe Monitor for Large Centrifuges at a National Laboratory Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Jonathan Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Balance Probe Monitors were designed, fabricated, installed, and evaluated at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the 22,600 g kg (50,000 g lb) direct drive electromotor driven large centrifuges. These centrifuges provide a high onset/decay rate g environment. The Balance Probe Monitor is physically located near a centrifuge’s Capacitance Probe, a crucial sensor for the centrifuge’s sustainability. The Balance Probe Monitor will validate operability of the centrifuge. Most importantly, it is used for triggering a kill switch under the condition that the centrifuge displacement value exceeds allowed tolerances. During operational conditions, the Capacitance Probe continuously detects the structural displacement of the centrifuge and an adjoining AccuMeasure 9000 translates this displacement into an output voltage.

  18. An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

  19. Evaluation of Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Pınar; Avcil, Sibelnur; Abas, Burçin İrem; Yenisey, Çiğdem

    2016-10-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) has been reported in many allergic and inflammatory skin diseases, including urticaria, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD). Melatonin is a hormone secreted from the pineal gland and is a potent antioxidant. The aim of the study was to measure serum antioxidant melatonin, oxidants of nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde levels to calculate the serum oxidant-antioxidant balance based on the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios and to determine the correlation with the disease severity in children with AD. Seventy-three children with AD and 67 healthy controls were included in the study. The clinical diagnosis of AD was based on the diagnostic criteria of Hanifin-Rajka. The severity of AD was evaluated by the scoring AD (SCORAD) index, and atopy was determined by skin prick tests (SPTs) with commercial extracts. The OS-related parameters of serum melatonin, NO, malondialdehyde, and the NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios were calculated and compared with the results of healthy controls. Serum melatonin levels were higher (p children with AD than in healthy controls (p = 0.045, p children with AD and healthy controls in terms of serum malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.119). Serum melatonin levels were significantly lower in severe AD than in mild AD (p = 0.012). However, in terms of serum melatonin levels, there was no difference between mild and moderate AD (p = 0.742) and moderate to severe AD (p = 0.301). There was no significant difference in serum NO and malondialdehyde levels and NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios among children with mild, moderate, and severe AD (p > 0.05). A negative correlation was found between serum melatonin levels and the SCORAD index (r = -0.252, p = 0.031), and a positive correlation was found between NO/melatonin and malondialdehyde/melatonin ratios (r = 0.511, p 24 months), disease duration (≤6 or >6

  20. Configuring balanced scorecards for measuring health system performance: evidence from 5 years' evaluation in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbrasi Edward

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0-100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3-84.5, p<0.0001; provider satisfaction (65.4-79.2, p<0.01; capacity for service provision (47.4-76.4, p<0.0001; quality of services (40.5-67.4, p<0.0001; and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0-52.6. The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4-95.7, p<0.01, after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. CONCLUSIONS: The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. How do training and competition workloads relate to injury? The workload-injury aetiology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Johann; Gabbett, Tim J

    2017-03-01

    Injury aetiology models that have evolved over the previous two decades highlight a number of factors which contribute to the causal mechanisms for athletic injuries. These models highlight the pathway to injury, including (1) internal risk factors (eg, age, neuromuscular control) which predispose athletes to injury, (2) exposure to external risk factors (eg, playing surface, equipment), and finally (3) an inciting event, wherein biomechanical breakdown and injury occurs. The most recent aetiological model proposed in 2007 was the first to detail the dynamic nature of injury risk, whereby participation may or may not result in injury, and participation itself alters injury risk through adaptation. However, although training and competition workloads are strongly associated with injury, existing aetiology models neither include them nor provide an explanation for how workloads alter injury risk. Therefore, we propose an updated injury aetiology model which includes the effects of workloads. Within this model, internal risk factors are differentiated into modifiable and non-modifiable factors, and workloads contribute to injury in three ways: (1) exposure to external risk factors and potential inciting events, (2) fatigue, or negative physiological effects, and (3) fitness, or positive physiological adaptations. Exposure is determined solely by total load, while positive and negative adaptations are controlled both by total workloads, as well as changes in load (eg, the acute:chronic workload ratio). Finally, we describe how this model explains the load-injury relationships for total workloads, acute:chronic workload ratios and the training load-injury paradox. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, David, E-mail: d.styles@bangor.ac.uk; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e excluding ILUC, or 238–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9–10.8 PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8–3.4 Gg PO{sub 4}e and 8.1–14.6 Gg SO{sub 2}e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering

  3. Workload based order acceptance in job shop environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; Hans, Elias W.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In practice, order acceptance and production planning are often functionally separated. As a result, order acceptance decisions are made without considering the actual workload in the production system, or by only regarding the aggregate workload. We investigate the importance of a good workload

  4. Workload characterization, modeling, and prediction in grid Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Workloads play an important role in experimental performance studies of computer systems. This thesis presents a comprehensive characterization of real workloads on production clusters and Grids. A variety of correlation structures and rich scaling behavior are identified in workload attributes such

  5. Workload Measurement in Human Autonomy Teaming: How and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is an invited talk on autonomy and workload for an AFRL Blue Sky workshop sponsored by the Florida Institute for Human Machine Studies. The presentation reviews various metrics of workload and how to move forward with measuring workload in a human-autonomy teaming environment.

  6. A Non Linear Scoring Approach for Evaluating Balance: Classification of Elderly as Fallers and Non-Fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiffren, Julien; Bargiotas, Ioannis; Vayatis, Nicolas; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Ricard, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP) displacement (statokinesigram) with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached whether these analyses alone can explain sufficiently the complex synergies of postural control. In this work, we study the statokinesigrams of 84 elderly subjects (80.3+- 6.4 years old), which had no impairment related to balance control. Each subject was recorded 25 seconds with eyes open and 25 seconds with eyes closed and information pertaining to the presence of problems of balance, such as fall, in the last six months, was collected. Five descriptors of the statokinesigrams were computed for each record, and a Ranking Forest algorithm was used to combine those features in order to evaluate each subject's balance with a score. A classical train-test split approach was used to evaluate the performance of the method through ROC analysis. ROC analysis showed that the performance of each descriptor separately was close to a random classifier (AUC between 0.49 and 0.54). On the other hand, the score obtained by our method reached an AUC of 0.75 on the test set, consistent over multiple train-test split. This non linear multi-dimensional approach seems appropriate in evaluating complex postural control.

  7. A Non Linear Scoring Approach for Evaluating Balance: Classification of Elderly as Fallers and Non-Fallers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Audiffren

    Full Text Available Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP displacement (statokinesigram with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached whether these analyses alone can explain sufficiently the complex synergies of postural control. In this work, we study the statokinesigrams of 84 elderly subjects (80.3+- 6.4 years old, which had no impairment related to balance control. Each subject was recorded 25 seconds with eyes open and 25 seconds with eyes closed and information pertaining to the presence of problems of balance, such as fall, in the last six months, was collected. Five descriptors of the statokinesigrams were computed for each record, and a Ranking Forest algorithm was used to combine those features in order to evaluate each subject's balance with a score. A classical train-test split approach was used to evaluate the performance of the method through ROC analysis. ROC analysis showed that the performance of each descriptor separately was close to a random classifier (AUC between 0.49 and 0.54. On the other hand, the score obtained by our method reached an AUC of 0.75 on the test set, consistent over multiple train-test split. This non linear multi-dimensional approach seems appropriate in evaluating complex postural control.

  8. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the

  9. Preliminary Statistical Analysis of the 1995 Evaluation by NASA LaRC of the IAI Automatic Balance Calibration Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Tripp, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LARC) participated in a national cooperative evaluation of the Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) automatic balance calibration machine at Microcraft, San Diego in September 1995. A LaRC-designed six-component strain gauge balance was selected for test and calibration during LaRC's scheduled evaluation period. Eight calibrations were conducted using three selected experimental designs. Raw data were exported to LaRC facilities for reduction and statistical analysis using the techniques outlined in Tripp and Tcheng (1994). This report presents preliminary assessments of the results, and compares IAI calibration results with manual calibration results obtained at the Modern Machine and Tool Co., Inc. (MM & T). Newport News, VA. A more comprehensive report is forthcoming.

  10. Performance evaluation of Al-Zahra academic medical center based on Iran balanced scorecard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhsh, Roghayeh Mohammadi; Gangi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Growth and development in any country's national health system, without an efficient evaluation system, lacks the basic concepts and tools necessary for fulfilling the system's goals. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a technique widely used to measure the performance of an organization. The basic core of the BSC is guided by the organization's vision and strategies, which are the bases for the formation of four perspectives of BSC. The goal of this research is the performance evaluation of Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Iran BSC model. This is a combination (quantitative-qualitative) research which was done at Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The research populations were hospital managers at different levels. Sampling method was purposive sampling in which the key informed personnel participated in determining the performance indicators of hospital as the BSC team members in focused discussion groups. After determining the conceptual elements in focused discussion groups, the performance objectives (targets) and indicators of hospital were determined and sorted in perspectives by the group discussion participants. Following that, the performance indicators were calculated by the experts according to the predetermined objectives; then, the score of each indicator and the mean score of each perspective were calculated. Research findings included development of the organizational mission, vision, values, objectives, and strategies. The strategies agreed upon by the participants in the focus discussion group included five strategies, which were customer satisfaction, continuous quality improvement, development of human resources, supporting innovation, expansion of services and improving the productivity. Research participants also agreed upon four perspectives for the Al-Zahra hospital BSC. In the patients and community perspective (customer), two objectives and

  11. Evaluating the UK and Dutch defined benefit policies using the holistic balance sheet framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Pelsser, A.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    This paper compares the UK and Dutch occupational defined-benefit pension policies using the holistic balance sheet (HBS) framework. The UK DB pension system differs from the Dutch one in terms of the steering tools and adjustment mechanisms. In addition to the sponsor guarantee, the UK system has

  12. Discussing Feedback System Thinking in Relation to Scenario Evaluation in a Balanced Scorecard Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    Since the emergence of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) at the beginning of the 1990s, literature has intensively discussed the problems of the cause and effect relationships, the time-delay elements between measures and perspectives and the concepts of feedback loops. This paper focuses on the use...

  13. Balanced RAP/RAS mix design and performance evaluation for project - specific service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This presentation summarizes Projects 0-6092/0-6614. It includes accomplishments, best practices, field performance data of RAP/RAS test sections, balanced RAP/RAS mix design for project-specific conditions, and approaches for improving RAP/RAS mix p...

  14. Workload, flow, and telepresence during teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    There is much speculation about the relations among workload, flow, telepresence, and performance during teleoperation, but few data that provide evidence concerning them. This paper presents results an investigation conducted during completion of a pipe cutting task using a teleoperator at ORNL. Results show support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to expenditure of attentional resources, and some support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to flow. The discussion examines the results from an attentional resources perspective on teleoperation.

  15. Measurement of Workload: Physics, Psychophysics, and Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reviews the results of two experiments in which workload analysis was conducted based upon performance measures, brain evoked potentials and magnitude estimations of subjective load. The three types of measures were jointly applied to the description of the behavior of subjects in a wide battery of experimental tasks. Data analysis shows both instances of association and dissociation between types of measures. A general conceptual framework and methodological guidelines are proposed to account for these findings.

  16. 1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in MS: Gait and Balance Measures in the Evaluation of People with MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait and balance measures have particular potential as outcome measures in Multiple Sclerosis (MS because, of the many hallmarks of MS disability, gait and balance dysfunction are present throughout the course of the disease, impact many aspects of a person’s life, and progress over time. To highlight the importance and relevance of gait and balance measures in MS, explore novel measurements of gait and balance in MS, and discuss how gait, balance, and fall measures can best be used and developed in clinical and research settings, the 1st International Symposium on Gait and Balance in Multiple Sclerosis was held in Portland, Oregon, USA on October 1, 2011. This meeting brought together nearly 100 neurologists, physiatrists, physical therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, engineers, and others to discuss the current status and recent advances in the measurement of gait and balance in MS. Presentations focused on clinician-administered, self-administered, and instrumented measures of gait, balance, and falls in MS.

  17. Experimental validation of navigation workload metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wachtel, J.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1994-04-01

    Advanced digital computer display interfaces in the control room may increase operator workload. Workstation monitors provide limited display area, and information is represented in large-scale display networks. Display navigation may generate disorienting effects, require additional resources for window management, and increase memory and data integration requirements. Six ORNL employees participated in an experiment to validate proposed metrics of navigation workload in the advanced control room. The task environment was a display network consisting of 25 windows resembling a simplified Safety Parameter Display System for Pressurized Water Reactors. A repeated measures design with 3 within subjects factors was employed. The factors were task difficulty, navigation distance level, and a blocking factor. Participants were asked to monitor a single parameter or two parameters. Fourteen candidate metrics were tested. Analysis of variance of the modified task load index (MTLX) and rating subscales demonstrated substantial support for the claim that navigation of large-scale display networks can impose additional mental load. Primary and secondary task performance measures exhibited ceiling effects. Memory probes for these tasks were inadequate because they were recognition-based and coarse. Eye gaze measures were not validated, indicating a need for more refined data reduction algorithms. Strong positive correlations were found between MTLX and both navigation duration and standard deviation of pupil diameter. Further study and increased statistical power are required to validate objective navigation workload metrics.

  18. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental...... is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. We find a higher perceived time ratio for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective...... the perceived time ratio and mental workload is reversed for task success compared to time constraints. We discuss implications for the use of perceived time as a measure of mental workload....

  19. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies.

  20. The use of the balanced scorecard in evaluating the results of the innovations implemented in metallurgical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Blacha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of innovations is the main factor of development of companies’ competitiveness and effectiveness. Innovations result in creation of a value for both the client and the company. The article presents a method of evaluating the innovations implemented in industry which emphasises, on the background of qualitative changes, the measurable (quantitative effects of various types of innovations. For the purpose of measuring the results of implemented innovations the Balanced Scorecard was used. The method developed by the authors of the paper was used to evaluate results of the innovations implemented in metallurgical companies.

  1. [Evaluation of school menu food balance in the Autonomous Community of Valencia (Spain) by means of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Arroyo-Bañuls, Ilona; Quiles-Izquierdo, Joan; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2017-03-20

    To evaluate school menu food balance in the Autonomous Community of Valencia (Spain) by means of a questionnaire. Observational cross-section study. For convenience it shows of 255 monthly school menus (20 days each). size of the city the school is in, province, location (coast vs. inland), ownership (public vs. private), design of the menu (company vs. school) and month (May vs. October). The 17-item EQ-MEs questionnaire was used as a tool to measure balance. Differences in the balance of the menus and the average of monthly servings were compared, taking into account the different levels of the independent variables. The average of the balance index obtained was 9.19 points (range: 0-17). Approximately 78.4% of menus were designed by companies. Approximately 60.4% were classified as suitable and 0.8% as balanced. The menus designed by companies obtained a higher score (9.49) than those designed by schools (8.13). Menus in Castellón (10.35) achieved a higher score than those in Alicante (9.43) and Valencia (8.86). Only 3.1% of the studied menus met serving recommendations in terms of meat, 37.6% met pulses serving recommendations, 49.4% met fish serving recommendations and 37% met fruit serving recommendations. With the EQ-MEs questionnaire, most of the menus offered in the Autonomous Community of Valencia are suitable for children. To improve them, they should reduce fried potato, rice, pasta, meat, fried food and dairy product servings, while increasing pulses, fish, oily fish and fruit servings. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Scaling Deep Learning Workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-07-03

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, CaffeNet, AlexNet and GoogleNet topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor optimized for each architecture. GPUs provide the highest overall raw performance. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and KNL can be competitive when considering performance/watt. Furthermore, NVLink is critical to GPU scaling.

  3. The sensitivity of Galvanic Skin Response for assessing mental workload in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyanti, Ari; Muslim, Khoirul; Sutalaksana, Iftikar Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Objective measures have been shown to be equally sensitive in different cultures. However, these measures need special devices that are relatively expensive and need expertise to analyze the result. In Indonesia, there is a need for a sensitive and affordable mental workload measure. To evaluate the sensitivity of Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) in assessing mental workload in Indonesia. A total of 72 Indonesian students with normal visual capability. Participants were asked to work on visual memory search task with a secondary task of counting with three different levels of difficulty. GSR, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and the NASA-TLX were administered prior to, during, and after the tasks. GSR measure was compared to NASA-TLX and HRV measures. Like the HRV, GSR showed to be sensitive in distinguishing rest and task condition significantly but not sensitive in distinguishing different levels of mental workload. In contrast, both the NASA-TLX and performance measure were sensitive in differentiating different levels of mental workload. GSR has potential as a simple, cost-effective tool for measuring mental workload in Indonesia.

  4. Scaling deep learning workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-08-24

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD, and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating large DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path or Cray Aries. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet50 topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor-optimized for each architecture. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and the KNL can be competitive in performance/watt. We find that NVLink facilitates scaling efficiency on GPUs. However, its importance is heavily dependent on neural network architecture. Furthermore, for weak-scaling --- sometimes encouraged by restricted GPU memory --- NVLink is less important.

  5. Implementation and evaluation of a monthly water balance model over the US on an 800 m grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, S. W.; Alder, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    We simulate the 1950-2010 water balance for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) with a monthly water balance model (MWBM) using the 800 m Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data set as model input. We employed observed snow and streamflow data sets to guide modification of the snow and potential evapotranspiration components in the default model and to evaluate model performance. Based on various metrics and sensitivity tests, the modified model yields reasonably good simulations of seasonal snowpack in the West (range of bias of ±50 mm at 68% of 713 SNOTEL sites), the gradients and magnitudes of actual evapotranspiration, and runoff (median correlation of 0.83 and median Nash-Sutcliff efficiency of 0.6 between simulated and observed annual time series at 1427 USGS gage sites). The model generally performs well along the Pacific Coast, the high elevations of the Basin and Range and over the Midwest and East, but not as well over the dry areas of the Southwest and upper Plains regions due, in part, to the apportioning of direct versus delayed runoff. Sensitivity testing and application of the MWBM to simulate the future water balance at four National Parks when driven by 30 climate models from the Climate Model Intercomparison Program Phase 5 (CMIP5) demonstrate that the model is useful for evaluating first-order, climate driven hydrologic change on monthly and annual time scales.

  6. Implementation and evaluation of a monthly water balance model over the US on an 800 m grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.

    2016-01-01

    We simulate the 1950–2010 water balance for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) with a monthly water balance model (MWBM) using the 800 m Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data set as model input. We employed observed snow and streamflow data sets to guide modification of the snow and potential evapotranspiration components in the default model and to evaluate model performance. Based on various metrics and sensitivity tests, the modified model yields reasonably good simulations of seasonal snowpack in the West (range of bias of ±50 mm at 68% of 713 SNOTEL sites), the gradients and magnitudes of actual evapotranspiration, and runoff (median correlation of 0.83 and median Nash-Sutcliff efficiency of 0.6 between simulated and observed annual time series at 1427 USGS gage sites). The model generally performs well along the Pacific Coast, the high elevations of the Basin and Range and over the Midwest and East, but not as well over the dry areas of the Southwest and upper Plains regions due, in part, to the apportioning of direct versus delayed runoff. Sensitivity testing and application of the MWBM to simulate the future water balance at four National Parks when driven by 30 climate models from the Climate Model Intercomparison Program Phase 5 (CMIP5) demonstrate that the model is useful for evaluating first-order, climate driven hydrologic change on monthly and annual time scales.

  7. Vestibular Balance Deficits Following Head Injury: Recommendations Concerning Evaluation and Rehabilitation in the Military Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    DVA training. - Gaze plus movement. - Head shake. - Balance training (Romberg, weight shift, one-leg stand, sit-to-stand). - Gait training...Guinand, N., Boselie, F., Loo, C., Janssen, M., Guyot, J., et al. 2010. Dynamic Visual Acuity ( DVA ) and oscillopsia severity in patients with...lack of sensitivity, validity, or reliability. The team selected two tests: the Dynamic Visual Acuity ( DVA ) test and a modification of the Clinical

  8. Validating the Berg Balance Scale for patients with Parkinson's disease: a key to rehabilitation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutubuddin, Abu A; Pegg, Phillip O; Cifu, David X; Brown, Rashelle; McNamee, Shane; Carne, William

    2005-04-01

    To assess the criterion-related validity of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Prospective, correlational analysis between the BBS and accepted measures of PD motor and functional impairment. The federally funded PD research center, an interdisciplinary center of excellence for people with PD within a Veterans Affairs medical center. Thirty-eight men (average +/- standard deviation, 71.1+/-10.5 y) with confirmed PD. Their initial diagnosis had been made on average 5.8+/-3.6 years earlier. All could stand or walk unassisted and had mild to moderate disability. Patients who could not ambulate without assistive devices were excluded. Not applicable. Correlational analyses between the BBS and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scale, Modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging (Hoehn and Yahr) Scale, and the Modified Schwab and England Capacity for Daily Living Scale (S&E ADL Scale). BBS score showed significant correlations with indicators of motor functioning, stage of disease, and daily living capacity. BBS score was inversely associated with the UPDRS motor score (-.58, P Hoehn and Yahr Scale staging (-.45, P Scale rating (.55, P <.005). In all 3 correlations, lower scores on the BBS (indicating greater balance deficits) correlated with higher UPDRS scores (indicating greater motoric or functional impairment). Results support the criterion-related validity of the BBS. Its utility in other balance conditions of older adults has been established. Rehabilitation interventions have been shown to improve the balance deficits associated with PD. Early referral and periodic reassessment is vital to achieving and maintaining improvements. Our research results agree with other published research in suggesting that the BBS may be used as a screening tool and ongoing assessment tool for patients with PD.

  9. Trade Balances of the Asian Countries under Crisis: Forecast and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the financial crisis, we need to do some reform, such as to change the governmental and non-governmental structure, make sure the policy to be transparent, and remove restrictions, etc. All these measures can restore the confidence of foreign investors towards Korea. But to make balance of the trade surplus and keep foreign exchange reserve at a reasonable level, ensure foreign exchange and the security of financial department is one of the most urgent topics. Since the deep relationship of economy among countries in North-East Asia, financial crisis is not only the problem in Korea. It is already expended to the whole North-East Asia. This thesis shows the idea that we can forecast surplus in the trade balance scale, enlarge the trade balance of South Korea and activate export. It also shows that instead of the increase of export, the surplus is caused by the decrease of import. At this point of view, the number of surplus is not true. If the investment keeps decreasing like this, the foundation of Korean Economy will collapse.

  10. An Objective Balance Error Scoring System for Sideline Concussion Evaluation Using Duplex Kinect Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqi Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussion is a common sports injury that might induce potential long-term consequences without early diagnosis and intervention in the field. However, there are few options of such sensor systems available. The aim of the study is to propose and validate an automated concussion administration and scoring approach, which is objective, affordable and capable of detecting all balance errors required by the balance error scoring system (BESS protocol in the field condition. Our approach is first to capture human body skeleton positions using two Microsoft Kinect sensors in the proposed configuration and merge the data by a custom-made algorithm to remove the self-occlusion of limbs. The standing balance errors according to BESS protocol were further measured and accessed automatically by the proposed algorithm. Simultaneously, the BESS test was filmed for scoring by an experienced rater. Two results were compared using Pearson coefficient r, obtaining an excellent consistency (r = 0.93, p < 0.05. In addition, BESS test–retest was performed after seven days and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, showing a good test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.81, p < 0.01. The proposed approach could be an alternative of objective tools to assess postural stability for sideline sports concussion diagnosis.

  11. EVALUATION OF GLACIER MELT CONTRIBUTION TO RUNOFF IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS ALPINE CATCHMENTS USING ISOTOPIC METHODS AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and intensity of river floods rise observed in the North Caucasus during last decades is considered to be driven by recent climate change. In order to predict possible future trends in extreme hydrological events in the context of climate change, it is essential to estimate the contribution of different feed sources in complicated flow-forming processes in the alpine part of the North Caucasus. A study was carried out for the Djankuat River basin, the representative for the North Caucasus system. Simultaneous measurements of electrical conductivity, isotopic and ion balance equations, and energy balance modeling of ice and snow melt were used to evaluate the contribution of different sources and processes in the Djankuat River runoff regime formation. A forecast of possible future changes in the Djankuat glacier melting regime according to the predicted climate changes was done.

  12. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer A; Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students' ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses.

  13. Analysis of the workload of bank tellers of a Brazilian public institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Simoni S; Albieri, Ana Carolina S; Bonugli, Gustavo P; Greghi, Marina F

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades there have been many changes in the banking sector organization. It has been also observed the mutual growing of musculoskeletal and mental disorders. This study investigated the workload of bank tellers at a Brazilian public institution. It was performed the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Three employees participated in this study. During the analysis process, three research instruments were applied: Inventory of Work and Risk of Illness, Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, beyond the realization of footage recordings and the self-confrontation. The results indicated the existence of an excess of workload on the evaluated workstations, mainly in relation to mental order constraints, that overlaps the physical aspects. Thereby it was found that the employees tend to adopt strategies trying to reduce the impacts of the excess of workload, in order to regulate it.

  14. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839

  15. Analysis and modeling of social influence in high performance computing workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies the level of social influence across HPC users. We show the existence of a social graph that is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. This pattern also follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. Given its potential impact on HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, we propose a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups. Extensive evaluation shows that our online algorithm can (1) quickly identify the social relationships by using a small portion of incoming jobs and (2) can efficiently track group evolution over time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  16. PanDA Beyond ATLAS: Workload Management for Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The PanDA Production ANd Distributed Analysis system has been developed by ATLAS to meet the experiment's requirements for a data-driven workload management system for production and distributed analysis processing capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. After 7 years of impressively successful PanDA operation in ATLAS there are also other experiments which can benefit from PanDA in the Big Data challenge, with several at various stages of evaluation and adoption. The new project "Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data" is extending PanDA to meet the needs of other data intensive scientific applications in HEP, astro-particle and astrophysics communities, bio-informatics and other fields as a general solution to large scale workload management. PanDA can utilize dedicated or opportunistic computing resources such as grids, clouds, and High Performance Computing facilities, and is being extended to leverage next generation intelligent networks in automated workflow mana...

  17. The use of Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in identifying the workload of nursing: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Carla Weidle Marques; Bonfim, Daiana; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Laus, Ana Maria

    2014-10-01

    To synthesize evidence related to the use of the Nursing Interventions Classification in order to identify nursing workload. An integrative literature review was conducted in June 2013. The search strategy yielded a total of 111 references, 18 of which were retrieved, read, and evaluated for relevance. A set of 10 articles met the selection criteria. A review of papers regarding the Nursing Interventions Classification and workload revealed the following themes: the identification of nursing interventions in areas of expertise and estimated times for their completion, the distribution of interventions in direct and indirect care, and the prevalence of the type of care in a given healthcare setting. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  18. Reasons for adopting technological innovations reducing physical workload in bricklaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A M; Vink, P; de Kroon, J C A

    2003-09-15

    In this paper the adoption of technological innovations to improve the work of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants is evaluated. Two studies were performed among 323 subjects to determine the adoption of the working methods, the perceived workload, experiences with the working methods, and the reasons for adopting the working methods. Furthermore, a comparison of the results of the studies was made with those of two similar studies in the literature. The results show that more than half of the sector adopted the innovations. The perceived workload was reduced. The employees and employers are satisfied with the working methods and important reasons for adoption were cost/benefit advantages, improvement of work and health, and increase in productivity. Problems preventing the adoption were the use of the working methods at specific sites, for instance in renovation work. The adoption of the new working methods could perhaps have been higher or faster if more attention had been paid to the active participation of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants during the development of the new working methods and to the use of modern media techniques, such as the Internet and CD/DVD.

