WorldWideScience

Sample records for workload balance evaluation

  1. Balancing nurses' workload in hospital wards: study protocol of developing a method to manage workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oetelaar, W F J M; van Stel, H F; van Rhenen, W; Stellato, R K; Grolman, W

    2016-11-10

    Hospitals pursue different goals at the same time: excellent service to their patients, good quality care, operational excellence, retaining employees. This requires a good balance between patient needs and nursing staff. One way to ensure a proper fit between patient needs and nursing staff is to work with a workload management method. In our view, a nursing workload management method needs to have the following characteristics: easy to interpret; limited additional registration; applicable to different types of hospital wards; supported by nurses; covers all activities of nurses and suitable for prospective planning of nursing staff. At present, no such method is available. The research follows several steps to come to a workload management method for staff nurses. First, a list of patient characteristics relevant to care time will be composed by performing a Delphi study among staff nurses. Next, a time study of nurses' activities will be carried out. The 2 can be combined to estimate care time per patient group and estimate the time nurses spend on non-patient-related activities. These 2 estimates can be combined and compared with available nursing resources: this gives an estimate of nurses' workload. The research will take place in an academic hospital in the Netherlands. 6 surgical wards will be included, capacity 15-30 beds. The study protocol was submitted to the Medical Ethical Review Board of the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht and received a positive advice, protocol number 14-165/C. This method will be developed in close cooperation with staff nurses and ward management. The strong involvement of the end users will contribute to a broader support of the results. The method we will develop may also be useful for planning purposes; this is a strong advantage compared with existing methods, which tend to focus on retrospective analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  2. Operator Workload: Comprehensive Review and Evaluation of Operator Workload Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    E. A (1979), Measurement end scaing of workload In oornple performance. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine , 50, 376-381. Ctoow, S. L... Medicine , 53, 1087-1072. Harris, R. M., Glenn, F., laveocchia, H. P., & 7ak"d, A, (1986). Human Operndor Simulator. In W. Karwoski (Ed.), Trends in...McGiothlin, W. (1974). Effects of marihuana on auditory signal detection. Psychopharmacologia, 40, 137-145. Mulder, I. J. M., & Mulder, G. (1987

  3. Operations strategy for workload balancing of crews in an advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2016-01-01

    The advanced main control room (advanced-MCR) is the one that allows for reactor operations based on digital instrumentation and control (I and C) technology. Thus, the operators of an advanced-MCR operate the plant through digital I and C interfaces, and for this purpose, an additional digital manipulation task for the operating equipment should be performed that cannot be observed in a conventional-MCR. As a prior study proposing the cognitive, communicative, and operational activity measurement approach (COCOA), COCOA enables an evaluation of the operator's workload in an advanced-MCR,which includes newly generated tasks for Man-Machine Interface System based secondary operation under a digital environment, which does not exist in a conventional-MCR. As a result of observations on the workload level by utilizing COCOA for a reference plant with an advanced-MCR when conducting an emergency operating procedure, it was observed that the workload of the shift supervisor is about two times greater than that of other operators. This is because operators therein stuck to the old guidelines customized to a conventional-MCR and failed to accomplish load balancing in consideration of the operation environment that an advanced-MCR provides. In this context, it would be imperative to develop and apply an operations strategy for an advanced-MCR operation. This study proposes an operations strategy in an attempt to make a balanced workload of operators in an advanced-MCR. (author)

  4. Managing Teacher Workload: Work-Life Balance and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, Sara; Earley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book is divided into three sections. In the First Section, entitled "Wellbeing and Workload", the authors examine teacher workload and how teachers spend their time. Chapter 1 focuses on what the causes and effects of excessive workload are, especially in relation to wellbeing, stress and, crucially, recruitment and retention?…

  5. Balancing nurses' workload in hospital wards : Study protocol of developing a method to manage workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Oetelaar, W. F J M; Van Stel, H. F.; Van Rhenen, W.; Stellato, R. K.; Grolman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hospitals pursue different goals at the same time: excellent service to their patients, good quality care, operational excellence, retaining employees. This requires a good balance between patient needs and nursing staff. One way to ensure a proper fit between patient needs and nursing

  6. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system considering machine failure and workload balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Masoud; Farrokhi-Asl, Hamed; Ravanbakhsh, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Machines are a key element in the production system and their failure causes irreparable effects in terms of cost and time. In this paper, a new multi-objective mathematical model for dynamic cellular manufacturing system (DCMS) is provided with consideration of machine reliability and alternative process routes. In this dynamic model, we attempt to resolve the problem of integrated family (part/machine cell) formation as well as the operators' assignment to the cells. The first objective minimizes the costs associated with the DCMS. The second objective optimizes the labor utilization and, finally, a minimum value of the variance of workload between different cells is obtained by the third objective function. Due to the NP-hard nature of the cellular manufacturing problem, the problem is initially validated by the GAMS software in small-sized problems, and then the model is solved by two well-known meta-heuristic methods including non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and multi-objective particle swarm optimization in large-scaled problems. Finally, the results of the two algorithms are compared with respect to five different comparison metrics.

  7. Autonomy, Workload, Work-Life Balance and Job Performance among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yean Tan, Fee; Zulkarnain, Zati Iwani Tjik

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of autonomy, workload, and work-life balance on job performance among teachers. A survey was carried out among teachers in public schools in the Northern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted a quantitative approach to address the research…

  8. The Internet and Academics' Workload and Work-Family Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse whether the Internet and other ICT technologies support a work-family balance amongst academics. The study is based on 20 in-depth interviews with academics in Iceland and analysed according to the Grounded Theory Approach. This study challenges the notion that the Internet, as part of ICT technology, makes it…

  9. Dynamic workload balancing of parallel applications with user-level scheduling on the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Korkhov, Vladimir V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests a hybrid resource management approach for efficient parallel distributed computing on the Grid. It operates on both application and system levels, combining user-level job scheduling with dynamic workload balancing algorithm that automatically adapts a parallel application to the heterogeneous resources, based on the actual resource parameters and estimated requirements of the application. The hybrid environment and the algorithm for automated load balancing are described, the influence of resource heterogeneity level is measured, and the speedup achieved with this technique is demonstrated for different types of applications and resources.

  10. Designing workload analysis questionnaire to evaluate needs of employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Rahmaniyah Dwi; Navi, Muhammad Abdu Haq

    2018-02-01

    Incompatibility between workload with work capacity is one of main problem to make optimal result. In case at the office, there are constraints to determine workload because of non-repetitive works. Employees do work based on the targets set in a working period. At the end of the period is usually performed an evaluation of employees performance to evaluate needs of employees. The aims of this study to design a workload questionnaire tools to evaluate the efficiency level of position as indicator to determine needs of employees based on the Indonesian State Employment Agency Regulation on workload analysis. This research is applied to State-Owned Enterprise PT. X by determining 3 positions as a pilot project. Position A is held by 2 employees, position B is held by 7 employees, and position C is held by 6 employees. From the calculation result, position A has an efficiency level of 1,33 or "very good", position B has an efficiency level of 1.71 or "enough", and position C has an efficiency level of 1.03 or "very good". The application of this tools giving suggestion the needs of employees of position A is 3 people, position B is 5 people, and position C is 6 people. The difference between the number of employees and the calculation result is then analyzed by interviewing the employees to get more data about personal perception. It can be concluded that this workload evaluation tools can be used as an alternative solution to evaluate needs of employees in office.

  11. Evaluation of mental workload on digital maintenance systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S. L.; Huang, F. H.; Lin, J. C.; Liang, G. F.; Yenn, T. C.; Hsu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate operators' mental workload dealing with digital maintenance systems in Nuclear Power Plants. First of all, according to the factors affected the mental workload, a questionnaire was designed to evaluate the mental workload of maintenance operators at the second Nuclear Power (NPP) in Taiwan. Then, sixteen maintenance engineers of the Second NPP participated in the questionnaire survey. The results indicated that the mental workload was lower in digital systems than that in analog systems. Finally, a mental workload model based on Neural Network technique was developed to predict the workload of maintenance operators in digital maintenance systems. (authors)

  12. Evaluating and optimizing the NERSC workload on Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T; Cook, B; Deslippe, J; Doerfler, D; Friesen, B; He, Y; Kurth, T; Koskela, T; Lobet, M; Malas, T; Oliker, L; Ovsyannikov, A; Sarje, A; Vay, JL; Vincenti, H; Williams, S; Carrier, P; Wichmann, N; Wagner, M; Kent, P; Kerr, C; Dennis, J

    2017-01-30

    NERSC has partnered with 20 representative application teams to evaluate performance on the Xeon-Phi Knights Landing architecture and develop an application-optimization strategy for the greater NERSC workload on the recently installed Cori system. In this article, we present early case studies and summarized results from a subset of the 20 applications highlighting the impact of important architecture differences between the Xeon-Phi and traditional Xeon processors. We summarize the status of the applications and describe the greater optimization strategy that has formed.

  13. Approximate entropy: a new evaluation approach of mental workload under multitask conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuanzhe; Jiang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    There are numerous instruments and an abundance of complex information in the traditional cockpit display-control system, and pilots require a long time to familiarize themselves with the cockpit interface. This can cause accidents when they cope with emergency events, suggesting that it is necessary to evaluate pilot cognitive workload. In order to establish a simplified method to evaluate cognitive workload under a multitask condition. We designed a series of experiments involving different instrument panels and collected electroencephalograms (EEG) from 10 healthy volunteers. The data were classified and analyzed with an approximate entropy (ApEn) signal processing. ApEn increased with increasing experiment difficulty, suggesting that it can be used to evaluate cognitive workload. Our results demonstrate that ApEn can be used as an evaluation criteria of cognitive workload and has good specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we determined an empirical formula to assess the cognitive workload interval, which can simplify cognitive workload evaluation under multitask conditions.

  14. Improving pilot mental workload evaluation with combined measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyan, Xiaoru; Zhuang, Damin; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral performance, subjective assessment based on NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), as well as physiological measures indexed by electrocardiograph (ECG), event-related potential (ERP), and eye tracking data were used to assess the mental workload (MW) related to flight tasks. Flight simulation tasks were carried out by 12 healthy participants under different MW conditions. The MW conditions were manipulated by setting the quantity of flight indicators presented on the head-up display (HUD) in the cruise phase. In this experiment, the behavioral performance and NASA-TLX could reflect the changes of MW ideally. For physiological measures, the indices of heart rate variability (HRV), P3a, pupil diameter and eyelid opening were verified to be sensitive to MW changes. Our findings can be applied to the comprehensive evaluation of MW during flight tasks and the further quantitative classification.

  15. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxi; Gronalt, Manfred; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  16. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Wang

    Full Text Available Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers.

  17. Evaluation of Mental Workload among ICU Ward's Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Various performance obstacles are correlated with nurses' workload, affirms the signifi­cance of nursing work system characteristics. Interventions are recommended based on the results of this study in the work settings of nurses in ICUs.

  18. Evaluation of Mental Workload among ICU Ward's Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab; Zeraati, Hojat

    2015-01-01

    High level of workload has been identified among stressors of nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). The present study investigated nursing workload and identified its influencing perfor-mance obstacles in ICUs. This cross-sectional study was conducted, in 2013, on 81 nurses working in ICUs in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. NASA-TLX was applied for assessment of workload. Moreover, ICUs Performance Obstacles Questionnaire was used to identify performance obstacles associated with ICU nursing. Physical demand (mean=84.17) was perceived as the most important dimensions of workload by nurses. The most critical performance obstacles affecting workload included: difficulty in finding a place to sit down, hectic workplace, disorganized workplace, poor-conditioned equipment, waiting for using a piece of equipment, spending much time seeking for supplies in the central stock, poor quality of medical materials, delay in getting medications, unpredicted problems, disorganized central stock, outpatient surgery, spending much time dealing with family needs, late, inadequate, and useless help from nurse assistants, and ineffective morning rounds (P-value<0.05). Various performance obstacles are correlated with nurses' workload, affirms the significance of nursing work system characteristics. Interventions are recommended based on the results of this study in the work settings of nurses in ICUs.

  19. Pilot workload evaluated with subjective and physiological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate different measures for mental workload. Ten aspirant fighter jet pilots flew several scenarios in a flight simulator. The scenarios were divided into segments with different levels of task load. During the flight, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure

  20. Balancing the Workload Equation in English Primary Schools: A Continuing Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, Maurice; MacBeath, John

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the gradual increase in primary teachers' workloads over several decades to the point where workforce reform was introduced to ameliorate the problem. A central feature of the reform was the use of teaching assistants to undertake various duties, so that time should be available for primary teachers to plan and prepare future…

  1. Workload Balancing on Heterogeneous Systems: A Case Study of Sparse Grid Interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Muraraşu, Alin; Weidendorfer, Josef; Bode, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    load balancing is essential. This paper proposes static and dynamic solutions for load balancing in the context of an application for visualizing high-dimensional simulation data. The application relies on the sparse grid technique for data compression

  2. Mental workload and cognitive task automaticity: an evaluation of subjective and time estimation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Wickens, C D

    1994-11-01

    The evaluation of mental workload is becoming increasingly important in system design and analysis. The present study examined the structure and assessment of mental workload in performing decision and monitoring tasks by focusing on two mental workload measurements: subjective assessment and time estimation. The task required the assignment of a series of incoming customers to the shortest of three parallel service lines displayed on a computer monitor. The subject was either in charge of the customer assignment (manual mode) or was monitoring an automated system performing the same task (automatic mode). In both cases, the subjects were required to detect the non-optimal assignments that they or the computer had made. Time pressure was manipulated by the experimenter to create fast and slow conditions. The results revealed a multi-dimensional structure of mental workload and a multi-step process of subjective workload assessment. The results also indicated that subjective workload was more influenced by the subject's participatory mode than by the factor of task speed. The time estimation intervals produced while performing the decision and monitoring tasks had significantly greater length and larger variability than those produced while either performing no other tasks or performing a well practised customer assignment task. This result seemed to indicate that time estimation was sensitive to the presence of perceptual/cognitive demands, but not to response related activities to which behavioural automaticity has developed.

  3. Subjective evaluation of physical and mental workload interactions across different muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and mental demands, and their interactions, have been shown to increase biomechanical loading and physiological reactivity as well as impair task performance. Because these interactions have shown to be muscle-dependent, the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) to evaluate physical and mental workload during muscle-specific tasks. Twenty-four participants performed upper extremity and low back exertions at three physical workload levels in the absence and presence of a mental stressor. Outcome measures included RPE and NASA TLX (six sub-scales) ratings. The findings indicate that while both RPEs and NASA TLX ratings were sensitive to muscle-specific changes in physical demand, only an additional mental stressor and its interaction with either physical demand or muscle groups influenced the effort sub-scale and overall workload scores of the NASA TLX. While additional investigations in actual work settings are warranted, the NASA TLX shows promise in evaluating perceived workload that is sensitive not only to physical and mental demands but also sensitive in determining workload for tasks that employ different muscle groups.

  4. Workload Balancing on Heterogeneous Systems: A Case Study of Sparse Grid Interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Muraraşu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    Multi-core parallelism and accelerators are becoming common features of today’s computer systems, as they allow for computational power without sacrificing energy efficiency. Due to heterogeneity, tuning for each type of compute unit and adequate load balancing is essential. This paper proposes static and dynamic solutions for load balancing in the context of an application for visualizing high-dimensional simulation data. The application relies on the sparse grid technique for data compression. Its performance critical part is the interpolation routine used for decompression. Results show that our load balancing scheme allows for an efficient acceleration of interpolation on heterogeneous systems containing multi-core CPUs and GPUs.

  5. Evaluating stereoscopic displays: both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Maurice H. P. H.; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Kort, Yvonne A. W.

    2011-03-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure potential performance advantages. However, completion time and accuracy may not fully reflect all the benefits of stereoscopic displays. In this paper, we argue that perceived workload is an additional valuable indicator reflecting the extent to which users can benefit from using stereoscopic displays. We performed an experiment in which participants were asked to perform a visual path-tracing task within a convoluted 3D wireframe structure, varying in level of complexity of the visualised structure and level of disparity of the visualisation. The results showed that an optimal performance (completion time, accuracy and workload), depend both on task difficulty and disparity level. Stereoscopic disparity revealed a faster and more accurate task performance, whereas we observed a trend that performance on difficult tasks stands to benefit more from higher levels of disparity than performance on easy tasks. Perceived workload (as measured using the NASA-TLX) showed a similar response pattern, providing evidence that perceived workload is sensitive to variations in disparity as well as task difficulty. This suggests that perceived workload could be a useful concept, in addition to standard performance indicators, in characterising and measuring human performance advantages when using stereoscopic displays.

  6. Evaluating the Workload of On-Call Psychiatry Residents: Which Activities Are Associated with Sleep Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K.; Cooke, Erinn O.; Sharfstein, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the workload inventory of on-call psychiatry residents and to evaluate which activities were associated with reductions in on-call sleep. Method: A prospective cohort study was conducted, following 20 psychiatry residents at a 231-bed psychiatry hospital, from July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009.…

  7. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  8. Effects of Grading Leniency and Low Workload on Students' Evaluations of Teaching: Popular Myth, Bias, Validity, or Innocent Bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Roche, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses two studies that debunk the popular myths that student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are substantially biased by low workload and grading leniency. Results imply teaching effects were related to SETs. Contrary to predictions workload, expected grades, and their relations to SETs were stable over 12 years. (Author/MKA)

  9. Evaluating mental workload of two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization for anatomical structure localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jung-Leng; Martinez-Escobar, Marisol; Juhnke, Bethany; Cassidy, Keely; Hisley, Kenneth; Lobe, Thom; Winer, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of medical data in three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional (2D) views is a complex area of research. In many fields 3D views are used to understand the shape of an object, and 2D views are used to understand spatial relationships. It is unclear how 2D/3D views play a role in the medical field. Using 3D views can potentially decrease the learning curve experienced with traditional 2D views by providing a whole representation of the patient's anatomy. However, there are challenges with 3D views compared with 2D. This current study expands on a previous study to evaluate the mental workload associated with both 2D and 3D views. Twenty-five first-year medical students were asked to localize three anatomical structures--gallbladder, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery--in either 2D or 3D environments. Accuracy and time were taken as the objective measures for mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was used as a subjective measure for mental workload. Results showed that participants viewing in 3D had higher localization accuracy and a lower subjective measure of mental workload, specifically, the mental demand component of the NASA-TLX. Results from this study may prove useful for designing curricula in anatomy education and improving training procedures for surgeons.

  10. Hospitalist workload influences faculty evaluations by internal medicine clerkship students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. The study reported here was conducted to explore the relationship between clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students. A retrospective correlation analysis of clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was conducted. Internal medicine hospitalists who supervise the third-year inpatient experience for medical students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years participated in the study. Clinical service intensity data in terms of work relative value units (RVUs), patient encounters, and days of inpatient duty were collected for all members of the hospitalist service. Medical students rated hospitalists in the areas of patient rapport, enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, sharing knowledge and skills, encouraging the students, probing student knowledge, stimulating independent learning, providing timely feedback, providing constructive criticism, and observing patient encounters with students. Significant negative correlations between higher work RVU production, total patient encounters, duty days, and learner evaluation scores for enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, probing the student for knowledge and judgment, and observing a patient encounter with the student were identified. Higher duty days had a significant negative correlation with sharing knowledge/skills and encouraging student initiative. Higher work RVUs and total patient encounters were negatively correlated with timely feedback and constructive criticism. The results suggest that

  11. Hospitalist workload influences faculty evaluations by internal medicine clerkship students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson RL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert L Robinson Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA Background: The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. Objective: The study reported here was conducted to explore the relationship between clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students. Design: A retrospective correlation analysis of clinical service intensity and teaching evaluations of hospitalists by internal medicine clerkship students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine was conducted. Participants: Internal medicine hospitalists who supervise the third-year inpatient experience for medical students during the 2009 to 2013 academic years participated in the study. Measures: Clinical service intensity data in terms of work relative value units (RVUs, patient encounters, and days of inpatient duty were collected for all members of the hospitalist service. Medical students rated hospitalists in the areas of patient rapport, enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, sharing knowledge and skills, encouraging the students, probing student knowledge, stimulating independent learning, providing timely feedback, providing constructive criticism, and observing patient encounters with students. Results: Significant negative correlations between higher work RVU production, total patient encounters, duty days, and learner evaluation scores for enthusiasm about the profession, clinical skills, probing the student for knowledge and judgment, and observing a patient encounter with the student were identified. Higher duty days had a significant negative correlation

  12. Ergonomic evaluation of workload by milk production - a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claudilaine Caldas; Pereira Moro, Antônio Renato; Ulbricht, Leandra; Belinelli, Marjorie; de Souza, Gilberto F M; Gabriel, Michele; Zattar, Izabel Cristina

    2017-09-21

    The purpose of this study was to select in a structured manner the relevant articles with scientific recognition, and simultaneously identify the characteristics of these publications that may scientifically enrich the theme in a portfolio of papers. The theme involves ergonomics in milk production as a criterion for evaluating and improving organizational performance in the milking sector. The study used ProKnow-C as a theoretical instrument for intervention. The main results show: i) a bibliographic portfolio of 18 items aligned with the view adopted by researchers which served as a theoretical framework for this research; ii) The article entitled "Wrist positions and movements as possible risk factors during machine milking", by Marianne Stål, Gert-Åke Hansson and Ulrich Moritz in 1999 and published in the Journal of Applied Ergonomics presented the highest scientific recognition, iii) the authors highlighted in the bibliographic portfolio or in its references researching the subject are Gert-Åke Hansson, Marianne Stål and Stefan Pinzke, and iv) the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics shows the highest number of scientific articles in the bibliographic portfolio. The studies selected using the methodology indicate research in ergonomics focused on the production of milk in rural areas, specifically in the milking sector, are generally related to the health and safety of the workers.

  13. Evaluation of a pilot workload metric for simulated VTOL landing tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, R. A.; Graffunder, K.

    1979-01-01

    A methodological approach to measuring workload was investigated for evaluation of new concepts in VTOL aircraft displays. Multivariate discriminant functions were formed from conventional flight performance and/or visual response variables to maximize detection of experimental differences. The flight performance variable discriminant showed maximum differentiation between crosswind conditions. The visual response measure discriminant maximized differences between fixed vs. motion base conditions and experimental displays. Physiological variables were used to attempt to predict the discriminant function values for each subject/condition/trial. The weights of the physiological variables in these equations showed agreement with previous studies. High muscle tension, light but irregular breathing patterns, and higher heart rate with low amplitude all produced higher scores on this scale and thus, represented higher workload levels.

  14. Evaluation of operators' mental workload of human-system interface automation in the advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Y.-T.; Yenn, T.-C.; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Yang, C.-W.; Chiang, C.-C.

    2009-01-01

    It has been expected that the automation of certain tasks in a control room would help decrease operators' mental workload, enhance situation awareness, and improve the whole system performance. However, there have been too many automation-induced system failures that would warrant a fresh look on the influences of automation. Automation problems include the reduction in the operator's system awareness, an increase in monitoring workload, and the degradation in manual skills. This study evaluates operators' mental workload and system performance during a human-system interface (HSI) automation in an advanced nuclear power plant (NPP). The reactor shutdown task and alarm reset task simulations were conducted in this study to evaluate operators' mental workload and performance. The results of this study indicated that for ensuring safe operating in NPPs, the design of automation needs to be carefully implemented. Task characteristics and degrees of automation should be carefully evaluated while designing HSIs. The reactor shutdown tasks studied in this paper suggest that a high level of automation design for the long period and low workload would be sufficient. On the other hand, the degree of automation of alarm reset task does not show a significant difference to the operator's mental workload. In conclusion, the human-system interface automation in advanced NPPs is suggested to be more flexible and needs to be continually improved.

  15. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  16. Development of material balance evaluation technique(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Doo

    2000-06-01

    IAEA considers that the evaluation on material balance is one of the important activities for detecting the diversion of nuclear materials as well as measurement uncertainties and measurement bias. Nuclear material accounting reports, the results of DA and NDA, the summarized lists of material stratified by inspector are necessary for the material balance evaluation. In this report, the concepts and evaluation methods of material balance evaluation such as the estimation techniques of random and systematic errors, MUF, D and MUF-D are described. As a conclusion, it is possible for national inspection to evaluate the material balance by applying the evaluation methods of the IAEA such as error estimation using operator-inspector paired data, inspector MUF(IMUF) evaluation

  17. Performance Evaluation of Balanced Pension Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Andreu (Laura); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the ability of balanced pension plan managers to successfully time the equity and bond market and select the appropriate assets within these markets. In order to evaluate both market timing abilities in these balanced pension plans, we extend the traditional equity

  18. Scrutinising usability evaluation: does thinking aloud affect behaviour and mental workload?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Kristin Due; Andersen, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    thinking aloud participants took longer to solve tasks, spent a larger part of tasks on general distributed visual behaviour, issued more commands to navigate both within and between the pages of the websites used in the experiment, and experienced higher mental workload. Implications for usability......Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation. The validity of the method is, however, debatable because it is generally used in a relaxed way that conflicts with the prescriptions of the classic model for obtaining valid verbalisations of thought processes. This study investigates whether...... participants that think aloud in the classic or relaxed way behave differently compared to performing in silence. Results indicate that whereas classic thinking aloud has little or no effect on behaviour apart from prolonging tasks, relaxed thinking aloud affects behaviour in multiple ways. During relaxed...

  19. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Hsieh, Tsung-Ling; Lin, Shiau-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed

  20. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of team lifting on work demands, workload and workers' evaluation: an observational field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in work demands, energetic workload and workers' discomfort and physical effort in two regularly observable workdays in ironwork; one where loads up to 50kg were handled with two persons manually (T50) and one where loads up to 100kg were handled manually with four persons (T100). Differences between these typical workdays were assessed with an observational within-subject field study of 10 ironworkers. No significant differences were found for work demands, energetic workload or discomfort between T50 and T100 workdays. During team lifts, load mass exceeded 25kg per person in 57% (T50 workday) and 68% (T100 workday) of the lifts. Seven ironworkers rated team lifting with two persons as less physically demanding compared with lifting with four persons. When loads heavier than 25kg are lifted manually with a team, regulations of the maximum mass weight are frequently violated. Loads heavier than 25kg are frequently lifted during concrete reinforcement work and should be lifted by a team of persons. However, the field study showed that loads above 25kg are most of the time not lifted with the appropriate number of workers. Therefore, loads heavier than 25kg should be lifted mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study investigates procedure types’ effects on operators’ performance. ► The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. ► The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. ► And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. ► The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users’ mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower “field of view” provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the status and progress through the procedure. Based on a human factors experiment in which each participant monitored and controlled multiple simulated

  3. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih-Wei, E-mail: yangcw@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study investigates procedure types' effects on operators' performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users' mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower 'field of view' provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the

  4. The evaluation of team lifting on physical work demands and workload in ironworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Visser, Steven; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Faber, Gert; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    Lifting and carrying heavy loads occur frequently among ironworkers and result in high prevalence and incidence rates of low back complaints, injuries and work-disability. From a health perspective, little information is available on the effect of team lifting on work demands and workload. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of team lifting of maximally 50 kg by two ironworkers (T50) with team lifting of maximally 100 kg by four ironworkers (T100). This study combined a field and laboratory study with the following outcome measures: duration and frequency of tasks and activities, energetic workload, perceived discomfort and maximal compression forces (Fc peak) on the low back. The physical work demands and workload of an individual iron worker during manual handling of rebar materials of 100 kg with four workers did not differ from the manual handling of rebar materials of 50 kg with two workers, with the exception of low back discomfort and Fc peak. The biomechanical workload of the low back exceeded for both T50 and T100 the NIOSH threshold limit of 3400N. Therefore, mechanical transport or other effective design solutions should be considered to reduce the biomechanical workload of the low back and the accompanying health risks among iron workers.

  5. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue.

  6. School Nurse Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL, and Medline. Twenty-nine empirical studies and nine nonempirical articles were selected for inclusion. Themes that emerged consistent with school nurse practice include patient classification systems, environmental factors, assistive personnel, missed nursing care, and nurse satisfaction. School nursing is a public health discipline and population studies are an inherent research priority but may overlook workload variables at the clinical level. School nurses need a consistent method of population assessment, as well as evaluation of appropriate use of assistive personnel and school environment factors. Assessment of tasks not directly related to student care and professional development must also be considered in total workload.

  7. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems

  8. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  9. AN INITIAL EVALUATION OF THE BTRACKS BALANCE PLATE AND SPORTS BALANCE SOFTWARE FOR CONCUSSION DIAGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Daniel J; Manyak, Kristin A; Abdenour, Thomas E; Rauh, Mitchell J; Baweja, Harsimran S

    2016-04-01

    As recently dictated by the American Medical Society, balance testing is an important component in the clinical evaluation of concussion. Despite this, previous research on the efficacy of balance testing for concussion diagnosis suggests low sensitivity (∼30%), based primarily on the popular Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The Balance Tracking System (BTrackS, Balance Tracking Systems Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) consists of a force plate (BTrackS Balance Plate) and software (BTrackS Sport Balance) which can quickly (balance testing with gold standard accuracy. The present study aimed to determine the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sports Balance Software for concussion diagnosis. Cross-Sectional Study. Preseason baseline balance testing of 519 healthy Division I college athletes playing sports with a relatively high risk for concussions was performed with the BTrackS Balance Test. Testing was administered by certified athletic training staff using the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software. Of the baselined athletes, 25 later experienced a concussion during the ensuing sport season. Post-injury balance testing was performed on these concussed athletes within 48 of injury and the sensitivity of the BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software was estimated based on the number of athletes showing a balance decline according to the criteria specified in the Sport Balance software. This criteria is based on the minimal detectable change statistic with a 90% confidence level (i.e. 90% specificity). Of 25 athletes who experienced concussions, 16 had balance declines relative to baseline testing results according to the BTrackS Sport Balance software criteria. This corresponds to an estimated concussion sensitivity of 64%, which is twice as great as that reported previously for the BESS. The BTrackS Balance Plate and Sport Balance software has the greatest concussion sensitivity of any balance testing instrument reported to date. Level 2

  10. impact of workload induced stress on the professional effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    aids, evaluation of students, learning motivation, classroom management, supervision of co-curricular activities and ... of workload. KEYWORDS; Stress, Workload, Professional effectiveness, Teachers, Cross River State .... determining the relationship between workload ..... adapted to cope with the stress that could have.