  19. Effects of Automation on Aircrew Workload and Situation Awareness in Tactical Airlift Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    with Automation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics--Part A: Systems and Humans , 30 (3), 286-297. Pedersen, K. (2015, February 7...Discrete-Event Simulation for Cognitive Workload Modeling and System Evaluation. IIE Annual Conference Proceedings (pp. 2485-2494). Institute of

  20. Fluid and electrolyte balance after major thoracic surgery by bioimpedance and endocrine evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagini, Lucio; Capozzi, Rosanna; Tassi, Valentina; Savignani, Claudia; Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Puma, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    Weight gain with oedema development is a complication of major surgical procedures with an incidence as high as 40%. Fluid retention is not always clinically evident and it is reported despite fluid-restriction regime. The causes are several and not totally clear. We performed a prospective study to assess the amount of fluid accumulation and redistribution observed after major thoracic surgery. In 49 patients submitted to lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection for lung cancer, we measured preoperatively and on the postoperative days 1, 2, 4 and 7, body weight, fluid balance, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA)-derived parameters resistance (R) and reactance (X(c)). The postoperative course was characterised by significant changes. Mean increase in body weight was 2.7 kg ((1.9-3.4); pfluid balance (-244 ml (-520 to -50)), whereas, on postoperative day 2, we observed a positive and significant change (+968 ml (646-1456), pbody R and X(c) fell on the first day (pfluid balance. BNP increased on day 1, immediately after surgery, and remained significantly above basal values for the entire observation period (pfluid retention over the course of the study. BIA was an easy, reproducible and non-invasive method for the estimation and early detection of fluid retention. Increase in BNP may be related to the systemic reaction to stress and to the decreased pulmonary vascular bed. We found no correlation between fluid retention and length of anaesthesia, sex, age, blood loss and body mass index. The clinical and prognostic implication of weight gain may be relevant to patient's health. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. THE USE OF BALANCED SCORECARD TO EVALUATE THE SKILLS OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM WORKERS OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Богданівна МОЛОЧНИК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the efficient use of all intellectual abilities of communication system workers, prompting them to effective implementation of their activities. The necessity of introducing the company's management of adequate methods of activation is proven. The system of balanced scorecard assessment of overt and covert skills is created. Choosing of parameters which determine the effectiveness of activation communication system staff, which depends mainly on the level of the successful operation of its basic elements - leadership, employees, agents, ensuring the communication process is grounded.

  2. Workload-Aware Indexing of Continuously Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    indexing and achieves workload-awareness by controlling the underlying index’s filtering quality. QU-Trade safely drops index updates, increasing the overlap in the index when the workload is update-intensive, and it restores the filtering capabilities of the index when the workload becomes query-intensive......The increased deployment of sensors and data communication networks yields data management workloads with update loads that are intense, skewed, and highly bursty. Query loads resulting from location-based services are expected to exhibit similar characteristics. In such environments, index...... structures can easily become performance bottlenecks. We address the need for indexing that is adaptive to the workload characteristics, called workload-aware, in order to cover the space in between maintaining an accurate index, and having no index at all. Our proposal, QU-Trade, extends R-tree type...

  3. Measurement of body composition as a surrogate evaluation of energy balance in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Carlo Maria; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-03-26

    In clinical practice obesity is primarily diagnosed through the body mass index. In order to characterize patients affected by obesity the use of traditional anthropometric measures appears misleading. Beyond the body mass index, there are overwhelming evidences towards the relevance of a more detailed description of the individual phenotype by characterizing the main body components as free-fat mass, muscle mass, and fat mass. Among the numerous techniques actually available, bioelectrical impedance analysis seems to be the most suitable in a clinical setting because it is simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and highly reproducible. To date, there is no consensus concerning the use of one preferred equation for the resting energy expenditure in overweight and/or obese population. Energy restriction alone is an effective strategy to achieve an early and significant weight loss, however it results in a reduction of both fat and lean mass therefore promoting or aggravating an unfavourable body composition (as sarcobesity) in terms of mortality and comorbidities. Therefore the implementation of daily levels of physical activity should be simultaneously promoted. The major role of muscle mass in the energy balance has been recently established by the rising prevalence of the combination of two condition as sarcopenia and obesity. Physical exercise stimulates energy expenditure, thereby directly improving energy balance, and also promotes adaptations such as fiber type, mitochondrial biogenesis, improvement of insulin resistance, and release of myokines, which may influence different tissues, including muscle.

  4. Probe-Independent EEG Assessment of Mental Workload in Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 437 Probe-Independent EEG Assessment of Mental Workload in Pilots by Midshipman 1/C Michael K...INDEPENDENT EEG ASSESSMENT OF MENTAL WORKLOAD IN PILOTS by Midshipman 1/C Michael K. Johnson United States Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Probe-Independent EEG Assessment of Mental Workload in Pilots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  5. Filter bank common spatial patterns in mental workload estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Arvaneh, M.; Umilta, A.; Robertson, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    EEG-based workload estimation technology provides a real time means of assessing mental workload. Such technology can effectively enhance the performance of the human-machine interaction and the learning process. When designing workload estimation algorithms, a crucial signal processing component is the feature extraction step. Despite several studies on this field, the spatial properties of the EEG signals were mostly neglected. Since EEG inherently has a poor spacial resolution, features ex...

  6. Ontario protocol assessment level: clinical trial complexity rating tool for workload planning in oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuck, Bobbi; Bettello, Phyllis; Berghout, Koralee; Hanna, Tracie; Kowaleski, Brenda; Phippard, Lynda; Au, Diana; Friel, Kay

    2011-03-01

    The Ontario Institute for Cancer Research supported the creation of a working group with the objective of developing a standard rating scale to evaluate clinical trial complexity and applying the scale to facilitate workload measurement for Ontario cancer research sites. The lack of a mechanism to measure the workload involved in a clinical trials protocol was identified and confirmed by a literature review. To collect information on how Ontario sites were assessing workload, a survey was distributed and evaluated. As a result, the working group developed the Ontario Protocol Assessment Level (OPAL), a protocol complexity rating scale designed to capture the workload involved in a clinical trial. After a training workshop on the application, OPAL was evaluated by 17 Ontario cancer centers to demonstrate its reliability and consistency during a 3-month pilot study. Twenty-seven protocols were reviewed by multiple sites, and the majority of the sites reported OPAL score differences between 0 and 1.5. OPAL provides clinical trials departments with an objective method of quantifying clinical trials activity on the basis of study protocol complexity. With consistent application of OPAL, sites can manage staffing objectively. The working group is continuing to monitor the application of OPAL in Ontario.

  7. Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

  8. Mass balance analyses of nutrients on California dairies to evaluate data quality for regulatory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christine M F; Price, Patricia L; Meyer, Deanne

    2017-02-01

    Effective regulations may help reduce nitrate contamination of groundwater from agriculture. Dairy farmers in California must maintain a ratio below 1.4 of total nitrogen (N) applied to total N-removed (N-Ratio) on cropland receiving manure application. In annual reports to the regulatory agency, farmers detail nutrients applied to cropland, removed in harvests, and exported off farm. Data were extracted from all available annual reports for 62 dairies from 2011, 2012, and 2013. Excretions of N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were calculated using reported herd demographics and standard excretion equations from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Calculated nutrient excretion values were compared to the reported values of manure nutrients applied to cropland and exported off farm. Reported N-Ratios were compared to mass balance simulations exploring variable crop yields and alfalfa management. In the nutrient excretion balance, the distribution of the percent of N and P recovered in manures applied or exported peaked at 24% (median=31%) and 26% (median=53%) of excreted, respectively. The distribution of recovered K was fairly uniform from 0% to 300% (median=146%) of excreted K. In N-ratio simulations, 62% and 66% of all reported N-ratios were lower than their respective simulated N-ratio, assuming alfalfa crops received no N fertilization and minimal fertilization (26% of N-removed in harvest) respectively. When simulated crop yields were normally (sd=0.25) or Student's t distributed (df=154) around expected crop yields, 28% and 57% of all reported ratios fell within the 95% confidence interval of the simulations, respectively. Low and erratic recovery rates of excreted P and K existed. Additionally, reported N-Ratios were generally lower and more varied than necessary for farmers to maintain crop yields while complying with regulations. Greater understanding of low recovery rates is needed before data are used to assess the impact of

  9. Real-time measurement of mental workload: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur; Humphrey, Darryl; Sirevaag, Erik; Mecklinger, Axel

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of the study was to explore the utility of event-related brain potentials (ERP) as real-time measures of workload. To this end, subjects performed two different tasks both separately and together. One task required that subjects monitor a bank of constantly changing gauges and detect critical deviations. Difficulty was varied by changing the predictability of the gauges. The second task was mental arithmetic. Difficulty was varied by requiring subjects to perform operations on either two or three columns of numbers. Two conditions that could easily be distinguished on the basis of performance measures were selected for the real-time evaluation of ERPs. A bootstrapping approach was adopted in which one thousand samples of n trials (n = 1, 3, 5 ...65) were classified using several measures of P300 and Slow Wave amplitude. Classification accuracies of 85 percent were achieved with 25 trials. Results are discussed in terms of potential enhancements for real-time recording.

  10. Driving Performance and User's Evaluation of Self-Balancing Personal Mobility Vehicle with a Pedal Driving Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghee Jeong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a self-balancing personal mobility vehicle with a hybrid driving mechanism, called as Wi-PMP, and discuss its features from the perspectives of its power-assist driving performance and a rider's evaluation. The mobility vehicle consists of a wheeled inverted pendulum type mobile platform, and a hybrid driving mechanism that can use human and motor power together for driving. By performing a bump driving, a slope driving, and a outdoor driving experiment, we confirm that the proposed hybrid mechanism is valid for the integration of human and motor power, and is effective to increase the driving power and reduce electrical load on motors and batteries. We conducted several experiments to investigate the rider's evaluation on a sit-riding method compared to a stand-riding one. The questionnaire results showed that a rider felt more comfortable in the case of the sit-riding method when getting on and off, and when driving the mobility vehicle. This implies that riding-type self-balancing vehicles such as Wi-PMP have the potential to become familiar personal mobility vehicles in daily life.

  11. Towards objective evaluation of balance in the elderly: validity and reliability of a measurement instrument applied to the Tinetti test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Lorenzo; Tinelli, Carmine; Buizza, Angelo; Lombardi, Remo; Gandolfi, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was the validation of an instrument for evaluating balance, applied to the Tinetti test. Trunk inclination was measured by inclinometers during the Tinetti test in 163 healthy participants scoring 28/28 in the Tinetti scale (controls: 92 women, 71 men; age 19-85 years), and 111 residents in old people's homes, able to autonomously perform the test, but scoring less than 28/28 (test group: 78 women, 33 men; age 55-96 years). Trunk inclination was quantified by 20 parameters, whose standardized values were summed and provided an overall performance index (PTOT). PTOT reliability was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, and its validity by item scale correlation, discriminant validity and concurrent validity. Influence of age and sex was assessed by a logistic regression model. Repeatable and consistent measurements were obtained (Cronbach's alpha=0.88). Parameter distribution was significantly different in controls and patients (PTinetti scale score, its partial, balance-related score and Barthel's Index, but not with the Mini Mental State score. PTOT correlated with age and level of performance but not with sex; correlation with age did not prevent the possibility of discriminating between different levels of performance and between normal and abnormal performance. The instrument provided objective discrimination between different performance levels, in particular, between normal and altered performance.

  12. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-04-06

    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  13. Validity, reliability and minimal detectable change of the balance evaluation systems test (BESTest), mini-BESTest and brief-BESTest in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Cristina; Flores, Inês; Martins, Filipa; Castro, Conceição; McPhee, Charlotte C; Shepherd, Ellen; Demain, Sara; Figueiredo, Daniela; Marques, Alda

    2017-09-08

    This study determined the validity, test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of the balance evaluation systems test (BESTest), mini-balance evaluation systems test (Mini-BESTest) and brief-balance evaluation systems test (Brief-BESTest) in patients with end-stage renal disease. A cross-sectional study with 74 patients with end-stage renal disease (male 66.2%; 63.9 ± 15.1 years old) was conducted. Participants were asked to report the number of falls during the previous 12 months and to complete the activity-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale. The BESTest was administered, and the Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest scores were computed based on the BESTest performance. Validity was assessed by correlating balance tests with each other and with the ABC scale. Test-retest relative reliability and agreement were explored with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) equation (2,1) and the Bland and Altman method. Minimal detectable changes at the 95% confidence level were established. Balance test scores were significantly correlated with each other (spearman's correlation = 0.89-0.92) and with the ABC scale (spearman's correlation = 0.49-0.59). Balance tests presented high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.84-0.94), with no evidence of bias. Minimal detectable change values were 10.8 (expressed as a percentage 13.5%), 5.3 (23.7%) and 5.6 (34%) points for the BESTest, Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest, respectively. All tests are valid and reliable to assess balance in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nevertheless, based on the minimal detectable changes found, BESTest and Mini-BESTest may be the most recommended tests for this specific population. Implications for Rehabilitation Balance evaluation systems test (BESTest), mini-balance evaluation systems test (Mini-BESTest) and brief-balance evaluation systems test (Brief-BESTest) are reliable and valid in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). The minimal detectable

  14. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may also ... injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  15. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  16. Does performance evaluation help public managers? A Balanced Scorecard approach in urban waste services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bernardo; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-12-01

    The urban waste market has evolved significantly in the past decades, which among other changes, has led to the creation of new utilities and new business models. However, very few things have changed for the users. Urban waste collection remains mainly under the responsibility of local authorities and the charges paid by the users in most countries are very low compared to the provision costs. This situation forces the injection of public money into the system, encouraging the 'quiet-life' within the utilities and, therefore, inefficiency. The present study intends to analyze the potential for the application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSc) methodology into the waste utilities. After a comprehensive revision of the urban waste sector in Portugal, the methodology of BSc and its application in local public services is described and discussed. Focusing on implementation rather than on strategy, a set of performance indicators is proposed to be utilized in the different management models of waste utilities in Portugal: the municipalities, semi-autonomous utilities, municipal companies and mixed companies. This implementation is then exemplified through four case studies, one for each type of utility. This paper provides a flexible framework proposal to be applied to waste utilities operating both in Portugal and abroad. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nursing workload as a risk factor for healthcare associated infections in ICU: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata M Daud-Gallotti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nurse understaffing is frequently hypothesized as a potential risk factor for healthcare-associated infections (HAI. This study aimed to evaluate the role of nursing workload in the occurrence of HAI, using Nursing Activities Score (NAS. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled all patients admitted to 3 Medical ICUs and one step-down unit during 3 months (2009. Patients were followed-up until HAI, discharge or death. Information was obtained from direct daily observation of medical and nursing rounds, chart review and monitoring of laboratory system. Nursing workload was determined using NAS. Non-compliance to the nurses' patient care plans (NPC was identified. Demographic data, clinical severity, invasive procedures, hospital interventions, and the occurrence of other adverse events were also recorded. Patients who developed HAI were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: 195 patients were included and 43 (22% developed HAI: 16 pneumonia, 12 urinary-tract, 8 bloodstream, 2 surgical site, 2 other respiratory infections and 3 other. Average NAS and average proportion of non compliance with NPC were significantly higher in HAI patients. They were also more likely to suffer other adverse events. Only excessive nursing workload (OR: 11.41; p: 0.019 and severity of patient's clinical condition (OR: 1.13; p: 0.015 remained as risk factors to HAI. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive nursing workload was the main risk factor for HAI, when evaluated together with other invasive devices except mechanical ventilation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate prospectively the nursing workload as a potential risk factor for HAI, using NAS.

  18. Predicting screening sensitivity from workload in gynecologic cytology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Elsheikh, Tarik M

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to correlate workload or epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) adjusted workload with screening sensitivity. The results show that for manual screening of conventional smears or SurePath slides, screening sensitivity begins to fall with workloads as low as 30 slides/day. For review of slides with the ThinPrep Imaging System, screening sensitivity appears to be better correlated with ECA adjusted workload (workload × ECA rate) than workload alone. Screening sensitivity with the ThinPrep imager appears to fall at ECA adjusted workloads of 7 slides/day at a threshold of ASCUS and above and LSIL, and slightly lower for HSIL. This corresponds to 70 slides/day at an ECA rate of 10%. The variance in these models is likely high reflecting a wide range of individual cytotechnologist performance. Strategies to most effectively incorporate this data in the management of workload in the laboratory are reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Effects of motorway lighting on workload and driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Hof, A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management needs knowledge in the area of workload in car driving. This paper describes a study in which the effects of traffic volume, road lighting, and a cognitively loading secondary task on driving behaviour and workload were investigated.

  20. Effects of motorway lighting on workload and driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Veltman, J.A.; Hof, A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management needs knowledge in the area of workload in car driving. This paper describes a study in which the effects of traffic volume, road lighting, and a cognitively loading secondary task on driving behaviour and workload were investigated.

  1. Measuring the nursing workload per shift in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debergh, Dieter P.; Myny, Dries; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Van Maele, Georges; Miranda, Dinis Reis; Colardyn, Francis

    In the intensive care unit (ICU) different strategies and workload measurement tools exist to indicate the number of nurses needed. The gathered information is always focused on manpower needed per 24 h. However, a day consists of several shifts, which may be unequal in nursing workload. The aim of

  2. The influence of shop characteristics on workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, B.J.; Land, M.J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Several order release methods have been developed for workload control in job shop production. The release methods of the traditional workload control concerts differ in how they deal with the flow of work to each station. Previous research has pointed at strengths and weaknesses of each method.

  3. Remuneration, workload, and allocation of time in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.J. van den; Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zee, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Background: General Practitioners (GPs) can cope with workload by, among others, spending more hours in patient care or by spending less time per patient. The way GPs are paid might affect the way they cope with workload. From an economical point of view, capitation payment is an incentive to

  4. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; Ribbink, A.; Heneweer, H.; Moolenaar, H.; Wittink, H.

    2009-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and

  5. Mental Workload Measurement in Operational Aircraft Systems: Two Promising Approaches,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental workload (MWL) is becoming a useful construct for the design of complex man-machine systems because it provides a framework to include many...involves very little action but high degrees of mental activity. Although we have employed task-analytic workload measures for many years

  6. The theoretical and experimental evaluation of the heat balance in perfused tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crezee, J.; Mooibroek, J.; Lagendijk, J. J.; van Leeuwen, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate treatment planning is necessary for the successful application of hyperthermia in the clinic. The validity of four different bioheat models or combinations of models is evaluated: the conventional bioheat transfer equation, the limited effective conductivity model, a mixed heat

  7. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders' energy balance-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.

  8. Multidimensional evaluation of performance with experimental application of balanced scorecard: a two year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli Paola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's dynamic health-care system, organizations such as hospitals are required to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and deliver an integrated care that means to work effectively, be innovative and organize efficiently. Achieved goals and levels of quality can be successfully measured by a multidimensional approach like Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The aim of the study was to verify the opportunity to introduce BSC framework to measure performance in St. Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, applying it to the Clinical Laboratory Operative Unit in order to compare over time performance results and achievements of assigned targets. Methods In the first experience with BSC we distinguished four perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, identified Key Performance Areas and Key Performance Indicators, set standards and weights for each objective, collected data for all indicators, recognized cause-and-effect relationships in a strategic map. One year later we proceeded with the next data collection and analysed the preservation of framework aptitude to measure Operative Unit performance. In addition, we verified the ability to underline links between strategic actions belonging to different perspectives in producing outcomes changes. Results The BSC was found to be effective for underlining existing problems and identifying opportunities for improvements. The BSC also revealed the specific perspective contribution to overall performance enhancement. After time results comparison was possible depending on the selection of feasible and appropriate key performance indicators, which was occasionally limited by data collection problems. Conclusions The first use of BSC to compare performance at Operative Unit level, in course of time, suggested this framework can be successfully adopted for results measuring and revealing effective health factors, allowing health-care quality improvements.

  9. Multidimensional evaluation of performance with experimental application of balanced scorecard: a two year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Silvia; Verzola, Adriano; Carandina, Gianni; Salani, Manuela; Antonioli, Paola; Gregorio, Pasquale

    2011-05-17

    In today's dynamic health-care system, organizations such as hospitals are required to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and deliver an integrated care that means to work effectively, be innovative and organize efficiently. Achieved goals and levels of quality can be successfully measured by a multidimensional approach like Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The aim of the study was to verify the opportunity to introduce BSC framework to measure performance in St. Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, applying it to the Clinical Laboratory Operative Unit in order to compare over time performance results and achievements of assigned targets. In the first experience with BSC we distinguished four perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, identified Key Performance Areas and Key Performance Indicators, set standards and weights for each objective, collected data for all indicators, recognized cause-and-effect relationships in a strategic map. One year later we proceeded with the next data collection and analysed the preservation of framework aptitude to measure Operative Unit performance. In addition, we verified the ability to underline links between strategic actions belonging to different perspectives in producing outcomes changes. The BSC was found to be effective for underlining existing problems and identifying opportunities for improvements. The BSC also revealed the specific perspective contribution to overall performance enhancement. After time results comparison was possible depending on the selection of feasible and appropriate key performance indicators, which was occasionally limited by data collection problems. The first use of BSC to compare performance at Operative Unit level, in course of time, suggested this framework can be successfully adopted for results measuring and revealing effective health factors, allowing health-care quality improvements.

  10. Evaluating the potential of improving residential water balance at building scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Keesman, Karel J; Mels, Adriaan R; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-12-15

    Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency in water supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and location-bound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able to model yearly water balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence of water using appliances were defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling, and rainwater harvesting (multi-sourcing). Recycling and multi-sourcing cater for toilet flushing and laundry machine. Results showed that water saving devices may reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGW can supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2) which represents 36% of the conventional demand or up to 20% of the minimized demand. Rainwater harvesting may supply approximately 80% of the minimized demand in case of the apartment flat and 60% in case of the free standing house. To harvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and available rainfall; and ii) the potential to harvest water as determined by the temporal pattern in water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of optimization methods for solving the receptor model for chemical mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance (CMB model has been extensively used in order to determine source contribution for particulate matters (size diameters less than 10 μm and 2.5 μm in the air quality analysis. A comparison of the source contribution estimated from the three CMB models (CMB 8.2, CMB-fmincon and CMB-GA have been carried out through optimization techniques such as ‘fmincon’ (CMB-fmincon and genetic algorithm (CMB-GA using MATLAB. The proposed approach has been validated using San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study (SJVAQS California Fresno and Bakersfield PM10 and PM2.5 followed with Oregon PM10 data. The source contribution estimated from CMB-GA was better in source interpretation in comparison with CMB8.2 and CMB-fmincon. The performance accuracy of three CMB approaches were validated using R-square, reduced chi-square and percentage mass tests. The R-square (0.90, 0.67 and 0.81, 0.83, Chi-square (0.36, 0.66 and 0.65, 0.43 and percentage mass (67.36 %, 55.03 % and 94.24 %, 74.85 % of CMB-GA showed high correlation for PM10, PM2.5 Fresno and Bakersfield data respectively. To make a complete decision, the proposed methodology has been bench marked with Portland, Oregon PM10 data with best fit with R2 (0.99, Chi-square (1.6 and percentage mass (94.4 % from CMB-GA. Therefore, the study revealed that CMB with genetic algorithm optimization method holds better stability in determining the source contributions.

  12. Evaluating water conservation and reuse policies using a dynamic water balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  13. Strategic workload management and decision biases in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Mireille; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty pilots flew three simulated landing approaches under conditions of low, medium, and high workload. Workload conditions were created by varying time pressure and external communications requirements. Our interest was in how the pilots strategically managed or adapted to the increasing workload. We independently assessed the pilot's ranking of the priority of different discrete tasks during the approach and landing. Pilots were found to sacrifice some aspects of primary flight control as workload increased. For discrete tasks, increasing workload increased the amount of time in performing the high priority tasks, decreased the time in performing those of lowest priority, and did not affect duration of performance episodes or optimality of scheduling of tasks of any priority level. Individual differences analysis revealed that high-performing subjects scheduled discrete tasks earlier in the flight and shifted more often between different activities.

  14. Alterations of the sympathovagal balance evaluated by heart rate variability in a rare case of adult Still's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Luigi; Delfino, Massimo; Fiorentini, Alessandra; Martuscelli, Monica; Tubani, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    We present a rare case of adult Still's disease with cardiac involvement (myocarditis and coronary arteritis). The autonomic nervous system function was evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis performed by 24-hour electrocardiographic recording during the acute phase of the disease and the remission (after 1 month and 1 year). The HRV parameters were studied in the time (standard deviation of all NN intervals-total power - SDNN, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of the differences between adjacent NN - RMS-SD and HRV index) and frequency domains (low frequency, high frequency, and low frequency/high frequency). The results of the analysis of the HRV highlight that in the acute phase of the disease with cardiac involvement the autonomic nervous system is globally altered, with modifications of the sympathovagal balance, due to impairment of the parasympathetic component. This trend tends to persist in the short period (1 month), but seems to resolve completely within 1 year. An altered sympathovagal balance should be considered as a possible marker of vasculitis-related ischemia.

  15. Evaluation of Surface Energy Balance models for mapping evapotranspiration using very high resolution airborne remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, George

    Agriculture is the largest (90%) consumer of all fresh water in the world. The consumptive use of water by vegetation represented by the process evapotranspiration (ET) has a vital role in the dynamics of water, carbon and energy fluxes of the biosphere. Consequently, mapping ET is essential for making water a sustainable resource and also for monitoring ecosystem response to water stress and changing climate. Over the past three decades, numerous thermal remote sensing based ET mapping algorithms were developed and these have brought a significant theoretical and technical advancement in the spatial modeling of ET. Though these algorithms provided a robust, economical, and efficient tool for ET estimations at field and regional scales, yet the uncertainties in flux estimations were large, making evaluation a difficult task. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and improve the performance of widely used remote sensing based energy balance models, namely: the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS). Data used in this study was collected as part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional field campaign BEAREX (Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment) that was conducted during 2007 and 2008 summer cropping seasons at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland, Texas. Seventeen high resolution remote sensing images taken from multispectral sensors onboard aircraft and field measurements of the agro-meteorological variables from the campaign were used for model evaluation and improvement. Overall relative error measured in terms of mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) for instantaneous ET (mm h -1) were 22.7%, 23.2%, and 12.6% for SEBAL, METRIC, and SEBS, respectively. SEBAL and METRIC performances for irrigated fields representing higher ET

  16. Severity and workload related to adverse events in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Clarita Terra Rodrigues; Dell'Acqua, Magda Cristina Queiroz; Castro, Meire Cristina Novelli E; Spiri, Wilza Carla; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To analyze whether an increase in patient severity and nursing workload are correlated to a greater incidence of adverse events (AEs) in critical patients. A prospective single cohort study was performed on a sample of 138 patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 166 AEs, occurred, affecting 50.7% of the patients. Increased patient severity presented a direct relationship to the probability of AEs occurring. However, nursing workload did not present a statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of AEs. The results cast light on the importance of using evaluation tools by the nursing personnel in order to optimize their daily activities and focus on patient safety. Analisar se o aumento da gravidade do paciente e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem está relacionado à maior incidência de Eventos Adversos (EAs) em pacientes críticos. Estudo de coorte única, prospectivo, com amostra de 138 pacientes internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Ao todo, foram evidenciados 166 EAs, que acometeram 50,7% dos pacientes. O aumento da gravidade do paciente apresentou relação direta com a chance de ocorrência de EAs. Entretanto, a carga de trabalho de enfermagem não apresentou relação estatisticamente significativa, na ocorrência de EAs. Os resultados permitem refletir acerca da importância da equipe de enfermagem, em utilizar instrumentos de avaliação, com o objetivo de melhorar e planejar suas ações diárias, com foco na segurança do paciente.

  17. The stress and workload of virtual reality training: the effects of presence, immersion and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, S J; Salcedo, J N; Szalma, J L; Hancock, P A

    2016-08-01

    The present investigation evaluated the effects of virtual reality (VR) training on the performance, perceived workload and stress response to a live training exercise in a sample of Soldiers. We also examined the relationship between the perceptions of that same VR as measured by engagement, immersion, presence, flow, perceived utility and ease of use with the performance, workload and stress reported on the live training task. To a degree, these latter relationships were moderated by task performance, as measured by binary (Go/No-Go) ratings. Participants who reported positive VR experiences also tended to experience lower stress and lower workload when performing the live version of the task. Thus, VR training regimens may be efficacious for mitigating the stress and workload associated with criterion tasks, thereby reducing the ultimate likelihood of real-world performance failure. Practitioner Summary: VR provides opportunities for training in artificial worlds comprised of highly realistic features. Our virtual room clearing scenario facilitated the integration of Training and Readiness objectives and satisfied training doctrine obligations in a compelling engaging experience for both novice and experienced trainees.