  11. Rework the workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Linda; Krueger, Janelle; Lusk, Ruth

    2002-03-01

    Kindred Healthcare, Inc., the nation's largest full-service network of long-term acute care hospitals, initiated a 3-year strategic plan to re-evaluate its workload management system. Here, follow the project's most important and difficult phase--designing and implementing the patient classification system.

  12. A physical workload index to evaluate a safe resident handling program for nursing home personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Alicia; Buchholz, Bryan; Punnett, Laura

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive analysis of the physical workload of clinical staff in long-term care facilities, before and after a safe resident handling program (SRHP). Ergonomic exposures of health care workers include manual handling of patients and many non-neutral postures. A comprehensive assessment requires the integration of loads from these varied exposures into a single metric. The Postures, Activities, Tools, and Handling observational protocol, customized for health care, was used for direct observations of ergonomic exposures in clinical jobs at 12 nursing homes before the SRHP and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months afterward. Average compressive forces on the spine were estimated for observed combinations of body postures and manual handling and then weighted by frequencies of observed time for the combination. These values were summed to obtain a biomechanical index for nursing assistants and nurses across observation periods. The physical workload index (PWI) was much higher for nursing assistants than for nurses and decreased more after 3 years (-24% versus -2.5%). Specifically during resident handling, the PWI for nursing assistants decreased by 41% of baseline value. Spinal loading was higher for nursing assistants than for nurses in long-term care centers. Both job groups experienced reductions in physical loading from the SRHP, especially the nursing assistants and especially while resident handling. The PWI facilitates a comprehensive investigation of physical loading from both manual handling and non-neutral postures. It can be used in any work setting to identify high-risk tasks and determine whether reductions in one exposure are offset by increases in another.

  13. Evaluating the Fraser Health Balanced Scorecard--a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnardo, Catherine; Jivanni, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Fraser Health (FH), a large, Canadian, integrated health care network, adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to monitor organizational performance in 2006. This paper reports on the results of a formative evaluation, conducted in April, 2008, to assess the usefulness of the BSC as a performance-reporting system and a performance management tool. Results indicated that the BSC has proven to be useful for reporting performance but is not currently used for performance management in a substantial way.

  14. Evaluation of workload among industrial workers with the Need for Recovery Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Cristiane S; Alem, Michele E R; Coury, Helenice J C G

    2011-01-01

    Work conditions can overload a worker's capabilities and result in health complaints. The early identification of hazardous work conditions allows the definition of priorities for more efficient ergonomic interventions. To assess the need for recovery among industrial workers under different work conditions using the Need for Recovery Scale (NFR), and to verify the association between the scores and personal factors, occupational factors and daily activities. 191 workers (mean age of 34.5±8.3 years) from a manufactory industry participated in this study. Workers answered both a questionnaire regarding demographic and occupational factors, and daily activities as well as the NFR. Ergonomic assessment of workplace sectors was carried out based on the Ergonomic Workplace Analysis. The Pearson chi-square test (significance level 5%) was used to verify the association between NFR scores and the variables of interest. The only association was between work sector and NFR score. According to the ergonomic assessment, the work sector with the highest need for recovery also presented the worst environmental and organizational conditions. The Need for Recovery Scale proved to be a helpful tool for differentiating work sectors presenting different workload demands and contributed to the definition of intervention priorities for preserving worker health.

  15. Reliability over time of EEG-based mental workload evaluation during Air Traffic Management (ATM) tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arico, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Graziani, Ilenia; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Geraud; Benhacene, Railene; Terenzi, Michela; Pozzi, Simone; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Machine-learning approaches for mental workload (MW) estimation by using the user brain activity went through a rapid expansion in the last decades. In fact, these techniques allow now to measure the MW with a high time resolution (e.g. few seconds). Despite such advancements, one of the outstanding problems of these techniques regards their ability to maintain a high reliability over time (e.g. high accuracy of classification even across consecutive days) without performing any recalibration procedure. Such characteristic will be highly desirable in real world applications, in which human operators could use such approach without undergo a daily training of the device. In this work, we reported that if a simple classifier is calibrated by using a low number of brain spectral features, between those ones strictly related to the MW (i.e. Frontal and Occipital Theta and Parietal Alpha rhythms), those features will make the classifier performance stable over time. In other words, the discrimination accuracy achieved by the classifier will not degrade significantly across different days (i.e. until one week). The methodology has been tested on twelve Air Traffic Controls (ATCOs) trainees while performing different Air Traffic Management (ATM) scenarios under three different difficulty levels.

  16. Development of Simulation-Based Evaluation System for Iterative Design of Human-Machine Interface in a Nuclear Power Plant - Application for Reducing Workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Kameda, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Wu Wei; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2003-01-01

    Development of simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design (SEAMAID) has been conducted in the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation to simulate the behavior of a few operators and the human-machine interface (HMI) in a commercialized pressurized water reactor plant. The workload is one of the key factors with respect to reducing the human error in the operation of nuclear power plants. In order to produce a high-quality design of HMI, the evaluation method was developed to simulate and analyze the operator's workload. Our method was adopted from the cognition model proposed by Reason. The workload such as the length of the visual point movement and the moving length of the operators was visualized in a monitor image during the simulation, and then recorded as a movie-file. As a consequence, the validation of SEAMAID was clarified

  17. Using Pulse Rate in Estimating Workload Evaluating a Load Mobilizing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pulse rate is a direct indicator of the state of the cardiovascular system, in ad-dition to being an indirect indicator of the energy expended in performing a task. The pulse of a person is the number of pulses recorded in a peripheral artery per unit time; the pulse appears as a pressure wave moving along the blood vessels, which are flexible, “in large arterial branches, speed of 7-10 m/s in the small arteries, 15 to 35 m/s”. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to assess heart rate, using the technique of recording the frequency of the pulse, oxy-gen consumption and observation of work activity in the estimation of the workload in a load handling task for three situations: lift/transfer/deposit; before, during and after the task the pulse rate is recorded for 24 young volunteers (10 women and 14 men under laboratory conditions. We performed a gesture analysis of work activity and lifting and handling strategies. Results: We observed an increase between initial and final fp in both groups and for the two tasks, a dif¬ference is also recorded in the increase in heart rate of 17.5 for charging 75 % of the participants experienced an increase in fp above 100 lat./min. Par 25 kg, registered values indicate greater than 114 lat./min and 17.5 kg than 128 lat./min values. Discussion: The pulse rate method is recommended for its simplicity of use for operational staff, supervisors and managers and indus¬trial engineers not trained in the physiology method can also be used by industrial hygienists.

  18. Evaluation of the external and internal workload in female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Beato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Match analysis technology has been extensively used in football, but there is limited literature on its use in futsal. Despite its increased popularity, the female futsal game model has never been quantified. The aim of this study was to quantify locomotor and mechanical activities performed during a non-competitive female futsal match, measuring the differences between the first and second half. Sixteen female futsal players of the Italian 2nd division were enrolled (age 27±5 years, height 1.65±0.09 m, body weight 56.9±7.7 kg, BMI 20.9±1.9, fat mass 21.5±2.9%. Locomotor and mechanical activities were recorded by means of the 10 Hz GPS StatSports system. Games were performed on a 38x18 m synthetic grass outdoor pitch. Significant differences were found between the first and second half in total distance (1424±114 and 1313±113 m, p<0.05, relative velocity (70±6 and 64±6 m min-1, p<0.05, high speed running (28±16 and 22±19 m, p<0.05 and high metabolic distance (80 ± 29 and 69 ± 28 m, p<0.05. The match analysis of female futsal matches provides useful information about its external load demands. Female futsal players decreased the workload in the second half compared to the first one during this non-competitive match. It was found that fatigue impairs the performance in the second part of the game. Coaches and physical trainers can obtain useful information to design training programmes taking into account the quantification of locomotor and mechanical activities performed in this study.

  19. Development of simulation-based evaluation system for iterative design of HMI to reduce human workload of operating crew in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Kameda, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Wu, Wei; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    Human workload is one of the key factors to reduce the human error during the operation in the commercialized nuclear power plants (NPP). In order to produce a high quality design of human machine interface (HMI), the evaluation and simulation method was developed to analyze operator's workload, where the model of operator crew was adopted on the basis of the model proposed by Reason. The workload such as length of the eye movement and moving length of the operators were visualized in the CRT image as well as the movie-file during the simulation. The developed computer code system was named simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design (SEAMAID), which was a simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design in the domain of NPP. The SEAMAID simulates the interaction between the operating crew and HMI, thus supports to evaluate the HMI by using the simulation results. The case study was conducted to evaluate the conventional central control room design. As a consequence, the authors were confirmed that SEAMAID was a useful tool to improve HMI design evaluating the workload data among several iterative design. (author)

  20. Balancing workload, motivation and job satisfaction in Rwanda: assessing the effect of adding family planning service provision to community health worker duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Mugeni, Cathy; Nkunda, Denis; Uwizeye, Marie Rose; Stockton, Laurie L; Wesson, Jennifer

    2016-01-06

    Task shifting from higher cadre providers to CHWs has been widely adopted to address healthcare provider shortages, but the addition of any service can potentially add to an already considerable workload for CHWs. Objective measures of workload alone, such as work-related time and travel may not reflect howCHWs actually perceive and react to their circumstances. This study combined perception and objectivemeasures of workload to examine their effect on quality of services, worker performance, and job and clientsatisfaction. Three hundred eighty-three CHWs from control and intervention districts, where the intervention group was trained to provide contraceptive resupply, completed diaries of work-related activities for one month. Interviews were also conducted with a subset of CHWs and their clients. CHW diaries did not reveal significant differences between intervention and control groups in time spent on service provision or travel. Over 90% of CHWs reported workload manageability, job satisfaction, and motivation to perform their jobs. Clients were highly satisfied with CHW services and most stated preference for future services from CHWs. The study demonstrated that adding resupply of hormonal contraceptives to CHWs' tasks would not place undue burden on them. Accordingly, the initiative was scaled up in all 30 districts in the country.

  1. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  2. Are we simplifying balance evaluation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Saba; Baldwin, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of the postural balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has been measured by sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance. The impact of the scoliotic deformity in three planes on balance has not been fully investigated. 47 right thoracic and left lumbar curves adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 10 non-scoliotic controls were registered prospectively. 13 spinopelvic postural parameters were calculated from the 3-dimantional reconstructions of X-rays. 7 balance variables describing the position and sway of the center of pressure were recorded using a pressure mat. A regression analysis was used to predict sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance from the 7 balance variables. A canonical correlation analysis was performed between all the postural parameters and balance variables and the significant associations between the postural and balance variables were determined. sagittal vertical axis and frontal balance were not significantly associated with the position or sway of the center of pressure (p>0.05). Canonical correlation analysis showed significant associations between the postural variables in the 3 planes and center of pressure position (R 2 =0.81) and sway (R 2 =0.62), pbalance contributed to the postural balance in the cohort. The compensatory role of the pelvis and distal kyphosis in sagittal plane was underlined. Multidimensional analyses between the postural and balance variables showed the alignment of the thoracic, lumbar, and pelvis in the 3 planes, in addition to the global head-pelvic position impact on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating Work-Life Balance in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    Evaluating Work - Life Balance in the Department of Defense Erin A. Moeser Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) Kizzy M. Parks...for service members’ family lives may increase satisfaction with work - life balance . Examples of family-friendly organizational policies include...1,500 active duty military personnel were surveyed on the value of work / life balance initiates. More specifically, this study assessed respondents

  4. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  5. Responsibility and trade emission balances : An evaluation of approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Monica; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares two concepts to evaluate the international responsibility of a country with respect to its emissions. Using a multi-regional input-output model, we show that the trade emission balance and the responsibility emission balance yield the same result. In practical work, however, a

  6. Evaluating stereoscopic displays : both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van M.H.P.H.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Woods, A.J.; Holliman, N.S.; Dodgson, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure

  7. Balance evaluation in haemophilic preadolescent patients using Nintendo Wii Balance Board®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alenda, S; Carrasco, J J; Aguilar-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-Gómez, L; Querol-Giner, M; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Torres-Ortuño, A; Querol, F

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the musculoskeletal system, especially in the lower limbs, limit physical activity and affect balance and walking. Postural impairments in haemophilic preteens could increase the risk of bleeding events and deteriorate the physical condition, promoting the progression of haemophilic arthropathy. This study aims to evaluate static postural balance in haemophilic children, assessed by means of the Wii Balance Board ® (WBB). Nineteen children with haemophilia and 19 without haemophilia aged 9-10 years, have participated in this study. Postural balance was assessed by performing four tests, each one lasting 15 s: bipodal eyes open (BEO), bipodal eyes closed (BEC), monopodal dominant leg (MD) and monopodal non-dominant leg (MND). Two balance indices, standard deviation of amplitude (SDA) and standard deviation of velocity (SDV) were calculated in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Index values were higher in haemophilic group and the differences were statistically significant (P balance in the haemophilic cohort compared to the control group. Accordingly, physiotherapy programmes, physical activity and sports should be designed to improve the postural balance with the aim of preventing joint deterioration and improving quality of life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The workload of fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    -reported occupational and health data. Questions covering the physical workload were related to seven different work situations and a score summing up the workload was developed for the analysis of the relative impact on different groups of fishermen. Results: Almost all fishermen (96.2%) were familiar to proper...... health. To address the specific areas of fishing with the highest workload, future investments in assistive devices to ease the demanding work and reduce the workload, should particularly address deckhands and less mechanized vessels....

  9. Evaluation of Physiologically-Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    cognitive state using models or context-sensitive assessment tools, and augment the operator’s performance before performance decrements may occur. The...important to investigate multiple types of model configuations in order to determine if one 13 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for...managing multiple aircraft, potentially leading to performance decrements and mission failure. One solution to address excessive workload from

  10. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  11. Fuzzy-TLX: using fuzzy integrals for evaluating human mental workload with NASA-Task Load indeX in laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzé-Amady, Marc; Raufaste, Eric; Prade, Henri; Meyer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mental workload in which various load sources must be integrated to derive reliable workload estimates. We report a new algorithm for computing weights from qualitative fuzzy integrals and apply it to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration -Task Load indeX (NASA-TLX) subscales in order to replace the standard pair-wise weighting technique (PWT). In this paper, two empirical studies were reported: (1) In a laboratory experiment, age- and task-related variables were investigated in 53 male volunteers and (2) In a field study, task- and job-related variables were studied on aircrews during 48 commercial flights. The results found in this study were as follows: (i) in the experimental setting, fuzzy estimates were highly correlated with classical (using PWT) estimates; (ii) in real work conditions, replacing PWT by automated fuzzy treatments simplified the NASA-TLX completion; (iii) the algorithm for computing fuzzy estimates provides a new classification procedure sensitive to various variables of work environments and (iv) subjective and objective measures can be used for the fuzzy aggregation of NASA-TLX subscales. NASA-TLX, a classical tool for mental workload assessment, is based on a weighted sum of ratings from six subscales. A new algorithm, which impacts on input data collection and computes weights and indexes from qualitative fuzzy integrals, is evaluated through laboratory and field studies. Pros and cons are discussed.

  12. A public data set of human balance evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana A. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to create a public data set with results of qualitative and quantitative evaluations related to human balance. Subject’s balance was evaluated by posturography using a force platform and by the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Tests. In the posturography test, we evaluated subjects standing still for 60 s in four different conditions where vision and the standing surface were manipulated: on a rigid surface with eyes open; on a rigid surface with eyes closed; on an unstable surface with eyes open; on an unstable surface with eyes closed. Each condition was performed three times and the order of the conditions was randomized. In addition, the following tests were employed in order to better characterize each subject: Short Falls Efficacy Scale International; International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version; and Trail Making Test. The subjects were also interviewed to collect information about their socio-cultural, demographic, and health characteristics. The data set comprises signals from the force platform (raw data for the force, moments of forces, and centers of pressure of 163 subjects plus one file with information about the subjects and balance conditions and the results of the other evaluations. All the data is available at PhysioNet and at Figshare.

  13. ACCOUNTING POLICIES EFFECTS ON DEPRECIATION AND EVALUATION OF BALANCE SHEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Elena DREGHICIU

    2016-12-01

    Starting from the diversity of principles and rules that exist within the accounting, this paper aims to form a main problematic frame concerning the principle of the method’s constancy, whose purpose is applying the same registration, evaluation and presentation methods for operations, transactions, and balance sheet elements.

  14. Implementation and Performance Evaluation Using the Fuzzy Network Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Lang

    2010-01-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a multi-criteria evaluation concept that highlights the importance of performance measurement. However, although there is an abundance of literature on the BSC framework, there is a scarcity of literature regarding how the framework with dependence and interactive relationships should be properly implemented in…

  15. Evaluation of the Display of Cognitive State Feedback to Drive Adaptive Task Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneich, Michael C; Passinger, Břetislav; Hamblin, Christopher; Keinrath, Claudia; Vašek, Jiři; Whitlow, Stephen D; Beekhuyzen, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks. A traditional closed-loop adaptive system includes the decision logic to turn automated adaptations on and off. This work takes a novel approach of replacing the decision logic, normally performed by the automation, with human decisions. The Crew Workload Manager (CWLM) was developed to objectively display the workload between pilots and recommend task sharing; it is then the pilots who "close the loop" by deciding how to best mitigate unbalanced workload. The workload was manipulated by the Shared Aviation Task Battery (SAT-B), which was developed to provide opportunities for pilots to mitigate imbalances in workload between crew members. Participants were put in situations of high and low workload (i.e., workload was manipulated as opposed to being measured), the workload was then displayed to pilots, and pilots were allowed to decide how to mitigate the situation. An evaluation was performed that utilized the SAT-B to manipulate workload and create workload imbalances. Overall, the CWLM reduced the time spent in unbalanced workload and improved the crew coordination in task sharing while not negatively impacting concurrent task performance. Balancing workload has the potential to improve crew resource management and task performance over time, and reduce errors and fatigue. Paired with a real-time workload measurement system, the

  16. A comparison of policies on nurse faculty workload in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peggy A

    2013-01-01

    This article describes nurse faculty workload policies from across the nation in order to assess current practice. There is a well-documented shortage of nursing faculty leading to an increase in workload demands. Increases in faculty workload results in difficulties with work-life balance and dissatisfaction threatening to make nursing education less attractive to young faculty. In order to begin an examination of faculty workload in nursing, existing workloads must be known. Faculty workload data were solicited from nursing programs nationwide and analyzed to determine the current workloads. The most common faculty teaching workload reported overall for nursing is 12 credit hours per semester; however, some variations exist. Consideration should be given to the multiple components of the faculty workload. Research is needed to address the most effective and efficient workload allocation for nursing faculty.

  17. Evaluation of aerodynamic derivatives from a magnetic balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, B. S.; Parker, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic testing of a model in the University of Virginia cold magnetic balance wind-tunnel facility is expected to consist of measurements of the balance forces and moments, and the observation of the essentially six degree of freedom motion of the model. The aerodynamic derivatives of the model are to be evaluated from these observations. The basic feasibility of extracting aerodynamic information from the observation of a model which is executing transient, complex, multi-degree of freedom motion is demonstrated. It is considered significant that, though the problem treated here involves only linear aerodynamics, the methods used are capable of handling a very large class of aerodynamic nonlinearities. The basic considerations include the effect of noise in the data on the accuracy of the extracted information. Relationships between noise level and the accuracy of the evaluated aerodynamic derivatives are presented.

  18. Physical workload, trapezius muscle activity, and neck pain in nurses' night and day shifts: a physiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Corinne; Spengler, Christina M; Läubli, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical workload, electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscle, neck pain and mental well-being at work between night and day shifts in twenty Swiss nurses. Work pulse (average increase of heart rate over resting heart rate) was lower during night (27 bpm) compared to day shifts (34 bpm; p night (82% of average) compared to day shifts (110%; p night shifts. Trapezius muscle rest time was longer during night (13% of shift duration) than day shifts (7%; p night shifts. Neck pain and mental well-being at work were similar between shifts. Subjective perception of burden was similar between shifts despite less physical burden at night, suggesting there are other contributing factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative evaluation of twenty pilot workload assessment measure using a psychomotor task in a moving base aircraft simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, S. A.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of the sensitivity and intrusion of twenty pilot workload assessment techniques was conducted using a psychomotor loading task in a three degree of freedom moving base aircraft simulator. The twenty techniques included opinion measures, spare mental capacity measures, physiological measures, eye behavior measures, and primary task performance measures. The primary task was an instrument landing system (ILS) approach and landing. All measures were recorded between the outer marker and the middle marker on the approach. Three levels (low, medium, and high) of psychomotor load were obtained by the combined manipulation of windgust disturbance level and simulated aircraft pitch stability. Six instrument rated pilots participated in four seasons lasting approximately three hours each.

  20. Responsibility and trade emission balances. An evaluation of approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Monica; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares two concepts to evaluate the international responsibility of a country with respect to its emissions. Using a multi-regional input-output model, we show that the trade emission balance and the responsibility emission balance yield the same result. In practical work, however, a lack of data availability implies that the same technology assumption has been commonly adopted. In that case, also a third alternative exists, which simply evaluates the emissions embodied in the trade balance of the country. This third alternative yields the same results as the other two approaches at the aggregate level. At the level of individual products, however, the results are clearly different and it turns out that the third alternative answers a different question. That is, it is appropriate for measuring the emission content of the products that cross the border. In our empirical application, we consider Spain in 1995 and 2000, distinguishing nine different gases: CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , HFCs, PFCs, SO 2 , NO x , and NH 3 . (author)

  1. Evaluation and physiotherapeutic intervention in older with deficit balance through the Scale of Berg and Wii Balance Board platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Secchi Batista

    Full Text Available Introduction The aging process causes structural and functional changes in the organism. Among these changes, the systems responsible for controlling the balance are also affected, especially in women. This study aims to perform an assessment and physiotherapy intervention in elderly with balance deficits through Berg scale and platform Wii Balance Board. Materials and methods The study was longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention. Held in the city of Passo Fundo, RS - Brazil. Participants were 38 elderly women who had a deficit balance. The instruments used to collect data was a questionnaire to identify, assess balance across the Berg Balance Scale and an intervention program with six games via the Wii Balance Board™ platform. To statistically analyze the effects before and after the intervention were used Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation, with a significance level of p = 0.05. Results In the present study, we observed a statistically significant improvement in the balance of elderly compared before and after intervention, moreover, the six games played also showed statistical significance when comparing the first and twentieth session, highlighting the games Tightrope Walk Table Tilt, Deep Breathing and Soccer Heading. Conclusion The evaluation and balance training with the platform Wii Balance Board were able to provide significant results for the elderly, besides, the game has the potential to treat the health, well-being and functional capacity of older people through the visual representation the game in real time.

  2. Evaluation of automated image analysis software for the detection of diabetic retinopathy to reduce the ophthalmologists' workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pedre, Enrique; Navea, Amparo; Millan, Saray; Hernaez-Ortega, Maria C; Morales, Jesús; Desco, Maria C; Pérez, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    To assess the safety and workload reduction of an automated 'disease/no disease' grading system for diabetic retinopathy (DR) within a systematic screening programme. Single 45° macular field image per eye was obtained from consecutive patients attending a regional primary care based DR screening programme in Valencia (Spain). The sensitivity and specificity of automated system operating as 'one or more than one microaneurysm detection for disease presence' grader were determined relative to a manual grading as gold standard. Data on age, gender and diabetes mellitus were also recorded. A total of 5278 patients with diabetes were screened. The median age and duration of diabetes was 69 years and 6.9 years, respectively. Estimated prevalence of DR was 15.6%. The software classified 43.9% of the patients as having no DR and 26.1% as having ungradable images. Detection of DR was achieved with 94.5% sensitivity (95% CI 92.6- 96.5) and 68.8% specificity (95%CI 67.2-70.4). The overall accuracy of the automated system was 72.5% (95%CI 71.1-73.9). The present retinal image processing algorithm that can act as prefilter to flag out images with pathological lesions can be implemented in practice. Our results suggest that it could be considered when implementing DR screening programmes. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  4. Influence of mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent static work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Most occupational tasks involve some level of mental/cognitive processing in addition to physical work; however, the etiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to these demands remains unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify the interactive effects of physical and mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent work. Twelve participants, balanced by gender, performed intermittent static shoulder abductions to exhaustion at 15, 35, and 55% of individual maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), in the absence (control) and presence (concurrent) of a mental arithmetic task. Changes in muscular capacity were determined using endurance time, strength decline, electromyographic (EMG) fatigue indicators, muscle oxygenation, and heart rate measures. Muscular recovery was quantified through changes in strength and physiological responses. Mental workload was associated with shorter endurance times, specifically at 35% MVC, and greater strength decline. EMG and oxygenation measures showed similar changes during fatigue manifestation during concurrent conditions compared to the control, despite shorter endurance times. Moreover, decreased heart rate variability during concurrent demand conditions indicated increased mental stress. Although strength recovery was not influenced by mental workload, a slower heart rate recovery was observed after concurrent demand conditions. The findings from this study provide fundamental evidence that physical capacity (fatigability and recovery) is adversely affected by mental workload. Thus, it is critical to determine or evaluate occupational demands based on modified muscular capacity (due to mental workload) to reduce risk of WMSD development.

  5. Pilot Workload and Speech Analysis: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.; Christopher, Bonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has questioned the effectiveness of speech analysis to measure the stress, workload, truthfulness, or emotional state of a talker. The question remains regarding the utility of speech analysis for restricted vocabularies such as those used in aviation communications. A part-task experiment was conducted in which participants performed Air Traffic Control read-backs in different workload environments. Participant's subjective workload and the speech qualities of fundamental frequency (F0) and articulation rate were evaluated. A significant increase in subjective workload rating was found for high workload segments. F0 was found to be significantly higher during high workload while articulation rates were found to be significantly slower. No correlation was found to exist between subjective workload and F0 or articulation rate.

  6. The water balance questionnaire: design, reliability and validity of a questionnaire to evaluate water balance in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2012-03-01

    There is a need to develop a questionnaire as a research tool for the evaluation of water balance in the general population. The water balance questionnaire (WBQ) was designed to evaluate water intake from fluid and solid foods and drinking water, and water loss from urine, faeces and sweat at sedentary conditions and physical activity. For validation purposes, the WBQ was administrated in 40 apparently healthy participants aged 22-57 years (37.5% males). Hydration indices in urine (24 h volume, osmolality, specific gravity, pH, colour) were measured through established procedures. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered twice to 175 subjects to evaluate its reliability. Kendall's τ-b and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the questionnaire's validity and reliability. The proposed WBQ to assess water balance in healthy individuals was found to be valid and reliable, and it could thus be a useful tool in future projects that aim to evaluate water balance.

  7. DDM Workload Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, R.; Schikuta, E.; Garonne, V.; Stewart, G.; Barisits, M.; Beermann, T.; Lassnig, M.; Serfon, C.; Goossens, L.; Nairz, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from various sources (e.g. analysing the central file catalogue logs). Finally a description of the implemented emulation framework, used for stress-testing Rucio, is given.

  8. DDM Workload Emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vigne, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Lassnig, M; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2013-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from vario...

  9. DDM workload emulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigne, R; Schikuta, E; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Lassnig, M; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2014-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from various sources (e.g. analysing the central file catalogue logs). Finally a description of the implemented emulation framework, used for stress-testing Rucio, is given.

  10. DDM Workload Emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vigne, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2014-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from vario...

  11. Medical Resident Workload at a Multidisciplinary Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sadeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical resident workload has been shown to be associated with learning efficiency and patient satisfaction. However, there is limited evidence about it in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the medical resident workload in a multidisciplinary teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran.Methods: All medical residents at Shariati Hospital, a teaching hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Science, who were working between November and December 2011 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A self–reported questionnaire was used to gather information about their duty hours (including daily activities and shifts and financial issues.Results:135 (52.5% out of 257 residents responded to the questionnaire. 72 (53.3% residents were in surgical departments and 63 (46.7% were in non-surgical departments. Mean duty hours per month were significantly higher in surgical (350.8 ±76.7 than non-surgical (300.6±74.2 departments (p=0.001. Three cardiology (a non-surgical group residents (5.7% and 30 residents (41% in surgical groups (p<0.001 declared a number of “on-calls in the hospital” more than the approved number in the curriculum. The majority of residents (97.8% declared that their salary was not sufficient to manage their lives and they needed other financial resources. Conclusion: Medical residents at teaching hospitals in Iran suffer from high workloads and low income. There is a need to reduce medical resident workload and increase salary to improve worklife balance and finances.

  12. Validation of the Balance Board for Clinical Evaluation of Balance During Serious Gaming Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Sholukha, Victor; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Balance and posture can be affected in various conditions or become decreased with aging. A diminution of balance control induces an increase of fall's risk. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board™ (WBB) is used in rehabilitation to perform balance exercises (using commercial video games). The WBB has also been validated to assess balance and posture in static conditions. However, there is currently no study investigating the use of WBB to assess balance during the realization of balance exercises using this device. The aim of this study was to validate the use of WBB, coupled with specially developed serious games, to assess dynamic balance during rehabilitation exercises. Thirty five subjects participated in this study. Subjects were asked to play two specially developed serious games. Center of pressure (CP) displacements were simultaneously recorded with a WBB and a gold standard force plate (FP). Nine parameters were derived from CP displacement. Bland and Altman plots, paired-sample t tests, intraclass correlation coefficient's, and Pearson's coefficient correlations were computed. Excellent correlation between both devices was found for each parameter for the two games (R = 0.95 and 0.96). Unlike previous work on the WBB, these excellent results were obtained without using any calibration procedure. Despite this, results were highly correlated between the WBB and the FP. The WBB could be used in clinics to assess balance during rehabilitation exercises and, thus, allows a more regular patient follow-up.

  13. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  14. Workload Characterization of CFD Applications Using Partial Differential Equation Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Workload characterization is used for modeling and evaluating of computing systems at different levels of detail. We present workload characterization for a class of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applications that solve Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). This workload characterization focuses on three high performance computing platforms: SGI Origin2000, EBM SP-2, a cluster of Intel Pentium Pro bases PCs. We execute extensive measurement-based experiments on these platforms to gather statistics of system resource usage, which results in workload characterization. Our workload characterization approach yields a coarse-grain resource utilization behavior that is being applied for performance modeling and evaluation of distributed high performance metacomputing systems. In addition, this study enhances our understanding of interactions between PDE solver workloads and high performance computing platforms and is useful for tuning these applications.