  18. Cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue in a verbally cued pictorial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Boeh, Henry; Schimmels, Michael; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Davis, Erin; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue. They share similar cubic polynomial structures but derive from different underlying processes and contain variables that contribute to flexibility with respect to load and the ability to compensate for fatigue. Cognitive workload and fatigue both have a negative impact on performance and have been difficult to separate. Extended time on task can produce fatigue, but it can also produce a positive effect from learning or automaticity. In this two-part experiment, 129 undergraduates performed tasks involving spelling, arithmetic, memory, and visual search. The fatigue cusp for the central memory task was supported with the quantity of work performed and performance on an episodic memory task acting as the control parameters. There was a strong linear effect, however. The load manipulations for the central task were competition with another participant for rewards, incentive conditions, and time pressure. Results supported the workload cusp in which trait anxiety and the incentive manipulation acted as the control parameters. The cusps are generally better than linear models for analyzing workload and fatigue phenomena; practice effects can override fatigue. Future research should investigate multitasking and task sequencing issues, physical-cognitive task combinations, and a broader range of variables that contribute to flexibility with respect to load or compensate for fatigue. The new experimental medium and analytic strategy can be generalized to virtually any real-world cognitively demanding tasks. The particular results are generalizable to tasks involving visual search.

  19. Evaluation of hydroconverted residues. Rationalization of analytical data through hydrogen transfer balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacaud, Robert; Rouleau, Loiec [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne (France); Cebolla, Vicente L.; Membrado, Luis; Vela, Jesus [Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Calle Poeta Luciano Gracia 5, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)

    1998-08-27

    Analytical evaluation of petroleum based materials and processed feeds is a complex task relying on a compromise between tedious in-depth characterizations and fast responding tools for process control. In the present paper, a large number of hydroprocessed vacuum residues, obtained either under catalytic or thermal conditions, have been submitted to the following analytical techniques: Simulated distillation, coupled Simdist/MS, UV spectroscopy, {sup 13}C NMR, quantitative thin-layer chromatography/FID, vapor phase osmometry. A confrontation of analytical data in the light of correlations with hydrogen transfer evaluation is proposed, which accounts for observed variations in aromatic content. Conradson carbon residue largely influences the results obtained with some of the examined techniques. Apparent discrepancies are rationalized and a strategy for a comprehensive analytical evaluation of hydroprocessed feeds is proposed

  20. Health impairment of system engineers working on projects with heavy workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizui, Hayato; Ooshima, Kirika; Miki, Akiko; Matsushita, Yoshie; Hattori, Youji; Sugita, Minoru

    2011-03-01

    It has been reported that many system engineers must work hard to produce computer systems, and some of them suffer from health impairment due to their hard work. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the situation of impaired health status of system engineers in projects with high job strain. Countermeasures against health impairment of the subjects in the projects with high job strain in practices of occupational health fields are discussed. The study subjects were five superiors and their 35 subordinates working on computer system projects with high job strain at a large computer systems corporation in the Tokyo area. The control group was comprised of three superiors and their 18 subordinates in the same corporation. From July to November, 2006, the above were interviewed by six occupational health nurses, who evaluated their health and recorded their health evaluation scores. The problems involved in producing the computer systems were sometimes very difficult to solve, even if they spent long hours working on them. The present study detected a tendency showing that healthy superiors' subordinates were unhealthy and unhealthy superiors' subordinates were healthy in the overload projects with high job strain, while this was not detected in the control groups. A few employees whose health deteriorated were faced with very hard jobs in the overload projects. This means that heavy workloads were unevenly distributed in the overload projects among superiors, and their subordinates, and the health of a few members with heavy workloads deteriorated due to the heavy workload. In order to improve such a situation, it may be important not only to commit the necessary number of employees whose working ability is high to the section but also to even the workload in the overload project by informing all members of the project the health impairment of a few members due to heavy workload, from the viewpoint of the practice of occupational health

  1. Assessment of Crew Workload for the RAH-66 Comanche Force Development Experiment 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durbin, David

    2001-01-01

    ...) workload levels contribute to a need to 'battle roster' Comanche pilots. Workload data were collected via the Bedford Workload Rating Scale and a cockpit controls and displays usability questionnaire...

  2. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  3. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders’ energy balance-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Foley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average

  4. Evaluation of MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using a balanced fast-field-echo sequence: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Chinatsu; Hachiya, Junichi [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181-8611, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of MR cisternography by the balanced fast-field-echo (bFFE) sequence, comparing with that by a turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence, for cerebellopontine angle lesions on a 1.5-T imager (Gyroscan Intera, Philips, Best, The Netherlands). The bFFE MR cisternograms depicted target cranial nerves with less cerebrospinal fluid pulsation artifacts than TSE cisternograms and visualized an acoustic schwannoma in 6 of 44 patients with suspicion and a causative vessel of hemifacial spasm in all of 3 patients in a short scanning time (1 min 53 s). The bFFE sequence can be promising for MR cisternography in the diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle lesions. (orig.)

  5. The immunohistochemical demonstration of parafollicular cells and evaluation of calcium-phosphate balance in patients with thyroid hemiagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sowinski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH is characterized by the congenital absence of one thyroid lobe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the calcium-phosphate balance in TH. Twenty patients with TH and 20 controls with a bilobed thyroid were studied. Serum concentrations of total calcium, parathormon and calcitonin were measured. Additionally, the immunohistochemical expression of calcitonin, chromogranin A (chA, neuron-specific enolase (NSE and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was evaluated in surgical specimens from patients with TH and controls. There were no significant differences in biochemical parameters between TH and controls. Positive staining for calcitonin was demonstrated in 3/8 thyroid sections from three patients with TH, but only in 2/33 sections from four controls (p < 0.005. All sections from patients with TH positive for calcitonin also expressed chA, NSE and CGRP. Two sections from controls positive for calcitonin presented an additionally positive reaction for chA, and one of them also for NSE. None presented positive staining for CGRP. Of three TH sections, in one, hyperplasia of C cells of medium grade, and in another hyperplasia of C cells of high grade, could be detected. In the controls, hyperplasia of C cells of low and medium grade was observed. TH was associated with slightly enhanced C cells hyperplasia compared to controls, which might indicate compensatory proliferation. However, the calcium-phosphate balance does not seem to be significantly affected. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 299–305

  6. Field evaluation of polymer capacitive humidity sensors for Bowen ratio energy balance flux measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10) dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50), or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C), could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the profile

  7. A Lens for Evaluating Genetic Information Governance Models: Balancing Equity, Efficiency and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorve, Espen; Vassilakopoulou, Polyxeni; Aanestad, Margunn; Grünfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws from the literature on collective action and the governance of the commons to address the governance of genetic data on variants of specific genes. Specifically, the data arrangements under study relate to the BRCA genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) which are linked to breast and ovarian cancer. These data are stored in global genetic data repositories and accessed by researchers and clinicians, from both public and private institutions. The current BRCA data arrangements are fragmented and politicized as there are multiple tensions around data ownership and sharing. Three key principles are proposed for forming and evaluating data governance arrangements in the field. These principles are: equity, efficiency and sustainability.

  8. Evaluation of the urban tile in MOSES using surface energy balance observations

    OpenAIRE

    Best, M. J.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Villani, Maria Gabriella

    2006-01-01

    The UK Met Office has introduced a new scheme for its urban tile in MOSES 2.2\\ud (Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme version 2.2), which is currently implemented within\\ud the operational Met Office weather forecasting model. Here, the performance of the urban\\ud tile is evaluated in two urban areas: the historic core of downtown Mexico City and a light\\ud industrial site in Vancouver, Canada. The sites differ in terms of building structures and\\ud mean building heights. In both cases vegetation...

  9. Evaluation of Fitness and the Balance Levels of Children with a Diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Patti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a main cause of physical disability and has high economic costs for society. The purpose of this study was to assess the fitness levels and the postural and balance deficits with a specific test battery. Methods: Fifty-six subjects were enrolled in this study. Thirty-nine healthy subjects were included in the control group and seventeen in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group. All subjects were evaluated using a posturography system. The fitness level was evaluated with a battery of tests (Abalakov test, sit-up test, hand grip test, backsaver sit and reach, the toe touch test. An unpaired t-test was used to determine differences. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the tests. Results: The battery of tests demonstrated that subjects in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group have lower fitness levels compared to the control group. The juvenile idiopathic arthritis group showed low postural control with respect to the control group. Pearson analysis of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group data showed significant correlations between variables. Pearson’s results from the control group data showed a similar trend. Conclusions: The results suggest that the battery of tests used could be an appropriate tool. However, we highlight that these conclusions need to be supported by other studies with a larger population scale.

  10. Qualitative Performance Evaluation of Hospitals Using DEA, Balanced Scorecard and Servqual; A Case Study of General Hospitals of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation is an important factor in productivity context, and acts as a control system for other areas of productivity. Hospitals are large organizations incurring heavy expenses in every country. The level of efficiency in a hospital is a good criterion to understand how hospitals consume their resources. The goal of this research was to determine relative efficiency of 13 public hospitals in Yazd province by using integrated DEA, BSC and SERVQUAL model. Methods: In this study, relative efficiency of 13 public hospitals of Yazd province was calculated using data envelopment analysis technique(DEA and balanced score card and servqual. BSC was used as a tool for designing of performance evaluation indexes, while DEA was used as a tool of evaluating performance and ranking. Results: The mean relative efficiency of hospitals under study was about 0.945 in the Persian calendar year 2008-9. The efficiency levels of nine hospitals were borderline and the efficiency of four hospitals was less than 1. Hospital no.3 had the highest efficiency levels and hospital no.10 had the lowest efficiency level. Conclusion: In this stage, on the basis of references presented by the DEA model, solutions for increasing the quality performance levels of inefficient hospitals in fourth dimensions were determined and some suggestions were proposed. Although all performance indices of the inefficient hospitals need to be addressed, priorities have to be determined by the respective managers.

  11. EEG-Based Affect and Workload Recognition in a Virtual Driving Environment for ASD Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Wade, Joshua W; Key, Alexandra P; Warren, Zachary E; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2018-01-01

    To build group-level classification models capable of recognizing affective states and mental workload of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during driving skill training. Twenty adolescents with ASD participated in a six-session virtual reality driving simulator-based experiment, during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded alongside driving events and a therapist's rating of their affective states and mental workload. Five feature generation approaches including statistical features, fractal dimension features, higher order crossings (HOC)-based features, power features from frequency bands, and power features from bins () were applied to extract relevant features. Individual differences were removed with a two-step feature calibration method. Finally, binary classification results based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm and univariate feature selection method were evaluated by leave-one-subject-out nested cross-validation to compare feature types and identify discriminative features. The best classification results were achieved using power features from bins for engagement (0.95) and boredom (0.78), and HOC-based features for enjoyment (0.90), frustration (0.88), and workload (0.86). Offline EEG-based group-level classification models are feasible for recognizing binary low and high intensity of affect and workload of individuals with ASD in the context of driving. However, while promising the applicability of the models in an online adaptive driving task requires further development. The developed models provide a basis for an EEG-based passive brain computer interface system that has the potential to benefit individuals with ASD with an affect- and workload-based individualized driving skill training intervention.

  12. The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) Demonstrates Higher Accuracy in Identifying Older Adult Participants With History of Falls Than Do the BESTest, Berg Balance Scale, or Timed Up and Go Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingyongyudha, Anyamanee; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Panichaporn, Wanvisa; Boonsinsukh, Rumpa

    2016-01-01

    Balance deficits a significant predictor of falls in older adults. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) are tools that may predict the likelihood of a fall, but their capabilities and accuracies have not been adequately addressed. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the capabilities of the BESTest and Mini-BESTest for identifying older adult with history of falls and comparing the participants with history of falls identification accuracy of the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) for identifying participants with a history of falls. Two hundred healthy older adults with a mean age of 70 years were classified into participants with and without history of fall groups on the basis of their 12-month fall history. Their balance abilities were assessed using the BESTest, Mini-BESTest, BBS, and TUG. An analysis of the resulting receiver operating characteristic curves was performed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, cutoff score, and posttest accuracy of each. The Mini-BESTest showed the highest AUC (0.84) compared with the BESTest (0.74), BBS (0.69), and TUG (0.35), suggesting that the Mini-BESTest had the highest accuracy in identifying older adult with history of falls. At the cutoff score of 16 (out of 28), the Mini-BESTest demonstrated a posttest accuracy of 85% with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 75%. The Mini-BESTest had the highest posttest accuracy, with the others having results of 76% (BESTest), 60% (BBS), and 65% (TUG). The Mini-BESTest is the most accurate tool for identifying older adult with history of falls compared with the BESTest, BBS, and TUG.

  13. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MODEL THROUGH THE BALANCED SCORECARD IN A FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Perazza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, significant changes have been noted in the business world, due to the increasing demand of customers, political and economic moments that create a dynamic nonmarket increasingly unstable, contributing to increasing challenges in understanding the demands. The objective was to evaluate the model operations management method BSC, in order to reduce costs and increase productivity and competitiveness. A study was conducted through a semi-open process, with 180 employees at a midsize company in the footwear industry Jaú, collecting information and data from the managers of each area. We conclude that the requirements for improved performance within organizations have made approaches for the management of operations evolve, becoming a broad and network management in the business, contributing to improvements in the condition of growth and sustainability of organizational activity. It is noteworthy, then, the need to use all available resources, minimizing problems and maximizing opportunities.

  14. Comparative evaluation of atom mapping algorithms for balanced metabolic reactions: application to Recon 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciat Gonzalez, German A; El Assal, Lemmer R P; Noronha, Alberto; Thiele, Ines; Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2017-06-14

    The mechanism of each chemical reaction in a metabolic network can be represented as a set of atom mappings, each of which relates an atom in a substrate metabolite to an atom of the same element in a product metabolite. Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions typically represent biochemistry at the level of reaction stoichiometry. However, a more detailed representation at the underlying level of atom mappings opens the possibility for a broader range of biological, biomedical and biotechnological applications than with stoichiometry alone. Complete manual acquisition of atom mapping data for a genome-scale metabolic network is a laborious process. However, many algorithms exist to predict atom mappings. How do their predictions compare to each other and to manually curated atom mappings? For more than four thousand metabolic reactions in the latest human metabolic reconstruction, Recon 3D, we compared the atom mappings predicted by six atom mapping algorithms. We also compared these predictions to those obtained by manual curation of atom mappings for over five hundred reactions distributed among all top level Enzyme Commission number classes. Five of the evaluated algorithms had similarly high prediction accuracy of over 91% when compared to manually curated atom mapped reactions. On average, the accuracy of the prediction was highest for reactions catalysed by oxidoreductases and lowest for reactions catalysed by ligases. In addition to prediction accuracy, the algorithms were evaluated on their accessibility, their advanced features, such as the ability to identify equivalent atoms, and their ability to map hydrogen atoms. In addition to prediction accuracy, we found that software accessibility and advanced features were fundamental to the selection of an atom mapping algorithm in practice.

  15. Performance on Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) impacts health-related quality of life in Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moke, Lieven; Severijns, Pieter; Schelfaut, Sebastiaan; Van de Loock, Kristel; Hermans, Lore; Molenaers, Guy; Jonkers, Ilse; Scheys, Lennart

    2017-08-23

    Prospective single-center study OBJECTIVE.: Study investigates how dynamic balance performance complements 2D static radiographic measurements and demographics in terms of understanding health-related quality of life in Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) patients. Recent insights suggest that demographic variables have a stronger impact on health-related quality of life than 2D radiographic spinopelvic parameters in ASD patients METHODS.: 9 Healthy volunteers and 36ASD patients following inclusioncriteria were recruited. Demographics, Scoliosis Research Society Score-22r (SRS-22r), OswestryDisability Index (ODI), Core Outcome Measures Index(COMI),2D radiographic spinopelvic measurements and performance on Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS) were determined for each subject. Non-parametric tests, Spearman correlations, univariate and stepwise-like linear multivariate regression analysis were performed. BESTest and TCMS had significant lower values in the ASD group versus the control group (p = 0,000). In the ASD group, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) correlated fair to ODI, COMI (0,441≥r≥0,383, p < 0,021) and to SRS-22-r (r = -0,335, p = 0,046), Mini Mental State Examination correlated fair to COMI (r = -0,352, p = 0,035), 'Pelvic Incidence minus Lumbar Lordosis' correlated fair to ODI (r = 0,361, p = 0,031), BESTest correlated moderate to ODI and COMI (r≤-0,505; p≤0,002), TCMS correlated fair to ODI (r = -0,356; p = 0,033). CIRS and BESTest were significant predictive variables for COMI based on univariate analysis in ASD patients. Multivariate regression analysis including demographics, 2D static radiographic parameters and dynamic balance scales identified BESTest as single independentvariable (p = 0,000) to predict COMI (adjusted R = 0,285) in ASD patients. BESTest has a higher potential than demographic and 2D radiographic spinopelvic parameters to predict

  16. Psychometric evaluation and short form development of The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this research were to evaluate the Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS translation of the BIDR-6 scale, develop its short form, and to present its initial convergent/discriminative validation. The sample included 827 participants. MIRT CFA analysis revealed that fourfactor model (containing 32/40 items fits the data best, with Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE and Impression Management (IM both splitting into the denial (SD-D and IM-D and enhancement (SD-E and IM-E factors. Fit and item properties were generally mediocre. SD-D and IM-E subscales were the strongest sources of misfit, thus SD-E and IM-D subscales were retained in the short form, which had good fit and replicated almost all main patterns of associations with other variables of interest (e.g., HEXACO personality traits typically reported for the full SDE and IM scales in other research. Thus, 17-item BIDR-6 short form, containing only SD-E and IM-D subscales, is recommended for use in the BCS speaking area.

  17. Aplication of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Fixová, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    This thesis that deals with the issue of "Application of the Balanced Scorecard method" focuses on establishing a strategy of the K company that makes its business in the field of transport and logistics. For the purposes of this study a method of Balanced Scorecard is used to express the strategic goals. Linking of these is shown in a strategy map. Theoretical part evaluates importance and reasons for chosing the Balanced Scorecard technique. Analysis of current situation finished with the S...

  18. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury - A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Felix, Ellen Cristina Rodrigues; Bessa, Felipe; Luna, Natália Ms; Sugimoto, Dai; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andrea; Hernandez, Arnaldo José

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to adaptive responses to maintain postural control. However, there is no consensus regarding whether leg dominance also affects postural control in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic and static postural control among athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury to the dominant leg. Twenty-eight athletes, twenty-one males and seven females aged 15-45 years, were allocated to one of two groups: the anterior cruciate ligament injury group (26±3 years) or the control group without anterior cruciate ligament injury (25±6.5 years). All subjects performed one legged stance tests under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and squat and kick movement tests using a postural control protocol (AccuSwayPlus force platform, Massachusetts). The center of pressure displacement and speed were measured by the force platform. In addition, the distance traveled on the single-leg hop test was assessed as an objective measure of function. Significantly greater mediolateral sway was found under the eyes closed condition (p=0.04) and during squat movement (p=0.01) in the anterior cruciate ligament injury group than in the control group. Analysis of the single-leg hop test results showed no difference between the groups (p=0.73). Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury had greater mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure toward the dominant leg under the eyes closed condition and during squat movement compared to control athletes.

  19. Modelling and Experimental Evaluation of a Static Balancing Technique for a New Horizontally Mounted 3-UPU Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banitalebi Dehkordi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and experimental evaluation of the gravity compensation of a horizontal 3-UPU parallel mechanism. The conventional Newton-Euler method for static analysis and balancing of mechanisms works for serial robots; however, it can become computationally expensive when applied to the analysis of parallel manipulators. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper we propose an approach, based on a Lagrangian method, that is more efficient in terms of computation time. The derivation of the gravity compensation model is based on the analytical computation of the total potential energy of the system at each position of the end-effector. In order to satisfy the gravity compensation condition, the total potential energy of the system should remain constant for all of the manipulator's configurations. Analytical and mechanical gravity compensation is taken into account, and the set of conditions and the system of springs are defined. Finally, employing a virtual reality environment, some experiments are carried out and the reliability and feasibility of the proposed model are evaluated in the presence and absence of the elastic components.

  20. Nurses' leadership styles in the icu: association with personal and professional profile and workload

    OpenAIRE

    Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto; Cunha,Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Whitaker,Iveth Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the association between nurses' leadership styles and personal and professional nursing profile and workload. The sample consisted of seven nurses and seven nursing technicians who were grouped into pairs. At the end of three months, nurses were queried regarding what leadership style would be adopted when the nursing technician under their evaluation delivered care to patients admitted to the ICU. Relevant data was analyzed by applying descriptive statistics, Tukey...

  1. Reliability, Validity, and Minimal Detectable Change of Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Its Short Versions in Older Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Miller, Kara; Smith, Kristin; Fredrickson, Kayle; Shilling, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is primarily a disease of older adults. About 77% of all cancers are diagnosed in persons aged 55 years and older. Cancer and its treatment can cause diverse sequelae impacting body systems underlying balance control. No study has examined the psychometric properties of balance assessment tools in older cancer survivors, presenting a significant challenge in the selection of outcome measures for clinicians treating this fast-growing population. This study aimed to determine the reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Balance Evaluation System Test (BESTest), Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), and Brief-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Brief-BESTest) in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. This study was a cross-sectional design. Twenty breast and 8 prostate cancer survivors participated [age (SD) = 68.4 (8.13) years]. The BESTest and Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale were administered during the first session. Scores of Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest were extracted on the basis of the scores of BESTest. The BESTest was repeated within 1 to 2 weeks by the same rater to determine the test-retest reliability. For the analysis of the inter-rater reliability, 21 participants were randomly selected to be evaluated by 2 raters. A primary rater administered the test. The 2 raters independently and concurrently scored the performance of the participants. Each rater recorded the ratings separately on the scoring sheet. No discussion among the raters was allowed throughout the testing. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. Concurrent validity of these balance tests with the ABC Scale was examined using the Spearman correlation. The BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest had high test-retest (ICC = 0.90-0.94) and interrater reliability (ICC = 0.86-0.96), small standard error of measurement (0

  2. Evaluation of the oxidant and antioxidant balance in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cristóvão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the most common chronic diseases and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants (oxidative stress has been proposed as a critical event in the pathogenesis of COPD. The increased oxidative stress in patients with COPD is the result of exogenous oxidants namely pollutants and cigarette smoke as well as endogenous oxidant production during inflammation. The aim of the present study was to clarify the hypothesis about the presence of an imbalance between oxidants and the antioxidant defences associated to COPD. In this study, we evaluated a biomarker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation derived product and non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and the sulphydryl groups in COPD patients and healthy controls. The marker of oxidative stress was found to be significantly (p < 0.001 higher in COPD patients when compared with control group. No age dependent changes in the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were found. COPD patients had a significant (p < 0.001 decrease in antioxidant status as compared with control group. Our results show that oxidative stress is an important pathophysiologic change in COPD. Resumo: A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC é uma das doenças crónicas mais comuns e representa uma importante causa de morbilidade e mortalidade. Um desequilíbrio entre oxidantes e antioxidantes (stress oxidativo tem sido proposto como um acontecimento importante na patogénese da DPOC. O aumento do stress oxidativo em doentes com DPOC é o resultado da presença de oxidantes exógenos, nomeadamente, poluentes e fumo do tabaco, assim como oxidantes endógenos produzidos durante a inflamação. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu em clarificar a hipótese sobre a existência de um desequilíbrio entre oxidantes e as defesas antioxidantes associado à DPOC. Neste estudo, avaliou-se um biomarcador do

  3. Synthesis of workload reduction strategies for construction inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    State departments of transportation (DOTs) have seen significant funding increases throughout the past decade. The : additional funding has also brought about an increase in the construction inspection and testing workload, but the : DOTs have not se...

  4. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  5. Monitoring Workload in Throwing-Dominant Sports: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Cole, Michael H; Naughton, Geraldine

    2016-10-01

    The ability to monitor training load accurately in professional sports is proving vital for athlete preparedness and injury prevention. While numerous monitoring techniques have been developed to assess the running demands of many team sports, these methods are not well suited to throwing-dominant sports that are infrequently linked to high running volumes. Therefore, other techniques are required to monitor the differing demands of these sports to ensure athletes are adequately prepared for competition. To investigate the different methodologies used to quantitatively monitor training load in throwing-dominant sports. A systematic review of the methods used to monitor training load in throwing-dominant sports was conducted using variations of terms that described different load-monitoring techniques and different sports. Studies included in this review were published prior to June 2015 and were identified through a systematic search of four electronic databases including Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and SPORTDiscus. Only full-length peer-reviewed articles investigating workload monitoring in throwing-dominant sports were selected for review. A total of 8098 studies were initially retrieved from the four databases and 7334 results were removed as they were either duplicates, review articles, non-peer-reviewed articles, conference abstracts or articles written in languages other than English. After screening the titles and abstracts of the remaining papers, 28 full-text papers were reviewed, resulting in the identification of 20 articles meeting the inclusion criteria for monitoring workloads in throwing-dominant sports. Reference lists of selected articles were then scanned to identify other potential articles, which yielded one additional article. Ten articles investigated workload monitoring in cricket, while baseball provided eight results, and handball, softball and water polo each contributed one article. Results demonstrated varying techniques

  6. [Technological innovation and healthcare professionals' workloads: an ambiguous relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Bertoncini, Judite Hennemann; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Matos, Eliane; Azambuja, Eliana; Borges, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    This is an integrative review with the aim of tracing the scientific production concerning the influence of technological innovation in health care professionals' workloads. Fifty-seven (57) publications presented from 2004 to 2009 were selected from the LILACS and PubMed databases. In the selected studies field research using qualitative approaches and carried out in hospitals predominated. No study had the purpose to analyze the relationship between technological innovation and workloads. In studies involving technological innovation, publications concerning information and communication technologies and new forms of work organizations were highlighted studies concerning conditions which promote stress and Burnout predominated in the workloads theme. Results show an ambiguous relationship between technological innovation and workloads, which are either increased or diminished by innovations.

  7. Value-added care: a new way of assessing nursing staffing ratios and workload variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upenieks, Valda V; Akhavan, Jaleh; Kotlerman, Jenny; Esser, Jennifer; Ngo, Myha J

    2007-05-01

    To thoroughly understand the implications of California regulatory staffing ratios on nursing units, the present study examines the relative amounts of time allocated to workload activities among registered nurses. Nursing is a synergistic, intuitive process and may not be capable of being translated into minimum patient-to-nurse ratios that work across an entire region or state. A fundamental step in evaluating the appropriateness of prescribed ratios lies in assessing how registered nurses spend their time while caring for patients. Once workload intensity is assessed, additional factors can be identified to design mandated staffing levels for acute care settings. Variability in workload intensity was assessed using the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation "Transforming Care at the Bedside" work flow methodology approach in evaluating value-added care and assessing the amount of time nurses spent on direct care and other categorical activities. The results revealed a marked variation in the medical-surgical unit compared with the 2 telemetry units regarding the amount of time spent by registered nurses on value-added, necessary, and non-value-added activities, as well as variability in the amount of time that registered nurses spent on direct care, indirect care, documentation, waste, and other activities. By evaluating patient quality of care in acute care settings, we can return to a basic aspect of how nurses spend their time caring for patients-the activities that not only involve direct care but also benefit the patient.

  8. Register of Research in Progress on Mental Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    are translated into equipment design and training solutions. The Register of Research in Progress on Mental Workload was conceived as one means by which...as a test bed for the workload assessment program. The validity of this aproach will be assessed with a series of simulation experiments in our GAT-I...Discrete mental tasks are used, ranging from search tasks to sentence comprehension tasks to language translation tasks (simultaneous interpretation

  9. Physical and mental workloads in professional dance teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Schmidt, Mike; Leslie-Spinks, Jeremy; Fischer, Axel; Groneberg, David A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the level of mental and physical workloads in professional dance teachers depending on the trained students' age, technique level, or dance style. A total number of 133 professional dance pedagogues responded to an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey on self-assessment of physical and mental workloads occurring during dance units. The majority of dance teachers estimated their level of physical and mental workload to be almost as high as that of their students, with differences in physical and mental workloads observed depending on dance style, age of students, and technical level. More than 60% of the teachers were convinced that their occupation implies positive effects on their own health in terms of self-realization (78.2%), musculoskeletal system (66.9%), and social relationships (61.7%). Of all respondents, 58.6% stated that their musculoskeletal system was jeopardized by the physically demanding activity. This is followed by the fear of financial insecurity (50.4%). The majority of all dance teachers (males 65.4%, females 63.9%) would like to obtain further education on prevention against or dealing with physical workload. Physical and mental workloads play an important role in dance teaching. Coping with or preventing these loads could be keys to a lifelong, healthy career as a professional dance teacher. Future trials should look at clinical parameters of physical and mental load.

  10. Accumulated workloads and the acute:chronic workload ratio relate to injury risk in elite youth football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Laura; Gross, Aleksander Stefan; Gimpel, Mo; Li, François-Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical workload and injury risk in elite youth football players. The workload data and injury incidence of 32 players were monitored throughout 2 seasons. Multiple regression was used to compare cumulative (1, 2, 3 and 4-weekly) loads and acute:chronic (A:C) workload ratios (acute workload divided by chronic workload) between injured and non-injured players for specific GPS and accelerometer-derived variables:total distance (TD), high-speed distance (HSD), accelerations (ACC) and total load. Workloads were classified into discrete ranges by z-scores and the relative risk was determined. A very high number of ACC (≥9254) over 3 weeks was associated with the highest significant overall (relative risk (RR)=3.84) and non-contact injury risk (RR=5.11). Non-contact injury risk was significantly increased when a high acute HSD was combined with low chronic HSD (RR=2.55), but not with high chronic HSD (RR=0.47). Contact injury risk was greatest when A:C TD and ACC ratios were very high (1.76 and 1.77, respectively) (RR=4.98). In general, higher accumulated and acute workloads were associated with a greater injury risk. However, progressive increases in chronic workload may develop the players' physical tolerance to higher acute loads and resilience to injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater using the water balance method and the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Abustan, Ismail; Mogheir, Yunes K; Afifi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area.

  12. Evaluating the potential for environmental pollution from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste: a new mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, T G; Frostick, L E

    2014-07-15

    The potential for pollution from arsenic, chromium and copper in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was assessed using two lysimeter studies. The first utilised lysimeters containing soil and CCA wood waste mulch exposed to natural conditions over a five month period. The second study used the same lysimeter setup in a regulated greenhouse setting with a manual watering regime. Woodchip, soil and leachate samples were evaluated for arsenic, chromium and copper concentrations. Resultant concentration data were used to produce mass balances, an approach thus far unused in such studies. This novel analysis revealed new patterns of mobility and distribution of the elements in the system. The results suggest that CCA wood waste tends to leach on initial exposure to a leachant and during weathering of the wood. When in contact with soil, metal(loid) transport is reduced due to complexation reactions. With higher water application or where the adsorption capacity of the soil is exceeded, the metal(loid)s are transported through the soil column as leachate. Overall, there was an unexplained loss of metal(loid)s from the system that might be attributed to volatilisation of arsenic and plant uptake. This suggests a hitherto unidentified risk to both the environment and human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nurses' leadership styles in the ICU: association with personal and professional profile and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the association between nurses' leadership styles and personal and professional nursing profile and workload. The sample consisted of seven nurses and seven nursing technicians who were grouped into pairs. At the end of three months, nurses were queried regarding what leadership style would be adopted when the nursing technician under their evaluation delivered care to patients admitted to the ICU. Relevant data was analyzed by applying descriptive statistics, Tukey's multiple comparison test and Student's t-test (pleadership styles chosen by nurses (p>0.05). The determine, persuade, and share leadership styles prevailed. However, whenever the nursing workload peaked, the determine and persuade styles were used (p<0.05).

  14. Subjective responses of mental workload during real time driving: A pilot field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N. I. A.; Dawal, S. Z. M.; Yusoff, N.

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated drivers’ mental workload in real time driving to identify the driving situation’s complexity influences in an attempt to further design on a complete experimental study. Three driving settings were prepared: Session A (simple situation); Session B (moderately complex situation); Session C (very complex situation). To determine the mental workload, the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered to four drivers after each experimental driving session. The results showed that the Own Performance (OP) was the highest for session A (highway), while Physical Demand (PD) recorded the highest mean workload score across the session B (rural road) and C (city road). Based on the overall results of the study, it can be concluded that the highway is less demanding compared to rural and city road. It can be highlighted in this study that in the rural and city road driving situation, the timing must be set correctly to assure the relevant traffic density. Thus, the sensitivity of the timing must be considered in the future experiment. A larger number of experience drivers must be used in evaluating the driving situations to provide results that can be used to draw more realistic experiments and conclusions.

  15. Burnout syndrome and weekly workload of on-call physicians: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Burnout syndrome (BS is characterized by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal fulfillment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a possible association between BS and weekly workload, and to describe the prevalence of BS and the sociodemographic and occupational profile of on-call physicians in Maceió. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in intensive care units (ICU at public and private hospitals in Maceió. METHODS: A self-administered form was used to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics and BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI among 67 on-call physicians at ICUs in Maceió. Pearson's R correlation test was used to compare workload and emotional exhaustion. For other dimensions, Spearman's S test was used (P < 0.05. Other variables were represented by simple frequencies. The 95% confidence interval was calculated for each variable. RESULTS: Among the physicians studied, 55.22% were female and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call was 43.85 ± 24.49 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 70.14%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence of BS, especially among physicians who did not practice regular physical activity, our data did not indicate any significant correlation between weekly workload and any of the three dimensions of BS in this sample. The high prevalence of BS draws attention to the importance of investigating other possible causes, in order to prevent and adequately treat it.

  16. Major League pitching workload after primary ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction and risk for revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Marshall, Nathan E; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Khalil, Lafi; Tibone, James E; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-02-01

    Literature has attempted to correlate pitching workload with risk of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury; however, limited data are available in evaluating workload and its relationship with the need for revision reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We identified 29 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction and compared them with 121 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared for the seasons after returning from primary reconstruction and for the last season pitched before undergoing revision surgery. The difference in workload between pitchers who did and did not require revision reconstruction was not statistically significant in games pitched, innings pitched, and MLB-only pitch counts. The one significant difference in workload was in total pitch counts (combined MLB and minor league), with the pitchers who required revision surgery pitching less than those who did not (primary: 1413.6 pitches vs. revision: 959.0 pitches, P = .04). In addition, pitchers who required revision surgery underwent primary reconstruction at an early age (22.9 years vs. 27.3 years, P < .001) and had less MLB experience (1.5 years vs. 5.0 years, P < .001). There is no specific number of pitches, innings, or games that place a pitcher at an increase risk for injury after primary UCL reconstruction. However, correlations of risk may be younger age and less MLB experience at the time of the primary reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Assessing effect of meditation on cognitive workload using EEG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Narendra; Manthalkar, Ramchandra; Joshi, Yashwant

    2017-06-01

    Recent research suggests that meditation affects the structure and function of the brain. Cognitive load can be handled in effective way by the meditators. EEG signals are used to quantify cognitive load. The research of investigating effect of meditation on cognitive workload using EEG signals in pre and post-meditation is an open problem. The subjects for this study are young healthy 11 engineering students from our institute. The focused attention meditation practice is used for this study. EEG signals are recorded at the beginning of meditation and after four weeks of regular meditation using EMOTIV device. The subjects practiced meditation daily 20 minutes for 4 weeks. The 7 level arithmetic additions of single digit (low level) to three digits with carry (high level) are presented as cognitive load. The cognitive load indices such as arousal index, performance enhancement, neural activity, load index, engagement, and alertness are evaluated in pre and post meditation. The cognitive indices are improved in post meditation data. Power Spectral Density (PSD) feature is compared between pre and post-meditation across all subjects. The result hints that the subjects were handling cognitive load without stress (ease of cognitive functioning increased for the same load) after 4 weeks of meditation.

  18. An integrated tool to support engineers for WMSDs risk assessment during the assembly line balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Raffaele; Fanti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper wants to present an integrated approach to Line Balancing and Risk Assessment and a Software Tool named ErgoAnalysis that makes it easy to control the whole production process and produces a Risk Index for the actual work tasks in an Assembly Line. Assembly Line Balancing, or simply Line Balancing, is the problem of assigning operations to workstations along an assembly line, in such a way that the assignment be optimal in some sense. Assembly lines are characterized by production constraints and restrictions due to several aspects such as the nature of the product and the flow of orders. To be able to respond effectively to the needs of production, companies need to frequently change the workload and production models. Each manufacturing process might be quite different from another. To optimize very specific operations, assembly line balancing might utilize a number of methods and the Engineer must consider ergonomic constraints, in order to reduce the risk of WMDSs. Risk Assessment may result very expensive because the Engineer must evaluate it at every change. ErgoAnalysis can reduce cost and improve effectiveness in Risk Assessment during the Line Balancing.

  19. An observational study fluid balance and patient outcomes in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cass, Alan; Cole, Louise; Finfer, Simon; Gallagher, Martin; Lee, Joanne; Lo, Serigne; McArthur, Colin; McGuiness, Shay; Norton, Robyn; Myburgh, John; Scheinkestel, Carlos; Su, Steve

    2012-06-01

    To examine associations between mean daily fluid balance during intensive care unit study enrollment and clinical outcomes in patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level (RENAL) replacement therapy study. Statistical analysis of data from multicenter, randomized, controlled trials. Thirty-five intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1453 patients enrolled in the RENAL study. We analyzed the association between daily fluid balance on clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards, time-dependent analysis, and repeated measure analysis models. During intensive care unit stay, mean daily fluid balance among survivors was -234 mL/day compared with +560 mL/day among nonsurvivors (p study treatment was independently associated with a decreased risk of death at 90 days (odds ratio 0.318; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.43; p study, a negative mean daily fluid balance was consistently associated with improved clinical outcomes. Fluid balance may be a target for specific manipulation in future interventional trials of critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) in community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Charlotte S L; Liao, Lin-Rong; Chung, Raymond C K; Pang, Marco Y C

    2013-08-01

    The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) is a new balance assessment, but its psychometric properties have not been specifically tested in individuals with stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Mini-BESTest and its accuracy in categorizing people with stroke based on fall history. An observational measurement study with a test-retest design was conducted. One hundred six people with chronic stroke were recruited. Intrarater reliability was evaluated by repeating the Mini-BESTest within 10 days by the same rater. The Mini-BESTest was administered by 2 independent raters to establish interrater reliability. Validity was assessed by correlating Mini-BESTest scores with scores of other balance measures (Berg Balance Scale, one-leg-standing, Functional Reach Test, and Timed "Up & Go" Test) in the stroke group and by comparing Mini-BESTest scores between the stroke group and 48 control participants, and between fallers (≥1 falls in the previous 12 months, n=25) and nonfallers (n=81) in the stroke group. The Mini-BESTest had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=.89-.94), intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [3,1]=.97), and interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1]=.96). The minimal detectable change at 95% confidence interval was 3.0 points. The Mini-BESTest was strongly correlated with other balance measures. Significant differences in Mini-BESTest total scores were found between the stroke and control groups and between fallers and nonfallers in the stroke group. In terms of floor and ceiling effects, the Mini-BESTest was significantly less skewed than other balance measures, except for one-leg-standing on the nonparetic side. The Berg Balance Scale showed significantly better ability to identify fallers (positive likelihood ratio=2.6) than the Mini-BESTest (positive likelihood ratio=1.8). The results are generalizable only to people with mild to

  1. Evaluating Exercise Prescription and Instructional Methods Used in Tai Chi Studies Aimed at Improving Balance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; MacDonald, Hayley V; Pescatello, Linda S

    2016-10-01

    To develop an evaluation instrument to determine to what extent Tai Chi interventions aimed at improving the balance of older adults disclosed their exercise prescription (Ex R x ) and instructional methods and met best-practice exercise recommendations for balance improvement. Review. PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were searched from their inception until August 22, 2014. Adults aged 60 and older without debilitating disease. Three electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi interventions aimed at improving balance in older adults without severe debilitating diseases. Three Ex R x (frequency, time, intervention length) and 10 instructional (e.g., style, number of forms) methods of the included RCTs were evaluated. Twenty-seven interventions were identified from 26 RCTs. On average, Tai Chi was performed for a mean 56.5 ± 14.4 minutes per session for 2.8 ± 1.4 sessions per week for 19.7 ± 12.7 weeks. Most interventions reported all three Ex R x methods items, with a mean reporting rate of 92.6 ± 19.2%. For the 10 instructional methods items, the mean reporting rate was 41.1 ± 18.0%, significantly lower than for the Ex R x methods items (P < .001). Fewer than half of the interventions reported unsupervised practice (15%), progression (22%), or the use of breathing (30%) and relaxation (15%) techniques. The instructional methods items most important for targeting Tai Chi practice to improve balance were not routinely disclosed, with only 15% reporting names of forms and 52% reporting movement principles. Most Tai Chi interventions disclosed their Ex R x methods yet routinely failed to report instructional methods. To increase the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve balance in older adults, future RCTs should disclose their Ex R x and instructional methods, especially methods that target balance. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Structural Validity of the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) in People With Mild to Moderate Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benka Wallén, Martin; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Löfgren, Niklas; Franzén, Erika

    2016-11-01

    The Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) is a clinical balance test comprising 14 items assumed to reflect the unidimensional construct "dynamic balance." The study objective was to examine the dimensionality of the test and the properties of each item and their interrelationships in elderly people with mild to moderate Parkinson disease (PD). This was a cross-sectional study in a laboratory setting. A total of 112 participants (mean age=73 years) with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3) were assessed by physical therapists. Local independence among items was examined with Rasch modeling. Unidimensionality was tested by running a principal component analysis on the residuals. An exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of the test, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the fit of the derived model. The first residual component of the principal component analysis, with an eigenvalue of greater than 2, superseded the assumption of unidimensionality. After the omission of item 7 because of convergence problems, the exploratory factor analysis suggested that a 3-factor solution best fit the data. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated acceptable fit of the final model, although item 14 loaded poorly on its factor. The sample size was on the lower end of what is generally recommended. This study could not confirm that the Mini-BESTest is unidimensional. Gait items were dispersed over all factors, indicating that they may reflect different constructs. Nonetheless, as there arguably is no clinical balance test superior to the Mini-BESTest today, we recommend using the total score for assessing gross balance in this population and individual items to identify specific weaknesses. Moreover, dual tasks should be assessed separately because they are an important aspect of balance control in people with PD, reflected in only one item of the test. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  3. Effectiveness of an intervention at construction worksites on work engagement, social support, physical workload, and need for recovery: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oude Hengel Karen M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To prolong sustainable healthy working lives of construction workers, a worksite prevention program was developed which aimed to improve the health and work ability of construction workers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effectiveness of this program on social support at work, work engagement, physical workload and need for recovery. Methods Fifteen departments from six construction companies participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial; 8 departments (n=171 workers were randomized to an intervention group and 7 departments (n=122 workers to a control group. The intervention consisted of two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Data on work engagement, social support at work, physical workload, and need for recovery were collected at baseline, and at three, six and 12 months after the start of the intervention using questionnaires. Results No differences between the intervention and control group were found for work engagement, social support at work, and need for recovery. At 6 months follow-up, the control group reported a small but statistically significant reduction of physical workload. Conclusion The intervention neither improved social support nor work engagement, nor was it effective in reducing the physical workload and need for recovery among construction workers. Trial registration NTR1278

  4. EEG-based Workload Estimation Across Affective Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMühl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Workload estimation from electroencephalographic signals (EEG offers a highly sensitive tool to adapt the human-computer interaction to the user state. To create systems that reliably work in the complexity of the real world, a robustness against contextual changes (e.g., mood, has to be achieved. To study the resilience of state-of-the-art EEG-based workload classification against stress we devise a novel experimental protocol, in which we manipulated the affective context (stressful/non-stressful while the participant solved a task with 2 workload levels. We recorded self-ratings, behavior, and physiology from 24 participants to validate the protocol. We test the capability of different, subject-specific workload classifiers using either frequency-domain, time-domain, or both feature varieties to generalize across contexts. We show that the classifiers are able to transfer between affective contexts, though performance suffers independent of the used feature domain. However, cross-context training is a simple and powerful remedy allowing the extraction of features in all studied feature varieties that are more resilient to task-unrelated variations in signal characteristics. Especially for frequency-domain features, across-context training is leading to a performance comparable to within-context training and testing. We discuss the significance of the result for neurophysiology-based workload detection in particular and for the construction of reliable passive brain-computer interfaces in general.

  5. Organizational impact of nurse supply and workload on nurses continuing professional development opportunities: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Tracey H; Maslin-Prothero, Sian E; Smith, Gilly

    2015-12-01

    To identify the best evidence on the impact of healthcare organizations' supply of nurses and nursing workload on the continuing professional development opportunities of Registered Nurses in the acute care hospital. To maintain registration and professional competence nurses are expected to participate in continuing professional development. One challenge of recruitment and retention is the Registered Nurse's ability to participate in continuing professional development opportunities. The integrative review method was used to present Registered Nurses perspectives on this area of professional concern. The review was conducted for the period of 2001-February 2015. Keywords were: nurs*, continuing professional development, continuing education, professional development, supply, shortage, staffing, workload, nurse: patient ratio, barrier and deterrent. The integrative review used a structured approach for literature search and data evaluation, analysis and presentation. Eleven international studies met the inclusion criteria. Nurses are reluctant or prevented from leaving clinical settings to attend continuing professional development due to lack of relief cover, obtaining paid or unpaid study leave, use of personal time to undertake mandatory training and organizational culture and leadership issues constraining the implementation of learning to benefit patients. Culture, leadership and workload issues impact nurses' ability to attend continuing professional development. The consequences affect competence to practice, the provision of safe, quality patient care, maintenance of professional registration, job satisfaction, recruitment and retention. Organizational leadership plays an important role in supporting attendance at continuing professional development as an investment for the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  7. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  8. NERSC-6 Workload Analysis and Benchmark Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypas, Katie; Shalf, John; Wasserman, Harvey

    2008-08-29

    This report describes efforts carried out during early 2008 to determine some of the science drivers for the"NERSC-6" next-generation high-performance computing system acquisition. Although the starting point was existing Greenbooks from DOE and the NERSC User Group, the main contribution of this work is an analysis of the current NERSC computational workload combined with requirements information elicited from key users and other scientists about expected needs in the 2009-2011 timeframe. The NERSC workload is described in terms of science areas, computer codes supporting research within those areas, and description of key algorithms that comprise the codes. This work was carried out in large part to help select a small set of benchmark programs that accurately capture the science and algorithmic characteristics of the workload. The report concludes with a description of the codes selected and some preliminary performance data for them on several important systems.

  9. Air-to-ground training missions: a psychophysiological workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G F

    1993-09-01

    Psychophysiological measures are used to assess the workload of F4 Phantom aircraft pilots and weapon systems officers (WSOs) during air-to-ground training missions and during the performance of two levels of difficulty of a laboratory tracking task. The bombing range portion of the missions was associated with the highest pilot workload, while the WSO flying the aircraft was the highest workload segment for the WSOs. The pilots' data were found to have a wider range of values for the physiological measures than were found in the WSO data. The different levels of tracking task difficulty produced significant physiological effects but the range of values found for most of the flight segments were much greater. These data demonstrate that extrapolating laboratory data to the flight environment is risky at best. The various physiological measures were differentially sensitive to the different demands of the various flight segments.

  10. Evaluation of a Smartphone-based audio-biofeedback system for improving balance in older adults--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A; Mourcou, Q; Franco, C; Diot, B; Demongeot, J; Vuillerme, N

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a Smartphone-based audio-biofeedback (ABF) system for improving balance in older adults. This so-called "iBalance-ABF" system that we recetly developed is "all-inclusive" in the sense that its three main components of a balance prosthesis, (i) the sensory input unit, (ii) the processing unit, and (iii) the sensory output unit, are entirely embedded into the Smartphone. The underlying principle of this system is to supply the user with supplementary information about the medial-lateral (ML) trunk tilt relative to a predetermined adjustable "dead zone" through sound generation in earphones. Six healthy older adults voluntarily participated in this pilot study. Eyes closed, they were asked to stand upright and to sway as little as possible in two (parallel and tandem) stance conditions executed without and with the use of the iBalance-ABF system. Results showed that, without any visual information, the use of the Smartphone-based ABF allowed the older healthy adults to significantly decrease their ML trunk sway in the tandem stance posture and to mitigate the destabilizing effect induced by this particular stance. Although an extended study including a larger number of participants is needed to confirm these data, the present results are encouraging. They do suggest that Smartphone-based ABF system could be used for balance training and rehabilitation therapy in older adults.

  11. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  12. Evaluation of the Wii Balance Board for walking aids prediction: proof-of-concept study in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Clark, Ross A; Ong, Peck-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To provide proof-of-concept for the validity of the Wii Balance Board (WBB) measures to predict the type of walking aids required by inpatients with a recent (≤4 days) total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A cross-sectional sample of 89 inpatients (mean age, 67.0±8 years) with TKA was analyzed. A multivariable proportional odds prediction model was constructed using 8 pre-specified predictors – namely, age, sex, body mass index, knee pain, knee range-of-motion, active knee lag, and WBB-derived standing balance. The type of walking aids prescribed on day 4 post-surgery was the outcome of interest – an ordinal variable with 4 categories (walking stick, narrow- and broad-base quadstick, and walking frame). Women, increasing body mass index, and poorer standing balance were independently associated with greater odds for requiring walking aids with a larger base-of-support. The concordance-index of the prediction model was 0.74. The model comprising only WBB-derived standing balance had nearly half (44%) the explanatory power of the full model. Adding WBB-derived standing balance to conventional demographic and knee variables resulted in a continuous net reclassification index of 0.60 (95%CI,0.19-1.01), predominantly due to better identification of patients who required walking aids with a large base-of-support (sensitivity gain). The WBB was able to provide quantitative measures of standing balance which could assist healthcare professionals in prescribing the appropriate type of walking aids for patients. Further investigation is needed to assess whether using the WBB could lead to meaningful changes in clinical outcomes such as falls.

  13. Evaluation of the Wii Balance Board for walking aids prediction: proof-of-concept study in total knee arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hao Pua

    Full Text Available To provide proof-of-concept for the validity of the Wii Balance Board (WBB measures to predict the type of walking aids required by inpatients with a recent (≤4 days total knee arthroplasty (TKA.A cross-sectional sample of 89 inpatients (mean age, 67.0±8 years with TKA was analyzed. A multivariable proportional odds prediction model was constructed using 8 pre-specified predictors – namely, age, sex, body mass index, knee pain, knee range-of-motion, active knee lag, and WBB-derived standing balance. The type of walking aids prescribed on day 4 post-surgery was the outcome of interest – an ordinal variable with 4 categories (walking stick, narrow- and broad-base quadstick, and walking frame.Women, increasing body mass index, and poorer standing balance were independently associated with greater odds for requiring walking aids with a larger base-of-support. The concordance-index of the prediction model was 0.74. The model comprising only WBB-derived standing balance had nearly half (44% the explanatory power of the full model. Adding WBB-derived standing balance to conventional demographic and knee variables resulted in a continuous net reclassification index of 0.60 (95%CI,0.19-1.01, predominantly due to better identification of patients who required walking aids with a large base-of-support (sensitivity gain.The WBB was able to provide quantitative measures of standing balance which could assist healthcare professionals in prescribing the appropriate type of walking aids for patients. Further investigation is needed to assess whether using the WBB could lead to meaningful changes in clinical outcomes such as falls.

  14. Evaluating the reliability of recorded fluid balance to approximate body weight change in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Glenn M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate body weight change in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to assess the accuracy of conventional recorded fluid balance charting methods to reflect this change in body weight. This was a descriptive study. This study was conducted at the cardiac care unit and medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a private hospital in Melbourne, Australia. The subjects were 32 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures. Twenty-six were male, and the mean age was 67 years (range 36-84 years). Twenty-three patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and nine patients underwent heart valve repair or replacement+/-coronary artery bypass graft surgery between December 2003 and May 2004. The measures were recorded fluid balance for the perioperative period together with body weight measurements from the night before surgery and immediately on discharge from the ICU. An additional body weight measurement on the seventh postoperative day provided a trajectory of body weight gain or loss for the period of hospitalization after surgery. A retrospective medical history audit and an HV-CS digital chair scale (A&D Mercury Pty Ltd, Victoria, Australia) were used to collect the data. Analysis revealed that 30 patients increased their body weight from the night before surgery until discharge from the ICU. The mean weight gain was 3.34 kg (standard deviation [SD] 1.17, 95% confidence interval 2.70-3.98, Pbody weight was 80.97 kg (SD 16.79), whereas the average ICU postoperative weight was 83.94 kg (SD 16.15). Twenty-six patients (81.25%) had returned to, or were below, their preoperative weight by their seventh postoperative day (M 2.96 kg, SD 2.24 kg, Pfluid balance during the perioperative period was +1.56 L (SD 2.59 L, Pfluid balance and measured body weight change. Three patients (9.75%) met the criteria for accurate recorded fluid balance, and eight patients (25%) experienced a net difference in the

  15. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  16. Kinematic evaluation of cervical sagittal balance and thoracic inlet alignment in degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paholpak, Permsak; Nazareth, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C; Buser, Zorica; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2017-09-01

    T1 slope is a novel thoracic parameter used to assess cervical spine sagittal balance. Thoracic index (TI) parameters including T1 slope and cervical sagittal alignment parameters may play an important role in degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis (DCS). Current literature regarding the relationship between TI and cervical sagittal alignment parameters in patients with DCS is limited. (1) To evaluate the T1 slope, cervical sagittal alignment, and thoracic inlet parameter in patients with DCS using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (kMRI), and (2) to find a correlation between the T1 slope, TI, and other cervical sagittal parameters in patients with DCS. Retrospective kMRI study, Level III. Fifty-two patients with DCS from 1,128 patients from a cervical kMRI database. T1 slope, C2-C7 angle, sagittal vertical axis C2-C7 (SVA C2-C7), cranial tilt, cervical tilt, neck tilt, and thoracic inlet angle (TIA). Cervical spine kMRIs of 52 patients with DCS (mean age 51.7±standard deviation) were analyzed in neutral, flexion, and extension positions. Patients with DCS were divided into two groups: anterolisthesis (N=33) and retrolisthesis (N=19). Each listhesis group was subclassified into grade 1 (slip 2-3 mm) and grade 2 (slip>3 mm). Grade 2 retrolisthesis had the largest T1 slope followed by grade 1 retrolisthesis, grade 2 anterolisthesis, and grade 1 anterolisthesis. Significant differences were found between the anterolisthesis and the retrolisthesis groups in the neutral position (p=.025). The flexion position had the largest T1 slope and showed a significant difference with anterolisthesis in the neutral position (p=.041). Sagittal vertical axis C2-C7 showed strong correlation with cranial tilt in all DCS groups and all positions. In our study, T1 slope was larger in grade 2 DCS, and the retrolisthesis group had larger T1 slope than the anterolisthesis group. Presence of larger T1 slope was significantly correlated with larger cervical lordosis curvature

  17. Evaluation of three popular diets fed to pet sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps): Intake, digestion and nutrient balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenfeld, E S; Whitehouse-Tedd, K M

    2017-05-02

    Three diets fed to 12 pair-housed sugar gliders, Petaurus breviceps, were evaluated through 5-day intake and digestion trials following 10-day transitions. Diets 1 and 2 comprised liquid formula mixes with added vegetables and fruit, and Diet 3 comprised extruded pellets and a liquid formula. Diets eaten contained 16 -19% crude protein, 3%-15% crude fat, 10%-11% neutral detergent fibre, 4%-20% starch and 8%-49% sugar (dry basis). Calculated individual dry matter intakes (DMI) ranged from 3.9 to 5.1 g/day, representing 58.2-78.4 kJ/day. DMI was greater for Diet 2 (7.2% BW) vs. Diet 1 (5.6; p = .006) and Diet 3 (4.2% BW; p = .003). Although these differences were no longer detectable on a MBW basis, animals were shown to have gained BW (+14.2 g; p = .03) on Diet 2. In addition to nutrient composition differing widely among diets, DM digestibility (DMD) was higher in Diet 1 (91.2%) compared to Diet 2 (87.3%; p = .03), but DMD for Diet 3 (88.9%) did not differ from other diets. Gliders demonstrated ability to digest a variety of energy substrates, including simple sugars (96%-99%), fats (81%-96%) and starches (79%-98%), as well as substantial insoluble dietary fibre (58%-75%), with significant difference among diets demonstrated for some nutrients. Animals displayed selective feeding behaviours, rejecting insoluble fibre in produce and preferring the lipid-coated exterior of pellets. The diets used appeared to be balanced with respect to energy, protein and macromineral content, but may predispose to iron excess, other mineral imbalances (especially Ca deficiency) and obesity-clinical health issues described for pet gliders. Future focus on concentrations, types and utilization of dietary fibre in natural and captive diets, vitamin D metabolism and trace mineral interactions in sugar gliders would assist diet optimization for this highly gummivorous species. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, Alper; Sezer, Ilhan

    2017-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly affects axial joints and the changes in the vertebrae cause typical kyphotic posture. In patients with ankylosing spondylitis, the postural changes, including cervical flexion, decreased lumbar lordosis, posterior rotation of pelvis, hip extension, knee flexion, and plantar flexion of ankle along with kyphosis, may occur in the upcoming terms of the disease and may negatively affect balance. Joint and eye involvements; muscular, vestibular and proprioceptional changes can also affect balance. This review evaluates the ankylosing spondylitis-equilibrium relationship together with posture and other parameters of balance.