  15. Materials balance area Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The material balance area (MBA) custodian has primary responsibility for control and accountability of nuclear material within an MBA. In this role, the custodian operates as an extension of the facility material control and accountability (MC ampersand A) organization. To effectively meet administrative requirements and protection needs, the custodian must be fully trained in all aspects of MC ampersand A related to the MBA, and custodian performance must be periodically evaluated. DOE Policy requires that each facility provide for a program which assures that each facility provide for a program which assures that personnel performing MC ampersand A functions are (1) trained and/or qualified to perform their duties and responsibilities and (2) knowledgeable of requirements and procedures related to their functions. The MBA Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL uses a variety of assessment techniques to meet this goal, including internal and independent MBA audits, periodic custodian testing, conduct of limited scope performance tests, daily monitoring of MC ampersand A documentation, and reviewing custodian performance during physical inventories. The data collected from these sources is analyzed and incorporated into an annual custodian performance evaluation document, given to each custodian and line management. Development of this program has resulted in significantly improved custodian performance and a marked decrease in finding and observations identified during MBA audits

  16. Material balance area custodian performance evaluation program at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the material balance area (MBA) custodian has primary responsibility for control and accountability of nuclear material within an MBA. In this role, the custodian operates as an extension of the facility material control and accountability (MC and A) organization. To effectively meet administrative requirements and protection needs, the custodian must be fully trained in all aspects of MC and A related to the MBA, and custodian performance must be periodically evaluated. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy requires that each facility provide for a program which ensures that personnel performing MC and A functions are trained and/or qualified to perform their duties and responsibilities and knowledgeable of requirements and procedures related to their functions. the MBA Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) uses a variety of assessment techniques to meet this goal, including internal and independent MBA audits, periodic custodian testing, limited scope performance tests, daily monitoring of MC and A documentation, and reviewing custodian performance during physical inventories

  17. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  18. How the workload impacts on cognitive cooperation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Nicolina; Borghini, Gianluca; Arico, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Toppi, Jlenia; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bezerianos, Anastatios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation degradation can be seen as one of the main causes of human errors. Poor cooperation could arise from aberrant mental processes, such as mental overload, that negatively affect the user's performance. Using different levels of difficulty in a cooperative task, we combined behavioural, subjective and neurophysiological data with the aim to i) quantify the mental workload under which the crew was operating, ii) evaluate the degree of their cooperation, and iii) assess the impact of the workload demands on the cooperation levels. The combination of such data showed that high workload demand impacted significantly on the performance, workload perception, and degree of cooperation.

  19. DIRAC optimized workload management

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, S K

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb DIRAC Workload and Data Management System employs advanced optimization techniques in order to dynamically allocate resources. The paradigms realized by DIRAC, such as late binding through the Pilot Agent approach, have proven to be highly successful. For example, this has allowed the principles of workload management to be applied not only at the time of user job submission to the Grid but also to optimize the use of computing resources once jobs have been acquired. Along with the central application of job priorities, DIRAC minimizes the system response time for high priority tasks. This paper will describe the recent developments to support Monte Carlo simulation, data processing and distributed user analysis in a consistent way across disparate compute resources including individual PCs, local batch systems, and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The Grid environment is inherently unpredictable and whilst short-term studies have proven to deliver high job efficiencies, the system performance over ...

  20. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  1. How body balance influences political party evaluations: A wii balance board study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dijkstra (Katinka); A. Eerland (Anita); J.M. Zijlmans (Mark); L.S. Post (Lysanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractEmbodied cognition research has shown how actions or body positions may affect cognitive processes, such as autobiographical memory retrieval or judgments. The present study examined the role of body balance (to the left or the right) in participants on their attributions to political

  2. How body balance influences political party evaluations. A Wii balance board study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka eDijkstra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Embodied cognition research has shown how actions or body positions may affect cognitive processes, such as autobiographical memory retrieval or judgments. The present study examined the role of body balance (to the left or the right in participants on their attributions to political parties. Participants thought they stood upright on a Wii™ Balance Board, while they were actually slightly tilted to the left or the right. Participants then ascribed fairly general political statements to one of ten political parties that are represented in the Dutch House of Representatives. Results showed a significant interaction of congruent leaning direction with left- or right wing party attribution. When the same analyses were performed with the political parties being divided into affiliations to the right, center, and left based on participants’ personal opinions rather than a ruling classification, no effects were found. The study provides evidence that conceptual metaphors are activated by manipulating body balance implicitly. Moreover, people’s judgments may be colored by seemingly trivial circumstances such as standing slightly out of balance.

  3. How body balance influences political party evaluations: a wii balance board study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Eerland, Anita; Zijlmans, Josjan; Post, Lysanne S

    2012-01-01

    Embodied cognition research has shown how actions or body positions may affect cognitive processes, such as autobiographical memory retrieval or judgments. The present study examined the role of body balance (to the left or the right) in participants on their attributions to political parties. Participants thought they stood upright on a Wii(™) Balance Board, while they were actually slightly tilted to the left or the right. Participants then ascribed fairly general political statements to one of 10 political parties that are represented in the Dutch House of Representatives. Results showed a significant interaction of congruent leaning direction with left- or right-wing party attribution. When the same analyses were performed with the political parties being divided into affiliations to the right, center, and left based on participants' personal opinions rather than a ruling classification, no effects were found. The study provides evidence that conceptual metaphors are activated by manipulating body balance implicitly. Moreover, people's judgments may be colored by seemingly trivial circumstances such as standing slightly out of balance.

  4. Continuous measures of situation awareness and workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Skraaning, Gyrd jr.; Sverrbo, Mona; Dalen, Joergen; Grimstad, Tone; Andresen, Gisle

    1998-03-01

    This report presents methods for continuous measures for Situation Awareness and Workload. The objective has been to identify, develop and test the new measures, and compare them to instruments that require interruptions of scenarios. The new measures are: (1) the Visual Indicator of Situation Awareness (VISA); where Situation Awareness is scored from predefined areas of visual interest critical for solving scenarios. Visual monitoring of areas was recorded by eye-movement tracking. (2) Workload scores reflected by Extended Dwell Time (EDT) and the operator Activity Level. EDT was calculated from eye-movement data files, and the activity level was estimated from simulator logs. Using experimental data from the 1996 CASH NRC Alarm study and the 1997 Human Error Analysis Project/ Human-Centred Automation study, the new measurement techniques have been tested and evaluated on a preliminary basis. The results showed promising relationships between the new continuous measures of situation awareness and workload, and established instruments based upon scenario interruptions. (author)

  5. Avaliação da carga de trabalho dos operadores de uma empresa distribuidora de derivados de petróleo Evaluation of an oil distributor company operator's workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Ballardin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra o método adotado e os resultados obtidos em estudo realizado com operadores de uma distribuidora de derivados de petróleo da região Sul do Brasil. O objetivo era avaliar a carga de trabalho e os fatores que interferem nessa carga, do ponto de vista dos operadores. A metodologia aplicada incluiu entrevistas e dois questionários, um adaptado do NASA-TLX e um para levantamento dos fatores que interferem na carga de trabalho. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria dos operadores percebe que a carga de trabalho é alta. Entre os componentes da carga de trabalho, o desempenho é a que tem peso maior, enquanto os problemas relacionados a equipamentos e sistemas informatizados são os que mais influenciam nessa carga. Tendo em vista os resultados obtidos, é necessário aperfeiçoar os subsistemas, técnico e organizacional, da empresa para gerar melhorias na performance, saúde e satisfação dos operadores.The aim of this study was to evaluate workloads as perceived by the operators of an oil distribution company in Southern Brazil. Workload levels were measured by a questionnaire adapted from the NASA-TLX, and the factors that impact on the workload were identified by interviews and questionnaire. The results showed that the workload level is high, mainly due to technical constraints (such as equipment and computational problems. Performance is the component which most influences workload. According to the results, it is necessary to improve the technical and organizational subsystems of the oil distribution company in order to improve human performance as well as the health and safety of the operators.

  6. The balanced scorecard: an integrative approach to performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J

    2001-05-01

    In addition to strict financial outcomes, healthcare financial managers should assess intangible assets that affect the organization's bottom line, such as clinical processes, staff skills, and patient satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard, coupled with data-warehousing capabilities, offers a way to measure an organization's performance against its strategic objectives while focusing on building capabilities to achieve these objectives. The balanced scorecard examines performance related to finance, human resources, internal processes, and customers. Because the balanced scorecard requires substantial amounts of data, it is a necessity to establish an organizational data warehouse of clinical, operational, and financial data that can be used in decision support. Because it presents indicators that managers and staff can influence directly by their actions, the balanced-scorecard approach to performance measurement encourages behavioral changes aimed at achieving corporate strategies.

  7. Assessing physician job satisfaction and mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boultinghouse, Oscar W; Hammack, Glenn G; Vo, Alexander H; Dittmar, Mary Lynne

    2007-12-01

    Physician job satisfaction and mental workload were evaluated in a pilot study of five physicians engaged in a telemedicine practice at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Electronic Health Network. Several previous studies have examined physician satisfaction with specific telemedicine applications; however, few have attempted to identify the underlying factors that contribute to physician satisfaction or lack thereof. One factor that has been found to affect well-being and functionality in the workplace-particularly with regard to human interaction with complex systems and tasks as seen in telemedicine-is mental workload. Workload is generally defined as the "cost" to a person for performing a complex task or tasks; however, prior to this study, it was unexplored as a variable that influences physician satisfaction. Two measures of job satisfaction were used: The Job Descriptive Index and the Job In General scales. Mental workload was evaluated by means of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index. The measures were administered by means of Web-based surveys and were given twice over a 6-month period. Nonparametric statistical analyses revealed that physician job satisfaction was generally high relative to that of the general population and other professionals. Mental workload scores associated with the practice of telemedicine in this environment are also high, and appeared stable over time. In addition, they are commensurate with scores found in individuals practicing tasks with elevated information-processing demands, such as quality control engineers and air traffic controllers. No relationship was found between the measures of job satisfaction and mental workload.

  8. Seismic fatigue life evaluation of mechanical structures using energy balance equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Seiji; Okamura, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic resistant performance for severe earthquakes is required, because of occurrence of earthquakes which exceed the design criteria. Additionally, quantitative evaluation of cumulative damage by earthquake is also required. In this study, the energy balance equation is applied to the evaluation. The energy balance equation expresses integral information of response, so that the energy balance equation is adequate for the evaluation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. At first, vibration experiment that leads experimental model to fatigue failure by continuous vibration disturbance is conducted. As a result of the experiment, relation between fatigue failure and energy balance equation is confirmed. Then the relation is proved from the viewpoint of hysteresis energy, and consistency between energy balance equation and hysteresis energy is confirmed. Finally, we adopted cumulative damage rule to energy balance equation in order to expect the fatigue life under random waves that have various input acceleration. (author)

  9. Evaluation of a distributed catchment scale water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troch, Peter A.; Mancini, Marco; Paniconi, Claudio; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    The validity of some of the simplifying assumptions in a conceptual water balance model is investigated by comparing simulation results from the conceptual model with simulation results from a three-dimensional physically based numerical model and with field observations. We examine, in particular, assumptions and simplifications related to water table dynamics, vertical soil moisture and pressure head distributions, and subsurface flow contributions to stream discharge. The conceptual model relies on a topographic index to predict saturation excess runoff and on Philip's infiltration equation to predict infiltration excess runoff. The numerical model solves the three-dimensional Richards equation describing flow in variably saturated porous media, and handles seepage face boundaries, infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff production, and soil driven and atmosphere driven surface fluxes. The study catchments (a 7.2 sq km catchment and a 0.64 sq km subcatchment) are located in the North Appalachian ridge and valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic data collected during the MACHYDRO 90 field experiment are used to calibrate the models and to evaluate simulation results. It is found that water table dynamics as predicted by the conceptual model are close to the observations in a shallow water well and therefore, that a linear relationship between a topographic index and the local water table depth is found to be a reasonable assumption for catchment scale modeling. However, the hydraulic equilibrium assumption is not valid for the upper 100 cm layer of the unsaturated zone and a conceptual model that incorporates a root zone is suggested. Furthermore, theoretical subsurface flow characteristics from the conceptual model are found to be different from field observations, numerical simulation results, and theoretical baseflow recession characteristics based on Boussinesq's groundwater equation.

  10. Workload measurement: diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, Wayne [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    1993-06-01

    Departments of medical imaging, as with many other service departments in the health industry, are being asked to develop performance indicators. No longer are they assured that annual budget allocations will be forthcoming without justification or some output measurement indicators that will substantiate a claim for a reasonable share of resources. The human resource is the most valuable and the most expensive to any department. This paper provides a brief overview of the research and implementation of a radiographer workload measurement system that was commenced in the Brisbane North Health Region. 2 refs., 10 tabs.

  11. Uncertainty evaluation for ordinary least-square fitting with arbitrary order polynomial in joule balance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Qiang; Xu, JinXin; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    The ordinary least-square fitting with polynomial is used in both the dynamic phase of the watt balance method and the weighting phase of joule balance method but few researches have been conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the fitting data in the electrical balance methods. In this paper, a matrix-calculation method for evaluating the uncertainty of the polynomial fitting data is derived and the properties of this method are studied by simulation. Based on this, another two derived methods are proposed. One is used to find the optimal fitting order for the watt or joule balance methods. Accuracy and effective factors of this method are experimented with simulations. The other is used to evaluate the uncertainty of the integral of the fitting data for joule balance, which is demonstrated with an experiment from the NIM-1 joule balance. (paper)

  12. WBDOC Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Wilkes Barre Data Operation Center. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  13. [Evaluation of coordination and balance in preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Fernández, Cristina; Mata Zubillaga, Daniel; Rodríguez Fernández, Luis Miguel; Regueras Santos, Laura; Reguera García, Maria Mercedes; de Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Lapeña López de Armentia, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that many preterm children without apparent neurological sequelae present some difficulties in different areas, such as coordination or balance during their school years. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) has demonstrated to be a useful tool to validate the coordination, while the stabilometric platform was the reference standard test for validating the balance. Case-control study carried out on preterm children from 7 to 10 years old and healthy term infant controls of the same ages. The same age band of MABC-2 was applied and the static balance by the stabilometric platform was analysed. A total of 89 subjects were included, 30 preterm children≤1,500g birthweight, 29 preterm children>1,500g birthweight, and 30 controls. Preterm children obtained the lowest scores on an overall basis in hand dexterity and balance tests in MABC-2, regardless of their birthweight. Lower gestational age was associated with poorer outcomes in hand dexterity and total scores in MABC-2. Balance results were similar using the stabilometric platform, regardless of prematurity. A little more than 10% preterm and term children could have coordination disorders or be at risk of developing them using the MABC-2. Despite the visual-motor coordination being similar, preterm children could face greater difficulties in hand dexterity while, in the absence of neurological comorbidity, preterm and term children balance could be comparable. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the power balance model of speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Lampen, Joanne; Hettinga, Floor; Bobbert, Maarten F

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of speed skating performance with a power balance model requires assumptions about the kinetics of energy production, skating efficiency, and skating technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these parameters during competitive imitations for the purpose of improving model predictions. Elite speed skaters (n = 8) performed races and submaximal efficiency tests. External power output (P(o)) was calculated from movement analysis and aerodynamic models and ice friction measurements. Aerobic kinetics was calculated from breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (Vo(2)). Aerobic power (P(aer)) was calculated from measured skating efficiency. Anaerobic power (P(an)) kinetics was determined by subtracting P(aer) from P(o). We found gross skating efficiency to be 15.8% (1.8%). In the 1,500-m event, the kinetics of P(an) was characterized by a first-order system as P(an) = 88 + 556e(-0.0494t) (in W, where t is time). The rate constant for the increase in P(aer) was -0.153 s(-1), the time delay was 8.7 s, and the peak P(aer) was 234 W; P(aer) was equal to 234[1 - e(-0.153(t-8.7))] (in W). Skating position changed with preextension knee angle increasing and trunk angle decreasing throughout the event. We concluded the pattern of P(aer) to be quite similar to that reported during other competitive imitations, with the exception that the increase in P(aer) was more rapid. The pattern of P(an) does not appear to fit an "all-out" pattern, with near zero values during the last portion of the event, as assumed in our previous model (De Koning JJ, de Groot G, and van Ingen Schenau GJ. J Biomech 25: 573-580, 1992). Skating position changed in ways different from those assumed in our previous model. In addition to allowing improved predictions, the results demonstrate the importance of observations in unique subjects to the process of model construction.

  15. A computerized multidimensional measurement of mental workload via handwriting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Gil; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effect of mental workload on handwriting behavior and to identify characteristics of low versus high mental workload in handwriting. We hypothesized differences between handwriting under three different load conditions and tried to establish a profile that integrated these indicators. Fifty-six participants wrote three numerical progressions of varying difficulty on a digitizer attached to a computer so that we could evaluate their handwriting behavior. Differences were found in temporal, spatial, and angular velocity handwriting measures, but no significant differences were found for pressure measures. Using data reduction, we identified three clusters of handwriting, two of which differentiated well according to the three mental workload conditions. We concluded that handwriting behavior is affected by mental workload and that each measure provides distinct information, so that they present a comprehensive indicator of mental workload.

  16. Academic context and perceived mental workload of psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The excessive workload of university students is an academic stressor. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate and control the workload in education. This research applies the NASA-TLX scale, as a measure of the workload. The objectives of this study were: (a) to measure the workload levels of a sample of 367 psychology students, (b) to group students according to their positive or negative perception of academic context (AC) and c) to analyze the effects of AC on workload. To assess the perceived AC, we used an ad hoc questionnaire designed according to Demand-Control-Social Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models. Using cluster analysis, participants were classified into two groups (positive versus negative context). The differences between groups show that a positive AC improves performance (p student autonomy and result satisfaction were relevant dimensions of the AC (p < .001 in all cases).

  17. A Model of Student Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Student workload is a contributing factor to students deciding to withdraw from their study before completion of the course, at significant cost to students, institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to create a basic workload model for a group of undergraduate students studying business law units at Curtin University in Western…

  18. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  19. Evaluation of a balanced smile- - A clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrataa Rastogi

    2010-01-01

    pleasant smile is a composite outcome of structural & harmonious balance between various elements of face including harmonious relationship between teeth, gingival scaffold & the lip framework. The importance of physical and facial attractiveness has been related to initial impressions, social interactions, etc. The subject of smile should greatly interest orthodontists as it forms a key aspect of communication & expression of emotions. There should be established criteria that identifies and quantifies elements of a smile that need correction and/or enhancement.

  20. Mental workload during brain-computer interface training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Elizabeth A; Williams, Justin C; Vanderheiden, Gregg C; Radwin, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    It is not well understood how people perceive the difficulty of performing brain-computer interface (BCI) tasks, which specific aspects of mental workload contribute the most, and whether there is a difference in perceived workload between participants who are able-bodied and disabled. This study evaluated mental workload using the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), a multi-dimensional rating procedure with six subscales: Mental Demands, Physical Demands, Temporal Demands, Performance, Effort, and Frustration. Able-bodied and motor disabled participants completed the survey after performing EEG-based BCI Fitts' law target acquisition and phrase spelling tasks. The NASA-TLX scores were similar for able-bodied and disabled participants. For example, overall workload scores (range 0-100) for 1D horizontal tasks were 48.5 (SD = 17.7) and 46.6 (SD 10.3), respectively. The TLX can be used to inform the design of BCIs that will have greater usability by evaluating subjective workload between BCI tasks, participant groups, and control modalities. Mental workload of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) can be evaluated with the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). The TLX is an effective tool for comparing subjective workload between BCI tasks, participant groups (able-bodied and disabled), and control modalities. The data can inform the design of BCIs that will have greater usability.

  1. Avaliação da carga mental de trabalho e do desempenho de medidas de mensuração: NASA TLX e SWAT Evaluation of mental workload and performance measurement: NASA TLX and SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Souza Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a carga mental para atividades desempenhadas em empresa catarinense de soluções em energia e busca comparar os resultados da carga mental de trabalho encontrada a partir de dois métodos de mensuração atualmente mais usados - NASA TLX e SWAT. Por meio deste estudo avaliou-se a carga mental exigida tanto pela atividade de montagem manual, quanto de montagem automática de placas eletrônicas. Os resultados da avaliação da carga mental evidenciaram que entre as duas formas de execução da atividade, as exigências mentais mostram-se maiores na atividade de montagem manual. Os métodos de avaliação da carga mental aplicados em estudos da ergonomia possibilitam conhecer as capacidades e limitações do trabalhador, características da organização do trabalho e facilitam a apresentação quantitativa e qualitativa dos resultados. A comparação do desempenho entre os dois métodos de avaliação da carga mental, também se mostrou como uma investigação pertinente para o campo da ergonomia, já que são poucos os estudos comparativos em relação ao desempenho dos métodos. Na comparação do desempenho geral entre os dois métodos, o método NASA TLX possibilita avaliar a carga mental analisando diversas dimensões da situação de trabalho e apresenta vantagens quando comparado ao SWAT, pois pode ser facilmente aplicado e mostrou-se com maior aceitação por parte dos avaliados.This study evaluates the mental workload in some activities in an electricity generation company in Santa Catarina, Brazil and compares the mental workload measurements obtained using two commonly used measurement methods- NASA TLX and SWAT. The mental workload required by both manual and automated assembly of circuit boards was evaluated. The evaluation of the mental workload showed that comparing these two types of activities, the mental requirements appear to be higher during manual assembly tasks. The methods for assessing the mental

  2. Complicity Revisited: Balancing Stakeholder Input and Roles in Evaluation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative study of an educational reform and its external evaluation, I describe how a well-intentioned but poorly conceptualized evaluation helped perpetuate asymmetries in the generation and use of evaluation findings. This article explores this project's failure to clarify evaluator roles, identify intended users and expected…

  3. [Application of the balanced scorecard for evaluating the training process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturoli, Cristiana; Gamberoni, Loredana

    2009-01-01

    A training project in which nurses acted as tutors to novice nurses was introduced in the Ferrara University Hospital, with the aim of helping them to achieve the skills and professional expertise required in an operating theatre environment. Owing to the involvement of all the surgical divisions of the hospital and the continual addition of new staff, the Balanced Scorecard method (BSC) was used to assess the impact of training on the entire organization. The BSC method, a multidimensional method born in the USA in the 1990's, made it possible to assess the utility of training in the light of achieving institutional goals.

  4. Design and Evaluation in a Real Use-case of Closed-loop Scheduling Algorithms for the gLite Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreetto, P; Bauce, M; Bertocco, S

    2011-01-01

    The High Throughput Computing paradigm typically involves a scenario whereby a given, estimated processing power is made available and sustained by the computing environment over a medium/long period of time. As a consequence, the performance goals are in general targeted at maximizing resource utilization to obtain the expected throughput, rather than minimizing run time for individual jobs. This does not mean that optimal resource selection through adequate workload management is not desired nor effective, nonetheless, relatively small and pre-assessed percentages of suboptimal choices or unexpected events can be tolerated. However, there are use-cases, among the HEP community, for which the described model does not immediately fit. This paper deals with the workload needs primarily driven by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experimental collaboration. In particular, the CDF analysis facility (CAF) typically operates by splitting its computations into so-called sections, which can be seen as sets of uniform and independent jobs. Processing a section cannot be considered completed until all its jobs have been successfully executed, thus requiring a Minimum Completion Time (MCT) dynamic scheduling policy where not even a single job should lay in non-terminal Grid states. A significant part of the CDF analysis is processed on the European Grid infrastructure through the gLite Workload Management System (WMS). This paper describes the design enhancements and ranking algorithms the WMS has been provided with to implement an adaptive scheduling policy to minimise MCT. Case study, outlined approach and first results are presented.

  5. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  6. Process Evaluation of a Workplace Health Promotion Intervention Aimed at Improving Work Engagement and Energy Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  7. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  8. Versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train locomotion and balance after neuromotor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and

  9. ANALYTIC NETWORK PROCESS AND BALANCED SCORECARD APPLIED TO THE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Reis dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of public health systems is an issue of great concern. After all, to assure people's quality of life, public health systems need different kinds of resources. Balanced Scorecard provides a multi-dimensional evaluation framework. This paper presents the application of the Analytic Network Process and Balanced Scorecard in the performance evaluation of a public health system in a typical medium-sized Southeastern town in Brazil.

  10. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  11. Survey of Methods to Assess Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    thesis study which had to do with the effect of binaural beats upon performan:.e (2) found out there was a subjectively experienced quality of beats ...were forced to conclude that the neuralmechanism by which binaural beats influenced performance is not open to correct subjective evaluation. In terms of...methods for developing indicies of pilot workload, FAA Report (FAA-AN-77- 15), July 1977. 2. ,’ R. E. The effect of binaural beats on performance, J

  12. Crew workload-management strategies - A critical factor in system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy and goals of the NASA/USAF Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program. The philosophical foundation of the program is based on the assumption that an improved understanding of pilot strategies will clarify the complex and inconsistent relationships observed among objective task demands and measures of system performance and pilot workload. The goals are to: (1) develop operationally relevant figures of merit for performance, (2) quantify the effects of strategic behaviors on system performance and pilot workload, (3) identify evaluation criteria for workload measures, and (4) develop methods of improving pilots' abilities to manage workload extremes.

  13. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... adjustment for education. For women, there was no evidence of a consistent association. CONCLUSION: The reviewed articles were not supportive of any associations between psychological workload and either general or abdominal obesity. Future epidemiological studies in this field should be prospective......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...

  14. Performance of different radiotherapy workload models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, Lisa; Jackson, Lynda D.; Schulze, Karleen; Groome, Patti A.; Foroudi, Farshad; Delaney, Geoff P.; Mackillop, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of different radiotherapy workload models using a prospectively collected dataset of patient and treatment information from a single center. Methods and Materials: Information about all individual radiotherapy treatments was collected for 2 weeks from the three linear accelerators (linacs) in our department. This information included diagnosis code, treatment site, treatment unit, treatment time, fields per fraction, technique, beam type, blocks, wedges, junctions, port films, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of the original and revised basic treatment equivalent (BTE) model, the simple and complex Addenbrooke models, the equivalent simple treatment visit (ESTV) model, fields per hour, and two local standards of workload measurement. Results: Data were collected for 2 weeks in June 2001. During this time, 151 patients were treated with 857 fractions. The revised BTE model performed better than the other models with a mean vertical bar observed - predicted vertical bar of 2.62 (2.44-2.80). It estimated 88.0% of treatment times within 5 min, which is similar to the previously reported accuracy of the model. Conclusion: The revised BTE model had similar accuracy and precision for data collected in our center as it did for the original dataset and performed the best of the models assessed. This model would have uses for patient scheduling, and describing workloads and case complexity

  15. Components of Standing Postural Control Evaluated in Pediatric Balance Measures: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M; Beauchamp, Marla K; Van Ooteghem, Karen; Paterson, Marie; Wittmeier, Kristy D

    2017-10-01

    To identify measures of standing balance validated in pediatric populations, and to determine the components of postural control captured in each tool. Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases using key word combinations of postural balance/equilibrium, psychometrics/reproducibility of results/predictive value of tests, and child/pediatrics; gray literature; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were measures with a stated objective to assess balance, with pediatric (≤18y) populations, with at least 1 psychometric evaluation, with at least 1 standing task, with a standardized protocol and evaluation criteria, and published in English. Two reviewers independently identified studies for inclusion. There were 21 measures included. Two reviewers extracted descriptive characteristics, and 2 investigators independently coded components of balance in each measure using a systems perspective for postural control, an established framework for balance in pediatric populations. Components of balance evaluated in measures were underlying motor systems (100% of measures), anticipatory postural control (72%), static stability (62%), sensory integration (52%), dynamic stability (48%), functional stability limits (24%), cognitive influences (24%), verticality (9%), and reactive postural control (0%). Assessing children's balance with valid and comprehensive measures is important for ensuring development of safe mobility and independence with functional tasks. Balance measures validated in pediatric populations to date do not comprehensively assess standing postural control and omit some key components for safe mobility and independence. Existing balance measures, that have been validated in adult populations and address some of the existing gaps in pediatric measures, warrant consideration for validation in children. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Empirical investigation of workloads of operators in advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Seunghwan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the workloads of operators in a computer-based control room of an advanced power reactor (APR 1400) nuclear power plant to investigate the effects from the changes in the interfaces in the control room. The cognitive-communicative-operative activity framework was employed to evaluate the workloads of the operator's roles during emergency operations. The related data were obtained by analyzing the tasks written in the procedures and observing the speech and behaviors of the reserved operators in a full-scope dynamic simulator for an APR 1400. The data were analyzed using an F-test and a Duncan test. It was found that the workloads of the shift supervisors (SSs) were larger than other operators and the operative activities of the SSs increased owing to the computer-based procedure. From these findings, methods to reduce the workloads of the SSs that arise from the computer-based procedure are discussed. (author)

  17. Evaluating algorithms for the Generation of Referring Expressions using a balanced corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatt, A.; van der Sluis, Ielka; van Deemter, Kees

    2007-01-01

    Despite being the focus of intensive research, evaluation of algorithms that generate referring expressions is still in its infancy. We describe a corpusbased evaluation methodology, applied to a number of classic algorithms in this area. The methodology focuses on balance and semantic transparency

  18. Assessing Clinical Trial-Associated Workload in Community-Based Research Programs Using the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marjorie J; Hurley, Patricia; Woo, Kaitlin M; Szczepanek, Connie; Stewart, Teresa; Robert, Nicholas; Lyss, Alan; Gönen, Mithat; Lilenbaum, Rogerio

    2016-05-01

    Clinical research program managers are regularly faced with the quandary of determining how much of a workload research staff members can manage while they balance clinical practice and still achieve clinical trial accrual goals, maintain data quality and protocol compliance, and stay within budget. A tool was developed to measure clinical trial-associated workload, to apply objective metrics toward documentation of work, and to provide clearer insight to better meet clinical research program challenges and aid in balancing staff workloads. A project was conducted to assess the feasibility and utility of using this tool in diverse research settings. Community-based research programs were recruited to collect and enter clinical trial-associated monthly workload data into a web-based tool for 6 consecutive months. Descriptive statistics were computed for self-reported program characteristics and workload data, including staff acuity scores and number of patient encounters. Fifty-one research programs that represented 30 states participated. Median staff acuity scores were highest for staff with patients enrolled in studies and receiving treatment, relative to staff with patients in follow-up status. Treatment trials typically resulted in higher median staff acuity, relative to cancer control, observational/registry, and prevention trials. Industry trials exhibited higher median staff acuity scores than trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, academic institutions, or others. The results from this project demonstrate that trial-specific acuity measurement is a better measure of workload than simply counting the number of patients. The tool was shown to be feasible and useable in diverse community-based research settings. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Comparative analysis of methods for workload assessment of the main control room operators of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.; Petkov, G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents benchmarking workload results obtained by a method for operator workload assessment – NASA Task Load Index, and a method for human error probability assessment - Performance Evaluation of Teamwork. Based on the archives of FSS-1000 training in the accident “Main Steam Line Tube Rupture at the WWER-1000 Containment” the capacities of the two methods for direct and indirect workload assessment are evaluated

  20. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  1. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  2. An artificial neural network estimation of gait balance control in the elderly using clinical evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Lugade

    Full Text Available The use of motion analysis to assess balance is essential for determining the underlying mechanisms of falls during dynamic activities. Clinicians evaluate patients using clinical examinations of static balance control, gait performance, cognition, and neuromuscular ability. Mapping these data to measures of dynamic balance control, and the subsequent categorization and identification of community dwelling elderly fallers at risk of falls in a quick and inexpensive manner is needed. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that given clinical measures, an artificial neural network (ANN could determine dynamic balance control, as defined by the interaction of the center of mass (CoM with the base of support (BoS, during gait. Fifty-six elderly adults were included in this study. Using a feed-forward neural network with back propagation, combinations of five functional domains, the number of hidden layers and error goals were evaluated to determine the best parameters to assess dynamic balance control. Functional domain input parameters included subject characteristics, clinical examinations, cognitive performance, muscle strength, and clinical balance performance. The use of these functional domains demonstrated the ability to quickly converge to a solution, with the network learning the mapping within 5 epochs, when using up to 30 hidden nodes and an error goal of 0.001. The ability to correctly identify the interaction of the CoM with BoS demonstrated correlation values up to 0.89 (P<.001. On average, using all clinical measures, the ANN was able to estimate the dynamic CoM to BoS distance to within 1 cm and BoS area to within 75 cm2. Our results demonstrated that an ANN could be trained to map clinical variables to biomechanical measures of gait balance control. A neural network could provide physicians and patients with a cost effective means to identify dynamic balance issues and possible risk of falls from routinely collected clinical

  3. The workload analysis in welding workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D.; Budiman, I.; Tryana Sembiring, M.; Sitorus, E.; Nasution, H.