  19. Hospitalist workload influences faculty evaluations by internal medicine clerkship students

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson RL

    2015-01-01

    Robert L Robinson Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA Background: The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. Objective: The study reported here was conducted to explore the rel...

  20. Evaluation of Graph Pattern Matching Workloads in Graph Analysis Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokyong [North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas Rangan [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh

    2016-01-01

    Graph analysis has emerged as a powerful method for data scientists to represent, integrate, query, and explore heterogeneous data sources. As a result, graph data management and mining became a popular area of research, and led to the development of plethora of systems in recent years. Unfortunately, the number of emerging graph analysis systems and the wide range of applications, coupled with a lack of apples-to-apples comparisons, make it difficult to understand the trade-offs between different systems and the graph operations for which they are designed. A fair comparison of these systems is a challenging task for the following reasons: multiple data models, non-standardized serialization formats, various query interfaces to users, and diverse environments they operate in. To address these key challenges, in this paper we present a new benchmark suite by extending the Lehigh University Benchmark (LUBM) to cover the most common capabilities of various graph analysis systems. We provide the design process of the benchmark, which generalizes the workflow for data scientists to conduct the desired graph analysis on different graph analysis systems. Equipped with this extended benchmark suite, we present performance comparison for nine subgraph pattern retrieval operations over six graph analysis systems, namely NetworkX, Neo4j, Jena, Titan, GraphX, and uRiKA. Through the proposed benchmark suite, this study reveals both quantitative and qualitative findings in (1) implications in loading data into each system; (2) challenges in describing graph patterns for each query interface; and (3) different sensitivity of each system to query selectivity. We envision that this study will pave the road for: (i) data scientists to select the suitable graph analysis systems, and (ii) data management system designers to advance graph analysis systems.

  1. Seasonal Water Balance of an Alpine Catchment as Evaluated by Different Methods for Spatially Distributed Snowmelt Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zappa, M.; Pos, F.; Strasser, U.; Warmerdam, P.M.M.; Gurtz, J.

    2003-01-01

    The application of three temperature-index based models and of one energy balance based snowmelt model was investigated. The snow models were integrated in the spatially distributed hydrological model PREVAH. In this study the hydrological simulations of the alpine catchment of the Dischmabach in

  2. The NHF-NRG In Balance-project: the application of Intervention Mapping in the development, implementation and evaluation of weight gain prevention at the worksite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, L; Kremers, S P J; Werkman, A; Visscher, T L S; van Baak, M A; Brug, J

    2007-07-01

    Very few examples of theory-driven and systematically developed weight gain prevention interventions for adults have been described in the literature. The present paper systematically describes the development, implementation and evaluation framework of a weight gain prevention programme directed at young adults at the worksite, namely the NHF-NRG In Balance-project. It not only can be used as a guide to systematically develop weight gain prevention interventions, but also gives an overview of the current theoretical and empirical knowledge-base in the field of obesity prevention. The outline of the paper follows the Intervention Mapping protocol, which includes a systematic inventory of important health issues, their risk behaviours and determinants of these risk behaviours, and specification of the proximal objectives of the programme directed at both energy intake and energy expenditure. The objectives are translated into behaviour change methods and strategies, which are combined in a stepwise intervention programme, and used for a detailed evaluation plan (process and effect evaluation). The NHF-NRG In Balance-project combines mass media and individually tailored communications with worksite environmental changes to raise awareness, to motivate and to enable energy balance behaviour changes. A quasi-experimental pre-test-multiple post-test control group design was applied in 12 worksites (>500 employees).

  3. How we can measure the non-driving-task engagement in automated driving: Comparing flow experience and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang Min; Ji, Yong Gu

    2018-02-01

    In automated driving, a driver can completely concentrate on non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs). This study investigated the flow experience of a driver who concentrated on NDRTs and tasks that induce mental workload under conditional automation. Participants performed NDRTs under different demand levels: a balanced demand-skill level (fit condition) to induce flow, low-demand level to induce boredom, and high-demand level to induce anxiety. In addition, they performed the additional N-Back task, which artificially induces mental workload. The results showed participants had the longest reaction time when they indicated the highest flow score, and had the longest gaze-on time, road-fixation time, hands-on time, and take-over time under the fit condition. Significant differences were not observed in the driver reaction times in the fit condition and the additional N-Back task, indicating that performing NDRTs that induce a high flow experience could influence driver reaction time similar to performing tasks with a high mental workload. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among office workers with high workload computer use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chiung-Yu; Hwang, Yea-Shwu; Cherng, Rong-Ju

    2012-09-01

    Although the prevalence of reported discomfort by computer workers is high, the impact of high computer workload on musculoskeletal symptoms remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms for office workers with high computer workload. The association between risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms was also assessed. Two questionnaires were posted on the Web sites of 3 companies and 1 university to recruit computer users in Tainan, Taiwan, during May to July 2009. The 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire and Musculoskeletal Symptom Questionnaire were chosen as the evaluation tools for musculoskeletal symptoms and its associated risk factors. Chinese Health Questionnaire greater than 5 and computer usage greater than 7 h/d were used to as the cutoff line to divide groups. Descriptive statistics were computed for mean values and frequencies. χ(2) Analysis was used to determine significant differences between groups. A 0.05 level of significance of was used for statistical comparisons. A total of 254 subjects returned the questionnaire, of which 203 met the inclusion criteria. The 3 leading regions of musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users were the shoulder (73%), neck (71%), and upper back (60%) areas. Similarly, the 3 leading regions of musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users with high workload were shoulder (77.3%), neck (75.6%), and upper back (63.9%) regions. High psychologic distress was significantly associated with shoulder and upper back complaints (odds ratio [OR], 3.46; OR, 2.24), whereas a high workload was significantly associated with lower back complaints (OR, 1.89). Females were more likely to report shoulder complaints (OR, 2.25). This study found that high psychologic distress was significantly associated with shoulder and upper back pain, whereas high workload was associated with lower back pain. Women tended to have a greater risk of shoulder complaints than men

  5. CaPSCA: Evaluation of a Brief Cancer Prevention Education Programme to Promote Balanced Diet in French School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura J; Bazillier-Bruneau, Cécile; Rouëssé, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two cancer prevention interventions in improving balanced diet among French children aged 12-14 years. The educational techniques used were taken from the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (BCTs; Abraham & Michie, 2008). Allocation to intervention group (intervention versus control) was randomised at the school-level, the intervention group received two interventions, each of 1-h duration, containing BCTs including advocated attitude, anticipated success/regret, behaviour modelling and barrier identification. Self-reported diet was assessed pre- and post-interventions. The resulting data were coded by a nutritionist and transformed into a novel measure representing the extent to which the participant achieved a balanced diet. Multilevel modelling indicated that, having taken into account the clustered nature of the data, gender and the differing socio-economic status of the participants, balanced diet decreased over time, b=-1.23, t(1830)=-2.79, p=0.005, but this was qualified by a significant interaction effect with intervention, b=1.42, t(1830)=1.98, p=0.047. Separate models for each intervention group revealed that balanced diet decreased over time in the control group, b=-1.25, t(1195)=-2.47, p=0.014, but did not in the intervention group, b=0.19, t(635)=0.44, p=0.66, suggesting a buffering effect of the interventions on balanced diet over time. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of educational interventions using established behaviour change techniques, to change behaviour.

  6. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... It was like watching a movie, but every couple of frames were skipping. It was disorienting," the ...

  7. Antecedents of basic psychological need satisfaction of pharmacy students: The role of peers, family, lecturers and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Mariëtta J; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2017-04-27

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model to improve pharmacy students' well-being or functioning in their study context. According to SDT, students need a context that satisfies their needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in order to function optimally. Contextual factors that could have an impact on a student's functioning are lecturers, family, peers and workload. To investigate whether there is a difference between the contributions family, lecturers, peers and workload make towards the satisfaction of pharmacy students' basic psychological needs within a university context. An electronic survey was administered amongst students registered with the North-West University's School of Pharmacy. Registered pharmacy students, 779, completed said electronic survey comprised of a questionnaire on demographics, BMPN (Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs) and self-developed ANPNS (Antecedents of Psychological Need-satisfaction Scale). Data derived from the afore-going was analysed with the aid of structural equation modelling (SEM). Structural equation modelling explained 46%, 25% and 30% respectively of the total group's variances in autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction, and 26% of the variance in psychological need frustration. Peers and family played a significant role in the satisfaction of students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence, whilst workload seemingly hampered satisfaction with regards to relatedness and autonomy. Workload contributed towards frustration with regards to psychological need satisfaction. The role played by lecturers in satisfying pharmacy students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence will also be highlighted. This study added to the body of knowledge regarding contextual factors and the impact those factors have on pharmacy students' need satisfaction by illustrating that not all factors (family, lecturers, peers and workload) can be considered equal. Lecturers ought to recognise the

  8. Single-Pilot Workload Management in Entry-Level Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    under Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) in a Cessna Citation Mustang ELJ level 5 flight training device at CAMI. Eight of the pilots were Mustang owner...Instrument Landing System IFR ............Instrument Flight Rules IMC ...........Instrument Meteorological Conditions ISA...pilots flew an experimental flight with two legs involving high workload management under Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) in a Cessna Citation Mustang

  9. Cultural influences on the measurement of subjective mental workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Widyanti, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive ergonomics is well entrenched in North American and most European work environments, where systems and products are designed with the capabilities and limitations of the user in mind. A prominent technique for analysing task demands is subjective mental workload measurement. Subjective

  10. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-11

    powered mill that significantly reduces this workload, while virtually eliminating post-harvest losses. Manual dehulling methods often result in one-third to half of all seeds breaking. This is key, as clean seed sells for three to four times ...

  11. Telomeres, workload and life-history in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and the effects of increased workload in great tits A new measurement to quantify variation in quality and rate of ageing between individuals is telomere length. Telomeres are a piece of DNA at the end of chromosomes, and they protect the other DNA. In many species shortening of telomere

  12. Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT): A User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The effects of supervisor experience and the presence of a shift technical advisor on the performance of two-man crews in a nuclear power plant...et de Recherches de Medecine Acrospatiale, Laboratoire d’Etudes Medicophysiologiques 16/330). S 110 Potter, S. S., 1986, Subjective workload assessment

  13. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  14. Neonatal nursing workload – can it be measured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. van den Heever

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing pressure an tertiary hospitals 10 reduce expenses has inevitably meant a demand to reduce nursing staff. This intensified the need to ensure that staffing allocation is appropriate. A method to calculate staffing needs based measurement of neonatal workload is explored.

  15. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.; Leeman, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The

  16. Faculty Acceptance of a Workload Survey in One Major University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.

    1978-01-01

    Faculty at a state university were asked how they felt about the workload survey administered on campus and whether the NCHEMS' factors were related to their acceptance of the survey. Results upheld one NCHEMS relationship: that a positive attitude toward a survey is related to perceived value of the data for allocating faculty resources and…

  17. HIV infection, tuberculosis and workload in a general paediatric ward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To describe the impact of HIV infection and tuberculosis on the workload of a general paediatric ward at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in 2007. Methods. Prospective descriptive surveillance of the patient composition of a general paediatric ward over a 1-year period. Results. Median bed occupancy was ...

  18. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy, virologic failure and workload at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-14

    Oct 14, 2009 ... greater proximity of services encourages retention in care.38. However, a rapid transfer of large numbers of patients can overwhelm minimally staffed clinics if appropriate steps are not taken. In addition to the additional workload,. Table III: Self-reported adherence and virologic failure among study.

  19. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic work...

  20. gLite Workload Management System Performance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Svraka, N; Belic, A; Bogojevic, A R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to the gLite Grid middleware and one of its most important components, Workload Management System (WMS), responsible for management of user jobs is given.Useful performance metrics of gLite WMS are defined from a Grid application point of view, and preliminary results of performance measurements are presented and briefly analyzed.

  1. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  2. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.; Oudejans, J.J.; Koevoets, J.J.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a

  3. Towards resource disaggregation - Memory scavenging for scientific workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uta, Alexandru; Oprescu, Ana Maria; Kielmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    Compute clusters, consisting of many, uniformly built nodes, are used to run a large spectrum of different workloads, like tightly coupled (MPI) jobs, MapReduce, or graph-processing data-analytics applications, each of which with their own resource requirements. Many studies consistently highlight

  4. Cross-Validation of Indicators of Cognitive Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    INVESTIGATOR: SANDRA P. MARSHALL INSTITUTION: EYETRACKING , INC. ADDRESS: 6475 Alvarado Rd., Suite 132, San Diego, CA 92120 TELEPHONE: 619-594-2695 EMAIL...WORKLOAD Sandra P. Marshall Mike Bartels EyeTracking , Inc. 6475 Alvarado Road, Suite 132 San Diego, CA 92120 www.eyetracking.com Final Report Contract No

  5. Analysis of the Body Control System Related to Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Naito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model-based analysis of the standing posture control mechanism with consideration to mental workload and the physiological features of sensory feedback. It has been known that standing posture control is not performed autonomously or unconsciously but is affected by “working memory” [1]. In order to investigate how mental workload in working memory influences standing posture control, we consider the feedback groups in the standing posture control mechanism which include the viscoelastic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system and sensory feedback. We use a centre of pressure (COP-based tracking task to investigate the influence of mental workload on voluntary (tracking movement. Maurer-Peterka's model is applied to analyse the standing posture control mechanism, with respect to a change in the internal processes. The simulation results show the relationship of the feedback gain and its delay from the central nervous system with the standing posture control performance. The proposed model-based scheme provides a comprehensive view for physiological data analysis of human body movement in relation to mental workload.

  6. Comparison of physical workload in four Gari -frying working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All physical labour requires physical exertion which indicates the level of physical workload involved. This paper examines the energy expenditure in four working postures of gari-frying (garification) workers in southwestern Nigeria. The postures include sitting-beside (SB), sitting-in-front (SF), ...

  7. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  8. The effect of inclement weather on trauma orthopaedic workload.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict increasing frequency of extreme weather. One of the challenges hospitals face is how to make sure they have adequate staffing at various times of the year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this severe inclement weather on hospital admissions, operative workload and cost in the Irish setting. We hypothesised that there is a direct relationship between cold weather and workload in a regional orthopaedic trauma unit. METHODS: Trauma orthopaedic workload in a regional trauma unit was examined over 2 months between December 2009 and January 2010. This corresponded with a period of severe inclement weather. RESULTS: We identified a direct correlation between the drop in temperature and increase in workload, with a corresponding increase in demand on resources. CONCLUSIONS: Significant cost savings could be made if these injuries were prevented. While the information contained in this study is important in the context of resource planning and staffing of hospital trauma units, it also highlights the vulnerability of the Irish population to wintery weather.

  9. Physiological workload reactions to increasing levels of task difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of physiological measures to mental workload has been investigated in a flight simulator. Twelve pilots had to fly through a tunnel with different levels of difficulty. Additionally, they had to perform a memory task with four levels of difficulty. The easiest memory task was

  10. Workload Indicators Of Staffing Need Method in determining optimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... available working hours, category and individual allowances, annual workloads from the previous year\\'s statistics and optimal departmental establishment of workers. Results: There was initial resentment to the exercise because of the notion that it was aimed at retrenching workers. The team was given autonomy by the ...

  11. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  12. HIV infection, tuberculosis and workload in a general paediatric ward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-TB co-infection prevalence rates in hospitalised children; to determine the proportion of hospitalised HIV-infected children who required high care; to describe the proportion of deaths associated with HIV and/or TB; and to relate workload to the level of nursing cover in a general paediatric ward over a 1-year period in a ...

  13. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in elderly women performing aquatic exercise and gymnastics DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n1p55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated static and dynamic balance and related motor valences in elderly women who had been undergone gymnastics or aquatic exercise training for at least 6 months, three times a week. Thirty-one women performed water gymnastics (mean age: 69.32 ± 6.57 years and 28 gymnastics (65.57 ± 7.67 years. Height (cm, weight (kg and waist, hip and abdominal circumference (cm were measured and the body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Physical fitness was measured using the “sit and get up in 30 seconds” test (leg endurance and “8-foot up-and-go” test (dynamic balance, both proposed by Rikli and Jones (1999, and the “sit and reach” (flexibility and static balance tests described by Caromano (1998. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t-test and Pearson’s correlation, with a level of significance of 0.05. No significant difference in the anthropometric measures (BMI and WHR was observed between groups. In the physical fitness tests, significant differences were only found in the “8-foot up-and-go” and “sit and get up” tests, with the gymnastics group presenting better results. No correlations within or between groups were observed regarding static and dynamic balance or motor valences. In conclusion, neither type of exercise was superior but the gymnastics group tended to show better results in terms of parameters such as agility, balance and flexibility.

  14. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. METHODS: Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28, twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30 or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group classes (n = 28 for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test. We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. RESULTS: Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867.

  15. Benchmarking transaction and analytical processing systems the creation of a mixed workload benchmark and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Bog, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces a new benchmark for hybrid database systems, gauging the effect of adding OLAP to an OLTP workload and analyzing the impact of commonly used optimizations in historically separate OLTP and OLAP domains in mixed-workload scenarios.

  16. Performance evaluation of ant colony optimization-based solution strategies on the mixed-model assembly line balancing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Sener; Mirac Bayhan, G.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the performances of iterative ant colony optimization (ACO)-based solution strategies on a mixed-model assembly line balancing problem of type II (MMALBP-II) by addressing some particular features of real-world assembly line balancing problems such as parallel workstations and zoning constraints. To solve the problem, where the objective is to minimize the cycle time (i.e. maximize the production rate) for a predefined number of workstations in an existing assembly line, two ACO-based approaches which differ in the mission assigned to artificial ants are used. Furthermore, each ACO-based approach is conducted with two different pheromone release strategies: global and local pheromone updating rules. The four ACO-based approaches are used for solving 20 representative MMALBP-II to compare their performance in terms of computational time and solution quality. Detailed comparison results are presented.

  17. Modified gap-balancing technique in total knee arthroplasty: evaluation of the post-operative coronal laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro-oka, Taka-aki; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Banks, Scott A

    2010-03-01

    It is unknown how intra-operative soft-tissue balance affects post-operative knee kinematics during different functional tasks. In order to clarify this relationship, the intra-operative varus-valgus balance and post-operative knee kinematics were compared for 17 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty using a modified gap technique. The intra-operative balance was recorded with a tensor device, and in vivo knee kinematics of lunging, kneeling and non-weight-bearing knee extension were analyzed with 3D-to-2D model registration techniques. Femoral condylar separation from the tibial articular surface also was investigated. The post-operative varus-valgus angle in 90 degrees kneeling had a strong relationship with the intra-operative varus-valgus angle, while there was a weak relationship for the non-weight-bearing motion at 0 degrees and 90 degrees flexion. Articular surface separation was an uncommon observation, seen in 2.2% of images during non-weight-bearing motion and in none of the lunging or kneeling images. The modified gap technique appears effective providing stable knee arthroplasty kinematics during in vivo activities with minimal articular separation in non-weight-bearing motion.

  18. An application of the thermo-radiative model SOLENE for the evaluation of street canyon energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idczak, Marcin [Department of Heating and Gas Systems, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warszawa (Poland); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides, UMR CNRS 6598, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 1 rue de la Noe, BP 92101, F-44321 Nantes cedex 03 (France); Groleau, Dominique [CERMA, UMR CNRS 1563, Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Architecture de Nantes, 6 quai Francois Mitterrand - BP 16202 44262 Nantes cedex 2 (France); Mestayer, Patrice; Rosant, Jean-Michel; Sini, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides, UMR CNRS 6598, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, 1 rue de la Noe, BP 92101, F-44321 Nantes cedex 03 (France)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a validation of the thermo-radiative model SOLENE and its application for analysing the street canyon energy balance. The validation data were selected from the temperature and radiation measurements obtained during the JAPEX campaign, previously described by Idczak et al.: a set of four lines of steel containers buildings composing three parallel street canyons at an approximate 1:5 scale. Reference weather data and micrometeorological conditions within the canyon were measured. Numerical simulations were carried out using the meteorological measurements as model inputs. The simulated surface temperatures and radiation fluxes are compared with the measurements for a full week period, with a focus on a day with clear sky conditions. The street canyon energy balance analysis demonstrates that the most energetic surface was the street ground due to its thick surface layer of tar-coated gravels while the walls had a low heat capacity. The thermal radiation balance was negative for all canyon surfaces. The sensible heat was transferred mainly from the canyon surfaces to the ambient air, but also from the air to the ground in the morning. The effective albedo of the canyon had a diurnal value of 0.20-0.25, but dropped to 0.10 in the afternoon when the ground strongly transformed the direct and reflected solar radiation into sensible heat. This narrow street configuration enhanced solar radiation absorption and longwave radiation trapping. (author)

  19. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Kleissl, J.; Allen, R. G.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Scott, R. L.; Steinwand, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is very attractive as it enables large area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to estimate all the energy balance components in the arid riparian areas of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (New Mexico), San Pedro Basin (Arizona), and Owens Valley (California). We compare instantaneous and daily SEBAL fluxes derived from Landsat TM images to surface-based measurements with eddy covariance flux towers. This study presents evidence that SEBAL yields reliable estimates for actual evapotranspiration rates in riparian areas of the southwestern United States. The great strength of the SEBAL method is its internal calibration procedure that eliminates most of the bias in latent heat flux at the expense of increased bias in sensible heat flux.

  20. Evaluation of an open-rota system in a Danish psychiatric hospital: a mechanism for improving job satisfaction and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Joanna; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Karina

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of an open-rota scheduling system on the health, work-life balance and job satisfaction of nurses working in a psychiatric ward in Denmark. The effects of shift rotation and scheduling are well known; however, little is known about the wider benefits of open-rota systems. Method A structured questionnaire was distributed to control and intervention groups preintervention and postintervention (20 months). Nurses within the intervention group trialed an open-rota system in which nurses designed their own work-rest schedules. Nurses in the intervention group reported that they were more satisfied with their work hours, less likely to swap their shift when working within the open-rota system and reported significant increases in work-life balance, job satisfaction, social support and community spirit when compared with nurses in the control groups. The ownership and choice over work-rest schedules has benefits for nurses, and potentially the hospital.

  1. Application of Avatars in Display Design to Support Spatial Awareness under Varying Workload Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    AVATARS IN DISPLAY DESIGN TO SUPPORT SPATIAL AWARENESS UNDER VARYING WORKLOAD CONDITIONS by Dimitrios Myttas September 2006 Thesis Advisor...Avatars in Display Design to Support Spatial Awareness under Varying Workload Conditions 6. AUTHOR(S) Dimitrios Myttas 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...24 5. Human Performance – Workload Measurement ................. 24 III. PROPOSED DISPLAY DESIGN ................................................................... 27

  2. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  3. Role of Academic Managers in Workload and Performance Management of Academic Staff: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…

  4. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M. M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  5. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M.M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  6. Workload and job satisfaction among general practitioners: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1991-01-01

    The workload of general practitioners (GPs) is an important issue in health care systems with capitation payment for GPs services. This article reviews the literature on determinants and consequences of workload and job satisfaction of GPs. Determinants of workload are located on the demand side

  7. The impact of HIV/SRH service integration on workload: analysis from the Integra Initiative in two African settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sedona; Obure, Carol Dayo; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Darsamo, Vanessa; Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Muketo, Esther; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Warren, Charlotte; Mayhew, Susannah; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2014-08-07

    There is growing interest in integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services as a way to improve the efficiency of human resources (HR) for health in low- and middle-income countries. Although this is supported by a wealth of evidence on the acceptability and clinical effectiveness of service integration, there is little evidence on whether staff in general health services can easily absorb HIV services. We conducted a descriptive analysis of HR integration through task shifting/sharing and staff workload in the context of the Integra Initiative - a large-scale five-year evaluation of HIV/SRH integration. We describe the level, characteristics and changes in HR integration in the context of wider efforts to integrate HIV/SRH, and explore the impact of HR integration on staff workload. Improvements in the range of services provided by staff (HR integration) were more likely to be achieved in facilities which also improved other elements of integration. While there was no overall relationship between integration and workload at the facility level, HIV/SRH integration may be most influential on staff workload for provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) and postnatal care (PNC) services, particularly where HIV care and treatment services are being supported with extra SRH/HIV staffing. Our findings therefore suggest that there may be potential for further efficiency gains through integration, but overall the pace of improvement is slow. This descriptive analysis explores the effect of HIV/SRH integration on staff workload through economies of scale and scope in high- and medium-HIV prevalence settings. We find some evidence to suggest that there is potential to improve productivity through integration, but, at the same time, significant challenges are being faced, with the pace of productivity gain slow. We recommend that efforts to implement integration are assessed in the broader context of HR planning to ensure that neither staff

  8. Linear and non-linear heart rate metrics for the assessment of anaesthetists' workload during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Schneider, F; Kowalewskij, A; Jordan, D; Hapfelmeier, A; Kochs, E F; Wagner, K J; Schulz, C M

    2016-12-01

    Excessive workload may impact the anaesthetists' ability to adequately process information during clinical practice in the operation room and may result in inaccurate situational awareness and performance. This exploratory study investigated heart rate (HR), linear and non-linear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics and subjective ratings scales for the assessment of workload associated with the anaesthesia stages induction, maintenance and emergence. HR and HRV metrics were calculated based on five min segments from each of the three anaesthesia stages. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of the investigated metrics was calculated to assess their ability to discriminate between the stages of anaesthesia. Additionally, a multiparametric approach based on logistic regression models was performed to further evaluate whether linear or non-linear heart rate metrics are suitable for the assessment of workload. Mean HR and several linear and non-linear HRV metrics including subjective workload ratings differed significantly between stages of anaesthesia. Permutation Entropy (PeEn, AUC=0.828) and mean HR (AUC=0.826) discriminated best between the anaesthesia stages induction and maintenance. In the multiparametric approach using logistic regression models, the model based on non-linear heart rate metrics provided a higher AUC compared with the models based on linear metrics. In this exploratory study based on short ECG segment analysis, PeEn and HR seem to be promising to separate workload levels between different stages of anaesthesia. The multiparametric analysis of the regression models favours non-linear heart rate metrics over linear metrics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Metrics for Operator Situation Awareness, Workload, and Performance in Automated Separation Assurance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strybel, Thomas Z.; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Battiste, Vernol; Dao, Arik-Quang; Dwyer, John P.; Landry, Steven; Johnson, Walter; Ho, Nhut

    2011-01-01

    A research consortium of scientists and engineers from California State University Long Beach (CSULB), San Jose State University Foundation (SJSUF), California State University Northridge (CSUN), Purdue University, and The Boeing Company was assembled to evaluate the impact of changes in roles and responsibilities and new automated technologies, being introduced in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), on operator situation awareness (SA) and workload. To meet these goals, consortium members performed systems analyses of NextGen concepts and airspace scenarios, and concurrently evaluated SA, workload, and performance measures to assess their appropriateness for evaluations of NextGen concepts and tools. The following activities and accomplishments were supported by the NRA: a distributed simulation, metric development, systems analysis, part-task simulations, and large-scale simulations. As a result of this NRA, we have gained a greater understanding of situation awareness and its measurement, and have shared our knowledge with the scientific community. This network provides a mechanism for consortium members, colleagues, and students to pursue research on other topics in air traffic management and aviation, thus enabling them to make greater contributions to the field

  10. Workload of Team Leaders and Team Members During a Simulated Sepsis Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofil, Nancy M; Lin, Yiqun; Zhong, John; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; White, Marjorie Lee; Grant, Vincent; Grant, David J; Gottesman, Ronald; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Adler, Mark; Marohn, Kimberly; Davidson, Jennifer; Cheng, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Crisis resource management principles dictate appropriate distribution of mental and/or physical workload so as not to overwhelm any one team member. Workload during pediatric emergencies is not well studied. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index is a multidimensional tool designed to assess workload validated in multiple settings. Low workload is defined as less than 40, moderate 40-60, and greater than 60 signify high workloads. Our hypothesis is that workload among both team leaders and team members is moderate to high during a simulated pediatric sepsis scenario and that team leaders would have a higher workload than team members. Multicenter observational study. Nine pediatric simulation centers (five United States, three Canada, and one United Kingdom). Team leaders and team members during a 12-minute pediatric sepsis scenario. National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index. One hundred twenty-seven teams were recruited from nine sites. One hundred twenty-seven team leaders and 253 team members completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index. Team leader had significantly higher overall workload than team member (51 ± 11 vs 44 ± 13; p leader had higher workloads in all subcategories except in performance where the values were equal and in physical demand where team members were higher than team leaders (29 ± 22 vs 18 ± 16; p leader and 60 ± 20 for team member. For team leader, two categories, mental (73 ± 17) and effort (66 ± 16), were high workload, most domains for team member were moderate workload levels. Team leader and team member are under moderate workloads during a pediatric sepsis scenario with team leader under high workloads (> 60) in the mental demand and effort subscales. Team leader average significantly higher workloads. Consideration of decreasing team leader responsibilities may improve team workload distribution.

  11. Burnout Syndrome prevalence of on-call surgeons in a trauma reference hospital and its correlation with weekly workload: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO NOBRE DE NOVAIS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome (BS for surgeons working in referral hospital for trauma in Maceio and to evaluate the possible correlation between BS and weekly workload. Methods: cross-sectional study with 43 on-call surgeons at Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela General State Hospital, Maceió, between July and December, 2015. A self-administered form was used to evaluate BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and socio-demographic characteristics among participants. Spearman's S test was used to compare BS and weekly workload. Significant level was 5%. Results: among the surgeons studied, 95.35% were male and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call in trauma was 33.90 ± 16.82 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 46.5%. Professional achievement was correlated with weekly workload (P = 0.020. Conclusion: the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among on-call surgeons in referral hospital for trauma was 46.5%. In this sample there was correlation between weekly workload and the Burnout Syndrome.

  12. A systematic review of Registered Nurses; experiences of the influence of workplace culture and climatic factors on nursing workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Walker, Cheryl; Rogers-Clark, Cath; Pearce, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    papers and 39 conclusions from the 4 text/ opinion papers. While the research and non research evidence was analysed separately, both sets of evidence gave the same synthesised findings. The qualitative research findings were grouped into eight categories and textual data into six categories; all textual categories were also identified in the qualitative synthesis. These categories were aggregated into two synthesised findings. Nursing workloads are influenced by the largely immeasurable cultural factors within hospital environments. These factors signify 'how we do things around here'. Organisational climate influences nursing workloads because of inter-professional relationships, clinical governance, workplace support, non-nursing duties, organisational structure and organisation, work redesign, workflow and diversity within nursing roles. The component of registered nurses' workloads that are not patient-care should be recognised. Reviewing nursing roles to remove unnecessary work unrelated to patient care would positively influence nursing workloads, giving time for cognitive workload and clinical education and mentorship. Further qualitative research should explore the complexity of clinical nurses' roles in a diversity of settings, to address the responsibilities that registered nurses routinely assume, but which do not involve direct patient care. New workload models, which capture the non-measurable aspects of a registered nurse's role, should be developed and evaluated.

  13. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk...

  14. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  15. Development and evaluation of low cost game-based balance rehabilitation tool using the Microsoft Kinect sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Belinda; Chang, Chien-Yen; Suma, Evan; Newman, Bradley; Rizzo, Albert Skip; Bolas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The use of the commercial video games as rehabilitation tools, such as the Nintendo WiiFit, has recently gained much interest in the physical therapy arena. Motion tracking controllers such as the Nintendo Wiimote are not sensitive enough to accurately measure performance in all components of balance. Additionally, users can figure out how to "cheat" inaccurate trackers by performing minimal movement (e.g. wrist twisting a Wiimote instead of a full arm swing). Physical rehabilitation requires accurate and appropriate tracking and feedback of performance. To this end, we are developing applications that leverage recent advances in commercial video game technology to provide full-body control of animated virtual characters. A key component of our approach is the use of newly available low cost depth sensing camera technology that provides markerless full-body tracking on a conventional PC. The aim of this research was to develop and assess an interactive game-based rehabilitation tool for balance training of adults with neurological injury.

  16. Balance between beneficial microflora and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation: in vivo evaluation in patients with atopic dermatitis during hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrain, Muriel; Ribet, Virginie; Calvez, Audrey; Lebaron, Philippe; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the balance between Staphylococcus aureus and commensal flora in the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions is not well understood. To determine the structure of skin microbiome in patients with AD and its changes during an 18-day course of hydrotherapy and to assess the association between S. aureus and micro-organism colonisation, local skin condition and AD severity. Three skin areas (xerotic, inflammatory and healthy) were identified in 25 moderate to severe AD patients for sampling before treatment, just after (day 1), and at day 10 and day 18. The structure of the bacterial community in the samples was assessed using a molecular biology approach based on 16S rRNA gene profiling. At each visit, AD severity was measured globally by the SCORAD index and at the lesional and healthy sampling sites. Clustering analysis of 296 samples showed two different bacterial community profiles: one with 2 peaks corresponding to S. aureus, the other displayed multiple peaks, identified as diversified microflora. At baseline, xerotic areas seemed to be less colonised by S. aureus than inflammatory areas. After 18 days of hydrotherapy, the number of lesional sites colonised by S. aureus (p<0.05) and the SCORAD index (p<0.00001) were significantly reduced, mainly in inflammatory and moist areas, promoting the emergence of a diversified microflora. We identified two bacterial community profiles corresponding to S. aureus and diversified microflora. The competitive balance between both profiles appears to be a key element associated with the severity of AD lesions.

  17. Exergames for women with fibromyalgia: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects on mobility skills, balance and fear of falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Exergames are a new form of rehabilitation that combine the characteristics of physical exercise and the benefits of non-immersive virtual reality (VR. Effects of this novel therapy in women fibromyalgia are still unknown. The objective was to evaluate the effects of exergame-based intervention on mobility skills, balance and fear of falling in women with fibromyalgia. Methods This study was a randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation. Seventy-six women with fibromyalgia were divided into two groups: the exercise group received an eight week intervention based on exergames, while the control group continued their usual activities. Mobility skills were evaluated using the timed up and go test, while balance was assessed using the functional reach test, and the CTSIB protocol. Fear of falling was evaluated on a scale of 0–100 (0, no fear; 100, extreme fear. Measurements were performed before and after the intervention. A repeated-measures linear mixed model was used to compare the effects of the intervention between the two groups. Results The exercise group was significantly quicker than the control group in the timed up and go test (MD, −0.71; 95% CI [−1.09–0.32]; p < 0.001. There were also significant improvements in functional reach and a reduced fear of falling (MD, 4.34; 95% CI [1.39–7.30]; p = 0.005 and MD, −9.85; 95% CI [−0.19–−0.08]; p = 0.048, respectively. Discussion The improved TUG observed herein was better than the smallest real difference. Based on the results on mobility skills, balance and fear of falling, exergames may be an effective tool as a therapy for women with fibromyalgia.

  18. TideWatch: Fingerprinting the cyclicality of big data workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Williams, Daniel W.

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic to \\'big data\\' processing workloads (e.g., iterative MapReduce, Pregel, etc.) are cyclical resource utilization patterns that are highly synchronized across different resource types as well as the workers in a cluster. In Infrastructure as a Service settings, cloud providers do not exploit this characteristic to better manage VMs because they view VMs as \\'black boxes.\\' We present TideWatch, a system that automatically identifies cyclicality and similarity in running VMs. TideWatch predicts period lengths of most VMs in Hadoop workloads within 9% of actual iteration boundaries and successfully classifies up to 95% of running VMs as participating in the appropriate Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, we show how TideWatch can be used to improve the timing of VM migrations, reducing both migration time and network impact by over 50% when compared to a random approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Measurement of nurses' workload in an oncology outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alves de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand and the degree of patient care in oncological outpatient services, as well as the complexity of treatment have had an impact on the workload of nurses. This study aimed at measuring the workload and productivity of nurses in an oncological outpatient service. An observational study using a work sampling technique was conducted and included seven nurses working in an oncological outpatient service in the south-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 1,487 intervention or activity samples were obtained. Nurses used 43.2% of their time on indirect care, 33.2% on direct care, 11.6% on associated activities, and 12% on personal activities. Their mean productivity was 88.0%. The findings showed that nurses in this service spend most of their time in indirect care activities. Moreover, the productivity index in this study was above that recommended in the literature.

  20. POPCORN: a Supervisory Control Simulation for Workload and Performance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.; Battiste, V.; Lester, P. T.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-task simulation of a semi-automatic supervisory control system was developed to provide an environment in which training, operator strategy development, failure detection and resolution, levels of automation, and operator workload can be investigated. The goal was to develop a well-defined, but realistically complex, task that would lend itself to model-based analysis. The name of the task (POPCORN) reflects the visual display that depicts different task elements milling around waiting to be released and pop out to be performed. The operator's task was to complete each of 100 task elements that ere represented by different symbols, by selecting a target task and entering the desired a command. The simulated automatic system then completed the selected function automatically. Highly significant differences in performance, strategy, and rated workload were found as a function of all experimental manipulations (except reward/penalty).

  1. Reducing Concurrency Bottlenecks in Parallel I/O Workloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingate, Meghan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    To enable high performance parallel checkpointing we introduced the Parallel Log Structured File System (PLFS). PLFS is middleware interposed on the file system stack to transform concurrent writing of one application file into many non-concurrently written component files. The promising effectiveness of PLFS makes it important to examine its performance for workloads other than checkpoint capture, notably the different ways that state snapshots may be later read, to make the case for using PLFS in the Exascale I/O stack. Reading a PLFS file involved reading each of its component files. In this paper we identify performance limitations on broader workloads in an early version of PLFS, specifically the need to build and distribute an index for the overall file, and the pressure on the underlying parallel file system's metadata server, and show how PLFS's decomposed components architecture can be exploited to alleviate bottlenecks in the underlying parallel file system.

  2. A framework for database optimization and workload control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVES JR., A. C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, database optimizers take advantage of indexes and materialized views (MVs to produce query execution plans. While indexes and MVs can speed up the execution of queries, there are costs to store and manage them. This paper presents a mathematical model and a greedy implementation to recommend a set of indexes and MVs in order to optimize the database, given a database workload and a disk space constraint. Our approach is generic, so it can be used to any relational database system that takes advantage of MVs in plan selection. While it was developed for frequently updated databases, it also produced interesting results in read only databases and to estimate the behavior of new databases (with predefined workloads.

  3. A psychophysiological assessment of operator workload during simulated flight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Braune, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the dual-task event-related (brain) potential (ERP) paradigm to the assessment of an operator's mental workload and residual capacity in a complex situation of a flight mission was demonstrated using ERP measurements and subjective workload ratings of student pilots flying a fixed-based single-engine simulator. Data were collected during two separate 45-min flights differing in difficulty; flight demands were examined by dividing each flight into four segments: takeoff, straight and level flight, holding patterns, and landings. The P300 ERP component in particular was found to discriminate among the levels of task difficulty in a systematic manner, decreasing in amplitude with an increase in task demands. The P300 amplitude is shown to be negatively correlated with deviations from command headings across the four flight segments.

  4. The impact on the workload of the Ward Manager with the introduction of administrative assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Rachel; Leach, Camilla; Kitsell, Fleur; Griffith, Jacki

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the impact on the workload of the Ward Manager (WM) with the introduction of administrative assistants into eight trusts in the South of England in a year-long pilot. Ward Managers are nurse leaders who are responsible for ward management and delivering expert clinical care to patients. They have traditionally been expected to achieve this role without administrative assistance. Meeting the workload demands of multiple roles and overload has meant the leadership and clinical role has suffered, presenting issues of low morale among existing WMs and issues of recruiting the next generation of WMs. Sixty qualitative interviews were carried out with 16 WMs, 12 Ward Manager Assistants (WMAs), and six senior nurse executives about the impact of the introduction of the WMA post. Quantitative data to measure change in WM workload and ward activity was supplied by 24 wards. Ward Managers reported spending reduced time on administrative tasks and having increased time available to spend on the ward with patients and leading staff. With the introduction of WMAs, there was also improvement in key performance measures (the maintenance of quality under service pressures) and increased staff motivation. There was overwhelming support for the introduction of administrative assistants from participating WMs. The WMAs enabled WMs to spend more time with patients and, more widely, to provide greater support to ward teams. The success of the pilot is reflected in wards working hard to be able to extend contracts of WMAs. The extent of the success is reflected in wards that were not participants in the pilot, observing the benefits of the post, having worked to secure funding to recruit their own WMAs. The widespread introduction of administrative assistance could increase ward productivity and provide support for clinical leaders. Continuing professional development for WMs needs to incorporate training about management responsibilities and how to best use administrative

  5. Analysis and Modeling of Social In uence in High Performance Computing Workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai

    2011-06-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a common tool in many research areas. Social influence (e.g., project collaboration) among increasing users of HPC systems creates bursty behavior in underlying workloads. This bursty behavior is increasingly common with the advent of grid computing and cloud computing. Mining the user bursty behavior is important for HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, which has direct impact on overall HPC computing performance. A representative work in this area is the Mixed User Group Model (MUGM), which clusters users according to the resource demand features of their submissions, such as duration time and parallelism. However, MUGM has some difficulties when implemented in real-world system. First, representing user behaviors by the features of their resource demand is usually difficult. Second, these features are not always available. Third, measuring the similarities among users is not a well-defined problem. In this work, we propose a Social Influence Model (SIM) to identify, analyze, and quantify the level of social influence across HPC users. The advantage of the SIM model is that it finds HPC communities by analyzing user job submission time, thereby avoiding the difficulties of MUGM. An offline algorithm and a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups are proposed. Both offline and online algorithms are applied on several HPC and grid workloads, including Grid 5000, EGEE 2005 and 2007, and KAUST Supercomputing Lab (KSL) BGP data. From the experimental results, we show the existence of a social graph, which is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of identified user groups, we show the pattern discovered by the offline algorithm follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. We finally conclude the thesis and discuss future directions of our work.

  6. Hand workload, computer use and risk of severe median nerve lesions at the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Paul; Seror, Raphaele

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of hand workload, especially computer use, on the incidence of severe, idiopathic median nerve lesions at the wrist (MNLW) in patients with idiopathic CTS. Data were prospectively collected for 444 patients with classic or probable CTS who were of working age and referred to our electrodiagnostic (EDX) laboratories. Clinical items recorded were age, gender, intensity of hand workload, BMI and bilaterality of the MNLW. EDX data recorded were results of needle examination of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), distal motor latency (DML) to the APB and orthodromic sensory conduction velocity. MNLW was considered severe if the DML to the APB was ≥6.0 ms. Patients were divided into two groups: those exhibiting at least one severe MNLW or not. They were classified into three categories according to occupational activity related to the intensity of hand workload: (i) non-workers (reference category); (ii) white-collar workers using computers; and (iii) blue-collar or manual workers. We determined factors associated with severe and non-severe MNLW. We investigated 92 patients with 119 severe MNLW and 352 with 589 non-severe MNLW. The risk of severe MNLW was similar for non-workers and blue-collar workers and was 2.5-fold higher than for workers using computers [adjusted odds ratio = 0.41; (95% CI)] after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. Workers who use computers, who represent, in many countries, a large number of compensation claims, have a lower risk of severe MNLW as compared with blue-collar workers and also non-workers.

  7. Telomeres, workload and life-history in great tits

    OpenAIRE

    Atema, Els

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and the effects of increased workload in great tits A new measurement to quantify variation in quality and rate of ageing between individuals is telomere length. Telomeres are a piece of DNA at the end of chromosomes, and they protect the other DNA. In many species shortening of telomere length with increasing age was demonstrated. This shortening is accelerated by processes that also decrease life expectancy. In this project we discovered that telomeres of great tits differ from telom...

  8. The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    stimulation on sustained attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 18, 245-249. Matthews, M. L. (1986). The influence of visual workload history on visual ...Battlespace Visualization Branch Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433 711 HPW/RHCPA 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY...contrast, exhibited consistently rapid settling which may indicate rapid changes in working memory utilization and conflict resolution (Gevins, et al

  9. Physiological Indicators of Workload in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    situations. That is, performance decrements will have to occur before high workload can be recognized. It would not benefit commanders to recognize, for... caffeine and tobacco), by pain and discomfort, and by diurnal variations. It is worth noting that, there are limitations with all physiological measures...multiple semi-autonomous RPA. The benefits of such automated systems include: reducing manpower requirements, lower life-cycle costs, and decreased

  10. Importance of radiological evaluation of global spinal balance together with lower limb alignment in planning lumbar spine deformity surgery : illustrative case presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Głowacki, Mariusz; Walecki, Jerzy; Kołakowski, Przemysław; Kolońska, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The presented case illustrates the critical role of a detailed preoperative radiological evaluation in complex spine surgery. Case Report A 49-year-old patient was admitted for a revision surgery after L3?L5 fusion. Preoperative assessment showed preserved sagittal balance, coronal imbalance and valgus knee deformity. The patient reported pain of 8?10 in VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) and had an ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) of 60%. The first step of the surgery was L2?S1 fu...

  11. Full-time employed and a family caregiver: a profile of women's workload, effort, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratovac, Evanne; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-01-01

    Women provide care for elderly family members while managing their other responsibilities, including full-time employment. This descriptive study used an inductively derived workload-effort-health theoretical model to examine workload, effort, and health among 46 full-time employed family caregivers [CG] of community-dwelling older adults from a larger, nonprobability, cross-sectional sample of 110 CGs. The women's caregiving workload (time, difficulty, care recipient's [CR] function), effort (perceived exertion of energy experienced in doing a workload), self-assessed health [SAH], depressive symptoms, and sources of help were richly described, and several associations were found, including higher physical and mental effort, were significantly correlated with higher workload time and difficulty and lower CR function, but not SAH. Higher mental effort and workload, and poorer SAH were significantly correlated with high depressive symptoms. Worse effort, workload, and health experiences were reported by daughters and by women who lived with their CR; those who did not have family or formal caregiving help had higher mental effort and were more depressed, suggesting an area for further study. Suggestions are offered for richer measurement of employment status, caregiving workload, and effort. Findings provide a unique profile of full-time employed women CGs' workload, effort (that is, how they do the work), and health, toward a stronger understanding of how women manage multiple workloads. Workplace policies are needed to address workload, effort and health in this informal caregiving workforce. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of mental workload and academic motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Kumru Didem; Can, Gulin Feryal; Erdem, Saban Remzi; Muderrisoglu, Ibrahim Haldun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the level of correlation and direction of linearity between academic motivation and subjective workload. The study was conducted at Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, from December 2013 to February 2014, and comprised Phase 5 Phase 6 medical students. Subjective workload level was determined by using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scale that was adapted to Turkish. Academic motivation values were obtained with the help of Academic Motivation Scale university form. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 105 subjects, 65(62%) students were in Phase 5 and 40(38%) were in Phase 6. Of the Phase 5 students, 18(27.7%) were boys and 47(72.3%) were girls, while of the Phase 6 students, 16(40%) were boys and 24(60%) were girls. There were significant differences in Phase 5 and Phase 6 students for mental effort (p=0.00) and physical effort (p=0.00). The highest correlation in Phase 5 was between mental effort and intrinsic motivation (r=0.343). For Phase 6, highest correlation was between effort and amotivation (r= -0.375). Subjective workload affected academic motivation in medical students.

  13. Cricket fast bowling workload patterns as risk factors for tendon, muscle, bone and joint injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Evaluation of Key Dependent S-Box Based Data Security Algorithm using Hamming Distance and Balanced Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balajee Maram K.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data security is a major issue because of rapid evolution of data communication over unsecured internetwork. Here the proposed system is concerned with the problem of randomly generated S-box. The generation of S-box depends on Pseudo-Random-Number-Generators and shared-secret-key. The process of Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator depends on large prime numbers. All Pseudo-Random-Numbers are scrambled according to shared-secret-key. After scrambling, the S-box is generated. In this research, large prime numbers are the inputs to the Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator. The proposed S-box will reduce the complexity of S-box generation. Based on S-box parameters, it experimentally investigates the quality and robustness of the proposed algorithm which was tested. It yields better results with the S-box parameters like Hamming Distance, Balanced Output and Avalanche Effect and can be embedded to popular cryptography algorithms

  15. A modeling approach to evaluate the balance between bioactivation and detoxification of MeIQx in human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorien Delannée

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA are environmental and food contaminants that are potentially carcinogenic for humans. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx is one of the most abundant HAA formed in cooked meat. MeIQx is metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2 in the human liver into detoxificated and bioactivated products. Once bioactivated, MeIQx metabolites can lead to DNA adduct formation responsible for further genome instability. Methods Using a computational approach, we developed a numerical model for MeIQx metabolism in the liver that predicts the MeIQx biotransformation into detoxification or bioactivation pathways according to the concentration of MeIQx. Results Our results demonstrate that (1 the detoxification pathway predominates, (2 the ratio between detoxification and bioactivation pathways is not linear and shows a maximum at 10 µM of MeIQx in hepatocyte cell models, and (3 CYP1A2 is a key enzyme in the system that regulates the balance between bioactivation and detoxification. Our analysis suggests that such a ratio could be considered as an indicator of MeIQx genotoxicity at a low concentration of MeIQx. Conclusions Our model permits the investigation of the balance between bioactivation (i.e., DNA adduct formation pathway through the prediction of potential genotoxic compounds and detoxification of MeIQx in order to predict the behaviour of this environmental contaminant in the human liver. It highlights the importance of complex regulations of enzyme competitions that should be taken into account in any further multi-organ models.

  16. Nursing Activities Score (NAS como instrumento para medir carga de trabalho de enfermagem em UTI adulto Nursing Activities Score - NAS como instrumento para medir la carga de trabajo de enfermería en UCI adulto Evaluation of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS as a nursing workload measurement tool in an adult ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Yatsue Conishi

    2007-09-01

    ó interesante instrumento de clasificación de pacientes y en la carga de trabajo de enfermeras en UCI.This is an exploratory, descriptive, prospective field study with a quantitative approach carried out at a general/adult Intensive Care Unit in the city of São Paulo. Objectives: to evaluate the NAS - Nursing Activities Score - as a tool for measuring nursing workload, its use in measuring shifts, and its correspondence to the number of effective nursing personnel. Thirty-three patients, with mean age of 70 years (+/-16.5, were classified. Most were males (66.7%. Length of stay in the ICU was 17 days (+/- 20.4; SAPSII was 41.7 (+/-17.9, with mean probability of death of 33.5% (+/- 26.8; 63.6% were transferred to Intermediate Care Units and 18.2% died during ICU stay. Three hundred and ninety six NAS measures (shifts were performed (134-morning, 132-afternoon, 130-evening, with averages of 55.4 (+/-12.3 and 147 in 24-hour NAS and mean of 69.6 (+/- 18.2. NAS performed better in 24-hour application than in shifts, and proved to be an interesting tool for patient and nursing workload classification in intensive care.

  17. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Junsu [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance.

  18. A proposal to use a balanced scorecard to evaluate Information for Health: an information strategy for the modern NHS (1998-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Denis

    2002-05-01

    The author was invited to assist in the development of an evaluation methodology for the Strategy. One of the conundrums of measuring the information management & technology (IM&T) function is that infrastructure investments cannot be cost justified on a return on investment basis. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a means to evaluate corporate performance from four different perspectives: the financial perspective, the internal business process perspective, the customer perspective, and the learning and growth perspective. An IM&T BSC for Information for Health was recommended as means of allowing managers to see the positive and negative impacts of IM&T activities on the factors that are important to the NHS as a whole.

  19. Evaluation of Primary Production in the Lower Amazon River Based on a Dissolved Oxygen Stable Isotopic Mass Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne-Maynard, William C.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Keil, Richard G.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Da Cunha, Alan C.; Neu, Vania; Brito, Daimio C.; Da Silva Less, Diani F.; Diniz, Joel E. M.; De Matos Valerio, Aline; Kampel, Milton; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.

    2017-02-07

    The Amazon River outgasses nearly an equivalent amount of CO2 as the rainforest sequesters on an annual basis due to microbial decomposition of terrigenous and aquatic organic matter. Most research performed in the Amazon has been focused on unraveling the mechanisms driving CO2 production since the recognition of a persistent state of CO2 supersaturation. However, although the river system is clearly net heterotrophic, the interplay between primary production and respiration is an essential aspect to understanding the overall metabolism of the ecosystem and potential transfer of energy up trophic levels. For example, an efficient ecosystem is capable of both decomposing high amounts of organic matter at lower trophic levels, driving CO2 emissions, and accumulating energy/biomass in higher trophic levels, stimulating fisheries production. Early studies found minimal evidence for primary production in the Amazon River mainstem and it has since been assumed that photosynthesis is strongly limited by low light penetration attributed to the high sediment load. Here, we test this assumption by measuring the stable isotopic composition of O218O-O2) and O2 saturation levels in the lower Amazon River from Óbidos to the river mouth and its major tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós rivers, during high and low water periods. An oxygen mass balance model was developed to estimate the input of photosynthetic oxygen in the discrete reach from Óbidos to Almeirim, midway to the river mouth. Based on the oxygen mass balance we estimate that primary production occurred at a rate of 0.39 ± 0.24 g O m3 d-1 at high water and 1.02 ± 0.55 g O m3 d-1 at low water. This translates to 41 ± 24% of the rate of O2 drawdown via respiration during high water and 67 ± 33% during low water. These primary production rates are 2-7 times higher than

  20. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Tetra Tech, 800-555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, Canada V6B 1M1 (Canada); Mahecha-Botero, Andrés, E-mail: andresm@chbe.ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael [Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, B.C., Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada)

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the various mass transfer (MT) and input/output steps for sub-systems in the landfill model. NeWS is defined as non-electronic waste solids, including sand and soil added as cover materials. Highlights: • A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). • Landfill samples and laboratory results are used to estimate the model

  1. Application of balanced scorecard in the evaluation of a complex health system intervention: 12 months post intervention findings from the BHOMA intervention: a cluster randomised trial in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful evaluation of such complex health

  2. A Balanced Scorecard-Based Model for Evaluating E-Learning and Conventional Pedagogical Activities in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovelja, Tomaž; Vavpotic, Damjan; Žvanut, Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities in nursing programmes has focused either on a single pedagogical activity or the entire curriculum, and only on students' or teachers' perspective. The goal of this study was to design and test a novel approach for evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities…

  3. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  4. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System for Exascale Computational Science

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Schovancova, J; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated a...

  5. The influence of workload and health behavior on job satisfaction of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Musselmann, Berthold; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie

    2013-02-01

    Workload, personal health behavior, and job satisfaction of the physicians are crucial aspects for the quality of care they provide. The aim of our study was to identify influencing factors on job satisfaction with regard to general practitioners' (GPs) characteristics such as age, gender, health behavior, body mass index (BMI), and workload. A cross-sectional survey with a sample of 1,027 German GPs was used. Job satisfaction was measured according to a modified version of the Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. Further, we collected data about health behavior and BMI of GPs and demographic data. Group comparison was evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni correction for post-hoc tests. A linear regression analysis was performed in which each of the job satisfaction items were handled as a dependent variable. The response rate was 34.0%. GPs were rather satisfied with their job with the exception of "hours of work," "physical working condition," and "income." GPs working in cities had less working hours per week, less number of patients per day, longer consultation times, and a higher proportion of privately insured patients compared to GPs working in rural areas. Being female, a higher age, a good health behavior, a lower BMI, and a high proportion of privately insured patients were positively associated with job satisfaction. Our results suggest that job satisfaction depends on different aspects of working conditions and individual characteristics. Therefore, strategies to improve job satisfaction should target improving working conditions and activating physicians' health resources.