    2018-03-01

    This research was conducted in welding workshop which produces doors, fences, canopies, etc., according to customer’s order. The symptoms of excessive workload were seen from the fact of employees complaint, requisition for additional employees, the lateness of completion time (there were 11 times of lateness from 28 orders, and 7 customers gave complaints). The top management of the workshop assumes that employees’ workload was still a tolerable limit. Therefore, it was required workload analysis to determine the number of employees required. The Workload was measured by using a physiological method and workload analysis. The result of this research can be utilized by the workshop for a better workload management.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Balance Prediction Models for Sit-to-Stand Movement in the Sagittal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar David Pena Cabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of balance control ability would become important in the rehabilitation training. In this paper, in order to make clear usefulness and limitation of a traditional simple inverted pendulum model in balance prediction in sit-to-stand movements, the traditional simple model was compared to an inertia (rotational radius variable inverted pendulum model including multiple-joint influence in the balance predictions. The predictions were tested upon experimentation with six healthy subjects. The evaluation showed that the multiple-joint influence model is more accurate in predicting balance under demanding sit-to-stand conditions. On the other hand, the evaluation also showed that the traditionally used simple inverted pendulum model is still reliable in predicting balance during sit-to-stand movement under non-demanding (normal condition. Especially, the simple model was shown to be effective for sit-to-stand movements with low center of mass velocity at the seat-off. Moreover, almost all trajectories under the normal condition seemed to follow the same control strategy, in which the subjects used extra energy than the minimum one necessary for standing up. This suggests that the safety considerations come first than the energy efficiency considerations during a sit to stand, since the most energy efficient trajectory is close to the backward fall boundary.

  5. Versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train locomotion and balance after neuromotor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire

    2012-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and balance independently during natural walking behaviors in rats. In evaluation mode, the robotic interface affords detailed assessments of pattern generation and dynamic equilibrium after spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke. In enabling mode,the robot acts as a propulsive or postural neuroprosthesis that instantly promotes unexpected locomotor capacities including overground walking after complete SCI, stair climbing following partial SCI and precise paw placement shortly after stroke. In training mode, robot-enabled rehabilitation, epidural electrical stimulation and monoamine agonists reestablish weight-supported locomotion, coordinated steering and balance in rats with a paralyzing SCI. This new robotic technology and associated concepts have broad implications for both assessing and restoring motor functions after CNS disorders, both in animals and in humans.

  6. BALANCED SCORE CARD MODEL EVALUATION: THE CASE OF AD BARSKA PLOVIDBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses creation of Balanced Scorecard, which includes environmental protection elements in AD Barska Plovidba. Firstly,the paper presents proposed models that include elements of conventional Balanced scorecard, and then we start with proposed models evaluation. In fact, as implementation and evaluation of the model in AD Barska Plovidba takes longer period of time, its evaluation and final choice is based on ISO 14598 and ISO 9126 with use of AHP method. Usually those standards are used for quality evaluation of software products, computer programs and databases inside organisation. After all, they serve as support for their development and acceptance because they provide quality evaluation during the phase when software is not yet implemented inside organistaion, what we assume as very important.

  7. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  8. Curriculum Change Management and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Aishah

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Saudi teachers have responded or are responding to the challenges posed by a new curriculum. It also deals with issues relating to workload demands which affect teachers' performance when they apply a new curriculum in a Saudi Arabian secondary school. In addition, problems such as scheduling and sharing space…

  9. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of angles of base plate rotation are expected to be useful as well as an analysis of the balance characteristics considering a balance index that reflects the muscle activity and cooperative characteristics. PMID:26508847

  10. Performance Evaluation of Extension Education Centers in Universities Based on the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance…

  11. Evaluation of energy balance of Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of using milk composition as indicators of energy balance (EB) in dairy cows were evaluated. Milk composition traits (milk protein, fat and lactose percentages) from thirteen (13) primiparous and 47 multiparous (F1) Friesian x Bunaji cows were studied. The milk composition was analyzed weekly from 4 to 300 ...

  12. Monday Morning Workload Reports (FY15 - 17)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monday Morning Workload Report (MMWR) displays a snapshot of the Veterans Benefits Administration’s (VBA) workload as of a specified date, typically the previous...

  13. Gentamicin treatment in exercised mdx mice: Identification of dystrophin-sensitive pathways and evaluation of efficacy in work-loaded dystrophic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Annamaria; Nico, Beatrice; Rolland, Jean-François; Cozzoli, Anna; Burdi, Rosa; Mangieri, Domenica; Giannuzzi, Viviana; Liantonio, Antonella; Cippone, Valentina; De Bellis, Michela; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2008-11-01

    Aminoglycosides force read through of premature stop codon mutations and introduce new mutation-specific gene-corrective strategies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A chronic treatment with gentamicin (32 mg/kg/daily i.p., 8-12 weeks) was performed in exercised mdx mice with the dual aim to clarify the dependence on dystrophin of the functional, biochemical and histological alterations present in dystrophic muscle and to verify the long term efficiency of small molecule gene-corrective strategies in work-loaded dystrophic muscle. The treatment counteracted the exercise-induced impairment of in vivo forelimb strength after 6-8 weeks. We observed an increase in dystrophin expression level in all the fibers, although lower than that observed in normal fibers, and found a concomitant recovery of aquaporin-4 at sarcolemma. A significant reduction in centronucleated fibers, in the area of necrosis and in the percentage of nuclear factor-kB-positive nuclei was observed in gastrocnemious muscle of treated animals. Plasma creatine kinase was reduced by 70%. Ex vivo, gentamicin restored membrane ionic conductance in mdx diaphragm and limb muscle fibers. No effects were observed on the altered calcium homeostasis and sarcolemmal calcium permeability, detected by electrophysiological and microspectrofluorimetric approaches. Thus, the maintenance of a partial level of dystrophin is sufficient to reinforce sarcolemmal stability, reducing leakiness, inflammation and fiber damage, while correction of altered calcium homeostasis needs greater expression of dystrophin or direct interventions on the channels involved.

  14. The Influence of Nursing Faculty Workloads on Faculty Retention: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty workloads have come to the forefront of discussion in nursing education. The National League of Nursing (NLN) has made nursing faculty workloads a high priority in nursing education. Included in the priorities are areas of creating reform through innovations in nursing education, evaluating reform through evaluation research, and…

  15. Development and preliminary analyses of material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle has been developed using ORIGEN-2 code as basic engine. This model has feature of: It can treat more than 1000 nuclides including minor actinides and fission products. It has flexibility of modeling and graph output using a engineering work station. I made preliminary calculation of LWR fuel high burnup effect (reloading fuel average burnup of 60 GWd/t) on nuclear fuel cycle. The preliminary calculation shows LWR fuel high burnup has much effect on Japanese Pu balance problem. (author)

  16. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  17. Development and user evaluation of a virtual rehabilitation system for wobble board balance training

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Diarmaid; Trakarnratanakul, Nanthana; Dunne, Lucy; Smyth, Barry; Caulfield, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a prototype virtual reality based balance training system using a single inertial orientation sensor attached to the upper surface of a wobble board. This input device has been interfaced with an open source computer game known as Neverball. Users can exercise with the system by standing on the wobble board and tilting it to control an on-screen environment. To evaluate the usability our prototype system we undertook a user evaluation study on twelve healthy novice participa...

  18. EEG BASED COGNITIVE WORKLOAD CLASSIFICATION DURING NASA MATB-II MULTITASKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the best possible input EEG feature for classification of the workload while designing load balancing logic for an automated operator. The input features compared in this study consisted of spectral features of Electroencephalography, objective scoring and subjective scoring. Method utilizes to identify best EEG feature as an input in Neural Network Classifiers for workload classification, to identify channels which could provide classification with the highest accuracy and for identification of EEG feature which could give discrimination among workload level without adding any classifiers. The result had shown Engagement Index is the best feature for neural network classification.

  19. A Virtual Machine Migration Strategy Based on Time Series Workload Prediction Using Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at resolving the issues of the imbalance of resources and workloads at data centers and the overhead together with the high cost of virtual machine (VM migrations, this paper proposes a new VM migration strategy which is based on the cloud model time series workload prediction algorithm. By setting the upper and lower workload bounds for host machines, forecasting the tendency of their subsequent workloads by creating a workload time series using the cloud model, and stipulating a general VM migration criterion workload-aware migration (WAM, the proposed strategy selects a source host machine, a destination host machine, and a VM on the source host machine carrying out the task of the VM migration. Experimental results and analyses show, through comparison with other peer research works, that the proposed method can effectively avoid VM migrations caused by momentary peak workload values, significantly lower the number of VM migrations, and dynamically reach and maintain a resource and workload balance for virtual machines promoting an improved utilization of resources in the entire data center.

  20. An Evaluation Tool for CONUS-Scale Estimates of Components of the Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S.; Hay, L.; Farmer, W. H.; Markstrom, S. L.; Kiang, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous research groups are independently developing data products to represent various components of the water balance (e.g. runoff, evapotranspiration, recharge, snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and climate) at the scale of the conterminous United States. These data products are derived from a range of sources, including direct measurement, remotely-sensed measurement, and statistical and deterministic model simulations. An evaluation tool is needed to compare these data products and the components of the water balance they contain in order to identify the gaps in the understanding and representation of continental-scale hydrologic processes. An ideal tool will be an objective, universally agreed upon, framework to address questions related to closing the water balance. This type of generic, model agnostic evaluation tool would facilitate collaboration amongst different hydrologic research groups and improve modeling capabilities with respect to continental-scale water resources. By adopting a comprehensive framework to consider hydrologic modeling in the context of a complete water balance, it is possible to identify weaknesses in process modeling, data product representation and regional hydrologic variation. As part of its National Water Census initiative, the U.S. Geological survey is facilitating this dialogue to developing prototype evaluation tools.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of prototype footwear and insoles to optimise balance and gait in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2017-09-11

    Footwear has the potential to influence balance in either a detrimental or beneficial manner, and is therefore an important consideration in relation to falls prevention. The objective of this study was to evaluate balance ability and gait patterns in older women while wearing prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve balance. Older women (n = 30) aged 65 - 83 years (mean 74.4, SD 5.6) performed a series of laboratory tests of balance ability (postural sway on a foam rubber mat, limits of stability and tandem walking, measured with the Neurocom® Balance Master) and gait patterns (walking speed, cadence, step length and step width at preferred speed, measured with the GAITRite® walkway) while wearing (i) flexible footwear (Dunlop Volley™), (ii) their own footwear, and (iii) prototype footwear and insoles designed to improve dynamic balance. Perceptions of the footwear were also documented using a structured questionnaire. There was no difference in postural sway, limits of stability or gait patterns between the footwear conditions. However, when performing the tandem walking test, there was a significant reduction in step width and end sway when wearing the prototype footwear compared to both the flexible footwear and participants' own footwear. Participants perceived their own footwear to be more attractive, comfortable, well-fitted and easier to put on and off compared to the prototype footwear. Despite this, most participants (n = 18, 60%) reported that they would consider wearing the prototype footwear to reduce their risk of falling. The prototype footwear and insoles used in this study improve balance when performing a tandem walk test, as evidenced by a narrower step width and decreased sway at completion of the task. However, further development of the design is required to make the footwear acceptable to older women from the perspective of aesthetics and comfort. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. ACTRN12617001128381 , 01

  2. Quantitative assessment of workload and stressors in clinical radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-08-01

    Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045). Workload level and sources of stressors vary

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Lukasz M.; Mosaly, Prithima R.; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-01-01

    ). Conclusions: Workload level and sources of stressors vary among professional subgroups. Understanding the factors that influence these findings can guide adjustments to the workflow procedures, physical layout, and/or communication protocols to enhance safety. Additional evaluations are needed in order to better understand if these findings are systemic.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Lukasz M., E-mail: lukasz_mazur@ncsu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Mosaly, Prithima R. [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Xu, Jing [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ). Conclusions: Workload level and sources of stressors vary among professional subgroups. Understanding the factors that influence these findings can guide adjustments to the workflow procedures, physical layout, and/or communication protocols to enhance safety. Additional evaluations are needed in order to better understand if these findings are systemic.

  5. Effect of time span and task load on pilot mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    Two sets of simulations designed to examine how a pilot's mental workload is affected by continuous manual-control activity versus discrete mental tasks that included the length of time between receiving an assignment and executing it are described. The first experiment evaluated two types of measures: objective performance indicators and subjective ratings. Subjective ratings for the two missions were different, but the objective performance measures were similar. In the second experiments, workload levels were increased and a second performance measure was taken. Mental workload had no influence on either performance-based workload measure. Subjective ratings discriminated among the scenarios and correlated with performance measures for high-workload flights. The number of mental tasks performed did not influence error rates, although high manual workloads did increase errors.

  6. Evaluation with stabilometric platform of balance disorders in osteoporosis patients. A proposal for a diagnostic protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Pina; Pratelli, Elisa; Petrai, Veronica; Postiglione, Marco; Zambelan, Giulia; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease with reduced bone mass and qualitative alterations of the bone, associated to increased risk of fracture. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis fractures is multifactorial. Main risk factor is falls (except for vertebral fragility fractures which occurs often in absence of trauma). Aging by itself produces physiological changes: muscular hypotrophy with asthenia, deficit of visus and hearing together with associated pathologies and multi-drug therapies. In osteoporosis patients with vertebral fractures posture change occurs which reduces balance. After clinical postural evaluation it is possible to carry out instrumental evaluation of posture with computerized methods such as stabilometry, baropodometry, dynanometry and gait analysis. Examination carried out with use of stabilometric computerized platform allows stabilometric (body sway assessment) as well as posturometric examination (center of pressure assessment during quiet standing). Fundamental parameters obtained are: position of the body center of gravity, area and shape of sway density curve and velocity variables. Protocol of evaluation includes assessment of examination in standard condition and in condition of temporary sensorial deprivation (to investigate the influence of various afferent systems on the maintenance of posture and balance). Accurate evaluation of postural control in osteoporosis patients constitutes a fundamental tool in fracture risk evaluation due to fall and in identification and correction of modifiable factors responsible for balance defect. This approach, together with adequate drug therapy, may lead to significant reduction of fractures in osteoporosis patients with subsequent reduction of hospitalization and residual consequent disabilities.

  7. Evaluation with stabilometric platform of balance disorders in osteoporosis patients. A proposal for a diagnostic protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Pina; Pratelli, Elisa; Petrai, Veronica; Postiglione, Marco; Zambelan, Giulia; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease with reduced bone mass and qualitative alterations of the bone, associated to increased risk of fracture. Pathogenesis of osteoporosis fractures is multifactorial. Main risk factor is falls (except for vertebral fragility fractures which occurs often in absence of trauma). Aging by itself produces physiological changes: muscular hypotrophy with asthenia, deficit of visus and hearing together with associated pathologies and multi-drug therapies. In osteoporosis patients with vertebral fractures posture change occurs which reduces balance. After clinical postural evaluation it is possible to carry out instrumental evaluation of posture with computerized methods such as stabilometry, baropodometry, dynanometry and gait analysis. Examination carried out with use of stabilometric computerized platform allows stabilometric (body sway assessment) as well as posturometric examination (center of pressure assessment during quiet standing). Fundamental parameters obtained are: position of the body center of gravity, area and shape of sway density curve and velocity variables. Protocol of evaluation includes assessment of examination in standard condition and in condition of temporary sensorial deprivation (to investigate the influence of various afferent systems on the maintenance of posture and balance). Accurate evaluation of postural control in osteoporosis patients constitutes a fundamental tool in fracture risk evaluation due to fall and in identification and correction of modifiable factors responsible for balance defect. This approach, together with adequate drug therapy, may lead to significant reduction of fractures in osteoporosis patients with subsequent reduction of hospitalization and residual consequent disabilities. PMID:22460016

  8. Operational Strategy of CBPs for load balancing of Operators in Advanced Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    With the using of a computer-based control room in an APR1400 (Advanced Pressurized Reactor-1400), the operators' behaviors in the main control room had changed. However, though the working environment of operators has been changed a great deal, digitalized interfaces can also change the cognitive tasks or activities of operators. First, a shift supervisor (SS) can confirm/check the conduction of the procedures and the execution of actions of board operators (BOs) while confirming directly the operation variables without relying on the BOs. Second, all operators added to their work the use of a new CBP and Soft Controls, increasing their procedural workload. New operational control strategies of CBPs are necessary for load balancing of operator's task load in APR1400. In this paper, we compared the workloads of operators in an APR1400 who work with two different usages of the CBP. They are SS oriented usage and SS-BO collaborative usage. In this research, we evaluated the workloads of operators in an advanced main control room by the COCOA method. Two types of CBP usages were defined and the effects of these usages on the workloads were investigated. The obtained results showed that the workloads between operators in a control room can be balanced according to the CBP usages by assigning control authority to the operators

  9. Operational Strategy of CBPs for load balancing of Operators in Advanced Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    With the using of a computer-based control room in an APR1400 (Advanced Pressurized Reactor-1400), the operators' behaviors in the main control room had changed. However, though the working environment of operators has been changed a great deal, digitalized interfaces can also change the cognitive tasks or activities of operators. First, a shift supervisor (SS) can confirm/check the conduction of the procedures and the execution of actions of board operators (BOs) while confirming directly the operation variables without relying on the BOs. Second, all operators added to their work the use of a new CBP and Soft Controls, increasing their procedural workload. New operational control strategies of CBPs are necessary for load balancing of operator's task load in APR1400. In this paper, we compared the workloads of operators in an APR1400 who work with two different usages of the CBP. They are SS oriented usage and SS-BO collaborative usage. In this research, we evaluated the workloads of operators in an advanced main control room by the COCOA method. Two types of CBP usages were defined and the effects of these usages on the workloads were investigated. The obtained results showed that the workloads between operators in a control room can be balanced according to the CBP usages by assigning control authority to the operators.

  10. Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Letícia C.; Marques, Aline P.; Barros, Paula B.; Michaelsen, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. METHOD: The study included 16 subjects (61.1±7.5 years) with chronic hemiparesis (54.5±43.5 months after stroke). The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil) were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98) and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96) have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93) and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated. PMID:25003281

  11. Evaluating the balanced scorecard at the University Health Network: an impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Justin; Bell, Robert; Khalfan, Adil; Lindquist, Evert

    2008-01-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) has become increasing popular in healthcare organizations. A recent study conducted at the University Health Network in Toronto explored the extent to which the BSC has focused and aligned various organizational units and departments around shared goals and objectives. The evaluation also assessed the BSC's impact on front-line staff and how the development and rollout of the BSC should be modified in the next planning iteration.

  12. Nursing workload in a trauma intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Loppi Goulart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severely injured patients with multiple and conflicting injuries present themselves to nursing professionals at critical care units faced with care management challenges. The goal of the present study is to evaluate nursing workload and verify the correlation between workload and the APACHE II severity index. It is a descriptive study, conducted in the Trauma Intensive Care Unit of a teaching hospital. We used the Nursing Activities Score and APACHE II as instruments. The sample comprised 32 patients, of which most were male, young adults, presenting polytrauma, coming from the Reference Emergency Unit, in surgical treatment, and discharged from the ICU. The average obtained on the Nursing Activities Score instrument was 72% during hospitalization periods. The data displayed moderate correlation between workload and patient severity. In other words, the higher the score, the higher the patient’s mortality risk. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.22922.

  13. Seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure from the viewpoint of energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Endo, Rokuro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, vibration characteristics of mechanical structure having high natural frequency are investigated from the viewpoint of energy balance. Mechanical structures having high natural frequency in a nuclear power plant are generally designed statically and elastically. However it has been reported that fracture of ordinary piping is produced not by momentary large load but by cumulative fatigue damage. Therefore it is very important to grasp seismic performance dynamically by considering cyclic load. This paper deals with an investigation regarding seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure. The energy balance equation that is one of valid methods for structural calculation is applied through the investigation. The main feature of the energy balance equation is that it explains accumulated information of motion. Therefore the energy balance equation is adequate for the investigation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. In this paper, vibration experiment and simulation using sinusoidal waves and artificial seismic waves were examined in order to investigate relationship between natural frequency of structure and energy. As a result, we found that input energy decreases with an increase in the natural frequency. (author)

  14. Reasons for adopting technological innovations reducing physical workload in bricklaying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.M. de; Vink, P.; Kroon, J.C.A. de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the adoption of technological innovations to improve the work of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants is evaluated. Two studies were performed among 323 subjects to determine the adoption of the working methods, the perceived workload, experiences with the working methods, and the

  15. A participatory ergonomics approach to reduce mental and physical workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Peeters, M.; Grundemann, R.W.M.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Dul, J.

    1995-01-01

    A step-by-step approach to better work, aimed at reducing mental and physical workload in office work, is evaluated. This approach is based on a strong commitment of the management in the enterprise, and on as much direct worker participation as possible. After every step the workers proposed how to

  16. Conception of programs for evaluating balance indices of operation of WWER-440 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadrazil, J.

    1986-01-01

    The procedures are discussed of writing computation programs for the evaluation of basic technical and economic parameters of the operation of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The criterion of the evaluation is the maximum power supply to the grid together with the required supply of heat, with the observance of safe operating conditions. Previous procedures of evaluation are compared with present procedures based on the use of a monitoring and evaluation system of the KOMPLEX-URAN 2 M type. The mathematical model of the program is based on balance equations and relations derived for actual measuring systems and is completed with an assessment of the reliability of input and output data. The flow chart is shown of the algorithm for the evaluation of technical and economic parameters, and methods are suggested for improving and extending the program. (J.C.)

  17. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in elderly women performing aquatic exercise and gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated static and dynamic balance and related motor valences in elderly women who had been undergone gymnastics or aquatic exercise training for at least 6 months, three times a week. Thirty-one women performed water gymnastics (mean age: 69.32 ± 6.57 years and 28 gymnastics (65.57 ± 7.67 years. Height (cm, weight (kg and waist, hip and abdominal circumference (cm were measured and the body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Physical fitness was measured using the “sit and get up in 30 seconds” test (leg endurance and “8-foot up-and-go” test (dynamic balance, both proposed by Rikli and Jones (1999, and the “sit and reach” (flexibility and static balance tests described by Caromano (1998. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t-test and Pearson’s correlation, with a level of significance of 0.05. No significant difference in the anthropometric measures (BMI and WHR was observed between groups. In the physical fitness tests, significant differences were only found in the “8-foot up-and-go” and “sit and get up” tests, with the gymnastics group presenting better results. No correlations within or between groups were observed regarding static and dynamic balance or motor valences. In conclusion, neither type of exercise was superior but the gymnastics group tended to show better results in terms of parameters such as agility, balance and flexibility.

  18. [Analysis on workload for hospital DOTS service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yoko; Urakawa, Minako; Kobayashi, Noriko; Kato, Seiya

    2014-04-01

    A directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) trial was launched in Japan in the late 1990s and targeted patients with social depression at urban areas. Based on these findings, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare established the Japanese DOTS Strategy in 2003, which is a comprehensive support service ensuring the adherence of tuberculosis patients to drug administration. DOTS services are initially provided at the hospital to patients with infectious tuberculosis who are hospitalized according to the Infectious Diseases Control Law. After being discharged from the hospital, the patients are referred to a public health center. However, a survey conducted in 2008 indicated that all the patients do not receive appropriate DOTS services at some hospitals. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protocols and workload of DOTS at hospitals that are actively involved in tuberculosis medical practice, including DOTS, to assess whether the hospital DOTS services were adequate. We reviewed a series of articles on hospital DOTS from a Japanese journal on nursing for tuberculosis patients and identified 25 activities regarding the hospital DOTS service. These 25 items were then classified into 3 categories: health education to patients, support for adherence, and coordination with the health center. In total, 20 hospitals that had > 20 authorized tuberculosis beds were selected--while considering the geographical balance, schedule of this survey, etc.--from 33 hospitals where an ex-trainee of the tuberculosis control expert training program in the Research Institute of Tuberculosis (RIT) was working and 20 hospitals that had collaborated with our previous survey on tuberculosis medical facilities. All the staff associated with the DOTS service were asked to record the total working time as well as the time spent for each activity. The data were collected and analyzed at the RIT. The working times for each activity of the DOTS service for nurses, pharmacists

  19. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC and A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former

  20. The CMS workload management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinquilli, M. [CERN; Evans, D. [Fermilab; Foulkes, S. [Fermilab; Hufnagel, D. [Fermilab; Mascheroni, M. [CERN; Norman, M. [UC, San Diego; Maxa, Z. [Caltech; Melo, A. [Vanderbilt U.; Metson, S. [Bristol U.; Riahi, H. [INFN, Perugia; Ryu, S. [Fermilab; Spiga, D. [CERN; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab; Wakefield, Stuart [Imperial Coll., London; Wilkinson, R. [Caltech

    2012-01-01

    CMS has started the process of rolling out a new workload management system. This system is currently used for reprocessing and Monte Carlo production with tests under way using it for user analysis. It was decided to combine, as much as possible, the production/processing, analysis and T0 codebases so as to reduce duplicated functionality and make best use of limited developer and testing resources. This system now includes central request submission and management (Request Manager), a task queue for parcelling up and distributing work (WorkQueue) and agents which process requests by interfacing with disparate batch and storage resources (WMAgent).

  1. The CMS workload management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinquilli, M; Mascheroni, M; Spiga, D; Evans, D; Foulkes, S; Hufnagel, D; Ryu, S; Vaandering, E; Norman, M; Maxa, Z; Wilkinson, R; Melo, A; Metson, S; Riahi, H; Wakefield, S

    2012-01-01

    CMS has started the process of rolling out a new workload management system. This system is currently used for reprocessing and Monte Carlo production with tests under way using it for user analysis. It was decided to combine, as much as possible, the production/processing, analysis and T0 codebases so as to reduce duplicated functionality and make best use of limited developer and testing resources. This system now includes central request submission and management (Request Manager); a task queue for parcelling up and distributing work (WorkQueue) and agents which process requests by interfacing with disparate batch and storage resources (WMAgent).

  2. Balanced scorecard-based performance evaluation of Chinese county hospitals in underdeveloped areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongda; Chen, He; Feng, Jun; Qin, Xianjing; Wang, Xuan; Liang, Shenglin; Zhao, Jinmin; Feng, Qiming

    2018-05-01

    Objective Since the Guangxi government implemented public county hospital reform in 2009, there have been no studies of county hospitals in this underdeveloped area of China. This study aimed to establish an evaluation indicator system for Guangxi county hospitals and to generate recommendations for hospital development and policymaking. Methods A performance evaluation indicator system was developed based on balanced scorecard theory. Opinions were elicited from 25 experts from administrative units, universities and hospitals and the Delphi method was used to modify the performance indicators. The indicator system and the Topsis method were used to evaluate the performance of five county hospitals randomly selected from the same batch of 2015 Guangxi reform pilots. Results There were 4 first-level indicators, 9 second-level indicators and 36 third-level indicators in the final performance evaluation indicator system that showed good consistency, validity and reliability. The performance rank of the hospitals was B > E > A > C > D. Conclusions The performance evaluation indicator system established using the balanced scorecard is practical and scientific. Analysis of the results based on this indicator system identified several factors affecting hospital performance, such as resource utilisation efficiency, medical service price, personnel structure and doctor-patient relationships.

  3. Applying the Balanced Scorecard Strategic Evaluation Method to a University Athletic Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS, ANDREAS KOTSOVOS & PANAYIOTIS ALEXOPOULOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balanced Scorecard (BSC has been extensively used in manufacturing organisations, service organisations, non-profit organisations, and governmental organizations with outstanding results (Kaplan and Norton, 2001b. Performance measures are at the core of the BSC system.However, financial measurement alone does not reflect the organisational mission of governmental and non-profit organisations; rather the mission of government or non-profitorganisation should be placed at top of the BSC in measuring whether such an organisation has been successful. Hence, the greatest difference between businesses and nonprofit organisations lies in the achievement of the mission.The purpose of this article is to present the evaluation of the performance of a University Athletic Department using the balanced scorecard strategic approach which includes four dimensions such as: (a the customer dimension, (b the financial dimension,(c the learning and growth dimension and (d the internal business process dimension.

  4. Constitutive equations for energy balance evaluation in metals under inelastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostina, A.; Plekhov, O.; Venkatraman, B.

    2017-12-01

    The work is devoted to the development of constitutive equations for energy balance evaluation in plastically deformed metals. The evolution of the defect system is described by a previously obtained model based on the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. In the framework of this model, a collective behavior of mesodefect ensembles is taken into account by the introduction of an internal variable representing additional structural strain. This parameter enables the partition of plastic work into dissipated heat and stored energy. The proposed model is applied to energy balance calculation in a Ti-1Al-1Mn specimen subjected to cyclic loading. Simulation results have shown that the model is able to describe an upward trend in the stored energy value with the increase in the load ratio.

  5. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Mental workload measurement for emergency operating procedures in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Dong, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload is a major consideration for the design of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) in nuclear power plants. Continuous and objective measures are desired. This paper compares seven mental workload measurement methods (pupil size, blink rate, blink duration, heart rate variability, parasympathetic/sympathetic ratio, total power and (Goals, Operations, Methods, and Section Rules)-(Keystroke Level Model) GOMS-KLM-based workload index) with regard to sensitivity, validity and intrusiveness. Eighteen participants performed two computerised EOPs of different complexity levels, and mental workload measures were collected during the experiment. The results show that the blink rate is sensitive to both the difference in the overall task complexity and changes in peak complexity within EOPs, that the error rate is sensitive to the level of arousal and correlate to the step error rate and that blink duration increases over the task period in both low and high complexity EOPs. Cardiac measures were able to distinguish tasks with different overall complexity. The intrusiveness of the physiological instruments is acceptable. Finally, the six physiological measures were integrated using group method of data handling to predict perceived overall mental workload. The study compared seven measures for evaluating the mental workload with emergency operation procedure in nuclear power plants. An experiment with simulated procedures was carried out, and the results show that eye response measures are useful for assessing temporal changes of workload whereas cardiac measures are useful for evaluating the overall workload.

  7. Introducing the Evaluation Tools for HSE Management System Performance Using Balanced Score Card Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance of the HSE units has various dimensions Leading to different performances. Thus, any industry should be capable of evaluating these systems. The aim of this study was to design a standard questionnaire in the field of performance evaluation of HSE management system employing Balanced Score Card model. Methods: In this study we, first determined the criteria to be evaluated in the framework of Balanced Score Card model based on the objectives and strategies of HSE Management System and existing standards, and then designed questions on every criterion. We used content validity and Cronbach's Alpha to determine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Results: The primary questionnaire was comprised of 126 questions some of which were omitted regarding the results obtained from the CVR and CVI values. We obtained the CVI average of environmental dimension to be 0.75 and its CVI average 0.71. Conclusion: With respect to the results of the reliability and validity of this questionnaire,and its standardized design we can suggest using it for evaluation of HSE management system performance in organizations and industries with the mentioned system.

  8. TASKILLAN II - Pilot strategies for workload management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leon D.; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1990-01-01

    This study focused on the strategies used by pilots in managing their workload level, and their subsequent task performance. Sixteen licensed pilots flew 42 missions on a helicopter simulation, and were evaluated on their performance of the overall mission, as well as individual tasks. Pilots were divided in four groups, defined by the presence or absence of scheduling control over tasks and the availability of intelligence concerning the type and stage of difficulties imposed during the flight. Results suggest that intelligence supported strategies that yielded significant higher performance levels, while scheduling control seemed to have no impact on performance. Both difficulty type and the stage of difficulty impacted performance significantly, with strongest effects for time stresss and difficulties imposed late in the flight.

  9. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.

  10. Designing and evaluating a balanced scorecard for a health information management department in a Canadian urban non-teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippak, Pria Md; Veracion, Julius Isidro; Muia, Maria; Ikeda-Douglas, Candace J; Isaac, Winston W

    2016-06-01

    This report is a description of a balanced scorecard design and evaluation process conducted for the health information management department at an urban non-teaching hospital in Canada. The creation of the health information management balanced scorecard involved planning, development, implementation, and evaluation of the indicators within the balanced scorecard by the health information management department and required 6 months to complete. Following the evaluation, the majority of members of the health information management department agreed that the balanced scorecard is a useful tool in reporting key performance indicators. These findings support the success of the balanced scorecard development within this setting and will help the department to better align with the hospital's corporate strategy that is linked to the provision of efficient management through the evaluation of key performance indicators. Thus, it appears that the planning and selection process used to determine the key indicators within the study can aid in the development of a balanced scorecard for a health information management department. In addition, it is important to include the health information management department staff in all stages of the balanced scorecard development, implementation, and evaluation phases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Evaluation of 137 Cs in Chernobyl landscapes: mapping surface migration balance as background for application of rehabilitation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydchuk, V.; Arapis, G.

    1995-01-01

    This work includes two maps of balance evaluation of 137 Cs horizontal migration in natural landscapes of Chernobyl zone. The first map shows the short-term balance, which reflects the evaluation of 137 Cs migration from present up to 20-30 years in future. the second map refers to the kong-term balance and represents a forecast of the radioecological situation 60-80 years from the accident. On the base of our evaluation the territory of 30-km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant can be divided in three parts, approximately equal but slightly differentiated in time. In fact, the landscape of extreme-morainic ridge of Christogalovka presents a clear negative balance of 137 Cs both in short-term and in long-term aspects. Landscapes with negative balance of the 137 Cs occupy for short-term about 37 % and for long-term 41 % of the investigated territory. Neutral balance is expected for short- and long-term to be approximately 39 % and 35 % of the territory respectively. Positive balance is expected for approx. 24 % of the territory in both terms. The proposed evaluations are qualitative and they can be used as background for preparation of any decisions related to the application of decontamination technologies and its ecological consequences

  12. Evaluation of Advanced Control for Li-ion Battery Balancing Systems using Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Typically, the unique objective pursued in either active or passive balancing is equalization of single cell charge. However, a balancing circuit may offer more control features, like virtual equalization of single cell internal resistance or thermal balancing. Such control features for balancing...

  13. Workload balancing capability of pull systems in MTO production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germs, R.; Riezebos, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pull systems focusing on throughput time control and applicable in situations with high variety and customisation are scarce. This paper compares three unit-based pull systems that can cope with such situations: POLCA, CONWIP and m-CONWIP. These systems control the shop floor throughput time of

  14. A decision support system for staff workload balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi Varandi, Siamak; Kılıç, Kemal; Kilic, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    This research arises from a real life problem that a third party solution partner of health care insurance companies in Turkey faces. The company develops Electronic Claim Processing System (ECPS) that private health care insurance companies utilize in order to check and validate whether an expenditure (i.e., claims) of their customers abides by the rules of the contracts between the insurance companies and the customers as well as the insurance companies and the health care service providers...

  15. Measuring perceived mental workload in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Frey, Meredith; Ennis, Aristi; Zamary, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the mental workload, or psychological costs, associated with information processing tasks in children. We adapted the highly regarded NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) multidimensional workload scale (Hart & Staveland, 1988) to test its efficacy for use with elementary school children. We developed 2 types of tasks, each with 2 levels of demand, to draw differentially on resources from the separate subscales of workload. In Experiment 1, our participants were both typical and school-labeled gifted children recruited from 4th and 5th grades. Results revealed that task type elicited different workload profiles, and task demand directly affected the children's experience of workload. In general, gifted children experienced less workload than typical children. Objective response time and accuracy measures provide evidence for the criterion validity of the workload ratings. In Experiment 2, we applied the same method with 1st- and 2nd-grade children. Findings from Experiment 2 paralleled those of Experiment 1 and support the use of NASA-TLX with even the youngest elementary school children. These findings contribute to the fledgling field of educational ergonomics and attest to the innovative application of workload research. Such research may optimize instructional techniques and identify children at risk for experiencing overload.

  16. PARAMETERS FOR THE EVALUATION OF CERVICAL SAGITTAL BALANCE IN IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO COELHO LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: There are no values defined as standard in the literature for the parameters of assessment of cervical sagittal balance in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. This study describes the sagittal cervical parameters in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Methods: Study carried out in a tertiary public hospital in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, through the evaluation of panoramic radiographs in lateral view. The Cobb method was used to evaluate cervical lordosis from C2 to C7, distance from the center of gravity (COG of the skull to C7, measurement of T1 slope, thoracic inlet angle (TIA, neck tilt, and plumb line from C7 to S1 (SVA C7-S1. A statistical analysis was performed, to demonstrate the relationship between the alignment of the thoracic spine in the sagittal plane and the cervical sagittal balance of patients with scoliosis. Results: Thirty-four patients were female (69.4% and 15 male (30.6%. The mean values for COG-C7 were 0.71 mm (median 0.8 mm/standard deviation [SD]= 0.51 mm. For Cobb C2-C7, the mean was -11.7° (median -10°/SD= 20.4°. The mean slope of T1 was 23.5° (median 25°/SD= 9.5°. The mean cervical version was 58.8° (median 60°/DP= 15.4°. The mean TIA was 81.8° (median 85°/SD= 16.7°. The mean plumb line C7-S1 was -0.28 (-0.3/SD= 1.0. Conclusion: The analysis of the results showed that the mean values for the cervical lordosis are lower than the values described as normal in the literature, suggesting a loss of sagittal cervical balance in these patients.

  17. Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest in Assessment of Balance Disorders in People With Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Kamalian Lari

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion  After changing and removing part of question 6 of the second domain, results demonstrated that the questionnaire BESTest is a valid and reliable test for assessing balance performance in multiple sclerosis patients. It can be used as an accurate tool, both in the areas of clinical (to evaluate the patients’ equilibrium status and purposeful therapy planning and to apply for scientific research in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  18. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  19. Development of an EEG-based workload measurement method in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Moon Kyoung; Lee, Seung Min; Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •A human operator’s workload in nuclear power plants(NPPs) usually has been evaluated by using subjective ratings. •Subjective rating techniques have several weaknesses such as dependence on the operator’s memory as well as bias. •We suggested an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based workload index for measuring the workload of human operators. •The suggested index was applied to evaluate the effects of operating support systems. -- Abstract: The environment of main control rooms of large scale process control systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been changed from the conventional analog type to the digital type. In digitalized advanced main control rooms, human operators conduct highly cognitive work rather than physical work compared to the case of the original control rooms in NPPs. Various operating support systems (OSSs) have been developed to reduce an operator’s workload. Most representative techniques to evaluate the workload are based on subjective ratings. However, there are some limitations including the possibility of skewed results due to self-assessment of the workload and the impossibility of continuously measuring the workload due to freezing simulation for workload assessment. As opposed to subjective ratings techniques, physiological techniques can be used for objective and continuous measurements of a human operator’s mental status by sensing the physiological changes of the autonomic or central nervous system. In this study, electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to measure the operator’s mental workload because it had been proven to be sensitive to variations of mental workload in other studies, and it allows various types of analysis. Based on various research reviews on the characteristics of brainwaves, EEG-based Workload Index (EWI) was suggested and validated through experiments. As a result, EWI is concluded to be valid for measuring an operator’s mental workload and preferable to subjective techniques

  20. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas, Ramón Medrano; Megino, Fernando Harald Barreiro; Cinquilli, Mattia; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Denis, Marek Kamil

    2014-01-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  1. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Kamil Denis, Marek; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  2. Real sequential evaluation of materials balance data with the computer program PROSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicking, U.; Golly, W.; Seifert, R.

    1991-01-01

    Material accountancy is an important tool for international nuclear safeguards. The aim is to detect a possible loss of material timely and with high probability. In this context, a computer program called PROSA (Program for Sequential Analysis of NRTA data) was developed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. PROSA is a statistical tool to decide on the basis of statistical considerations whether or not in a given sequence of material balances a loss of material might have occurred. The evaluation of the material balance data (MUF values) is carried out with statistical test procedures. In the present PROSA version 4.0 three tests, Page's test, CUMUF test and GEMUF test are applied at a time. These three test procedures are the result of several years of research and are supposed to be the most promising ones with respect to the detection probability of possible losses of material as well as to the timeliness of such a detection. PROSA version 4.0 is a user-friendly, menudriven computer program which is suitable for routine field application. Data input - that means MUF values and measurement model - can be performed either by diskette or by key-enter. The output consists of an information whether or not an alarm is indicated. This information can be displayed either numerically or graphically. Therefore, a comfortable graphical output utility is attached to PROSA version 4.0. In this presentation the theoretical concepts implemented in PROSA will be explained. Furthermore, the functioning of the program will be presented and the performance of PROSA will be demonstrated using balance data of a real reprocessing campaign. (J.P.N.)

  3. Workload assessment of surgeons: correlation between NASA TLX and blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Jiang, Xianta; Tien, Geoffrey; Meneghetti, Adam; Panton, O Neely M; Atkins, M Stella

    2012-10-01

    Blinks are known as an indicator of visual attention and mental stress. In this study, surgeons' mental workload was evaluated utilizing a paper assessment instrument (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index, NASA TLX) and by examining their eye blinks. Correlation between these two assessments was reported. Surgeons' eye motions were video-recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker while the surgeons performed a laparoscopic procedure on a virtual reality trainer. Blink frequency and duration were computed using computer vision technology. The level of workload experienced during the procedure was reported by surgeons using the NASA TLX. A total of 42 valid videos were recorded from 23 surgeons. After blinks were computed, videos were divided into two groups based on the blink frequency: infrequent group (≤ 6 blinks/min) and frequent group (more than 6 blinks/min). Surgical performance (measured by task time and trajectories of tool tips) was not significantly different between these two groups, but NASA TLX scores were significantly different. Surgeons who blinked infrequently reported a higher level of frustration (46 vs. 34, P = 0.047) and higher overall level of workload (57 vs. 47, P = 0.045) than those who blinked more frequently. The correlation coefficients (Pearson test) between NASA TLX and the blink frequency and duration were -0.17 and 0.446. Reduction of blink frequency and shorter blink duration matched the increasing level of mental workload reported by surgeons. The value of using eye-tracking technology for assessment of surgeon mental workload was shown.

  4. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. Method: quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. Results: 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. Conclusions: the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. PMID:28403334

  5. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Cuadros Carlesi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. Method: quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28 and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. Results: 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919 and rate of falls (r = 0.8770. The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. Conclusions: the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload.

  6. Workload differences across command levels and emergency response organizations during a major joint training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytz, Erik G; Rybing, Jonas; Jonson, Carl-Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an initial test using a validated workload measurement method, the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), as an indicator of joint emergency exercise effectiveness. Prior research on emergency exercises indicates that exercises must be challenging, ie, result in high workload, to be effective. However, this is often problematic with some participants being underloaded and some overloaded. The NASA TLX was used to test for differences in workload between commanders and subordinates and among three different emergency response organizations during a joint emergency exercise. Questionnaire-based evaluation with professional emergency responders. The study was performed in conjunction with a large-scale interorganizational joint emergency exercise in Sweden. A total of 20 participants from the rescue services, 12 from the emergency medical services, and 12 from the police participated in the study (N=44). Ten participants had a command-level role during the exercise and the remaining 34 were subordinates. The main outcome measures were the workload subscales of the NASA TLX: mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, performance, effort, and frustration. The results showed that the organizations experienced different levels of workload, that the commanders experienced a higher workload than the subordinates, and that two out of three organizations fell below the twenty-fifth percentile of average workload scores compiled from 237 prior studies. The results support the notion that the NASA TLX could be a useful complementary tool to evaluate exercise designs and outcomes. This should be further explored and verified in additional studies.

  7. Effects of mental workload on physiological and subjective responses during traffic density monitoring: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated operators' mental workload while monitoring traffic density in a city traffic control center. To determine the mental workload, physiological signals (ECG, EMG) were recorded and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered for 16 operators. The results showed that the operators experienced a larger mental workload during high traffic density than during low traffic density. The traffic control center stressors caused changes in heart rate variability features and EMG amplitude, although the average workload score was significantly higher in HTD conditions than in LTD conditions. The findings indicated that increasing traffic congestion had a significant effect on HR, RMSSD, SDNN, LF/HF ratio, and EMG amplitude. The results suggested that when operators' workload increases, their mental fatigue and stress level increase and their mental health deteriorate. Therefore, it maybe necessary to implement an ergonomic program to manage mental health. Furthermore, by evaluating mental workload, the traffic control center director can organize the center's traffic congestion operators to sustain the appropriate mental workload and improve traffic control management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the Potential of Variable Renewable Energy for a Balanced Isolated Grid: A Japanese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a global push to develop renewable energy to further a low-carbon society. However, the nature of variable renewable energy (VRE sources such as wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV systems may create problems because electricity grids require a stable power supply to match demand. To evaluate the potential capacity of VREs that may be installed, we develop an optimized model that balances power supply and demand and also considers grid balancing by battery storage and load frequency control. The model was applied to a case study of an isolated grid on a remote Japanese island. When set to optimize the grid in terms of lowest cost, the model suggested that, compared with the base case, the capacity of wind power should be increased by a factor of 1.7 and 15.8 for situations without and with battery storage, respectively. Since it was always considered to be more expensive than wind power, no change in solar PV capacity was observed. These approaches resulted in a decrease in the total power generation cost of 2% and 24%, respectively, while total CO2 emissions fell by 3% and 52%, primarily driven by decreased used of the existing fossil-fueled thermal plant.

  9. Evaluating Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment corrections using GRACE, altimetry and surface mass balance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutterley, Tyler C; Velicogna, Isabella; Csatho, Beata; Rezvan-Behbahani, Soroush; Babonis, Greg; Van den Broeke, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) represents a source of uncertainty for ice sheet mass balance estimates from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) time-variable gravity measurements. We evaluate Greenland GIA corrections from Simpson et al (2009 Quat. Sci. Rev. 28 1631–57), A et al (2013 Geophys. J. Int. 192 557–72) and Wu et al (2010 Nature Geosci. 3 642–6) by comparing the spatial patterns of GRACE-derived ice mass trends calculated using the three corrections with volume changes from ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) and OIB (Operation IceBridge) altimetry missions, and surface mass balance products from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO). During the period September 2003–August 2011, GRACE ice mass changes obtained using the Simpson et al (2009 Quat. Sci. Rev. 28 1631–57) and A et al (2013 Geophys. J. Int. 192 557–72) GIA corrections yield similar spatial patterns and amplitudes, and are consistent with altimetry observations and surface mass balance data. The two GRACE estimates agree within 2% on average over the entire ice sheet, and better than 15% in four subdivisions of Greenland. The third GRACE estimate corrected using the (Wu et al 2010 Nature Geosci. 3 642–6)) GIA shows similar spatial patterns, but produces an average ice mass loss for the entire ice sheet that is 64 − 67 Gt yr −1 smaller. In the Northeast the recovered ice mass change is 46–49 Gt yr −1 (245–270%) more positive than that deduced from the other two corrections. By comparing the spatial and temporal variability of the GRACE estimates with trends of volume changes from altimetry and surface mass balance from RACMO, we show that the Wu et al (2010 Nature Geosci. 3 642–6) correction leads to a large mass increase in the Northeast that is inconsistent with independent observations. (paper)

  10. Use of the RoboFlag synthetic task environment to investigate workload and stress responses in UAV operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen

    2011-09-01

    Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed.

  11. Comparison of the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test with the Berg Balance Scale in relationship to walking speed and motor recovery post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Bishnoi, Alka

    2017-12-01

    The Mini-BESTest is a recently developed balance assessment tool that incorporates challenging dynamic balance tasks. Few studies have compared the psychometric properties of the Mini-BESTest to the commonly used Berg Balance Scale (BBS). However, the utility of these scales in relationship to post stroke walking speeds has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-BESTest and BBS to evaluate walking speeds in individuals with stroke. A retrospective exploratory design. Forty-one individuals with chronic stroke were evaluated with the Mini-BESTest, BBS, and 10-meter self-selected walk test (10MWT). Based on their self-selected gait speeds (below or above 0.8 m/s), participants were classified as slow and fast walkers. Significant linear correlations were observed between the Mini-BESTest vs. BBS (r = 0.72, p ≤ 0.001), Mini-BESTest vs. 10MWT (r = 0.58, p ≤ 0.001), and BBS vs. 10MWT (r = 0.30, p = 0.05). Independent t-tests comparing the balance scores for the slow and fast walkers revealed significant group differences for the Mini-BESTest (p = 0.003), but not for the BBS (p = 0.09). The Mini-BESTest demonstrated higher sensitivity (93%) and specificity (64%) compared to the BBS (sensitivity 81%, specificity 56%) for discriminating participants into slow and fast walkers. The Mini-BESTest has a greater discriminative ability than the BBS to categorize individuals with stroke into slow and fast walkers.

  12. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU. Materials and methods With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA, or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI, Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. Results The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives was found to be satisfactory. Discussion-Conclusion The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change. In our research the employees were pleased to be

  13. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzola, Adriano; Bentivegna, Roberto; Carandina, Gianni; Trevisani, Lucio; Gregorio, Pasquale; Mandini, Alberto

    2009-09-08

    One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU). With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA), or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI), Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives) was found to be satisfactory. The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change.In our research the employees were pleased to be evaluated, not only for the financial outcomes, but also for the satisfaction of improving

  14. Evaluating the granularity balance of hierarchical relationships within large biomedical terminologies towards quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lingyun; Tong, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Mejino, Jose L V; Ouyang, Chunping; Liu, Yongbin

    2017-11-01

    Organizing the descendants of a concept under a particular semantic relationship may be rather arbitrarily carried out during the manual creation processes of large biomedical terminologies, resulting in imbalances in relationship granularity. This work aims to propose scalable models towards systematically evaluating the granularity balance of semantic relationships. We first utilize "parallel concepts set (PCS)" and two features (the length and the strength) of the paths between PCSs to design the general evaluation models, based on which we propose eight concrete evaluation models generated by two specific types of PCSs: single concept set and symmetric concepts set. We then apply those concrete models to the IS-A relationship in FMA and SNOMED CT's Body Structure subset, as well as to the Part-Of relationship in FMA. Moreover, without loss of generality, we conduct two additional rounds of applications on the Part-Of relationship after removing length redundancies and strength redundancies sequentially. At last, we perform automatic evaluation on the imbalances detected after the final round for identifying missing concepts, misaligned relations and inconsistencies. For the IS-A relationship, 34 missing concepts, 80 misalignments and 18 redundancies in FMA as well as 28 missing concepts, 114 misalignments and 1 redundancy in SNOMED CT were uncovered. In addition, 6,801 instances of imbalances for the Part-Of relationship in FMA were also identified, including 3,246 redundancies. After removing those redundancies from FMA, the total number of Part-Of imbalances was dramatically reduced to 327, including 51 missing concepts, 294 misaligned relations, and 36 inconsistencies. Manual curation performed by the FMA project leader confirmed the effectiveness of our method in identifying curation errors. In conclusion, the granularity balance of hierarchical semantic relationship is a valuable property to check for ontology quality assurance, and the scalable evaluation

  15. Mental workload in decision and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the problems of defining and measuring the 'mental workload' of aircraft pilots and other human operators of complex dynamic systems. Of the alternative approaches the author indicates a clear preference for the use of subjective scaling. Some recent experiments from MIT and elsewhere are described which utilize subjective mental workload scales in conjunction with human decision and control tasks in the laboratory. Finally a new three-dimensional mental workload rating scale, under current development for use by IFR aircraft pilots, is presented.

  16. Evaluation of satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. Gynecologic Oncology fellows: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the state of satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) among gynecologic oncology fellows in training, risk factors for dissatisfaction, and the impact of dissatisfaction on career plans. A cross-sectional evaluation of gynecologic oncology fellows was performed using a web-based survey. Demographic data, fellowship characteristics, and career plans were surveyed. The primary outcomes were satisfaction with WLB and career choices. p balance.

  17. Analytical method to evaluate fuel consumption of hybrid electric vehicles at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Askerceva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Innovative analytically based method to calculate corrected fuel consumption of parallel and series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) at balanced energy content of the electric storage devices is proposed and validated in the paper. The proposed analytical method is generally applicable and features highly accurate corrected fuel consumption results. It enables calculation of the corrected fuel consumption out of a single fuel consumption test run in a single analytic post-processing step. An additional fuel consumption test run might be needed to obtain highly accurate results if ratio of the energy content deviation of the electric storage devices to the energy used for vehicle propulsion over the test cycle is high. Proposed method enables consideration of non-linear energy flow changes and non-linear HEV component efficiency changes caused by the energy management strategy or by the component characteristics. The method therefore features highly accurate results out of the minimum number of fuel consumption test runs and thus optimizes workload for development or optimization of HEVs. The input data of the method are characteristic energy flows and efficiencies that are derived from the energy flows on selected energy paths of HEVs. (author)

  18. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Isabele B.; Lucas, Elizabete F.

    2001-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of 1 H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  19. Evaluation of globally available precipitation data products as input for water balance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrenz, H.; Bárdossy, A.

    2009-04-01

    Subject of this study is the evaluation of globally available precipitation data products, which are intended to be used as input variables for water balance models in ungauged basins. The selected data sources are a) the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), b) the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and c) the Climate Research Unit (CRU), resulting into twelve globally available data products. The data products imply different data bases, different derivation routines and varying resolutions in time and space. For validation purposes, the ground data from South Africa were screened on homogeneity and consistency by various tests and an outlier detection using multi-linear regression was performed. External Drift Kriging was subsequently applied on the ground data and the resulting precipitation arrays were compared to the different products with respect to quantity and variance.

  20. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Jantien; Boot, Cécile R L; Proper, Karin I; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The mindfulness training was attended at least once by 81.3% of subjects, and 54.5% were highly compliant. With regard to e-coaching and homework exercises, 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively, were highly compliant. The training was appreciated with a 7.5 score and e-coaching with a 6.8 score. Appreciation of training and e-coaching, satisfaction with trainer and coach, and practical facilitation were significantly associated with compliance. The intervention was implemented well on the level of the mindfulness training, but poorly on the level of e-coaching and homework time investment. To increase compliance, attention should be paid to satisfaction and trainer-participant relationship.

  1. Evaluation of scale invariance in physiological signals by means of balanced estimation of diffusion entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqing; Qiu, Lu; Xiao, Qin; Yang, Huijie; Zhang, Qingjun; Wang, Jianyong

    2012-11-01

    By means of the concept of the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy, we evaluate the reliable scale invariance embedded in different sleep stages and stride records. Segments corresponding to waking, light sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and deep sleep stages are extracted from long-term electroencephalogram signals. For each stage the scaling exponent value is distributed over a considerably wide range, which tell us that the scaling behavior is subject and sleep cycle dependent. The average of the scaling exponent values for waking segments is almost the same as that for REM segments (˜0.8). The waking and REM stages have a significantly higher value of the average scaling exponent than that for light sleep stages (˜0.7). For the stride series, the original diffusion entropy (DE) and the balanced estimation of diffusion entropy (BEDE) give almost the same results for detrended series. The evolutions of local scaling invariance show that the physiological states change abruptly, although in the experiments great efforts have been made to keep conditions unchanged. The global behavior of a single physiological signal may lose rich information on physiological states. Methodologically, the BEDE can evaluate with considerable precision the scale invariance in very short time series (˜102), while the original DE method sometimes may underestimate scale-invariance exponents or even fail in detecting scale-invariant behavior. The BEDE method is sensitive to trends in time series. The existence of trends may lead to an unreasonably high value of the scaling exponent and consequent mistaken conclusions.

  2. Evaluation of postural stability of people with Parkinson's disease with Biodex Balance System device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-10-01

    Summary Parkinson's disease is an incurable disease of the CNS of progressive and chronic course. Postural Stability of people with Parkinson's is hindered what predisposes to falls. In a person standing seemingly motionless body performs small oscillatory movements caused by differences in antigravity muscle tension. This mechanism is called postural rocking and mobility associated with it is referred to as postural sway. The parameters of rocking are very sensitive indicator of balance control, and can be used to evaluate and detect pathological changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the stability of posture of people with Parkinson's disease on the basis of posturographic examination.The age range of the patients was from 52 to 85 years (mean 71.8 years. In terms of age the patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 9 people to 75 years old, while the other of 8 people over 75 years old. The postural stability was assessed with Biodex Balance System. The study was performed at the Laboratory of Posturology at the Institute of Physiotherapy at UJK in Kielce. Although Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant differences in postural stability between the sexes, its lower values are reported for men. A standing position of the subjects was characterized by greater deviation in the sagittal plane than in the frontal plane (A/P>M/L with a tendency to tilt backwards. There were better postural stability results in the younger group (group 1, up to 75 years old. The subjects in this group obtained significantly lower values of postural stability (t°=2.2744, pM/L z tendencją do odchylania się do tyłu. Zaobserwowano lepsze wyniki stabilności posturalnej w grupie osób młodszych (grupa 1 do 75 roku życia. Badani tej grupy uzyskali istotnie niższe wartości stabilności posturalnej (t°= 2,2744, p<0,05.   Słowa kluczowe: stabilność posturalna, choroba Parkinsona, platforma Biodex Balance System

  3. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lasota Andrzej; Hankiewicz Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS) with sampling. The results indicated that posture code ...

  4. Shift scheduling model considering workload and worker’s preference for security department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, A.; Yuniartha, D. R.; Purnama, I. L. I.; Dewi, LT

    2018-04-01

    Security department operates for 24 hours and applies shift scheduling to organize its workers as well as in hotel industry. This research has been conducted to develop shift scheduling model considering the workers physical workload using rating of perceived exertion (RPE) Borg’s Scale and workers’ preference to accommodate schedule flexibility. The mathematic model is developed in integer linear programming and results optimal solution for simple problem. Resulting shift schedule of the developed model has equally distribution shift allocation among workers to balance the physical workload and give flexibility for workers in working hours arrangement.

  5. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  6. [Nursing workloads and working conditions: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeller, Roseli; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Neis, Márcia Binder; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2011-06-01

    This study reviews theoretical production concerning workloads and working conditions for nurses. For that, an integrative review was carried out using scientific articles, theses and dissertations indexed in two Brazilian databases, Virtual Health Care Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) and Digital Database of Dissertations (Banco Digital de Teses), over the last ten years. From 132 identified studies, 27 were selected. Results indicate workloads as responsible for professional weariness, affecting the occurrence of work accidents and health problems. In order to adequate workloads studies indicate some strategies, such as having an adequate numbers of employees, continuing education, and better working conditions. The challenge is to continue research that reveal more precisely the relationships between workloads, working conditions, and health of the nursing team.

  7. Workload composition of the organic horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Ribeiro, I A V; Tereso, M J A

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed the characterization of the physical workload of the organic horticulture by determining the frequency of exposure of operators to some activity categories. To do this, an adaptation of the PATH method (Posture, Activities, Tools and Handling) was done to be used in the context of agriculture work. The approach included an evaluation of physical effort demanded to perform the tasks in the work systems from an systematic sampling of work situations from a synchronized monitoring of the heart rate; a characterization of posture repertoire adopted by workers by adapting the OWAS method; an identification of pain body areas using the Corlett diagram; and a subjective evaluation of perceived effort using the RPE Borg scale. The results of the individual assessments were cross correlated and explained from an observation of the work activity. Postural demands were more significant than cardiovascular demands for the studied tasks, and correlated positively with the expressions of bodily discomfort. It is expected that, besides the knowledge obtained of the physical effort demanded by organic horticulture, this project will be useful for the development of new technologies directed to minimize the difficulties of the human work and to raise the work productivity.

  8. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-04-06

    Balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction (BVD) are common problems after stroke, however evidence of an effective rehabilitation method are limited. To evaluate the effect of a four-month rehabilitation program for individuals with balance problems and BVD after a stroke. About 40 sessions of 1.5 hours duration over four months with visual therapy and balance rehabilitation, was provided to all 29 participants, aged 18-67 years, in groups of 7-8 individuals. Several measures for BVD, balance, gait, Health Related Quality Of Life (HRQoL) and functional recovery were used at baseline, at the end of training and at a six-month follow up (FU). We found significant improvements in stereopsis, vergence, saccadic movements, burden of binocular visual symptoms, balance and gait speed, fatigue, HRQoL and functional recovery. Moreover, 60% of the participants were in employment at the six-month FU, compared to only 23% before training. All improvements were sustained at the six-month FU. Although a control group is lacking, the evidence suggests that the positive improvement is a result of the combined visual and balance training. The combination of balance and visual training appears to facilitate changes at a multimodal level affecting several functions important in daily life.

  9. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  10. Performance Evaluation of MMA7260QT and ADXL345 on Self Balancing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Purwanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Self Balancing Robot (SBR controller needs to detect platform inclination. For this purpose, an accelerometer is used. From various types of accelerometer, we can divide into digital and analog ones. The problem is how to select the right type for the SBR.This paper evaluates the performance of the ADXL345 and the MMA7260QT. The Arduino is used to read data from the sensor and send it to PC for plotting. Both sensors use the lowest sensitivity. The sensors are evaluated with three criteria, i.e. stationary, dynamical response and collaborating with ITG3200 3-axis gyroscope for Kalman Filter fusion. For stationary criterion, the ADXL345 is better than the other sensor for all stationary position. For dynamical response, both sensors suffer from the noise due to acceleration of the platform. The sensors do not only sense the gravity but also the acceleration of the platform when it is moved. But the noise level for the ADXL345 is lower than the other. Using Kalman Filter makes both sensors show good performance for a SBR application. If three criteria are combined with hardware aspect, then the authors recommend using the ADXL345. Besides, it has several useful features to handle abrupt acceleration.

  11. Implementing hospital quality assurance policies in Iran: balancing licensing, annual evaluation, inspections and quality management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Kringos, Dionne S; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaladin; Manouchehri, Jila; Klazinga, Niek S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of applied hospital quality assurance (QA) policies in Iran. A mixed method (quantitative data and qualitative document analysis) study was carried out between 1996 and 2010. The QA policy cycle forms a tight monitoring system to assure hospital quality by combining mandatory and voluntary methods in Iran. The licensing, annual evaluation and grading, and regulatory inspections statutorily implemented by the government as a national package to assure and improve hospital care quality, while implementing quality management systems (QMS) was voluntary for hospitals. The government's strong QA policy legislation role and support has been an important factor for successful QA implementation in Iran, though it may affected QA assessment independency and validity. Increased hospital evaluation independency and repositioning, updating standards, professional involvement and effectiveness studies could increase QA policy impact and maturity. The study highlights the current QA policy implementation cycle in Iranian hospitals. It provides a basis for further quality strategy development in Iranian hospitals and elsewhere. It also raises attention about finding the optimal balance between different QA policies, which is topical for many countries. This paper describes experiences when implementing a unique approach, combining mandatory and voluntary QA policies simultaneously in a developing country, which has invested considerably over time to improve hospital quality. The experiences with a mixed obligatory/voluntary approach and comprehensive policies in Iran may contain lessons for policy makers in developing and developed countries.

  12. Energy balance concept in the evaluation of water table management effects on corn growth: experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, P.K.; Kanwar, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of water table management practices (WTMP) on corn growth in 1989 and 1990 at two field sites, Ames and Ankeny, Iowa, were evaluated by calculating crop water stress index (CWSI) and monitoring plant physiological parameters during the growing seasons. Experiments were conducted on field lysimeters at the Ames site by maintaining water tables at 0.3-, 0.6-, and 0.9-m depths and in a subirrigation field at the Ankeny site with 0.2-, 0.3-, 0.6-, 0.9-, and 1.1-m water table depths, and periodically measuring leaf and air temperature, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using leaf chamber techniques. Net radiation of canopy was estimated using the leaf energy balance equation and leaf chamber measurements and then correlated with PAR. Analysis of data revealed that net radiation, leaf air temperature differential, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and CWSI were strongly related to WTMP during vegetative and flowering stages of corn growth. Excess water in the root zone with a water table depth of 0.2 m caused the maximum crop water stress and ceased crop growth. Both water and oxygen could be adequately maintained for favorable crop growth by adopting the best WTMP. Results indicate that plant physiological parameters and CWSI could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of WTMP and develop the best WTMP for corn growth in the humid region

  13. Pre evaluation for heat balance of prototype sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Woong; Kim, De Hee; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Eui Kwang; Lee, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    Under the long term advanced SFR R and D plan, the design of prototype reactor has been carried out toward the construction of the prototype SFR plant by 2028. The R and D efforts in fluid system design will be focused on developing a prototype design of primary heat transport system(PHTS), intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), decay heat removal system(DHRS), steam generation system(SGS), and related auxiliary system design for a prototype reactor as shown in Fig. 1. In order to make progress system design, top tier requirements for prototype reactor related to design parameters of NSSS and BOP should be decided at first. The top tier requirement includes general design basis, capacity and characteristics of reactor, various requirements related to safety, performance, securities, economics, site, and etc.. Extensive discussion has been done within Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) for the decision of top tier requirements of the prototype reactor. The core outlet temperature, which should be described as top tier requirements, is one of the critical parameter for system design. The higher core exit temperature could contribute to increase the plant efficiency. However, it could also contribute to decrease the design margin for structure and safety. Therefore various operating strategies based on different core outlet temperatures should be examined and evaluated. For the prototype reactor two core outlet temperatures are taken into accounted. The lower temperature is for the operation condition and the higher temperature is for the system design and licensing process of the prototype reactor. In order to evaluate the operability of prototype reactor designed based on higher temperature, the heat balance calculations have been performed at different core outlet temperature conditions. The electrical power of prototype reactor was assumed to be 100MWe and reference operating conditions were decided based on existing available data. The

  14. Development of the CarMen-Q Questionnaire for mental workload assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Núñez, María I; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva M

    2017-11-01

    Mental workload has emerged as one of the most important occupational risk factors present in most psychological and physical diseases caused by work. In view of the lack of specific tools to assess mental workload, the objective of this research was to assess the construct validity and reliability of a new questionnaire for mental workload assessment (CarMen-Q). The sample was composed of 884 workers from several professional sectors, between 18 and 65 years old, 53.4% men and 46.6% women. To evaluate the validity based on relationships with other measures, the NASA-TLX scale was also administered. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an internal structure made up of four dimensions: cognitive, temporal and emotional demands and performance requirement. The results show satisfactory evidence of validity based on relationships with NASA-TLX and good reliability. The questionnaire has good psychometric properties and can be an easy, brief, useful tool for mental workload diagnosis and prevention.

  15. Using Multiple Monthly Water Balance Models to Evaluate Gridded Precipitation Products over Peninsular Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Senent-Aparicio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of precipitation data is the key driver in the application of hydrological models when simulating streamflow. Ground weather stations are regularly used to measure precipitation. However, spatial coverage is often limited in low-population areas and mountain areas. To overcome this limitation, gridded datasets from remote sensing have been widely used. This study evaluates four widely used global precipitation datasets (GPDs: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B43, the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN, and the Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP, against point gauge and gridded dataset observations using multiple monthly water balance models (MWBMs in four different meso-scale basins that cover the main climatic zones of Peninsular Spain. The volumes of precipitation obtained from the GPDs tend to be smaller than those from the gauged data. Results underscore the superiority of the national gridded dataset, although the TRMM provides satisfactory results in simulating streamflow, reaching similar Nash-Sutcliffe values, between 0.70 and 0.95, and an average total volume error of 12% when using the GR2M model. The performance of GPDs highly depends on the climate, so that the more humid the watershed is, the better results can be achieved. The procedures used can be applied in regions with similar case studies to more accurately assess the resources within a system in which there is scarcity of recorded data available.

  16. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, pscorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  17. Severity and workload of nursing with patients seeking admission to an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Novelli e Castro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the severity and workload of nursing with adult patients seeking admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a quantitative, exploratory and prospective approach was performed, developed in a hospital in the state of São Paulo. Demographic data on patients were collected, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III was applied to assess the severity of patients and the Nursing Activities Score (NAS was used to evaluate nursing workload, between July and August 2014. Results: The overall mean score of the SAPS III was 30.52 ± 18.39 and that of the NAS was 58.18 ± 22.29. The group of patients admitted to the ICU showed higher severity and higher workload of nursing compared to non-admitted patients. Non-admitted patients had an NAS of 53.85. Conclusion: The nursing workload in patients who were not admitted to the ICU was also high. The evaluation of workload in other contexts where patients are seriously ill is important. The workload assessment in other contexts where severely ill patients are found is evident.

  18. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Paul Harris, Thomas William Teasdale, Morten Arendt Rasmussen. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):331-41. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161324....

  19. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Tulder, M.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  20. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. L. Rae

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB, and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution general circulation models (GCMs. This is the first time an intercomparison has been carried out of RCM results for Greenland climate and SMB. Output from RCM simulations for the recent past with the four RCMs is evaluated against available observations. The evaluation highlights the importance of using a detailed snow physics scheme, especially regarding the representations of albedo and meltwater refreezing. Simulations with three of the RCMs for the 21st century using SRES scenario A1B from two GCMs produce trends of between −5.5 and −1.1 Gt yr−2 in SMB (equivalent to +0.015 and +0.003 mm sea level equivalent yr−2, with trends of smaller magnitude for scenario E1, in which emissions are mitigated. Results from one of the RCMs whose present-day simulation is most realistic indicate that an annual mean near-surface air temperature increase over Greenland of ~ 2°C would be required for the mass loss to increase such that it exceeds accumulation, thereby causing the SMB to become negative, which has been suggested as a threshold beyond which the ice sheet would eventually be eliminated.

  1. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  2. Does daily nurse staffing match ward workload variability? Three hospitals' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bukchin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nurse shortage and rising healthcare resource burdens mean that appropriate workforce use is imperative. This paper aims to evaluate whether daily nursing staffing meets ward workload needs. Nurse attendance and daily nurses' workload capacity in three hospitals were evaluated. Statistical process control was used to evaluate intra-ward nurse workload capacity and day-to-day variations. Statistical process control is a statistics-based method for process monitoring that uses charts with predefined target measure and control limits. Standardization was performed for inter-ward analysis by converting ward-specific crude measures to ward-specific relative measures by dividing observed/expected. Two charts: acceptable and tolerable daily nurse workload intensity, were defined. Appropriate staffing indicators were defined as those exceeding predefined rates within acceptable and tolerable limits (50 percent and 80 percent respectively). A total of 42 percent of the overall days fell within acceptable control limits and 71 percent within tolerable control limits. Appropriate staffing indicators were met in only 33 percent of wards regarding acceptable nurse workload intensity and in only 45 percent of wards regarding tolerable workloads. The study work did not differentiate crude nurse attendance and it did not take into account patient severity since crude bed occupancy was used. Double statistical process control charts and certain staffing indicators were used, which is open to debate. Wards that met appropriate staffing indicators prove the method's feasibility. Wards that did not meet appropriate staffing indicators prove the importance and the need for process evaluations and monitoring. Methods presented for monitoring daily staffing appropriateness are simple to implement either for intra-ward day-to-day variation by using nurse workload capacity statistical process control charts or for inter-ward evaluation using standardized measure of nurse workload intensity

  3. The Design Fabrication Installation & Evaluation of the Balance Probe Monitor for Large Centrifuges at a National Laboratory Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, Jonathan Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Balance Probe Monitors were designed, fabricated, installed, and evaluated at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the 22,600 g kg (50,000 g lb) direct drive electromotor driven large centrifuges. These centrifuges provide a high onset/decay rate g environment. The Balance Probe Monitor is physically located near a centrifuge’s Capacitance Probe, a crucial sensor for the centrifuge’s sustainability. The Balance Probe Monitor will validate operability of the centrifuge. Most importantly, it is used for triggering a kill switch under the condition that the centrifuge displacement value exceeds allowed tolerances. During operational conditions, the Capacitance Probe continuously detects the structural displacement of the centrifuge and an adjoining AccuMeasure 9000 translates this displacement into an output voltage.

  4. Operator’s cognitive, communicative and operative activities based workload measurement of advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced MMIS in the advanced MCR requires new roles and tasks of operators. • A new workload evaluation framework is needed for a new MMIS environment. • This work suggests a new workload measurement approach (COCOA) for an advanced MCR. • COCOA enables 3-dimensional measurement of cognition, communication and operation. • COCOA workload evaluation of the reference plant through simulation was performed. - Abstract: An advanced man–machine interface system (MMIS) with a computer-based procedure system and high-tech control/alarm system is installed in the advanced main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant. Accordingly, though the task of the operators has been changed a great deal, owing to a lack of appropriate guidelines on the role allocation or communication method of the operators, operators should follow the operating strategies of conventional MCR and the problem of an unbalanced workload for each operator can be raised. Thus, it is necessary to enhance the operation capability and improve the plant safety by developing guidelines on the role definition and communication of operators in an advanced MCR. To resolve this problem, however, a method for measuring the workload according to the work execution of the operators is needed, but an applicable method is not available. In this research, we propose a COgnitive, Communicative and Operational Activities measurement approach (COCOA) to measure and evaluate the workload of operators in an advanced MCR. This paper presents the taxonomy for additional operation activities of the operators to use the computerized procedures and soft control added to an advanced MCR, which enables an integrated measurement of the operator workload in various dimensions of cognition, communication, and operation. To check the applicability of COCOA, we evaluated the operator workload of an advanced MCR of a reference power plant through simulation training experiments. As a result, the amount

  5. German version of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale : Translation and evaluation of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordt, Katharina; Mikolaizak, A Stefanie; Nerz, Corinna; Barz, Carolin; Gerhardy, Thomas; Weber, Michaela; Becker, Clemens; Schwenk, Michael

    2018-02-12

    Tools to detect subtle balance deficits in high-functioning community-dwelling older adults are lacking. The Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CBM) is a valuable tool to measure balance deficits in this group; however, it is not yet available in the German language. The aim was 1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the CBM into the German language and 2) to investigate the measurement properties of the German CBM (G-CBM). The original CBM was translated into the German language according to established guidelines. A total of 51 older adults (mean age 69.9 ± 7.1 years) were recruited to measure construct validity by comparing the G‑CBM against standardized balance and/or mobility assessments including the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 3 m Tandem Walk (3MTW), 8 Level Balance Scale (8LBS), 30 s Chair Stand Test (30CST), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, gait speed, and the Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Intrarater and interrater reliability and internal consistency reliability were estimated using intraclass correlations (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Ceiling effects were calculated as the percentage of the sample scoring the maximum score. The G‑CBM correlated excellently with FAB and BBS (ρ = 0.78-0.85; P balance deficits in older high-functioning adults. The absence of ceiling effects emphasizes the use of this scale in this cohort. The G‑CBM can now be utilized in clinical practice.

  6. Survey of Workload and Job Satisfaction Relationship in a Productive Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maghsoudipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Promotion of workers’ health and safety is one of the main tasks of managers and planners. One of the important sciences that can assist managers to achieve this gool is ergonomics. This article presents results of workload and job satisfaction survey in a heavy metal components manufacturing company in Tehran, in 2010. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted by survey of all operational workers. Workload is survived by NASA-TLX questionnaire that contained six dimensions and job satisfaction evaluated by short version of Minnesota questionnaire . Results: Job satisfaction questionnaire ’s reliability which assessed by Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.91. In addition, data analysis results declare that the average job satisfaction scale was 65 and at medium level and workload with 85.11 as average scale was at the high level. Effort and physical loads were two dimensions which have high amount in the workload In addition, no statistical significant relation was observed between the total job satisfaction score and workload score. (p<0.05. While the performance dimension showed a positive relationshipwith job satisfaction, frustration demonstrated a negative relationship with job satisfaction. Conclusion: In order to improve the work conditions the administrative and technological controls should be implemented and actions need to be taken to modify workload dimensions specially, two dimensions with the high amount and dimensions that have relationship with job satisfaction.

  7. Energy budget and greenhouse gas balance evaluation of sustainable coppice systems for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettens, Suzanna; Muys, Bart; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Moons, Ellen; Garcia, Juan; Coppin, Pol

    2003-01-01

    The use of bio-energy crops for electricity production is considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to its ability to substitute fossil fuels. A whole range of crops qualify for bio-energy production and a rational choice is not readily made. This paper evaluates the energy and greenhouse gas balance of a mixed indigenous hardwood coppice as an extensive, low-input bio-energy crop. The impact on fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is calculated and discussed by comparing its life cycle (cultivation, processing and conversion into energy) with two conventional bio-energy crops (short rotation systems of willow and Miscanthus). For each life cycle process, the flows of fossil energy and greenhouse gas that are created for the production of one functional unit are calculated. The results show that low-input bio-energy crops use comparatively less fossil fuel and avoid more greenhouse gas emission per unit of produced energy than conventional bio-energy crops during the first 100 yr. Where the mixed coppice system avoids up till 0.13 t CO 2 eq./GJ, Miscanthus does not exceed 0.07 t CO 2 eq./GJ. After 100 yr their performances become comparable, amounting to 0.05 t CO 2 eq./ha/GJ. However, if the land surface itself is chosen as a functional unit, conventional crops perform better with respect to mitigating the greenhouse effect. Miscanthus avoids a maximum of 12.9 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr, while mixed coppice attains 9.5 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr at the most

  8. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551–755 Gg CO_2e excluding ILUC, or 238–755 Gg CO_2e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9–10.8 PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8–3.4 Gg PO_4e and 8.1–14.6 Gg SO_2e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering digestate stores could

  9. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, David, E-mail: d.styles@bangor.ac.uk; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e excluding ILUC, or 238–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9–10.8 PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8–3.4 Gg PO{sub 4}e and 8.1–14.6 Gg SO{sub 2}e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering

  10. Reducing feedback requirements of workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrich, Peter; Land, Martin; van der Zee, Durk; Gaalman, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The workload control concept is known as a robust shop floor control concept. It is especially suited for the dynamic environment of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the make-to-order sector. Before orders are released to the shop floor, they are collected in an ‘order pool’. To

  11. Workload Management Strategies for Online Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Tena B.; Wilkinson, Kelly; Hemby, K. Virginia; McCannon, Melinda; Wiedmaier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    With increased use of online education, both students and instructors are adapting to the online environment. Online educators must adjust to the change in responsibilities required to teach online, as it is quite intensive during the designing, teaching, and revising stages. The purpose of this study is to examine and update workload management…

  12. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  13. Dynamic workload peak detection for slack management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutinovic, A.; Goossens, Kees; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kuper, Jan; Kuper, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an analytical study on dynamism and possibilities on slack exploitation by dynamic power management is presented. We introduce a specific workload decomposition method for work required for (streaming) application processing data tokens (e.g. video frames) with work behaviour patterns

  14. A Non Linear Scoring Approach for Evaluating Balance: Classification of Elderly as Fallers and Non-Fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiffren, Julien; Bargiotas, Ioannis; Vayatis, Nicolas; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Ricard, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP) displacement (statokinesigram) with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached whether these analyses alone can explain sufficiently the complex synergies of postural control. In this work, we study the statokinesigrams of 84 elderly subjects (80.3+- 6.4 years old), which had no impairment related to balance control. Each subject was recorded 25 seconds with eyes open and 25 seconds with eyes closed and information pertaining to the presence of problems of balance, such as fall, in the last six months, was collected. Five descriptors of the statokinesigrams were computed for each record, and a Ranking Forest algorithm was used to combine those features in order to evaluate each subject's balance with a score. A classical train-test split approach was used to evaluate the performance of the method through ROC analysis. ROC analysis showed that the performance of each descriptor separately was close to a random classifier (AUC between 0.49 and 0.54). On the other hand, the score obtained by our method reached an AUC of 0.75 on the test set, consistent over multiple train-test split. This non linear multi-dimensional approach seems appropriate in evaluating complex postural control.

  15. A Non Linear Scoring Approach for Evaluating Balance: Classification of Elderly as Fallers and Non-Fallers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Audiffren

    Full Text Available Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP displacement (statokinesigram with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached whether these analyses alone can explain sufficiently the complex synergies of postural control. In this work, we study the statokinesigrams of 84 elderly subjects (80.3+- 6.4 years old, which had no impairment related to balance control. Each subject was recorded 25 seconds with eyes open and 25 seconds with eyes closed and information pertaining to the presence of problems of balance, such as fall, in the last six months, was collected. Five descriptors of the statokinesigrams were computed for each record, and a Ranking Forest algorithm was used to combine those features in order to evaluate each subject's balance with a score. A classical train-test split approach was used to evaluate the performance of the method through ROC analysis. ROC analysis showed that the performance of each descriptor separately was close to a random classifier (AUC between 0.49 and 0.54. On the other hand, the score obtained by our method reached an AUC of 0.75 on the test set, consistent over multiple train-test split. This non linear multi-dimensional approach seems appropriate in evaluating complex postural control.

  16. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental...... is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. We find a higher perceived time ratio for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective...... paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. We also find a higher perceived time ratio for solved than unsolved tasks, while subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between...

  17. An evaluation of the transitional Turkish electricity balancing and settlement market: Lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camadan, Ercuement; Erten, Ibrahim Etem

    2011-01-01

    Balancing and settlement market is a crucial part of restructured Turkish electricity market. In this framework, the main purpose of this study is to examine whether the prices constituted in the transitional balancing and settlement market reflect the real cost of imbalances. Although it is observed that the prices are not powerful in indicating the real cost of imbalances, Turkey has the opportunity to form a well-functioning market within the context of planned new market structure. Turkey needs to define a proper roadmap reckoning the points mentioned in this paper to be able to achieve her objectives. (author)

  18. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551-755Gg CO2e excluding ILUC, or 238-755Gg CO2e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9-10.8PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8-3.4Gg PO4e and 8.1-14.6Gg SO2e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering digestate stores could largely mitigate

  19. Characterization and Architectural Implications of Big Data Workloads

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng; Jia, Zhen; Han, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Big data areas are expanding in a fast way in terms of increasing workloads and runtime systems, and this situation imposes a serious challenge to workload characterization, which is the foundation of innovative system and architecture design. The previous major efforts on big data benchmarking either propose a comprehensive but a large amount of workloads, or only select a few workloads according to so-called popularity, which may lead to partial or even biased observations. In this paper, o...

  20. Performance evaluation of Al-Zahra academic medical center based on Iran balanced scorecard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhsh, Roghayeh Mohammadi; Gangi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Growth and development in any country's national health system, without an efficient evaluation system, lacks the basic concepts and tools necessary for fulfilling the system's goals. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a technique widely used to measure the performance of an organization. The basic core of the BSC is guided by the organization's vision and strategies, which are the bases for the formation of four perspectives of BSC. The goal of this research is the performance evaluation of Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Iran BSC model. This is a combination (quantitative-qualitative) research which was done at Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The research populations were hospital managers at different levels. Sampling method was purposive sampling in which the key informed personnel participated in determining the performance indicators of hospital as the BSC team members in focused discussion groups. After determining the conceptual elements in focused discussion groups, the performance objectives (targets) and indicators of hospital were determined and sorted in perspectives by the group discussion participants. Following that, the performance indicators were calculated by the experts according to the predetermined objectives; then, the score of each indicator and the mean score of each perspective were calculated. Research findings included development of the organizational mission, vision, values, objectives, and strategies. The strategies agreed upon by the participants in the focus discussion group included five strategies, which were customer satisfaction, continuous quality improvement, development of human resources, supporting innovation, expansion of services and improving the productivity. Research participants also agreed upon four perspectives for the Al-Zahra hospital BSC. In the patients and community perspective (customer), two objectives and

  1. Evaluation of a serious self-regulation game intervention for overweight-related behaviors ("Balance It")

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spook, Jorinde; Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Empelen, van Pepijn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serious games have the potential to promote health behavior. Because overweight is still a major issue among secondary vocational education students in the Netherlands, this study piloted the effects of "Balance It," a serious self-regulation game intervention targeting students'

  2. The "Balance Intervention" for Promoting Caloric Compensatory Behaviours in Response to Overeating: A Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the "balance intervention", which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information…

  3. Evaluating the UK and Dutch defined benefit policies using the holistic balance sheet framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Pelsser, A.; Ponds, E.H.M.

    This paper compares the UK and Dutch occupational defined-benefit pension policies using the holistic balance sheet (HBS) framework. The UK DB pension system differs from the Dutch one in terms of the steering tools and adjustment mechanisms. In addition to the sponsor guarantee, the UK system has

  4. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rae, J.G.L.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Edwards, T.L.; Fettweis, X.; Gregory, J.M.; Hewitt, H.T.; Lowe, J.A.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Mottram, R.H.; Payne, A.J.; Ridley, J.K.; Shannon, S.R.; van de Berg, W.J.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution

  5. Workload Measurement in Human Autonomy Teaming: How and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is an invited talk on autonomy and workload for an AFRL Blue Sky workshop sponsored by the Florida Institute for Human Machine Studies. The presentation reviews various metrics of workload and how to move forward with measuring workload in a human-autonomy teaming environment.

  6. Workload based order acceptance in job shop environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; Hans, Elias W.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In practice, order acceptance and production planning are often functionally separated. As a result, order acceptance decisions are made without considering the actual workload in the production system, or by only regarding the aggregate workload. We investigate the importance of a good workload

  7. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the

  8. Evaluation of water balance in a population of older adults. A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Kolyzoi, Kleoniki; Lysandropoulos, Athanasios; Sfendouraki, Kalliopi; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2018-04-01

    Older adults are at risk for dehydration and its' potentially life-threatening consequences. Unrecognized dehydration can complicate chronic medical problems and increase morbidity. The objective of the study was to estimate water balance, intake and loss in elderly people living in Greece using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ). WBQ was administered in winter to 108 independents (65-81yrs) (Group A), 94 independents (82-92yrs) (Group B) and 51 hospitalized (65-92yrs) (Group C). A database from previous study of 335 adults (18-65yrs) (Control Group) used for comparison. Mean estimates of water balance, intake and loss were, respectively, for Group A -749 ± 1386 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group B -38 ± 933 mL/day, 2571 ± 739 mL/day and 3320 ± 1216 mL/day, for Group C 64 ± 1399 mL/day, 2586 ± 1071 mL/day and 2522 ± 1048 mL/day and for Control Group -253 ± 1495 mL/day, 2912 ± 1025 mL/day and 3492 ± 2099 mL/day. Significant differences were detected in water balance, intake and loss (p < 0.01). Water balance and water intake in Group A was the lowest. For Groups A, B, C and Control, contribution of solid foods to water intake was 36%, 29%, 32%, 25%, of drinking water was 32%, 48%, 45%, 47%, of beverages was 32%, 23%, 23% and 28% respectively. Significant differences observed in the contribution of drinking water and beverages (p < 0.01). Group A had lower water balance and water intake. Groups B and C had lower water intake from beverages. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies.

  10. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies

  11. A Non Linear Scoring Approach for Evaluating Balance: Classification of Elderly as Fallers and Non-Fallers

    OpenAIRE

    Audiffren, Julien; Bargiotas, Ioannis; Vayatis, Nicolas; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Ricard, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP) displacement (statokinesigram) with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached...

  12. Consultant-led, multidisciplinary balance clinic: process evaluation of a specialist model of care in a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidade, A; Yung, M W

    2014-04-01

    A specialist balance clinic to effectively deal with dizzy patients is recommended by ENT-UK. We audit the patient pathway before and following the introduction of a consultant-led dedicated balance clinic. Process evaluation and audit. ENT outpatients department of a district general hospital. The journey of dizzy patients seen in the general ENT clinic was mapped from case notes and recorded retrospectively. A consultant-led, multidisciplinary balance clinic involving an otologist, a senior audiologist and a neurophysiotherapist was then set up, and the journey was prospectively recorded and compared with that before the change. Of the 44 dizzy patients seen in the general clinic, 41% had further follow-up consultations; 64% were given definitive or provisional diagnoses; 75% were discharged without a management plan. Oculomotor examination was not systematically performed. The mean interval between Visits 1 and 2 was 8.4 weeks and the mean number of visits was 3. In the consultant-led dedicated balance clinic, following Visit 1, only 8% of patients required follow-up; 97% received definitive diagnoses, which guided management; all patients left with definitive management plans in place. In all patients, oculomotor assessment was systematically performed and all patients received consultant and, where necessary, allied healthcare professional input. By standardising the management experience for dizzy patients, appropriate and timely treatment can be achieved, allowing for a more seamless and efficient patient journey from referral to treatment. A multidisciplinary balance clinic led by a consultant otologist is the ideal way to achieve this. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Characteristic evaluations of BWR uprate method based on heat balance shift concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitou, Kazuaki; Aoyama, Motoo; Shiina, Kouji; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Reactor power uprate of nuclear power plants is an efficient plant operating method. Most BWR plants need the exchange of high pressure turbines when plant thermal power increases over 5% because main steam flow rate exceeds the limitation of inlet steam flow rate of a high pressure turbine. Therefore, the new power uprate method named heat balance shift power uprate method has been developed. This method decreases feedwater temperature with increasing plant thermal power not to increase main steam flower rate. This study clarified that the heat balance shift method could increase plant electric power up to 2.8% compared with conventional power uprate method without the exchange of a high pressure turbine. (author)

  14. Implementation and evaluation of a monthly water balance model over the US on an 800 m grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Steven W.; Alder, Jay R.

    2016-01-01

    We simulate the 1950–2010 water balance for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) with a monthly water balance model (MWBM) using the 800 m Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data set as model input. We employed observed snow and streamflow data sets to guide modification of the snow and potential evapotranspiration components in the default model and to evaluate model performance. Based on various metrics and sensitivity tests, the modified model yields reasonably good simulations of seasonal snowpack in the West (range of bias of ±50 mm at 68% of 713 SNOTEL sites), the gradients and magnitudes of actual evapotranspiration, and runoff (median correlation of 0.83 and median Nash-Sutcliff efficiency of 0.6 between simulated and observed annual time series at 1427 USGS gage sites). The model generally performs well along the Pacific Coast, the high elevations of the Basin and Range and over the Midwest and East, but not as well over the dry areas of the Southwest and upper Plains regions due, in part, to the apportioning of direct versus delayed runoff. Sensitivity testing and application of the MWBM to simulate the future water balance at four National Parks when driven by 30 climate models from the Climate Model Intercomparison Program Phase 5 (CMIP5) demonstrate that the model is useful for evaluating first-order, climate driven hydrologic change on monthly and annual time scales.

  15. Combining Quick-Turnaround and Batch Workloads at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    NAS uses PBS Professional to schedule and manage the workload on Pleiades, an 11,000+ node 1B cluster. At this scale the user experience for quick-turnaround jobs can degrade, which led NAS initially to set up two separate PBS servers, each dedicated to a particular workload. Recently we have employed PBS hooks and scheduler modifications to merge these workloads together under one PBS server, delivering sub-1-minute start times for the quick-turnaround workload, and enabling dynamic management of the resources set aside for that workload.

  16. Applying the Balanced Scorecard Strategic Evaluation Method to a University Athletic Department

    OpenAIRE

    THANOS KRIEMADIS, ANDREAS KOTSOVOS & PANAYIOTIS ALEXOPOULOS

    2008-01-01

    The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) has been extensively used in manufacturing organisations, service organisations, non-profit organisations, and governmental organizations with outstanding results (Kaplan and Norton, 2001b). Performance measures are at the core of the BSC system.However, financial measurement alone does not reflect the organisational mission of governmental and non-profit organisations; rather the mission of government or non-profitorganisation should be placed at top of the BSC i...

  17. Trade Balances of the Asian Countries under Crisis: Forecast and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyo Cheong

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the financial crisis, we need to do some reform, such as to change the governmental and non-governmental structure, make sure the policy to be transparent, and remove restrictions, etc. All these measures can restore the confidence of foreign investors towards Korea. But to make balance of the trade surplus and keep foreign exchange reserve at a reasonable level, ensure foreign exchange and the security of financial department is one of the most urgent topics. Since the deep relationship of economy among countries in North-East Asia, financial crisis is not only the problem in Korea. It is already expended to the whole North-East Asia. This thesis shows the idea that we can forecast surplus in the trade balance scale, enlarge the trade balance of South Korea and activate export. It also shows that instead of the increase of export, the surplus is caused by the decrease of import. At this point of view, the number of surplus is not true. If the investment keeps decreasing like this, the foundation of Korean Economy will collapse.

  18. Evaluation of alternative model-data fusion approaches in water balance estimation across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.

    2009-04-01

    Australia's national agencies are developing a continental modelling system to provide a range of water information services. It will include rolling water balance estimation to underpin national water accounts, water resources assessments that interpret current water resources availability and trends in a historical context, and water resources predictions coupled to climate and weather forecasting. The nation-wide coverage, currency, accuracy, and consistency required means that remote sensing will need to play an important role along with in-situ observations. Different approaches to blending models and observations can be considered. Integration of on-ground and remote sensing data into land surface models in atmospheric applications often involves state updating through model-data assimilation techniques. By comparison, retrospective water balance estimation and hydrological scenario modelling to date has mostly relied on static parameter fitting against observations and has made little use of earth observation. The model-data fusion approach most appropriate for a continental water balance estimation system will need to consider the trade-off between computational overhead and the accuracy gains achieved when using more sophisticated synthesis techniques and additional observations. This trade-off was investigated using a landscape hydrological model and satellite-based estimates of soil moisture and vegetation properties for aseveral gauged test catchments in southeast Australia.

  19. An Objective Balance Error Scoring System for Sideline Concussion Evaluation Using Duplex Kinect Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqi Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussion is a common sports injury that might induce potential long-term consequences without early diagnosis and intervention in the field. However, there are few options of such sensor systems available. The aim of the study is to propose and validate an automated concussion administration and scoring approach, which is objective, affordable and capable of detecting all balance errors required by the balance error scoring system (BESS protocol in the field condition. Our approach is first to capture human body skeleton positions using two Microsoft Kinect sensors in the proposed configuration and merge the data by a custom-made algorithm to remove the self-occlusion of limbs. The standing balance errors according to BESS protocol were further measured and accessed automatically by the proposed algorithm. Simultaneously, the BESS test was filmed for scoring by an experienced rater. Two results were compared using Pearson coefficient r, obtaining an excellent consistency (r = 0.93, p < 0.05. In addition, BESS test–retest was performed after seven days and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, showing a good test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.81, p < 0.01. The proposed approach could be an alternative of objective tools to assess postural stability for sideline sports concussion diagnosis.

  20. Shift manager workload assessment - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntson, K.; Kozak, A.; Malcolm, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2003, Bruce Power restarted two of its previously laid up units in the Bruce A generating station, Units 3 and 4. However, due to challenges relating to the availability of personnel with active Shift Manager licenses, an alternate shift structure was proposed to ensure the safe operation of the station. This alternate structure resulted in a redistribution of responsibility, and a need to assess the resulting changes in workload. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was contracted to perform a workload assessment based on the new shift structure, and to provide recommendations, if necessary, to ensure Shift Managers had sufficient resources available to perform their required duties. This paper discusses the performance of that assessment, and lessons learned as a result of the work performed during the Restart project. (authors)

  1. Workload management in the EMI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreetto, Paolo; Bertocco, Sara; Dorigo, Alvise; Frizziero, Eric; Gianelle, Alessio; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Zangrando, Luigi; Capannini, Fabio; Cecchi, Marco; Mezzadri, Massimo; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Monforte, Salvatore; Kretsis, Aristotelis

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded project EMI, now at its second year, aims at providing a unified, high quality middleware distribution for e-Science communities. Several aspects about workload management over diverse distributed computing environments are being challenged by the EMI roadmap: enabling seamless access to both HTC and HPC computing services, implementing a commonly agreed framework for the execution of parallel computations and supporting interoperability models between Grids and Clouds. Besides, a rigourous requirements collection process, involving the WLCG and various NGIs across Europe, assures that the EMI stack is always committed to serving actual needs. With this background, the gLite Workload Management System (WMS), the meta-scheduler service delivered by EMI, is augmenting its functionality and scheduling models according to the aforementioned project roadmap and the numerous requirements collected over the first project year. This paper is about present and future work of the EMI WMS, reporting on design changes, implementation choices and longterm vision.

  2. EVALUATION OF GLACIER MELT CONTRIBUTION TO RUNOFF IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS ALPINE CATCHMENTS USING ISOTOPIC METHODS AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and intensity of river floods rise observed in the North Caucasus during last decades is considered to be driven by recent climate change. In order to predict possible future trends in extreme hydrological events in the context of climate change, it is essential to estimate the contribution of different feed sources in complicated flow-forming processes in the alpine part of the North Caucasus. A study was carried out for the Djankuat River basin, the representative for the North Caucasus system. Simultaneous measurements of electrical conductivity, isotopic and ion balance equations, and energy balance modeling of ice and snow melt were used to evaluate the contribution of different sources and processes in the Djankuat River runoff regime formation. A forecast of possible future changes in the Djankuat glacier melting regime according to the predicted climate changes was done.

  3. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    recall their workload accurately. However, it has been shown that the bias shown in subjective ratings can actually provide insight into significant...or subconsciously and embark on load shedding, postponing a task to permit another decision action to be completed in a required timeframe (Smith...or slow heart rate or unique physiological measure will not add unnecessary bias to the data. Individual baseline measures are typically taken at the

  4. Workload, flow, and telepresence during teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blair, L.M. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    There is much speculation about the relations among workload, flow, telepresence, and performance during teleoperation, but few data that provide evidence concerning them. This paper presents results an investigation conducted during completion of a pipe cutting task using a teleoperator at ORNL. Results show support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to expenditure of attentional resources, and some support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to flow. The discussion examines the results from an attentional resources perspective on teleoperation.

  5. Measurement of Workload: Physics, Psychophysics, and Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reviews the results of two experiments in which workload analysis was conducted based upon performance measures, brain evoked potentials and magnitude estimations of subjective load. The three types of measures were jointly applied to the description of the behavior of subjects in a wide battery of experimental tasks. Data analysis shows both instances of association and dissociation between types of measures. A general conceptual framework and methodological guidelines are proposed to account for these findings.

  6. Forecasting Workload for Defense Logistics Agency Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Distribution workload ...........................18 Monthly DD Sales for the four primary supply chains ( Avn , Land, Maritime, Ind HW) plotted to...average AVN Aviation BSM Business Systems Modernization CIT consumable items transfer C&E Construction and Equipment C&T Clothing...992081.437 See Figure 2 below for the graphical output of the linear regression. Monthly DD Sales for the four primary supply chains ( Avn , Land

  7. Workload, flow, and telepresence during teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Blair, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    There is much speculation about the relations among workload, flow, telepresence, and performance during teleoperation, but few data that provide evidence concerning them. This paper presents results an investigation conducted during completion of a pipe cutting task using a teleoperator at ORNL. Results show support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to expenditure of attentional resources, and some support for the hypothesis that telepresence is related to flow. The discussion examines the results from an attentional resources perspective on teleoperation

  8. Evaluation of postural balance in postmenopausal women and its relationship with bone mineral density- a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cangussu Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and falls are common problems encountered in the postmenopausal women. The purpose was to evaluate the association between postural balance and BMD in postmenopausal women and its relation to risk for falls. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 225 women in amenorrhea > 12 months and age ≥ 45 years were included and divided, according to BMD, in T-score values > -2.0 SD (n = 140 and ≤ -2 SD (n = 85. Those with neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, history of vestibulopathies, uncorrected visual deficit or drug use that could affect balance were excluded. History of falls (last 24 months, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated. Postural balance was assessed by stabilometry (force platform. For statistical analysis were used Wilcoxon's Test, Chi-Square Test and logistic regression method for fall risk (Odds Ratio-OR. Results Patients with BMD > -2.0 SD were younger, with shorter time since menopause, and showed higher BMI as compared to those with low BMD (≤ -2 SD (p 0.05 for stabilometric parameters. Risk for falls increased with age (OR 1.07; CI 95% 1.01-1.13, current smoking (OR 2.19; CI 95% 1.22-3.21 and corrected visual deficit (OR 9.06; CI 95% 1.14-4.09. In contrast, hormone therapy (HT use was significantly associated with reduced risk for falls (OR 0.48; CI 95% 0.26-0.88. Conclusions In postmenopausal women, BMD did not show association with postural balance or risk for falls. Age, smoking and corrected visual deficit were clinical indicators of risk for falls whereas HT use showed to be a protective factor.

  9. Relationship between workload and mind-wandering in simulated driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Mental workload and mind-wandering are highly related to driving safety. This study investigated the relationship between mental workload and mind-wandering while driving. Participants (N = 40 were asked to perform a car following task in driving simulator, and report whether they had experienced mind-wandering upon hearing a tone. After driving, participants reported their workload using the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX. Results revealed an interaction between workload and mind-wandering in two different perspectives. First, there was a negative correlation between workload and mind-wandering (r = -0.459, p < 0.01 for different individuals. Second, from temporal perspective workload and mind-wandering frequency increased significantly over task time and were positively correlated. Together, these findings contribute to understanding the roles of workload and mind-wandering in driving.

  10. Scaling deep learning workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-08-24

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD, and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating large DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path or Cray Aries. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet50 topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor-optimized for each architecture. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and the KNL can be competitive in performance/watt. We find that NVLink facilitates scaling efficiency on GPUs. However, its importance is heavily dependent on neural network architecture. Furthermore, for weak-scaling --- sometimes encouraged by restricted GPU memory --- NVLink is less important.

  11. Scaling Deep Learning Workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-07-03

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, CaffeNet, AlexNet and GoogleNet topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor optimized for each architecture. GPUs provide the highest overall raw performance. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and KNL can be competitive when considering performance/watt. Furthermore, NVLink is critical to GPU scaling.

  12. Evaluation of blood oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camkerten, Ilker; Sahin, T; Borazan, G; Gokcen, A; Erel, O; Das, A

    2009-04-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate of oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange. The study materials consisted of totally 30 cross-breed male dogs; 15 with sarcoptic mange (study group) and 15 healthy as control. Blood samples for analyses were taken from control and study group. In study group, microscopic examination of dermal scrapings of 15 dogs revealed S. scabies. Lipid hydroperoxide level, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in dogs with sarcoptic mange were higher (Ptotal antioxidant capacity between groups. Our results suggest a possible relationship between oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and sarcoptic mange infestation in dogs.

  13. Driver’s Cognitive Workload and Driving Performance under Traffic Sign Information Exposure in Complex Environments: A Case Study of the Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers’ behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information. Forty-four drivers were recruited to conduct a traffic sign cognition experiment under static controlled environment conditions. Different complex traffic signs were used for applying the cognitive workload. The static experiment results reveal that workload is highly related to the amount of information on traffic signs and reaction time increases with the information grade, while driving experience and gender effect are not significant. This shows that the cognitive workload of subsequent driving experiments can be controlled by the amount of information on traffic signs. Second, driving characteristics and driving performance were analyzed under different secondary task driving workload levels using a driving simulator. Drivers were required to drive at the required speed on a designed highway off-ramp scene. The cognitive workload was controlled by reading traffic signs with different information, which were divided into four levels. Drivers had to make choices by pushing buttons after reading traffic signs. Meanwhile, the driving performance information was recorded. Questionnaires on objective workload were collected right after each driving task. The results show that speed maintenance and lane deviations are significantly different under different levels of cognitive workload, and the effects of driving experience and gender groups are significant. The research results can be used to analyze traffic safety in highway

  14. Dohsa Treatment to Improve Balance in Elderly People: An Evaluation of a Family-Based Rehabilitation Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dadkhah

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this research we evaluate an individually family-based Dohsa exercise programme of balance in the aged people and its effect on self confidence for performing common daily tasks with less falling could be influenced by training. Methods: From a residential care center, five aged person were participated in this study. They were trained by Dohsa method for six weeks. Two types of Dohsa-hou were used: Relaxation and Tate-kei. Tate-kei was the task which required them to control their body vertically against gravity. Results: The results indicated that most of them had improved their balance and their confidence for doing their daily activities without falling in a better way. Discussion: The Dohsa family based rehabilitation program could improve their balance and increase their activity by not falling down. The family based programme can be a useful program for rehabilitation therapists in their therapy with aged people to improve their life skills and well beings.

  15. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  16. Analysis of the workload of bank tellers of a Brazilian public institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Simoni S; Albieri, Ana Carolina S; Bonugli, Gustavo P; Greghi, Marina F

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades there have been many changes in the banking sector organization. It has been also observed the mutual growing of musculoskeletal and mental disorders. This study investigated the workload of bank tellers at a Brazilian public institution. It was performed the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Three employees participated in this study. During the analysis process, three research instruments were applied: Inventory of Work and Risk of Illness, Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, beyond the realization of footage recordings and the self-confrontation. The results indicated the existence of an excess of workload on the evaluated workstations, mainly in relation to mental order constraints, that overlaps the physical aspects. Thereby it was found that the employees tend to adopt strategies trying to reduce the impacts of the excess of workload, in order to regulate it.

  17. Analysis and modeling of social influence in high performance computing workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies the level of social influence across HPC users. We show the existence of a social graph that is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. This pattern also follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. Given its potential impact on HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, we propose a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups. Extensive evaluation shows that our online algorithm can (1) quickly identify the social relationships by using a small portion of incoming jobs and (2) can efficiently track group evolution over time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. PanDA Beyond ATLAS: Workload Management for Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The PanDA Production ANd Distributed Analysis system has been developed by ATLAS to meet the experiment's requirements for a data-driven workload management system for production and distributed analysis processing capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. After 7 years of impressively successful PanDA operation in ATLAS there are also other experiments which can benefit from PanDA in the Big Data challenge, with several at various stages of evaluation and adoption. The new project "Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data" is extending PanDA to meet the needs of other data intensive scientific applications in HEP, astro-particle and astrophysics communities, bio-informatics and other fields as a general solution to large scale workload management. PanDA can utilize dedicated or opportunistic computing resources such as grids, clouds, and High Performance Computing facilities, and is being extended to leverage next generation intelligent networks in automated workflow mana...

  19. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839

  20. Two weeks of additional standing balance circuit classes during inpatient rehabilitation are cost saving and effective: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Daniel; Howard, Kirsten; Hayes, Alison; Hassett, Leanne; Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Among people admitted for inpatient rehabilitation, is usual care plus standing balance circuit classes more cost-effective than usual care alone? Cost-effectiveness study embedded within a randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. 162 rehabilitation inpatients from a metropolitan hospital in Sydney, Australia. The experimental group received a 1-hour standing balance circuit class, delivered three times a week for 2 weeks, in addition to usual therapy. The circuit classes were supervised by one physiotherapist and one physiotherapy assistant for up to eight patients. The control group received usual therapy alone. Costs were estimated from routinely collected hospital use data in the 3 months after randomisation. The functional outcome measure was mobility measured at 3 months using the Short Physical Performance Battery administered by a blinded assessor. An incremental analysis was conducted and the joint probability distribution of costs and outcomes was examined using bootstrapping. The median cost savings for the intervention group was AUD4,741 (95% CI 137 to 9,372) per participant; 94% of bootstraps showed that the intervention was both effective and cost saving. Two weeks of additional standing balance circuit classes delivered in addition to usual therapy resulted in decreased healthcare costs at 3 months in hospital inpatients admitted for rehabilitation. There is a high probability that this intervention is both cost saving and effective. ACTRN12611000412932. [Treacy D, Howard K, Hayes A, Hassett L, Schurr K, Sherrington C (2018) Two weeks of additional standing balance circuit classes during inpatient rehabilitation are cost saving and effective: an economic evaluation. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 41-47]. Copyright © 2017 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Impact of chronic illness on hospital nursing workloads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés, S; Valdavida, E; Menéndez, C; Natal, C

    To evaluate the short-term impact of chronic illness in hospital units and to establish a method that allows nursing workloads to be adapted according to the care needs of patients. A descriptive study of the evolution of workloads of nursing staff associated with the care needs of patients between 1 July 2014 and 30 June 2016, in a county hospital. The care needs of the patients were assessed daily using an adaptation of the Montesinos scheme. The estimated times of nursing care and auxiliary nursing required by the patients, based on their level of dependence for time distribution, were based on the standards and recommendations of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. During the study period, there was a change in the patient care needs, with no increase in activity, which resulted in an increase in the nursing staffing needs of 1,396 theoretical hours per year. This increase implies an increase in the workforce of 5 nurses in the second period. In the study period, the needs for direct nursing care increased by 7%, this increase is not related to the increase in activity, but to the level of dependency of the patients with chronic diseases. This increase occurred in both medical and surgical units. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Reasons for adopting technological innovations reducing physical workload in bricklaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A M; Vink, P; de Kroon, J C A

    2003-09-15

    In this paper the adoption of technological innovations to improve the work of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants is evaluated. Two studies were performed among 323 subjects to determine the adoption of the working methods, the perceived workload, experiences with the working methods, and the reasons for adopting the working methods. Furthermore, a comparison of the results of the studies was made with those of two similar studies in the literature. The results show that more than half of the sector adopted the innovations. The perceived workload was reduced. The employees and employers are satisfied with the working methods and important reasons for adoption were cost/benefit advantages, improvement of work and health, and increase in productivity. Problems preventing the adoption were the use of the working methods at specific sites, for instance in renovation work. The adoption of the new working methods could perhaps have been higher or faster if more attention had been paid to the active participation of bricklayers and bricklayers' assistants during the development of the new working methods and to the use of modern media techniques, such as the Internet and CD/DVD.

  3. Driver behavior and workload in an on-road automated vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.C.J.; Mullakkal Babu, F.A.; Happee, R.

    2017-01-01

    Driver mental underload is an important concern in the operational safety of automated driving. In this study, workload was evaluated subjectively (NASA RTLX) and objectively (auditory detection-response task) on Dutch public highways (~150km) in a Tesla Model S comparing manual and supervised

  4. Discussing Feedback System Thinking in Relation to Scenario Evaluation in a Balanced Scorecard Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2012-01-01

    Since the emergence of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) at the beginning of the 1990s, literature has intensively discussed the problems of the cause and effect relationships, the time-delay elements between measures and perspectives and the concepts of feedback loops. This paper focuses on the use...... of the System Dynamics Modeling approach to deal with these three problems, an approach first suggested by Forrester back in 1958. The wide scope of application of BSC as a decision-supporting instrument continues to spur the interest in BSC. We have used an actual case as inspiration on which our model...... construction and our simulation scenarios are based. Our findings suggest that the idea of linking BSC and System Dynamics together based on properties of the systems dynamic nature seem to be both a natural and a relevant development. Furthermore, our simulations demonstrate the ability to: (1) provide...

  5. Evaluation and understanding of Playware Technology – trials with playful balance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due

    This thesis is an investigation of the new technologies used to motivate elderly people in a playful manner to do physical exercises, which can improve their physical health and, thus, prevent accidents. For example, fall accidents caused by falling are widespread among older adults. The thesis....... The thesis starts with a presentation of the results of two different pilot trials done with the MOTO tiles technology which showed remarkable development among the elderly, particularly regarding balance. It further contextualizes MOTO tiles in the research area of "games for health" by an account...... of research done in this area, including the sub-area of “exergames”, which are games that require the user to be physically active in order to play. This account points out that the research hitherto completed is inadequate with regards to scientific validity. The review of randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  6. Design and evaluation of controls for drift, video gain, and color balance in spaceborne facsimile cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Rowland, C. W.; Burcher, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    The facsimile camera is an optical-mechanical scanning device which has become an attractive candidate as an imaging system for planetary landers and rovers. This paper presents electronic techniques which permit the acquisition and reconstruction of high quality images with this device, even under varying lighting conditions. These techniques include a control for low frequency noise and drift, an automatic gain control, a pulse-duration light modulation scheme, and a relative spectral gain control. Taken together, these techniques allow the reconstruction of radiometrically accurate and properly balanced color images from facsimile camera video data. These techniques have been incorporated into a facsimile camera and reproduction system, and experimental results are presented for each technique and for the complete system.

  7. A balanced hazard ratio for risk group evaluation from survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branders, Samuel; Dupont, Pierre

    2015-07-30

    Common clinical studies assess the quality of prognostic factors, such as gene expression signatures, clinical variables or environmental factors, and cluster patients into various risk groups. Typical examples include cancer clinical trials where patients are clustered into high or low risk groups. Whenever applied to survival data analysis, such groups are intended to represent patients with similar survival odds and to select the most appropriate therapy accordingly. The relevance of such risk groups, and of the related prognostic factors, is typically assessed through the computation of a hazard ratio. We first stress three limitations of assessing risk groups through the hazard ratio: (1) it may promote the definition of arbitrarily unbalanced risk groups; (2) an apparently optimal group hazard ratio can be largely inconsistent with the p-value commonly associated to it; and (3) some marginal changes between risk group proportions may lead to highly different hazard ratio values. Those issues could lead to inappropriate comparisons between various prognostic factors. Next, we propose the balanced hazard ratio to solve those issues. This new performance metric keeps an intuitive interpretation and is as simple to compute. We also show how the balanced hazard ratio leads to a natural cut-off choice to define risk groups from continuous risk scores. The proposed methodology is validated through controlled experiments for which a prescribed cut-off value is defined by design. Further results are also reported on several cancer prognosis studies, and the proposed methodology could be applied more generally to assess the quality of any prognostic markers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  9. Fatigue and workload among Danish fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Line Nørgaard; Herttua, Kimmo; Riss-Jepsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    . Highest levels of fatigue were observed among fishermen at Danish seiners (mean 10.21), and fatigue scores decreased with more days at sea. However, none of these results were significant. Adjusted analyses showed that physical workload was significantly related to general fatigue (b = 0.20, 95% CI: 0...... was additionally significantly associated to the levels of physical and mental fatigue. Fishermen had a lower average score for all fatigue dimensions compared to those seen in general Danish working population. Prospective studies are required to assess whether the identified associations are causal....

  10. Students' Evaluations of University Teaching: Balance and Perspectives of their Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Luna Serrano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose of critically evaluate the findings of literature in relation to the administration and use of the teacher’s evaluation instruments in which the students can qualify the efficiency of teaching. The discussion may help orient the use of this kind of instruments within the frame of an evaluation system to improve teaching at college level. The work includes six sections: the discussion context; evaluation of teacher’s efficacy; methodological aspects, i.e, reliability and validity; the use of instruments and the improvement of teacher’s efficacy. It is concluded that evaluative instruments are useful as a system’s information source with use and administration requirements derived from research findings as well as empirical data. Also, establishing the link between evaluation results and the design of new modalities of teacher’s formation is discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Nintendo Wii Balance Board as a Tool for Measuring Postural Stability After Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Janigro, Mattia; Wasserman, Erin B; Clark, Ross A; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2017-03-01

    Recent changes to postconcussion guidelines indicate that postural-stability assessment may augment traditional neurocognitive testing when making return-to-participation decisions. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) has been proposed as 1 measure of balance assessment. A new, freely available software program to accompany the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) system has recently been developed but has not been tested in concussed patients. To evaluate the feasibility of using the WBB to assess postural stability across 3 time points (baseline and postconcussion days 3 and 7) and to assess concurrent and convergent validity of the WBB with other traditional measures (BESS and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT] battery) of assessing concussion recovery. Cohort study. Athletic training room and collegiate sports arena. We collected preseason baseline data from 403 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III student-athletes participating in contact sports and studied 19 participants (age = 19.2 ± 1.2 years, height = 177.7 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 75.3 ± 16.6 kg, time from baseline to day 3 postconcussion = 27.1 ± 36.6 weeks) who sustained concussions. We assessed balance using single-legged and double-legged stances for both the BESS and WBB, focusing on the double-legged, eyes-closed stance for the WBB, and used ImPACT to assess neurocognition at 3 time points. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Mean differences and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to determine differences within and between metrics over the 3 time points. Individual-level changes over time were also assessed graphically. The WBB demonstrated mean changes between baseline and day 3 postconcussion and between days 3 and 7 postconcussion. It was correlated with the BESS and ImPACT for several measures and identified 2 cases of abnormal balance postconcussion that would not have been identified via the BESS. When

  12. Academic workload management towards learning, components of academic work

    OpenAIRE

    Ocvirk, Aleksandra; Trunk Širca, Nada

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with attributing time value to academic workload from the point of view of an HEI, management of teaching and an individual. We have conducted a qualitative study aimed at analysing documents on academic workload in terms of its definition, and at analysing the attribution of time value to components of academic work in relation to the proportion of workload devoted to teaching in the sense of ensuring quality and effectiveness of learning, and in relation to financial implic...

  13. Balancing Linguistic and Social Needs: Evaluating Texts Using a Critical Language Awareness Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Rod E.; Ndura, Elavie; Righettini, Marielena

    2005-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) content-based texts are often evaluated for their presentation of sound second-language teaching practices. While such reviews are important and valuable, they ignore an examination of the race, class, and gender issues introduced in the texts. A critical perspective on textbook evaluation organized around the…

  14. Evaluation of actual costs of power sources and effects on balance sheets of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, almost all nuclear power stations continued to stop operation and sharp increase of purchase costs of fossil fuels forced some electric utilities to suffer a deficit. This article presented quantitative analysis of effects of present state on power costs and balance sheets of electric utilities. Levelized costs of electricity increased from 8.6 ¥/kWh (2010) to 11.6 ¥/kWh (2011) and 12.6 ¥/kWh (2012). Total power costs increased from 7.5 Trillion¥(2010) to 9.5 Trillion¥(2011). Due to increase of cost of fossil fuel compensated for nuclear power, electric utilities suffered a net loss of 0.8 Trillion¥ and decreased surplus to 2.5 Trillion¥ in 2011. Net loss of 1.3 Trillion¥ and surplus of 1.2 Trillion¥ was estimated for 2012. This state was beyond the limit of utilities' efforts to reduce costs and uncertain share of power sources became a great risk. Future share of power sources should be judged appropriately from various standpoints (costs, stable supply, energy security and national economic growth) and early public dissemination of new philosophy on share of power sources was highly required. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Does performance evaluation help public managers? A Balanced Scorecard approach in urban waste services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bernardo; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-12-01

    The urban waste market has evolved significantly in the past decades, which among other changes, has led to the creation of new utilities and new business models. However, very few things have changed for the users. Urban waste collection remains mainly under the responsibility of local authorities and the charges paid by the users in most countries are very low compared to the provision costs. This situation forces the injection of public money into the system, encouraging the 'quiet-life' within the utilities and, therefore, inefficiency. The present study intends to analyze the potential for the application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSc) methodology into the waste utilities. After a comprehensive revision of the urban waste sector in Portugal, the methodology of BSc and its application in local public services is described and discussed. Focusing on implementation rather than on strategy, a set of performance indicators is proposed to be utilized in the different management models of waste utilities in Portugal: the municipalities, semi-autonomous utilities, municipal companies and mixed companies. This implementation is then exemplified through four case studies, one for each type of utility. This paper provides a flexible framework proposal to be applied to waste utilities operating both in Portugal and abroad. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating Water Conservation and Reuse Policies Using a Dynamic Water Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  17. Measuring workload in collaborative contexts: trait versus state perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S; Funke, Gregory J; Knott, Benjamin A

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we explored the state versus trait aspects of measures of task and team workload in a disaster simulation. There is often a need to assess workload in both individual and collaborative settings. Researchers in this field often use the NASATask Load Index (NASA-TLX) as a global measure of workload by aggregating the NASA-TLX's component items. Using this practice, one may overlook the distinction between traits and states. Fifteen dyadic teams (11 inexperienced, 4 experienced) completed five sessions of a tsunami disaster simulator. After every session, individuals completed a modified version of the NASA-TLX that included team workload measures.We then examined the workload items by using a between-subjects and within-subjects perspective. Between-subjects and within-subjects correlations among the items indicated the workload items are more independent within subjects (as states) than between subjects (as traits). Correlations between the workload items and simulation performance were also different at the trait and state levels. Workload may behave differently at trait (between-subjects) and state (within-subjects) levels. Researchers interested in workload measurement as a state should take a within-subjects perspective in their analyses.

  18. The gLite Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, Cecchi; Fabio, Capannini; Alvise, Dorigo; Antonia, Ghiselli; Alessio, Gianelle; Francesco, Giacomini; Elisabetta, Molinari; Salvatore, Monforte; Alessandro, Maraschini; Luca, Petronzio

    2010-01-01

    The gLite Workload Management System represents a key entry point to high-end services available on a Grid. Being designed as part of the european Grid within the six years long EU-funded EGEE project, now at its third phase, the WMS is meant to provide reliable and efficient distribution and management of end-user requests. This service basically translates user requirements and preferences into specific operations and decisions - dictated by the general status of all other Grid services - while taking responsibility to bring requests to successful completion. The WMS has become a reference implementation of the 'early binding' approach to meta-scheduling as a neat, Grid-aware solution, able to optimise resource access and to satisfy requests for computation together with data. Several added value features are provided for job submission, different job types are supported from simple batch to a variety of compounds. In this paper we outline what has been achieved to provide adequate workload and management components, suitable to be deployed in a production-quality Grid, while covering the design and development of the gLite WMS and focusing on the most recently achieved results.

  19. Physical workload and thoughts of retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiö-Mäkelä, Merja; Hirvonen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Finnish employees' opinions on continuing work until retirement pension and after the age of 63, and to find out if physical workload is related to these opinions. Altogether 39% of men and 40% of women had never had thoughts of early retirement, and 59% claimed (both men and women) that they would consider working beyond the age of 63. Own health (20%); financial gain such as salary and better pension (19%); meaningful, interesting and challenging work (15%); flexible working hours or part-time work (13%); lighter work load (13%); good work community (8%); and good work environment (6%) were stated as factors affecting the decision to continue working after the age of 63. Employees whose work involved low physical workload had less thoughts of early retirement and had considered continuing work after the age of 63 more often than those whose work involved high physical loads. Own health in particular was stated as a reason to consider continuing work by employees whose work was physically demanding.

  20. Positive and Negative Impacts of a Continuing Professional Development Intervention on Pharmacist Practice: A Balanced Measure Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Sukhjinder; Gorman, Sean K; Slavik, Richard S; Ramsey, Tasha; Bruchet, Nicole; Murray, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of behavior change interventions aimed at improving professional practice are increasingly focused on impacts at the practice and patient outcome levels. Many of these evaluations assume that if the intended changes occur, the result represents an improvement. However, given the systemic nature of clinical practice, a change in one area can produce changes in other areas as well, some of which may adversely affect the patient. Balancing measures are used to determine whether unintended consequences of an intervention have been introduced into other areas of the system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of behavior change intervention-based continuing professional development (CPD) on pharmacist interventions (resolution of drug therapy problems-DTPs) and resolution of quality indicator DTPs and knowledge change for urinary tract infections (UTI) and pneumonia. As a balancing measure, we aimed to determine whether delivery of behavior change interventions targeting pneumonia and UTI practice results in a negative impact on other important pharmacist interventions, specifically the resolution of heart failure DTPs. A quasiexperimental study was conducted at a Canadian health authority that evaluated the impacts of an 8-week multifaceted behavior change intervention delivered to 58 ward-based pharmacists. The primary outcome was change in proportion of UTI and pneumonia DTPs resolved from the 6-month preintervention to 6-month postintervention phase. Secondary outcomes were changes in proportion of UTI and pneumonia quality indicator DTPs resolved, knowledge quiz scores, and proportion of quality indicator DTPs resolved for heart failure as a balancing measure. A total of 58 pharmacists were targets of the intervention. The proportion of resolved UTI and pneumonia DTPs increased from 17.8 to 27.2% (relative risk increase 52.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42.8-63.6%; P UTI and pneumonia quality indicator DTPs increased from 12.2% to 18

  1. The theoretical and experimental evaluation of the heat balance in perfused tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crezee, J.; Mooibroek, J.; Lagendijk, J. J.; van Leeuwen, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate treatment planning is necessary for the successful application of hyperthermia in the clinic. The validity of four different bioheat models or combinations of models is evaluated: the conventional bioheat transfer equation, the limited effective conductivity model, a mixed heat

  2. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  3. Evaluation of water balance parameters from isotopic measurements in evaporation pans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of the parameters governing the isotopic composition of evaporating water bodies was attempted by means of evaporation pans. The instability of the meteorological conditions, however, makes it virtually impossible to evaluate the atmospheric relative humidity and its isotopic composition with pans. Pans are only suitable to obtain seasonal trends of the isotopic composition of the net evaporated water. For this, a technique based on two pans is also proposed. (author)

  4. Multidimensional evaluation of performance with experimental application of balanced scorecard: a two year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli Paola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In today's dynamic health-care system, organizations such as hospitals are required to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and deliver an integrated care that means to work effectively, be innovative and organize efficiently. Achieved goals and levels of quality can be successfully measured by a multidimensional approach like Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The aim of the study was to verify the opportunity to introduce BSC framework to measure performance in St. Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, applying it to the Clinical Laboratory Operative Unit in order to compare over time performance results and achievements of assigned targets. Methods In the first experience with BSC we distinguished four perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, identified Key Performance Areas and Key Performance Indicators, set standards and weights for each objective, collected data for all indicators, recognized cause-and-effect relationships in a strategic map. One year later we proceeded with the next data collection and analysed the preservation of framework aptitude to measure Operative Unit performance. In addition, we verified the ability to underline links between strategic actions belonging to different perspectives in producing outcomes changes. Results The BSC was found to be effective for underlining existing problems and identifying opportunities for improvements. The BSC also revealed the specific perspective contribution to overall performance enhancement. After time results comparison was possible depending on the selection of feasible and appropriate key performance indicators, which was occasionally limited by data collection problems. Conclusions The first use of BSC to compare performance at Operative Unit level, in course of time, suggested this framework can be successfully adopted for results measuring and revealing effective health factors, allowing health-care quality improvements.

  5. Evaluating water conservation and reuse policies using a dynamic water balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  6. Evaluating the potential of improving residential water balance at building scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M; Keesman, Karel J; Mels, Adriaan R; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-12-15

    Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency in water supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and location-bound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able to model yearly water balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence of water using appliances were defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling, and rainwater harvesting (multi-sourcing). Recycling and multi-sourcing cater for toilet flushing and laundry machine. Results showed that water saving devices may reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGW can supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2) which represents 36% of the conventional demand or up to 20% of the minimized demand. Rainwater harvesting may supply approximately 80% of the minimized demand in case of the apartment flat and 60% in case of the free standing house. To harvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and available rainfall; and ii) the potential to harvest water as determined by the temporal pattern in water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders' energy balance-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S

    2017-09-07

    Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P peer leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.

  8. Evaluating infant core temperature response in a hot car using a heat balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew J; Duzinski, Sarah V; Dolinak, David; Null, Jan; Iyer, Sujit S

    2015-03-01

    Using a 1-year old male infant as the model subject, the objectives of this study were to measure increased body temperature of an infant inside an enclosed vehicle during the work day (8:00 am-4:00 pm) during four seasons and model the time to un-compensable heating, heat stroke [>40 °C (>104 °F)], and critical thermal maximum [>42 °C (>107.6 °F)]. A human heat balance model was used to simulate a child's physiological response to extreme heat exposure within an enclosed vehicle. Environmental variables were obtained from the nearest National Weather Service automated surface observing weather station and from an observational vehicular temperature study conducted in Austin, Texas in 2012. In all four seasons, despite differences in starting temperature and solar radiation, the model infant reached heat stroke and demise before 2:00 pm. Time to heat stroke and demise occurred most rapidly in summer, at intermediate durations in fall and spring, and most slowly in the winter. In August, the model infant reached un-compensable heat within 20 min, heat stroke within 105 min, and demise within 125 min. The average rate of heating from un-compensable heat to heat stroke was 1.7 °C/h (3.0 °F/h) and from heat stroke to demise was 4.8 °C/h (8.5 °F/h). Infants left in vehicles during the workday can reach hazardous thermal thresholds quickly even with mild environmental temperatures. These results provide a seasonal analogue of infant heat stroke time course. Further effort is required to create a universally available forensic tool to predict vehicular hyperthermia time course to demise.

  9. Multidimensional evaluation of performance with experimental application of balanced scorecard: a two year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In today's dynamic health-care system, organizations such as hospitals are required to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and deliver an integrated care that means to work effectively, be innovative and organize efficiently. Achieved goals and levels of quality can be successfully measured by a multidimensional approach like Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The aim of the study was to verify the opportunity to introduce BSC framework to measure performance in St. Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, applying it to the Clinical Laboratory Operative Unit in order to compare over time performance results and achievements of assigned targets. Methods In the first experience with BSC we distinguished four perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, identified Key Performance Areas and Key Performance Indicators, set standards and weights for each objective, collected data for all indicators, recognized cause-and-effect relationships in a strategic map. One year later we proceeded with the next data collection and analysed the preservation of framework aptitude to measure Operative Unit performance. In addition, we verified the ability to underline links between strategic actions belonging to different perspectives in producing outcomes changes. Results The BSC was found to be effective for underlining existing problems and identifying opportunities for improvements. The BSC also revealed the specific perspective contribution to overall performance enhancement. After time results comparison was possible depending on the selection of feasible and appropriate key performance indicators, which was occasionally limited by data collection problems. Conclusions The first use of BSC to compare performance at Operative Unit level, in course of time, suggested this framework can be successfully adopted for results measuring and revealing effective health factors, allowing health-care quality improvements. PMID:21586111

  10. Multidimensional evaluation of performance with experimental application of balanced scorecard: a two year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Silvia; Verzola, Adriano; Carandina, Gianni; Salani, Manuela; Antonioli, Paola; Gregorio, Pasquale

    2011-05-17

    In today's dynamic health-care system, organizations such as hospitals are required to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and deliver an integrated care that means to work effectively, be innovative and organize efficiently. Achieved goals and levels of quality can be successfully measured by a multidimensional approach like Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The aim of the study was to verify the opportunity to introduce BSC framework to measure performance in St. Anna University Hospital of Ferrara, applying it to the Clinical Laboratory Operative Unit in order to compare over time performance results and achievements of assigned targets. In the first experience with BSC we distinguished four perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, identified Key Performance Areas and Key Performance Indicators, set standards and weights for each objective, collected data for all indicators, recognized cause-and-effect relationships in a strategic map. One year later we proceeded with the next data collection and analysed the preservation of framework aptitude to measure Operative Unit performance. In addition, we verified the ability to underline links between strategic actions belonging to different perspectives in producing outcomes changes. The BSC was found to be effective for underlining existing problems and identifying opportunities for improvements. The BSC also revealed the specific perspective contribution to overall performance enhancement. After time results comparison was possible depending on the selection of feasible and appropriate key performance indicators, which was occasionally limited by data collection problems. The first use of BSC to compare performance at Operative Unit level, in course of time, suggested this framework can be successfully adopted for results measuring and revealing effective health factors, allowing health-care quality improvements.

  11. Major League pitching workload after primary ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction and risk for revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Marshall, Nathan E; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Khalil, Lafi; Tibone, James E; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-02-01

    Literature has attempted to correlate pitching workload with risk of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury; however, limited data are available in evaluating workload and its relationship with the need for revision reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We identified 29 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction and compared them with 121 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared for the seasons after returning from primary reconstruction and for the last season pitched before undergoing revision surgery. The difference in workload between pitchers who did and did not require revision reconstruction was not statistically significant in games pitched, innings pitched, and MLB-only pitch counts. The one significant difference in workload was in total pitch counts (combined MLB and minor league), with the pitchers who required revision surgery pitching less than those who did not (primary: 1413.6 pitches vs. revision: 959.0 pitches, P = .04). In addition, pitchers who required revision surgery underwent primary reconstruction at an early age (22.9 years vs. 27.3 years, P risk for injury after primary UCL reconstruction. However, correlations of risk may be younger age and less MLB experience at the time of the primary reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-04-06

    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  13. The NASA Task Load Index as a measure of overall workload among neonatal, paediatric and adult intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Mara, Constance A; Carle, Adam C; Gurses, Ayse P

    2018-02-12

    The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a subjective workload assessment scale developed for use in aviation and increasingly applied to healthcare. The scale purports to measure overall workload as a single variable calculated by summing responses to six items. Since no data address the validity of this scoring approach in health care, we evaluated the single factor structure of the NASA-TLX as a measure of overall workload among intenisive care nurses. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from two studies of nurse workload in neonatal, paediatric, and adult intensive care units. Study 1 data were obtained from 136 nurses in one neonatal intensive care unit. Study 2 data were collected from 300 nurses in 17 adult, paediatric and neonatal units. Nurses rated their workload using the NASA-TLX's paper version. A single factor model testing whether all six items measured a single overall workload variable fit least well (RMSEA = 0.14; CFI = 0.91; TLI = 0.85). A second model that specified two items as outcomes of overall workload had acceptable fit (RMSEA = 0.08; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.95) while a third model of four items fit best (RMSEA = 0.06; CFI > 0.99; TLI = 0.99). A summed score from four of six NASA-TLX items appears to most reliably measure a single overall workload variable among intensive care nurses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  15. The balancing role of evaluation mechanisms: cases of publicly funded research institutions: MPG, HGF, and CAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Junwen

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation has been designed and used as an instrument of organisational governance for publicly funded research institutions (PRIs). Such an instrument can justify external public support and provide internal evidence for decision-making and organisational learning. Under given national and

  16. Evaluation of a peer education program on student leaders’ energy balance-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Foley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average

  17. Evaluation of serum oxidant/antioxidant balance in patients with acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.; Ssefer, V.; Ertugrul, U.; Osman, E.; Esref, A.; Ugur, C.M.; Adalet, A.; Yavuz, Y.; Faysal, E.; Nebahat, T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to locate any correlation between oxidant/antioxidant parameters and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Neurology Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty, Diyarbakir, Turkey, from June 2010 to June 2011. Blood samples were obtained from 53 patients with ischaemic stroke and 40 healthy controls without any history of ischaemic stroke or systemic disease. Venous blood was obtained within 24 hour after stroke onset. Serum malondialdehyde , total anti-oxidant capacity, paraoxanase and superoxide dismutase were measured. SPSS 11.5 used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no difference between the cases and the controls regarding age (64.5+-15.8 and 66.3+-13.9 respectively), gender (27 (51%) / 26 (49%), and 19 (48%) / 21 (52%) respectively), obesity (15 (28.3%) and 13 (37.5%), respectively), and hypertension (30 (56.6%) and 23 (57.5%), respectively). The cases had higher concentrations of malondialdehyde (147.3+-59.3 vs. 112.4+-28.5 nmol/gr protein, p<0.001), and superoxide dismutase (4.40+-0.79 vs. 3.35+-0.51, p<0.001) compared to the controls. However, the cases had lower concentrations of paraoxanase (23.2+-23.7 vs 64.7+-52.6, p<0.001), total anti-oxidant capacity (0.77+-0.38 vs. 0.95+-0.30, p<0.015), and nitric oxide (10.8+-7.1 vs. 17.5+-2.4 micro mol/gr protein, p<0.001), compared to the controls. In the stroke group, a significant negative correlation was found between the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and total anti-oxidant capacity activity (p<0.021, r-0.32). Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that sufficient anti-oxidant capacity has a beneficial effect on the clinical severity of acute ischaemic stroke. (author)

  18. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk......, with two minor categories: Assessing depression and antidepressants and Evaluating the impact of significant others. The participants tried to make the safest decision, taking all aspects of their life into consideration. They described successful decision-making in the context of managing social norms...

  19. Nursing workload as a risk factor for healthcare associated infections in ICU: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata M Daud-Gallotti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nurse understaffing is frequently hypothesized as a potential risk factor for healthcare-associated infections (HAI. This study aimed to evaluate the role of nursing workload in the occurrence of HAI, using Nursing Activities Score (NAS. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled all patients admitted to 3 Medical ICUs and one step-down unit during 3 months (2009. Patients were followed-up until HAI, discharge or death. Information was obtained from direct daily observation of medical and nursing rounds, chart review and monitoring of laboratory system. Nursing workload was determined using NAS. Non-compliance to the nurses' patient care plans (NPC was identified. Demographic data, clinical severity, invasive procedures, hospital interventions, and the occurrence of other adverse events were also recorded. Patients who developed HAI were compared with those who did not. RESULTS: 195 patients were included and 43 (22% developed HAI: 16 pneumonia, 12 urinary-tract, 8 bloodstream, 2 surgical site, 2 other respiratory infections and 3 other. Average NAS and average proportion of non compliance with NPC were significantly higher in HAI patients. They were also more likely to suffer other adverse events. Only excessive nursing workload (OR: 11.41; p: 0.019 and severity of patient's clinical condition (OR: 1.13; p: 0.015 remained as risk factors to HAI. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive nursing workload was the main risk factor for HAI, when evaluated together with other invasive devices except mechanical ventilation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate prospectively the nursing workload as a potential risk factor for HAI, using NAS.

  20. Evaluation of MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using a balanced fast-field-echo sequence: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Chinatsu; Hachiya, Junichi [Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181-8611, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of MR cisternography by the balanced fast-field-echo (bFFE) sequence, comparing with that by a turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence, for cerebellopontine angle lesions on a 1.5-T imager (Gyroscan Intera, Philips, Best, The Netherlands). The bFFE MR cisternograms depicted target cranial nerves with less cerebrospinal fluid pulsation artifacts than TSE cisternograms and visualized an acoustic schwannoma in 6 of 44 patients with suspicion and a causative vessel of hemifacial spasm in all of 3 patients in a short scanning time (1 min 53 s). The bFFE sequence can be promising for MR cisternography in the diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle lesions. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of performance evaluation model through the balanced scorecard in a footwear industry

    OpenAIRE

    Perazza, Leonardo; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar Chagas

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, significant changes have been noted in the business world, due to the increasing demand of customers, political and economic moments that create a dynamic nonmarket increasingly unstable, contributing to increasing challenges in understanding the demands. The objective was to evaluate the model operations management method BSC, in order to reduce costs and increase productivity and competitiveness. A study was conducted through a semi-open process, with 180 employees at a m...

  2. Physiological Indicators of Workload in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    cognitive workload. That is, both cognitive underload and overload can negatively impact performance (Young & Stanton, 2002). One solution to...Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Toward preventing performance decrements associated with mental overload in remotely piloted aircraft (RPA...operations, the current research investigated the feasibility of using physiological measures to assess cognitive workload. Two RPA operators were

  3. Situation awareness and workload in complex tactical environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides an example of a method to get insight into workload changes over time, executed tasks and situation awareness (SA) in complex task environments. The method is applied to measure the workload of a helicopter crew. The method has three components: 1) task analysis, 2) video

  4. Remuneration, workload, and allocation of time in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.J. van den; Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zee, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Background: General Practitioners (GPs) can cope with workload by, among others, spending more hours in patient care or by spending less time per patient. The way GPs are paid might affect the way they cope with workload. From an economical point of view, capitation payment is an incentive to

  5. Quantifying the Workload of Subject Bibliographers in Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of subject bibliographers in collection development activities focuses on an approach developed at Virginia Polytechnic and State Institute to provide a formula for estimating the collection development workload of subject bibliographers. Workload standards and matrix models of organizational structures are discussed, and…

  6. All Things Being Equal: Observing Australian Individual Academic Workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula; Steel, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of greater gender equity within Australian universities is a significant issue for both the quality and the strength of Australian higher education. This paper contributes to our knowledge of academic workloads, observing individual workloads in business faculties. A multiple case study method was employed to observe individual…

  7. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; Ribbink, A.; Heneweer, H.; Moolenaar, H.; Wittink, H.

    2009-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and

  8. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  9. A simplified method for assessing cytotechnologist workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaickus, Louis J; Tambouret, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Examining cytotechnologist workflow and how it relates to job performance and patient safety is important in determining guidelines governing allowable workloads. This report discusses the development of a software tool that significantly simplifies the process of analyzing cytotechnologist workload while simultaneously increasing the quantity and resolution of the data collected. The program runs in Microsoft Excel and minimizes manual data entry and data transcription by automating as many tasks as is feasible. Data show the cytotechnologists tested were remarkably consistent in the amount of time it took them to screen a cervical cytology (Gyn) or a nongynecologic cytology (Non-Gyn) case and that this amount of time was directly proportional to the number of slides per case. Namely, the time spent per slide did not differ significantly in Gyn versus Non-Gyn cases (216 ± 3.4 seconds and 235 ± 24.6 seconds, respectively; P=.16). There was no significant difference in the amount of time needed to complete a Gyn case between the morning and the evening (314 ± 4.7 seconds and 312 ± 7.1 seconds; P=.39), but a significantly increased time spent screening Non-Gyn cases (slide-adjusted) in the afternoon hours (323 ± 20.1 seconds and 454 ± 67.6 seconds; P=.027), which was largely the result of significantly increased time spent on prescreening activities such as checking the electronic medical record (62 ± 6.9 seconds and 145 ± 36 seconds; P=.006). This Excel-based data collection tool generates highly detailed data in an unobtrusive manner and is highly customizable to the individual working environment and clinical climate. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. Workload-Aware Indexing of Continuously Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    structures can easily become performance bottlenecks. We address the need for indexing that is adaptive to the workload characteristics, called workload-aware, in order to cover the space in between maintaining an accurate index, and having no index at all. Our proposal, QU-Trade, extends R-tree type...... indexing and achieves workload-awareness by controlling the underlying index’s filtering quality. QU-Trade safely drops index updates, increasing the overlap in the index when the workload is update-intensive, and it restores the filtering capabilities of the index when the workload becomes query......-intensive. This is done in a non-uniform way in space so that the quality of the index remains high in frequently queried regions, while it deteriorates in frequently updated regions. The adaptation occurs online, without the need for a learning phase. We apply QU-Trade to the R-tree and the TPR-tree, and we offer...

  11. Using Psychophysiological Sensors to Assess Mental Workload During Web Browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Molina, Angel; Retamal, Cristian; Lira, Hernan

    2018-02-03

    Knowledge of the mental workload induced by a Web page is essential for improving users' browsing experience. However, continuously assessing the mental workload during a browsing task is challenging. To address this issue, this paper leverages the correlation between stimuli and physiological responses, which are measured with high-frequency, non-invasive psychophysiological sensors during very short span windows. An experiment was conducted to identify levels of mental workload through the analysis of pupil dilation measured by an eye-tracking sensor. In addition, a method was developed to classify mental workload by appropriately combining different signals (electrodermal activity (EDA), electrocardiogram, photoplethysmo-graphy (PPG), electroencephalogram (EEG), temperature and pupil dilation) obtained with non-invasive psychophysiological sensors. The results show that the Web browsing task involves four levels of mental workload. Also, by combining all the sensors, the efficiency of the classification reaches 93.7%.

  12. Strategic workload management and decision biases in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Mireille; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty pilots flew three simulated landing approaches under conditions of low, medium, and high workload. Workload conditions were created by varying time pressure and external communications requirements. Our interest was in how the pilots strategically managed or adapted to the increasing workload. We independently assessed the pilot's ranking of the priority of different discrete tasks during the approach and landing. Pilots were found to sacrifice some aspects of primary flight control as workload increased. For discrete tasks, increasing workload increased the amount of time in performing the high priority tasks, decreased the time in performing those of lowest priority, and did not affect duration of performance episodes or optimality of scheduling of tasks of any priority level. Individual differences analysis revealed that high-performing subjects scheduled discrete tasks earlier in the flight and shifted more often between different activities.

  13. Severity and workload related to adverse events in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Clarita Terra Rodrigues; Dell'Acqua, Magda Cristina Queiroz; Castro, Meire Cristina Novelli E; Spiri, Wilza Carla; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    To analyze whether an increase in patient severity and nursing workload are correlated to a greater incidence of adverse events (AEs) in critical patients. A prospective single cohort study was performed on a sample of 138 patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 166 AEs, occurred, affecting 50.7% of the patients. Increased patient severity presented a direct relationship to the probability of AEs occurring. However, nursing workload did not present a statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of AEs. The results cast light on the importance of using evaluation tools by the nursing personnel in order to optimize their daily activities and focus on patient safety. Analisar se o aumento da gravidade do paciente e a carga de trabalho de enfermagem está relacionado à maior incidência de Eventos Adversos (EAs) em pacientes críticos. Estudo de coorte única, prospectivo, com amostra de 138 pacientes internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Ao todo, foram evidenciados 166 EAs, que acometeram 50,7% dos pacientes. O aumento da gravidade do paciente apresentou relação direta com a chance de ocorrência de EAs. Entretanto, a carga de trabalho de enfermagem não apresentou relação estatisticamente significativa, na ocorrência de EAs. Os resultados permitem refletir acerca da importância da equipe de enfermagem, em utilizar instrumentos de avaliação, com o objetivo de melhorar e planejar suas ações diárias, com foco na segurança do paciente.

  14. Qualitative Performance Evaluation of Hospitals Using DEA, Balanced Scorecard and Servqual; A Case Study of General Hospitals of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation is an important factor in productivity context, and acts as a control system for other areas of productivity. Hospitals are large organizations incurring heavy expenses in every country. The level of efficiency in a hospital is a good criterion to understand how hospitals consume their resources. The goal of this research was to determine relative efficiency of 13 public hospitals in Yazd province by using integrated DEA, BSC and SERVQUAL model. Methods: In this study, relative efficiency of 13 public hospitals of Yazd province was calculated using data envelopment analysis technique(DEA and balanced score card and servqual. BSC was used as a tool for designing of performance evaluation indexes, while DEA was used as a tool of evaluating performance and ranking. Results: The mean relative efficiency of hospitals under study was about 0.945 in the Persian calendar year 2008-9. The efficiency levels of nine hospitals were borderline and the efficiency of four hospitals was less than 1. Hospital no.3 had the highest efficiency levels and hospital no.10 had the lowest efficiency level. Conclusion: In this stage, on the basis of references presented by the DEA model, solutions for increasing the quality performance levels of inefficient hospitals in fourth dimensions were determined and some suggestions were proposed. Although all performance indices of the inefficient hospitals need to be addressed, priorities have to be determined by the respective managers.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY BASED ON LAND BALANCE FOR EVALUATION PLANNING OF SPATIAL AND REGIONAL IN SOLOK REGENCY, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan Pahuluan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Act No. 26 of 2007 on Spatial Planning stated that the central and the local government should establish Spatial and Regional Planning (RTRW by considering environmental carrying capacity. The environmental carrying capacity based RTRW will ensure the balance between the use of natural resources and the prevention of negative impacts on the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of RTRW at Solok Regency Year 2012 - 2031 which has been established in 2013. Evaluation was conducted by calculating land carrying capacity method to determine land supply and land demand. The results showed that the land use planned as stated in the RTRW increase the land supply in supporting bio-product production to meet the needs of the population, with surplus conditions amounted to 101,005.79 hectares. The future predictions indicated that the carrying capacity of planned land could met the needs of the population bio-product until the year 2121. The evaluation of the spatial pattern plan showed that there was a need to increase the area of housing and settlements in accordance with the rate of population increase and determine the extents area for the development of the livestock sector to improve its yield.

  16. Evaluation of Fitness and the Balance Levels of Children with a Diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonino; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Corsello, Giovanni; Messina, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2017-07-19

    Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a main cause of physical disability and has high economic costs for society. The purpose of this study was to assess the fitness levels and the postural and balance deficits with a specific test battery. Methods: Fifty-six subjects were enrolled in this study. Thirty-nine healthy subjects were included in the control group and seventeen in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group. All subjects were evaluated using a posturography system. The fitness level was evaluated with a battery of tests (Abalakov test, sit-up test, hand grip test, backsaver sit and reach, the toe touch test). An unpaired t -test was used to determine differences. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the tests. Results: The battery of tests demonstrated that subjects in the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group have lower fitness levels compared to the control group. The juvenile idiopathic arthritis group showed low postural control with respect to the control group. Pearson analysis of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis group data showed significant correlations between variables. Pearson's results from the control group data showed a similar trend. Conclusions: The results suggest that the battery of tests used could be an appropriate tool. However, we highlight that these conclusions need to be supported by other studies with a larger population scale.

  17. Measuring mental workload and physiological reactions in marine pilots: Building bridges towards redlines of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Luca; Brooks, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the effects of shiphandling manoeuvres on mental workload and physiological reactions in ten marine pilots. Each pilot performed four berthings in a ship simulator. Those berthings were differentiated by two factors, level of difficulty and familiarity with the port. Each berthing could also be divided into five phases, three during the execution and two resting periods, one before and one after the execution (dedicated to baseline physiological data collection). Mental workload was measured through two self assessment scales: the NASA TLX and a Likert scale. Power spectral densities on Beta bands 1 and 2 were obtained from EEG. Heart rate and heart rate variability were obtained from ECG. Pupil dilation was obtained from eye tracking. Workload levels were higher as berthings increased in difficulty level and/or the pilots completed the berthings in unfamiliar ports. Responses differed across specific phases of the berthings. Physiological responses could indirectly monitor levels of mental workload, and could be adopted in future applications to evaluate training improvements and performance. This study provides an example of an applied methodology aiming to define an upper redline of task demands in the context of marine pilotage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MODEL THROUGH THE BALANCED SCORECARD IN A FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Perazza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, significant changes have been noted in the business world, due to the increasing demand of customers, political and economic moments that create a dynamic nonmarket increasingly unstable, contributing to increasing challenges in understanding the demands. The objective was to evaluate the model operations management method BSC, in order to reduce costs and increase productivity and competitiveness. A study was conducted through a semi-open process, with 180 employees at a midsize company in the footwear industry Jaú, collecting information and data from the managers of each area. We conclude that the requirements for improved performance within organizations have made approaches for the management of operations evolve, becoming a broad and network management in the business, contributing to improvements in the condition of growth and sustainability of organizational activity. It is noteworthy, then, the need to use all available resources, minimizing problems and maximizing opportunities.

  19. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  20. Comparative evaluation of atom mapping algorithms for balanced metabolic reactions: application to Recon 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciat Gonzalez, German A; El Assal, Lemmer R P; Noronha, Alberto; Thiele, Ines; Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2017-06-14

    The mechanism of each chemical reaction in a metabolic network can be