  6. Tetherless ergonomics workstation to assess nurses' physical workload in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren D; Nave, Michael E; Hreljac, Alan P

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are at risk of physical injury when moving immobile patients. This paper describes the development and testing of a tetherless ergonomics workstation that is suitable for studying nurses' physical workload in a clinical setting. The workstation uses wearable sensors to record multiple channels of body orientation and muscle activity and wirelessly transmits them to a base station laptop computer for display, storage, and analysis. In preparation for use in a clinical setting, the workstation was tested in a laboratory equipped for multi-camera video motion analysis. The testing included a pilot study of the effect of bed height on student nurses' physical workload while they repositioned a volunteer posing as a bedridden patient toward the head of the bed. Each nurse subject chose a preferred bed height, and data were recorded, in randomized order, with the bed at this height, at 0.1 m below this height, and at 0.1 m above this height. The testing showed that the body orientation recordings made by the wearable sensors agreed closely with those obtained from the video motion analysis system. The pilot study showed the following trends: As the bed height was raised, the nurses' trunk flexion at both thoracic and lumbar sites and lumbar muscle effort decreased, whereas trapezius and deltoid muscle effort increased. These trends will be evaluated by further studies of practicing nurses in the clinical setting.

  7. Analysis of mental workload of electrical power plant operators of control and operation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitório, Daiana Martins; Masculo, Francisco Soares; Melo, Miguel O B C

    2012-01-01

    Electrical systems can be categorized as critical systems where failure can result in significant financial loss, injury or threats to human life. The operators of the electric power control centers perform an activity in a specialized environment and have to carry it out by mobilizing knowledge and reasoning to which they have adequate training under the terms of the existing rules. To reach this there is a common mental request of personnel involved in these centers due the need to maintain attention, memory and reasoning request. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the Mental Workload of technical workers of the Control Centers of Electrical Energy. It was undertaken a research on operators control centers of the electricity sector in Northeast Brazil. It was used for systematic observations, followed by interview and application of the instrument National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index known as NASA-TLX. As a result there will be subsidies for an assessment of mental workload of operators, and a contribution to improving the processes of managing the operation of electric utilities and the quality of workers.

  8. Evaluation of the relation between evapotranspiration and normalized difference vegetation index for downscaling the simplified surface energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jonathan V.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2012-01-01

    The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model uses satellite imagery to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ETa) at 1-kilometer resolution. SSEB ETa is useful for estimating irrigation water use; however, resolution limitations restrict its use to regional scale applications. The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the downscaling potential of SSEB ETa from 1 kilometer to 250 meters by correlating ETa with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument (MODIS). Correlations were studied in three arid to semiarid irrigated landscapes of the Western United States (Escalante Valley near Enterprise, Utah; Palo Verde Valley near Blythe, California; and part of the Columbia Plateau near Quincy, Washington) during several periods from 2002 to 2008. Irrigation season ETa-NDVI correlations were lower than expected, ranging from R2 of 0.20 to 0.61 because of an eastward 2–3 kilometer shift in ETadata. The shift is due to a similar shift identified in the land-surface temperature (LST) data from the MODIS Terra satellite, which is used in the SSEB model. Further study is needed to delineate the Terra LST shift, its effect on SSEB ETa, and the relation between ETa and NDVI.

  9. Prenatal evaluation of a fetus with trisomy 18 and additional balanced de novo Rob(13;14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, R; Posmyk, R; Leśniewicz, I; Wołczyński, S

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to present unusual case with full trisomy 18 and additional robertsonian translocation- Rob (13;14) detected through abnormalities found in prenatal ultrasound examination. A 26 years-old pregnant women with no family history of any reproductive failure underwent level II ultrasound screening in 19 weeks of gestation. Polyhydramnios, intrauterine growth retardation, hydrocephalus, enlarged lateral ventricles, club foot and cardiac defect were found. Amniocentesis was indicated considering the high likelihood of a chromosomal aberration. Abnormal karyotype was detected 46, XY, der(13;14)(q10;q10), +18. Karyotypes of parents were normal, what confirmed de novo origin of this aberration. Pregnancy was terminated. In postnatal examination fetus demonstrated intrauterine groth retardation and a lot of dysmorphic features characteristic for trisomy 18: microcephaly, prominent occiput, very low set and posteriorly rotated ears, hypertelorism, small mouth, small recessed mandible, a high narrow palate, broad nasal bridge, low-set ears, preauricilar skin appendage, clenched fingers clinodactyly of Vth fingers and club foot. In conclusion it is worth to say that our described fetus demonstrated rather typical for trisomy 18 ultrasonographic features. Balanced Rob (13;14) gives no phenotypic expression. Possible interchromosomal effect in complex chromosomal aberration formation such as Rob (13;14) with trisomy 18 was discussed.

  10. Evaluation of a micrometeorological mass balance method employing an open-path laser for measuring methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R. L.; Denmead, O. T.; Harper, L.; McBain, M.; Massé, D.; Kaharabata, S.

    In trials of a mass balance method for measuring methane (CH 4) emissions, sonic anemometers and an open-path laser were used to measure the transport of CH 4 released from a ground-level source across a downwind face 50 m long and 6 m high. Release rates matched emissions expected from dairy herds of 2 to 40 cows. The long laser path permitted inferences from measurements in only two planes, one upwind and one downwind, while the fast-response instruments allowed calculation of instantaneous horizontal fluxes rather than fluxes calculated from mean wind speeds and mean concentrations. The detection limit of the lasers was 0.02 ppmv, with the separation between the transmitters and reflectors being about 50 m. The main conclusions from the 23 trials were: (1) Emissions calculated from mean wind speeds and concentrations overestimated the true emissions calculated from instantaneous measurements by 5%. (2) Because of small changes in methane concentration, the minimum sample size in animal trials would be 10 dairy cows, producing about 40 mg CH 4 s -1. (3) For release rates greater than 40 mg CH 4 s -1 and with sufficient replication, the technique could detect a change in production rate of 9% ( P<=0.05). (4) Attention to perceived weaknesses in the present technique should help towards detecting changes of 5%.

  11. Mizan: A system for dynamic load balancing in large-scale graph processing

    KAUST Repository

    Khayyat, Zuhair

    2013-01-01

    Pregel [23] was recently introduced as a scalable graph mining system that can provide significant performance improvements over traditional MapReduce implementations. Existing implementations focus primarily on graph partitioning as a preprocessing step to balance computation across compute nodes. In this paper, we examine the runtime characteristics of a Pregel system. We show that graph partitioning alone is insufficient for minimizing end-to-end computation. Especially where data is very large or the runtime behavior of the algorithm is unknown, an adaptive approach is needed. To this end, we introduce Mizan, a Pregel system that achieves efficient load balancing to better adapt to changes in computing needs. Unlike known implementations of Pregel, Mizan does not assume any a priori knowledge of the structure of the graph or behavior of the algorithm. Instead, it monitors the runtime characteristics of the system. Mizan then performs efficient fine-grained vertex migration to balance computation and communication. We have fully implemented Mizan; using extensive evaluation we show that - especially for highly-dynamic workloads - Mizan provides up to 84% improvement over techniques leveraging static graph pre-partitioning. © 2013 ACM.

  12. Cortical activation during balancing on a balance board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Fabian; Orlowski, Katja; Börmel, Sabrina; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    Keeping one's balance is a complex motor task which requires the integration and processing of different sensory information. For this, higher cortical processes are essential. However, in the past research dedicated to the brain's involvement in balance control has predominantly used virtual reality paradigms whilst little is known about cortical activation during the challenging balancing on unstable surfaces (e.g. balance board). Hence, the main goal of this study was the simultaneous evaluation of cortical activation patterns and sway parameters during balancing on a balance board. Ten healthy adults were instructed to balance on a balance board while brain activation in supplementary motor area (SMA), precentral gyrus (PrG) and postcentral gyrus (PoG) was measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Additionally, sway parameters were simultaneously recorded with one inertial sensor. Enhanced activation of SMA, PrG and PoG was observed when balancing was compared with still standing. Furthermore, the sway of pelvis (indicated by root mean square) increased in medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction during the balance condition. Notably, a strong negative correlation was found between SMA activation and sway in ML direction during balancing, which was not observed during standing. Our results underline the important role of sensorimotor cortical areas for balance control. Moreover, the observed correlations suggest a crucial involvement of SMA in online control of sway in ML direction. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of other cortical and subcortcial areas to online balance control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Balancing Opposing Forces—A Nested Process Evaluation Study Protocol for a Stepped Wedge Designed Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Experience Based Codesign Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Jane Palmer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process evaluations are essential to understand the contextual, relational, and organizational and system factors of complex interventions. The guidance for developing process evaluations for randomized controlled trials (RCTs has until recently however, been fairly limited. Method/Design: A nested process evaluation (NPE was designed and embedded across all stages of a stepped wedge cluster RCT called the CORE study. The aim of the CORE study is to test the effectiveness of an experience-based codesign methodology for improving psychosocial recovery outcomes for people living with severe mental illness (service users. Process evaluation data collection combines qualitative and quantitative methods with four aims: (1 to describe organizational characteristics, service models, policy contexts, and government reforms and examine the interaction of these with the intervention; (2 to understand how the codesign intervention works, the cluster variability in implementation, and if the intervention is or is not sustained in different settings; (3 to assist in the interpretation of the primary and secondary outcomes and determine if the causal assumptions underpinning the codesign interventions are accurate; and (4 to determine the impact of a purposefully designed engagement model on the broader study retention and knowledge transfer in the trial. Discussion: Process evaluations require prespecified study protocols but finding a balance between their iterative nature and the structure offered by protocol development is an important step forward. Taking this step will advance the role of qualitative research within trials research and enable more focused data collection to occur at strategic points within studies.

  14. Balancing Radiation and Contrast Media Dose in Single-Pass Abdominal Multidetector CT: Prospective Evaluation of Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Romano, Federica; Liccardo, Immacolata; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Segreto, Sabrina; Maurea, Simone; Brunetti, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    As both contrast and radiation dose affect the quality of CT images, a constant image quality in abdominal contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) could be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose according to the age of the patients. Seventy-two (38 Men; 34 women; aged 20-83 years) patients underwent a single-pass abdominal CE-MDCT. Patients were divided into three different age groups: A (20-44 years); B (45-65 years); and C (>65 years). For each group, a different noise index (NI) and contrast media dose (370 mgI/mL) was selected as follows: A (NI, 15; 2.5 mL/kg), B (NI, 12.5; 2 mL/kg), and C (NI, 10; 1.5 mL/kg). Radiation exposure was reported as dose-length product (DLP) in mGy × cm. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated for both the liver (L) and the abdominal aorta (A). Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way analysis of variance. Standard imaging criteria were used for qualitative analysis. Although peak hepatic enhancement was 152 ± 16, 128 ± 12, and 101 ± 14 Hounsfield units (P contrast media dose (mL) administered were 476 ± 147 and 155 ± 27 for group A, 926 ± 291 and 130 ± 16 for group B, and 1981 ± 451 and 106 ± 15 for group C, respectively (P contrast media dose administered to patients of different age. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N; Mahecha-Botero, Andrés; Grace, John R; Ikonomou, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review of the effect of different models of after-hours primary medical care services on clinical outcome, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Ruth; Day, Susan; Dunt, David

    2003-06-01

    evidence on the effect of different service models on subsequent medical workload apart from the finding that GPs working in emergency departments may reduce the subsequent medical workload. There was very little evidence about the advantages of one service model compared with another in relation to clinical outcome. Studies consistently showed patient dissatisfaction with telephone consultations. The rapid growth in telephone triage and advice services appears to have the advantage of reducing immediate medical workload through the substitution of telephone consultations for in-person consultations, and this has the potential to reduce costs. However, this has to be balanced with the finding of reduced patient satisfaction when in-person consultations are replaced by telephone consultations. These findings should be borne in mind by policy makers deciding on the shape of future services.

  17. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  18. Impact of promoting self-care in nursing workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettene, Armando Dos Santos; Fontes, Cassiana Mendes Bertoncelo; Razera, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Gomide, Marcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of promoting self-care in nursing workload and associate it to the variables: age, gender, socioeconomic status, education, marital status and number of children of caregivers. Prospective study with 31 children and their caregivers. Participants were assessed at two moments, 1st and 2nd hospitalization, the nursing workload was measured by the Nursing Activities Score (NAS). The mean NAS in the 1st hospitalization was 60.9% and in the 2nd hospitalization was 41.6%, that is, 14.6 and 9.9 hours of nursing, respectively. The nursing workload on the first day of hospitalization was higher compared to the last day, both for the 1st (pautocuidado na carga de trabalho de enfermagem e associá-la às variáveis: idade, gênero, classificação socioeconômica, escolaridade, estado civil e número de filhos dos cuidadores. Estudo prospectivo, onde participaram 31 crianças e seus respectivos cuidadores. Os participantes foram avaliados em dois momentos, 1ª e 2ª internação, quanto à carga de trabalho de enfermagem mensurada por meio do Nursing Activities Score (NAS). A média NAS na 1ª internação foi de 60,9%, e na 2ª internação foi de 41,6%, ou seja, 14,6 e 9,9 horas de enfermagem, respectivamente. A carga de trabalho de enfermagem no primeiro dia de internação foi maior quando comparada ao último dia, tanto na 1ª (pautocuidado a influenciaram (pautocuidado correspondeu a 14,6 horas e foi superior ao determinado pela legislação existente.

  19. Evaluation of Modeling Schemes to Estimate Evapotranspiration and Root Zone Soil Water Content over Vineyard using a Scintillometer and Remotely Sensed Surface Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Gonzalez-Piqueras, J.; Isidro, C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa) and root zone soil water content (SMC) are key operational variable to monitor water consumption and water stress condition for improve vineyard grapes productivity and quality. This analysis, evaluates the estimation of ETa and SMC based on two modeling approaches. The first approach is a hybrid model that couples a thermal-based two source energy balance (TSEB) model (Norman et al. 1995) and water balance model to estimate the two variable (Geli 2012). The second approach is based on Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS)-based estimates of sensible heat flux. The LAS-based estimates of sensible heat fluxes were used to calculate latent heat flux as the residual of surface energy balance equation on hourly basis which was converted to daily ETa. The calculated ETa from the scintillometer was then couple with the water balance approach to provide updated ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS. Both estimates of ETa and SMC based on LAS (i.e. ETa_LAS and SMC_LAS) and TSEB (ETa_TSEB and SMC_TSEB) were compared with ground-based observation from eddy covariance and soil water content measurements at multiple depths. The study site is an irrigated vineyard located in Central Spain Primary with heterogeneous surface conditions in term of irrigation practices and the ground based observation over the vineyard were collected during the summer of 2007. Preliminary results of the inter-comparison of the two approaches suggests relatively good between both modeling approaches and ground-based observations with RMSE lower than 1.2 mm/day for ETa and lower than 20% for SMC. References Norman, J. M., Kustas, W. P., & Humes, K. S. (1995). A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes in observations of directional radiometric surface temperature. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 263293. Geli, Hatim M. E. (2012). Modeling spatial surface energy fluxes of agricultural and riparian vegetation using remote sensing, Ph. D. dissertation

  20. Cognitive workload modulation through degraded visual stimuli: a single-trial EEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Prasad, I.; Mir, H.; Thakor, N.; Al-Nashash, H.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Our experiments explored the effect of visual stimuli degradation on cognitive workload. Approach. We investigated the subjective assessment, event-related potentials (ERPs) as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) as measures of cognitive workload. Main results. These experiments confirm that degradation of visual stimuli increases cognitive workload as assessed by subjective NASA task load index and confirmed by the observed P300 amplitude attenuation. Furthermore, the single-trial multi-level classification using features extracted from ERPs and EEG is found to be promising. Specifically, the adopted single-trial oscillatory EEG/ERP detection method achieved an average accuracy of 85% for discriminating 4 workload levels. Additionally, we found from the spatial patterns obtained from EEG signals that the frontal parts carry information that can be used for differentiating workload levels. Significance. Our results show that visual stimuli can modulate cognitive workload, and the modulation can be measured by the single trial EEG/ERP detection method.

  1. Evaluation of a 12-km Satellite-Era Reanalysis of Surface Mass Balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, R. I.; Nowicki, S.; Zhao, B.; Max, S.

    2016-12-01

    The recent contribution to sea level change from the Greenland Ice Sheet is thought to be strongly driven by surface processes including melt and runoff. Global reanalyses are potential means of reconstructing the historical time series of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), but lack spatial resolution needed to resolve ablation areas along the periphery of the ice sheet. In this work, the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) is used to examine the spatial and temporal variability of surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet. MERRA-2 is produced for the period 1980 to the present at a grid spacing of ½° latitude by ⅝° longitude, and includes snow hydrology processes including compaction, meltwater percolation and refreezing, runoff, and a prognostic surface albedo. The configuration of the MERRA-2 system allows for the background model - the Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) - to be carried in phase space through analyzed states via the computation of analysis increments, a capability referred to as "replay". Here, a MERRA-2 replay integration is conducted in which atmospheric forcing fields are interpolated and adjusted to sub- atmospheric grid-scale resolution. These adjustments include lapse-rate effects on temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other atmospheric variables that are known to have a strong elevation dependency over ice sheets. The surface coupling is performed such that mass and energy are conserved. The atmospheric forcing influences the surface representation, which operates on land surface tiles with an approximate 12-km spacing. This produces a high-resolution, downscaled SMB which is interactively coupled to the reanalysis model. We compare the downscaled SMB product with other reanalyses, regional climate model values, and a second MERRA-2 replay in which the background model has been replaced with a 12-km, non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5. The assessment

  2. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....

  3. Task-Diaries: A Valuable Qualitative Tool for Occupational Health Research on Teacher Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Temple Newhook PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the usefulness of a qualitative tool called a “task-diary,” in combination with individual in-depth interviews, for occupational health research on teacher workloads. I describe my use of task-diaries to examine primary and elementary teachers' workloads in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, discuss the most useful aspects of task-diaries for this research, and suggest further applications of this tool in the workload research field.

  4. How to reduce workload--augmented reality to ease the work of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; König, Christina; Bruder, Ralph; Bergner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In the future the air traffic will rise--the workload of the controllers will do the same. In the BMWi research project, one of the tasks is, how to ensure safe air traffic, and a reasonable workload for the air traffic controllers. In this project it was the goal to find ways how to reduce the workload (and stress) for the controllers to allow safe air traffic, esp. at huge hub-airports by implementing augmented reality visualization and interaction.

  5. Weighting Performance Evaluation Criteria Base in Balanced Score Card Approach with Use of Combination Method Shapley value & Bull\\'s-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Kamfiroozi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation as a control tool was considered by managers in the organizations and manufactures. In this paper we decide to present a new model for performance evaluation and industrial companies ranking at uncertain conditions. Based on this, we implemented performance evaluation based on balance score card (BSC method. Beside, we tried to use three parameter interval grey numbers in lieu of linguistic variables. Then evaluation and weighting of fourth indicators is done with use of Bulls-eye-Shapley combination method that is counted as new approach in this article. Reason of utilization of three parameter interval grey numbers and combination method was decreasing of environmental uncertainty on data and model. This combination weighting method can be used as a new method in decision making Science. At final of this paper case study was implemented on industrial companies (nail makers that ranking of these companies is obtained by use of grey-TOPSIS method (that is a generalization of classic TOPSIS for three parameter interval grey numbers.

  6. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance; Poli(alcool vinilico) modificado com cadeias hidrocarbonicas: avaliacao do balanco hidrofilo/lipofilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, Isabele B.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa B. Mano]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of {sup 1}H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  7. Spinopelvic balance evaluation of patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis L4L5 and L4L5 herniated disc who underwent surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Regina Hernandez Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate spinopelvic balance with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis and disk herniation. METHODS: This was a descriptive retrospective study that evaluated 60 patients in this hospital, 30 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level and 30 with herniated disk at the L4-L5 level, all of whom underwent Surgical treatment. RESULTS: Patients with lumbar disk herniation at L4-L5 level had a mean tilt of 8.06, mean slope of 36.93, and mean PI of 45. In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis at the L4-L5 level, a mean tilt of 22.1, mean slope of 38.3, and mean PI of 61.4 were observed. CONCLUSION: This article reinforces the finding that the high mean tilt and PI are related to the onset of degenerative spondylolisthesis, and also concluded that the same angles, when low, increase the risk for disk herniation.

  8. Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, Sarah V.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Vu, Kim-Phuong; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.

  9. Individual estimated sensitivity and workload for manual screening of SurePath gynecologic cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kay; Renshaw, Andrew A; Dudding, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Data correlating individual screening sensitivity in gynecologic cytology and workload is limited. We compared the estimated sensitivity of manual screening of SurePath slides with individual workload. Estimated sensitivity determined by rapid prescreening was correlated with total workload in a laboratory performing manual screening of SurePath preparations for a 1 year period. There were 12 CTs with a total daily workload ranging from 8-35 slides. The mean estimated sensitivity for SurePath was 97.0% (range 91-100%). The mean estimated sensitivity for the lowest half workload (8-23 slides/day) was significantly higher than that for the highest half workload (23-35 slides/day) (98.3 versus 95.7%, P ≤ 0.001). The highest workload that achieved 100% estimated sensitivity was 30 slides/day. For manual screening of SurePath slides, individual estimated sensitivity is correlated with workload even at relatively low daily workloads. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neutron beam irradiation study of workload dependence of SER in a microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hong, Ted [STANFORD; Ackaret, Jerry [IBM; Sonny, Rao [IBM; Subhasish, Mitra [STANFORD; Pia, Sanda [IBM

    2009-01-01

    It is known that workloads are an important factor in soft error rates (SER), but it is proving difficult to find differentiating workloads for microprocessors. We have performed neutron beam irradiation studies of a commercial microprocessor under a wide variety of workload conditions from idle, performing no operations, to very busy workloads resembling real HPC, graphics, and business applications. There is evidence that the mean times to first indication of failure, MTFIF defined in Section II, may be different for some of the applications.

  11. Electronic Health Record Alert-Related Workload as a Predictor of Burnout in Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Russo, Elise; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-05

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to increase physician workload. One EHR feature that contributes to increased workload is asynchronous alerts (also known as inbox notifications) related to test results, referral responses, medication refill requests, and messages from physicians and other health care professionals. This alert-related workload results in negative cognitive outcomes, but its effect on affective outcomes, such as burnout, has been understudied. To examine EHR alert-related workload (both objective and subjective) as a predictor of burnout in primary care providers (PCPs), in order to ultimately inform interventions aimed at reducing burnout due to alert workload. A cross-sectional questionnaire and focus group of 16 PCPs at a large medical center in the southern United States. Subjective, but not objective, alert workload was related to two of the three dimensions of burnout, including physical fatigue (p = 0.02) and cognitive weariness (p = 0.04), when controlling for organizational tenure. To reduce alert workload and subsequent burnout, participants indicated a desire to have protected time for alert management, fewer unnecessary alerts, and improvements to the EHR system. Burnout associated with alert workload may be in part due to subjective differences at an individual level, and not solely a function of the objective work environment. This suggests the need for both individual and organizational-level interventions to improve alert workload and subsequent burnout. Additional research should confirm these findings in larger, more representative samples.

  12. MEASURING WORKLOAD OF ICU NURSES WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY: THE NASA TASK LOAD INDEX (TLX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse; Brown, Roger; McGuire, Kerry; Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Walker, James M.

    2012-01-01

    High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of ICU nurses’ workload using a subjective rating instrument: the NASA TLX. We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses’ workload. The combined database contains the data from 757 ICU nurses in 8 hospitals and 21 ICUs. Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Results show further that among the operator-based instruments, the NASA TLX is the most reliable and valid questionnaire to measure workload and that NASA TLX can be used in a healthcare setting. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs. PMID:22773941

  13. Collective workload organization in confined excavation of granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Linevich, Vadim; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-03-01

    Many social insects collectively construct large nests in complex substrates; such structures are often composed of narrow tunnels. The benefits of collective construction, including reduced construction costs per worker come with challenges of navigation in crowded, confined spaces. Here we study the workforce organization of groups of S. invicta fire ants creating tunnels in wet granular media. We monitor the activity levels of marked (painted) workers-defined as a number of tunnel visits over 12 hours- during initiation of tunnels. The activity levels are described by a Lorenz curve with a Gini coefficient of ~ 0 . 7 indicating that a majority of the excavation is performed by a minority of workers. We hypothesize that this workload distribution is beneficial for excavation in crowded conditions, and use a 2D cellular automata (CA) model to reproduce behaviors of the excavating ants. CA simulations reveal that tunnel construction rates decrease in groups of equally active animals compared to groups with the natural workload distribution. We use predictions of the CA model to organize collective excavation of granular material by teams of digging robots, and use the robots to test hypotheses of crowded excavation in the physical world. We acknowledge support of National Science Foundation, Physics of Living Systems division.

  14. Generating Shifting Workloads to Benchmark Adaptability in Relational Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Tilmann; Lang, Andreas; Hackl, Thomas; Sick, Bernhard; Kosch, Harald

    A large body of research concerns the adaptability of database systems. Many commercial systems already contain autonomic processes that adapt configurations as well as data structures and data organization. Yet there is virtually no possibility for a just measurement of the quality of such optimizations. While standard benchmarks have been developed that simulate real-world database applications very precisely, none of them considers variations in workloads produced by human factors. Today’s benchmarks test the performance of database systems by measuring peak performance on homogeneous request streams. Nevertheless, in systems with user interaction access patterns are constantly shifting. We present a benchmark that simulates a web information system with interaction of large user groups. It is based on the analysis of a real online eLearning management system with 15,000 users. The benchmark considers the temporal dependency of user interaction. Main focus is to measure the adaptability of a database management system according to shifting workloads. We will give details on our design approach that uses sophisticated pattern analysis and data mining techniques.

  15. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Denis, Marek Kamil; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain th...

  16. Use of iPads to Decrease Faculty Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Sarah; Hess, Kari; Peek, Gina

    2016-10-01

    Multiple faculty were present during a simulation for competency assessments of students, thus creating an increased workload and fatigue. Faculty used technology to reduce the workload and maintain interrater reliability, at little to no cost. The use of high-fidelity simulators, tablet computers, and a university video platform were used to record student competency assessments. One faculty member could perform the assessment, but other course faculty could review the results. Seventy-four competency assessments were recorded, and faculty determined that the tablet provided a viable and inexpensive method to record the competency assessments. The ability for faculty to review the recordings helped in maintaining rater and interrater reliability and a method for student remediation. Time spent in the competency assessment, especially during evening hours, was decreased. A tablet computer and video platform provided an inexpensive method to reduce faculty contact hours and maintain interrater reliability. It also provided a valuable method to allow students to review their own performance for remediation. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(10):590-591.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Aline Mininel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism among nursing workers from a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Central-West. METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed with a quantitative approach, based on the theoretical framework of the social determination of the health-disease process. Data were collected between January and December 2009, based on records of complaints related to occupational exposure among nursing professionals, filed in the software Monitoring System of Nursing Workers' Health. For the sake of statistical analysis, relative and absolute frequencies of the variables and the risk coefficient were considered. RESULTS: 144 notifications of occupational exposure were registered across the analysis period, which represented 25% of the total nursing population at the hospital. The physiological and psychic workloads were the most representative, corresponding to 37% and 36%, respectively. These notifications culminated in 1567 days of absenteeism for disease treatment. CONCLUSIONS: the findings evidence the impact of occupational illnesses on the absenteeism of nursing workers, and can be used to demonstrate the importance of institutional investments in occupational health surveillance.

  18. Perspective: beyond counting hours: the importance of supervision, professionalism, transitions of care, and workload in residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Slovin, Sara R; Riebschleger, Meredith P; Englander, Robert; Hicks, Patricia J; Carraccio, Carol

    2012-07-01

    The medical education community's conversations about residents' duty hours have long focused solely on the number of those hours. In July 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) enacted its most recent iteration of standards regarding duty hours. Those standards, as well as a 2008 Institute of Medicine report, look beyond the quantity of duty hours to address their quality as well. Indeed, the majority of the 2011 ACGME standards specify requirements for the qualitative components of residents' working and learning environments, including supervision of residents; professionalism, personal responsibility, and patient safety; transitions of care; and clinical responsibilities (including workload). The authors believe that focusing on these qualitative (rather than quantitative) components of the resident's working and learning environment provides the greatest promise for balancing patient care with resident education, thus optimizing the safety and effectiveness of both. For each of the four qualitative components that the authors discuss (enhancing supervision, nurturing professionalism and personal responsibility, ensuring safe transitions of care, and optimizing workloads and cognitive loads), they offer agendas for faculty development, educational program planning, and research. Thus, the authors call on the medical education community to expand its discussion beyond counting duty hours to focus on these critical issues that ensure quality resident education and patient care and to implement necessary strategies to address them.

  19. Real-time balanced turbo field echo cine-magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of tongue movements during deglutition in subjects with anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Erol; Sayin, Mehmet Ozgür; Karaçay, Seniz; Bulakbaşi, Nail

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tongue movements in subjects with anterior dental open bites during deglutition by using real-time balanced turbo field echo cine-magnetic resonance imaging. The study included 28 subjects. Two groups were formed according to the presence of anterior open bite (at least 2 mm). The open-bite group (OBG) consisted of 18 patients (14 girls, 4 boys) with a mean age of 14.5 +/- 2.7 years. The control group (CG) consisted of 10 patients (5 girls, 5 boys) with a mean age of 14.5 +/- 2.6 years. We evaluated deglutition during 3 stages: oral (stage 1), pharyngeal (stage 2), and esophageal stage (3). Results indicated that (1) in the OBG, from stage 2 to stage 3, the anterior portion of the tongue dorsum was elevated [corrected] whereas its midportion was lowered [corrected]; (2) in the CG, its posterior portion was lowered [corrected] from stage 2 to stage 3; (3) in the CG, the tongue tip was positioned more posteriorly [corrected] at stage 2 than at stage 1; (4) in the OBG, the tongue tip moved more anteriorly in all stages of deglutition than in the CG. Compensatory tongue functions occur in patients with anterior dental open bites. Dynamic MRI is a promising tool for evaluating swallowing patterns in these patients.

  20. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Majumi M. Noohu; Dey, Aparajit B.; Mohammed E. Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  1. Adaptive Load-Balancing Algorithms using Symmetric Broadcast Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In a distributed computing environment, it is important to ensure that the processor workloads are adequately balanced, Among numerous load-balancing algorithms, a unique approach due to Das and Prasad defines a symmetric broadcast network (SBN) that provides a robust communication pattern among the processors in a topology-independent manner. In this paper, we propose and analyze three efficient SBN-based dynamic load-balancing algorithms, and implement them on an SGI Origin2000. A thorough experimental study with Poisson distributed synthetic loads demonstrates that our algorithms are effective in balancing system load. By optimizing completion time and idle time, the proposed algorithms are shown to compare favorably with several existing approaches.

  2. Development and validation of a surgical workload measure: the surgery task load index (SURG-TLX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Poolton, Jamie M; Malhotra, Neha; Ngo, Karen; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a multidimensional, surgery-specific workload measure (the SURG-TLX), and to determine its utility in providing diagnostic information about the impact of various sources of stress on the perceived demands of trained surgical operators. As a wide range of stressors have been identified for surgeons in the operating room, the current approach of considering stress as a unidimensional construct may not only limit the degree to which underlying mechanisms may be understood but also the degree to which training interventions may be successfully matched to particular sources of stress. The dimensions of the SURG-TLX were based on two current multidimensional workload measures and developed via focus group discussion. The six dimensions were defined as mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, task complexity, situational stress, and distractions. Thirty novices were trained on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) peg transfer task and then completed the task under various conditions designed to manipulate the degree and source of stress experienced: task novelty, physical fatigue, time pressure, evaluation apprehension, multitasking, and distraction. The results were supportive of the discriminant sensitivity of the SURG-TLX to different sources of stress. The sub-factors loaded on the relevant stressors as hypothesized, although the evaluation pressure manipulation was not strong enough to cause a significant rise in situational stress. The present study provides support for the validity of the SURG-TLX instrument and also highlights the importance of considering how different stressors may load surgeons. Implications for categorizing the difficulty of certain procedures, the implementation of new technology in the operating room (man-machine interface issues), and the targeting of stress training strategies to the sources of demand are discussed. Modifications to the scale to enhance

  3. Interrater and Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and Subsystems With Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Hsu, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan S

    2017-01-10

    Falls are a common cause of injuries and hospital admissions in older adults. Balance limitation is a potentially modifiable factor contributing to falls. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), a clinical balance measure, categorizes balance into 6 underlying subsystems. Each of the subsystems is scored individually and summed to obtain a total score. The reliability of the BESTest and its individual subsystems has been reported in patients with various neurological disorders and cancer survivors. However, the reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the BESTest with community-dwelling older adults have not been reported. The purposes of our study were to (1) determine the interrater and test-retest reliability of the BESTest total and subsystem scores; and (2) estimate the MDC of the BESTest and its individual subsystem scores with community-dwelling older adults. We used a prospective cohort methodological design. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 70; aged 70-94 years; mean = 85.0 [5.5] years) were recruited from a senior independent living community. Trained testers (N = 3) administered the BESTest. All participants were tested with the BESTest by the same tester initially and then retested 7 to 14 days later. With 32 of the participants, a second tester concurrently scored the retest for interrater reliability. Testers were blinded to each other's scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC(2,1)] were used to determine the interrater and test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was also analyzed using method error and the associated coefficients of variation (CVME). MDC was calculated using standard error of measurement. Interrater reliability (N = 32) of the BESTest total score was ICC(2, 1) = 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.99). The ICCs for the individual subsystem scores ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. Test-retest reliability (N = 70) of the BESTest total score was ICC(2,1) = 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.96). ICCs for the

  4. Inequalities in energy-balance related behaviours and family environmental determinants in European children: changes and sustainability within the EPHE evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Radulian, Gabriella; Borys, Jean-Michel; du Plessis, Hugues; Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; de Henauw, Stefaan; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C

    2016-09-29

    Increasing social inequalities in health across Europe are widening the gap between low and high socio-economic groups, notably in the prevalence of obesity. Public health interventions may result in differential effects across population groups. Therefore, the EPHE (EPODE for the Promotion of Health Equity) project analysed the added value of community-based programmes, based on the EPODE (Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants-Together Let's Prevent Obesity) model, to reduce socio-economic inequalities in energy balance-related behaviours of children and their family-environmental related determinants in seven European communities. This study presents the changes between baseline and follow-up after the one-year interventions and their sustainability one year after. This is a prospective study with a one school-year intervention, followed by one year of follow-up. In all, 1266 children (age 6-8 years) and their families from different socio-economic backgrounds were recruited at baseline. For 1062 children, information was available after one year (T1) and for 921 children after two years (T2). A self-reported questionnaire was completed by the parents to examine the children's energy balance-related behaviours and family- environmental determinants. Socio-economic status was defined by the educational level of the mother. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data was used to test the differences between baseline and intermediate, and between intermediate and final, measurements for each of the socio-economic status groups. Post-intervention effects in energy-balance related behaviours showed the following improvements among the low socio-economic status groups: increased fruit consumption (Netherlands), decreased fruit juices amount consumed (Romania) and decreased TV time on weekdays (Belgium). Whereas in only the latter case the behavioural change was accompanied with an improvement in a family-environmental determinant (monitoring the time the child

  5. Integration of Panda Workload Management System with supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Novikov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Poyda, A.; Read, K. F.; Ryabinkin, E.; Teslyuk, A.; Velikhov, V.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run singlethreaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads

  6. Critical evaluation of food intake and energy balance in young modern pentathlon athletes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Leticia Azen Alves; Porto, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Modern pentathlon comprises five sports: fencing, swimming, equestrian jumping, and a combined event of pistol shooting and running. Despite the expected high energy demand of this sport, there are few studies that provide support for the nutritional recommendations for pentathletes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate young modern pentathlon athletes with respect to body composition, biochemical profile, and consumption of food and supplements. Fifty-six young modern pentathletes aged 13.5 ± 2.4 years participated in the study: 22 adolescent girls and 34 adolescent boys, weight 55.8 ± 13.3 kg, height 1.6 ± 0.1 m, and body fat 21.1 ± 3.1 %. Food consumption was analyzed through a 24-h recall method and food-frequency questionnaire. Assessment of body composition was carried out by checking anthropometric measures (body mass, height, and skinfolds) and using protocols according to participants' age and sexual maturity. Male participants consumed less energy than the general recommendations for athletes from the American Dietetic Association (2749 ± 1024 kcal vs. 3113 ± 704 kcal, p protein intakes corresponded to recommendations for both sexes; however, insufficient intakes of calcium, fruits, and vegetables were seen, as well as frequent consumption of baked goods and sugared soft drinks. Adolescent modern pentathlon athletes presented inadequate eating habits with respect to consumption of carbohydrates and energy. Many participants had insufficient intake of micronutrients, especially calcium. However, future research is needed that is aimed at elucidating the real nutritional demands for good physical performance in this sport and the impact of inadequate eating habits on performance, especially among young athletes who are in the growth-stage years and are exposed to intense physical exercise routines.

  7. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury – A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Anterior cruciate ligament injury leads to adaptive responses to maintain postural control. However, there is no consensus regarding whether leg dominance also affects postural control in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic and static postural control among athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament injury to the dominant leg. METHODS: Twenty-eight athletes, twenty-one males and seven females aged 15-45 years, were allocated to one of two groups: the anterior cruciate ligament injury group (26±3 years or the control group without anterior cruciate ligament injury (25±6.5 years. All subjects performed one legged stance tests under eyes open and eyes closed conditions and squat and kick movement tests using a postural control protocol (AccuSwayPlus force platform, Massachusetts. The center of pressure displacement and speed were measured by the force platform. In addition, the distance traveled on the single-leg hop test was assessed as an objective measure of function. RESULTS: Significantly greater mediolateral sway was found under the eyes closed condition (p=0.04 and during squat movement (p=0.01 in the anterior cruciate ligament injury group than in the control group. Analysis of the single-leg hop test results showed no difference between the groups (p=0.73. CONCLUSION: Athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury had greater mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure toward the dominant leg under the eyes closed condition and during squat movement compared to control athletes.

  8. Comparison of real-time relative workload measurements in rail signallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, Rob; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Milius, Birgit; Naumann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory field study investigated the weak resilience signals of workload in a rail traffic control room. The goals of this research are to see whether real-time system information of a rail control post can be used to predict workload of a rail signaller in real-time (Siegel & Schraagen,

  9. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary...

  10. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary...

  11. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  12. Is This Work Sustainable? Teacher Turnover and Perceptions of Workload in Charter Management Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. Chris

    2016-01-01

    An unsustainable workload is considered the primary cause of teacher turnover at Charter Management Organizations (CMOs), yet most reports provide anecdotal evidence to support this claim. This study uses 2010-2011 survey data from one large CMO and finds that teachers' perceptions of workload are significantly associated with decisions to leave…

  13. The Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) : On-line measurement of driver cognitive workload and selective attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Martens, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Peaks in workload while driving might have immediate safety implications. The Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) has shown to be a sensitive objective workload measure. Drivers have to respond to the onset of a peripherally presented simple visual stimulus (red square or LED) by pressing a finger

  14. Driving with varying secondary task levels: mental workload, behavioural effects, and task prioritization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Nina; van Arem, Bart; van der Horst, Richard; Brookhuis, Karel; Alkim, T.P.; Arentze, T.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance (ADA) Systems may provide a solution for safety-critical traffic situations. But these systems are new additions into the vehicle that might increase drivers’ mental workload. How do drivers behave in situations with high mental workload, and do they actively prioritize

  15. A Multiple Processing Resource Explanation of the Subjective Dimensions of Operator Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Arabie, P. (1979). Auditory versus phonetic accounts of observed confusions between consonant phonemes. Journal of the Acoustal Society of America, 66, 46...similarity. Scaling and clustering analyses of the similarity data produced subjective dimensions/ clusters of workload that were explained in terms of...by subjects and rated according to workload similarity. Scaling and clustering analyses of the similarity data produced subjective dimensions/ clusters

  16. Dynamics of Perceived Exertion in Constant-Power Cycling: Time- and Workload-Dependent Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; García, Sergi; Aguirre, Cecilia; Vázquez, Pablo; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the dynamics of perceived exertion shifts (PES) as a function of time and workload during constant-power cycling. Method: Fifty-two participants assigned to 4 groups performed a cycling task at 4 different constant workloads corresponding to their individual rates of perceived exertion (RPEs = 13, 15,…

  17. Housestaff Experience, Workload, and Test Ordering in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Charles H., III; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of the workload of nine medical interns and seven residents in a neonatal intensive care nursery investigated the number of X-rays, arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs), and electrolyte determinations ordered for 321 infants over 5 months. Results show that as the workload increased, interns ordered ABGs more often than residents, especially…

  18. Effects of speech versus tactile driver support messages on driving behaviour and workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Winsum, W. van

    2001-01-01

    In a driving simulator experiment, effects were tested of an integrated support system on driving behaviour, user acceptance and workload. An alternative workload measure was used based upon peripheral vision. Two modes of support (tactile and speech messages) were compared to a control condition

  19. Mental workload measurement in operator control room using NASA-TLX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, M.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Permana, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    The workload, encountered a combination of physical workload and mental workload, is a consequence of the activities for workers. Central control room is one department in the oil processing company, employees tasked with monitoring the processing unit for 24 hours nonstop with a combination of 3 shifts in 8 hours. NASA-TLX (NASA Task Load Index) is one of the subjective mental workload measurement using six factors, namely the Mental demand (MD), Physical demand (PD), Temporal demand (TD), Performance (OP), Effort (EF), frustration levels (FR). Measurement of a subjective mental workload most widely used because it has a high degree of validity. Based on the calculation of the mental workload, there at 5 units (DTU, NPU, HTU, DIST and OPS) at the control chamber (94; 83.33; 94.67; 81, 33 and 94.67 respectively) that categorize as very high mental workload. The high level of mental workload on the operator in the Central Control Room is a requirement to have high accuracy, alertness and can make decisions quickly

  20. Workload Manageability among Novice Special and General Educators: Relationships with Emotional Exhaustion and Career Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Elizabeth; Jones, Nathan; Brownell, Mary; Conroy, Maureen; Park, Yujeong; Leite, Walter; Crockett, Jean; Benedict, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Novice special educators (those in their first 3 years) consistently report their workloads are unmanageable. Yet, it is not clear whether their perceptions of workload manageability contribute to outcomes of concern such as emotional exhaustion (a component of burnout) or intentions to continue teaching in their schools and districts. This pilot…

  1. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi eYu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and workload capacity (WLC. Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2 and parametrically (Experiment 2. Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making.

  2. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  3. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  4. DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; LHCb DIRAC Team

    2010-04-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.

  5. Nursing workload for cancer patients under palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuly, Patrícia Dos Santos Claro; Pires, Livia Márcia Vidal; Souza, Claudia Quinto Santos de; Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    To verify the nursing workload required by cancer patients undergoing palliative care and possible associations between the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and the nursing workload. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study developed in the Connective Bone Tissue (TOC) clinics of Unit II of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva with patients undergoing palliative care. Analysis of 197 measures of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revealed a mean score of 43.09% and an association between the performance status of patients undergoing palliative care and the mean NAS scores. The results of the study point to the need to resize the team of the unit. The NAS has proven to be a useful tool in oncologic clinical units for patients undergoing palliative care. Verificar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem requerida por pacientes com câncer sob cuidados paliativos e possíveis associações entre as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem quantitativa, transversal, prospectivo, desenvolvido na clínica de Tecido Ósseo Conectivo (TOC) da Unidade II do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos. A análise de 197 medidas do Nursing Activities Score (NAS) revelou um escore médio de 43,09% e uma associação entre a performance status de pacientes em cuidados paliativos com os valores médios do NAS. Os resultados do estudo apontam para a necessidade de redimensionamento da equipe da Unidade. O NAS mostrou-se um instrumento passível de utilização em unidades clínicas oncológicas, com pacientes em cuidados paliativos.

  6. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawaid Masood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9% were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1% calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0% patients. Total 73 (16.0% calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7% patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5% patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1% patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8% patients. Total 104 (22.8% emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7% patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  7. Nursing workload in public and private intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Koike, Karina Mitie; Sardinha, Débora Souza; Padilha, Katia Grillo; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to compare patients at public and private intensive care units according to the nursing workload and interventions provided. This retrospective, comparative cohort study included 600 patients admitted to 4 intensive care units in São Paulo. The nursing workload and interventions were assessed using the Nursing Activities Score during the first and last 24 hours of the patient's stay at the intensive care unit. Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney test, and Student's t test were used to compare the patient groups. The average Nursing Activities Score upon admission to the intensive care unit was 61.9, with a score of 52.8 upon discharge. Significant differences were found among the patients at public and private intensive care units relative to the average Nursing Activities Score upon admission, as well as for 12 out of 23 nursing interventions performed during the first 24 hours of stay at the intensive care units. The patients at the public intensive care units exhibited a higher average score and overall more frequent nursing interventions, with the exception of those involved in the "care of drains", "mobilization and positioning", and "intravenous hyperalimentation". The groups also differed with regard to the evolution of the Nursing Activities Score among the total case series as well as the groups of survivors from the time of admission to discharge from the intensive care unit. Patients admitted to public and private intensive care units exhibit differences in their nursing care demands, which may help managers with nursing manpower planning.

  8. Cardiac-Activity Measures for Assessing Airport Ramp-Tower Controller's Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) potentially offer objective, continuous, and non-intrusive measures of human-operators mental workload. Such measurement capability is attractive for workload assessment in complex laboratory simulations or safety-critical field testing. The present study compares mean HR and HRV data with self-reported subjective workload ratings collected during a high-fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp traffic control operations, which involve complex cognitive and coordination tasks. Mean HR was found to be weakly sensitive to the workload ratings, while HRV was not sensitive or even contradictory to the assumptions. Until more knowledge on stress response mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system is obtained, it is recommended that these cardiac-activity measures be used with other workload assessment tools, such as subjective measures.

  9. Comparative analysis of cognitive tasks for modeling mental workload with electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeho; Kim, Miyoung; Hwangbo, Minsu; Oh, Eunmi

    2014-01-01

    Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have shown that cognitive workload can be estimated by using several types of cognitive tasks. In this study, we attempted to characterize cognitive tasks that have been used to manipulate workload for generating classification models. We carried out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks: the n-back task and the mental arithmetic task. Based on experiments with 7 healthy subjects using Emotiv EPOC, we compared the consistency, robustness, and efficiency of each task in determining cognitive workload in a short training session. The mental arithmetic task seems consistent and robust in manipulating clearly separable high and low levels of cognitive workload with less training. In addition, the mental arithmetic task shows consistency despite repeated usage over time and without notable task adaptation in users. The current study successfully quantifies the quality and efficiency of cognitive workload modeling depending on the type and configuration of training tasks.

  10. A mass balance approach for evaluating leachable arsenic and chromium from an in-service CCA-treated wood structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Fleming, Lora E; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2007-01-01

    Many existing residential wood structures, such as playsets and decks, have been treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). This preservative chemical can be released from these structures incrementally over time through contact with rainfall. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic and chromium leached from an in-service CCA-treated deck exposed to rainfall, as well as their possible impacts on soils and shallow groundwater. Two monitoring stations, one containing a CCA-treated deck and the other containing an untreated deck as a control, were constructed outside for this study. Rainfall, runoff water from the decks, soils below the decks, and infiltrated water through 0.7-m depth of soil were monitored for arsenic and chromium over a period of 3 years. The concentration of the CCA-treated deck runoff for arsenic (0.114-4.66 mg/L) and chromium (0.008-0.470 mg/L) were significantly (p<0.001) higher than the untreated deck runoff (< or =0.002 mg/L for both). During the 3-year monitoring period, 13% of the arsenic and 1.4% of the chromium were leached from the amount initially present in the CCA-treated wood. Arsenic levels (<0.1-46 mg/kg) in soils under the CCA-treated deck were significantly (p<0.001) higher than under the untreated deck (<0.1-2.7 mg/kg), while chromium levels were statistically the same below the two decks (2.4-9.6 mg/kg). Approximately 94% of the arsenic from the runoff was absorbed in the soils below the CCA-treated deck; the upper 2.5 cm of the soils captured 42% of the total. The infiltrated water concentrations for arsenic (<0.001-0.085 mg/L) and chromium (<0.001-0.010 mg/L) below the CCA-treated deck were both significantly (p<0.001) higher than below the untreated deck (< or =0.006 mg/L). The amounts of arsenic found in the infiltrated water below the CCA-treated deck represented 6% of total arsenic leached and less than 0.7% of the initial mass in the wood. The study demonstrated that exposure of a CCA

  11. Implementation of 2011 Duty Hours Regulations through a Workload Reduction Strategy and Impact on Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Jonathon; Dattalo, Melissa; Ghanem, Khalil G; Christmas, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    Training programs have implemented the 2011 ACGME duty hour regulations (DHR) using "workload compression" (WLC) strategies, attempting to fit similar clinical responsibilities into fewer working hours, or workload reduction (WLR) approaches, reducing the number of patient encounters per trainee. Many have expressed concern that these strategies could negatively impact patient care and learner outcomes. This study evaluates the medical knowledge and clinical impact of a WLR intervention in a single institution. Nonrandomized intervention study with comparison to a historical control study among 58 PGY-1 internal medicine trainees in the 2 years after duty hour implementation [exposure cohort (EC), 7/1/2011-6/30/2013], compared to 2 years before implementation [comparison cohort (CC), 7/1/2009-6/30/2011]. Process outcomes were average inpatient encounters, average new inpatient admissions, and average scheduled outpatient encounters per PGY-1 year. Performance outcomes included trainee inpatient and outpatient days on service, In-Training Examination (ITE) scores as an objective surrogate of medical knowledge, Case-Mix Index (CMI), and quality of care measures (30-day readmission rate, 30-day mortality rate, and average length of stay). Baseline characteristics and average numbers of inpatient encounters per PGY-1 class were similar between the EC and CC. However, the EC experienced fewer new inpatient admissions (157.47 ± 40.47 vs. 181.72 ± 25.45; p number of new inpatient admissions and an increase in outpatient encounters. ITE and care quality outcomes were maintained or improved. While there is theoretical concern that reducing PGY-1 inpatient admissions volumes may negatively impact education and clinical care measures, this study found no evidence of such a trade-off.

  12. Mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh-Rangi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Driving crash is one of major concerns in all countries. Mental workload reflects the level of attention resources required to meet both objec­tive and subjective performance criteria, which may be affected by task demand, external support, and past experience. Mental workload has been commonly cited as a major cause of workplace and transportation accidents. The objective of this study was assessment of mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, the NASA-TLX workload scale and the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were completed by 194 professional bus drivers. Descriptive statistics as well as correlation and regression analysis were performed for data processing. Results: The total mental workload had highest correlation with the physical demand(r=0.73, p<0.001, the mental demand (r=0.68, p<0.001 and the time pressure (r=0.58, p<0.001. The total fatigue perceived by bus driver had highest correlation with the frustration level (r=0.42, p<0.001, the time pressure (r=0.24, p<0.001 and the mental workload (r=0.21, p<0.001. Conclusion: Mental workload, physical workload and time pressure are important determinants of the total mental workload and fatigue perceived by urban bus drivers. A comprehensive intervention program, include work turnover, trip and work-rest scheduling as well as smoking cessation, was recommended to improve mental workload and fatigue. 

  13. Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mahmoudifar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.

  14. Effects of Workloads and Cadences on Frontal Plane Knee Biomechanics in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ying; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Crouter, Scott E; Gardner, Jacob K; Zhang, Songning

    2016-02-01

    Although effects of workload and cadence on sagittal plane knee biomechanics in cycling have been widely studied, few studies have examined their impact on the frontal plane. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different workloads and cadences on knee sagittal and frontal plane biomechanics. Eighteen healthy participants (age, 55.7 ± 11.0 yr) volunteered for this study. A motion analysis system and a custom instrumented pedal were used to collect five cycles of three-dimensional kinematics (240 Hz) and pedal reaction force (PRF, 1200 Hz) during 2 min of cycling in each of eight testing conditions, including five workload conditions of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 kg at 60 rpm, and three cadence conditions of 70, 80, and 90 rpm with 1-kg workload. Two one-way repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine the influence of cadence and workload on selected variables (P < 0.05). Increased workloads with constant rpm caused an increased peak knee abduction moment from 5.82 to 14.36 N · m and peak knee extension moment from 11.61 to 37.16 N · m. Increased workloads also significantly increased peak medial and vertical PRF. Increased cadences at the constant workload had no effects on peak knee abduction moment but caused increased peak anterior and vertical PRF and peak knee flexion moment. The findings of this study indicate that increasing workload at constant cadence significantly increased peak knee abduction moment. Further study may be needed to demonstrate the efficacy of appropriate levels of workload and cadence in knee osteoarthritis and other populations with knee problems.

  15. Metabolic evaluation of dairy cows submitted to three different strategies to decrease the effects of negative energy balance in early postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra M.B García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In early lactation dairy cattle suffer metabolic alterations caused by negative energy balance, which predisposes to fatty liver and ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic condition of high yielding dairy cows subjected to three treatments for preventing severe lipomobilization and ketosis in early lactation. Fifty four multiparous Holstein cows yielding >30 L/day were divided into four groups: control (CN= no treatment, glucose precursor (PG= propylene-glycol, hepatic protector (Mp= Mercepton®, and energy supplement with salts of linolenic and linoleic faty acids (Mg-E= Megalac-E®. Treatments were administrated randomly at moment of calving until 8 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 postpartum. Body condition score (BCS was evaluated at the same periods and milk yield was recorded at 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th weeks of lactation. Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, albumin, AST, ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, urea and triglycerides were analyzed in blood samples. Cut-off points for subclinical ketosis were defined when BHBA >1.4 mmol/L and NEFA >0.7 mmol/L. General occurrence of subclinical ketosis was 24% during the period. An ascendant curve of cholesterol and glucose was observed from the 1st to the 8th week of lactation, while any tendency was observed with BHBA and NEFA, although differences among treatments were detected (p<0.05. BCS decreased from a mean of 3.85 at 1st week to 2.53 at 8th week of lactation (p=0.001. Milk yield was higher in the Mg-E group compared with the other treatment groups (p<0.05 Compared with the CN group, the treatments with Mp and PG did not show significant differences in blood biochemistry and milk yield. Cows receiving PG and Mg-E showed higher values of BHBA and NEFA (P<0.05, indicating accentuated lipomobilization. Supplementation with Mg-E also resulted in significant higher

  16. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Sensitivity Between a Virtual Reality Balance Module and Clinically Used Concussion Balance Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Elizabeth F; Gay, Michael R; Arnett, Peter A; Slobounov, Semyon M

    2016-03-01

    Balance assessments are part of the recommended clinical concussion evaluation, along with computerized neuropsychological testing and self-reported symptoms checklists. New technology has allowed for the creation of virtual reality (VR) balance assessments to be used in concussion care, but there is little information on the sensitivity and specificity of these evaluations. The purpose of this study is to establish the sensitivity and specificity of a VR balance module for detecting lingering balance deficits clinical concussion care. Retrospective case-control study. Institutional research laboratory. Normal controls (n = 94) and concussed participants (n = 27). All participants completed a VR balance assessment paradigm. Concussed participants were diagnosed by a Certified Athletic Trainer or physician (with 48 hours postinjury) and tested in the laboratory between 7 and 10 days postinjury. Receiver operating characteristic curves were performed to establish the VR module's sensitivity and specificity for detecting lingering balance deficits. Final balance score. For the VR balance module, a cutoff score of 8.25 was established to maximize sensitivity at 85.7% and specificity at 87.8%. The VR balance module has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting subacute balance deficits after concussive injury. The VR balance has a high subacute sensitivity and specificity as a stand-alone balance assessment tool and may detect ongoing balance deficits not readily detectable by the Balance Error Scoring System or Sensory Organization Test. Virtual reality balance modules may be a beneficial addition to the current clinical concussion diagnostic battery.

  18. Physician workload in primary care: what is the optimal size of practices? A cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.; Hombergh, P. van den; Akkermans, R.P.; Doremalen, J.H.M. van; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of practice size and scope of services on average physician workload in primary care practices in The Netherlands, and to examine the associations between average physician workload, average assistant volume and organisational practice characteristics. METHODS:

  19. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Lisanne M; Proper, Karin I; Weel, Andre N H; Hulshof, Carel T J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-12-14

    Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism. After an effect- and process evaluation the guideline will be

  20. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weel Andre NH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Methods Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Discussion Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism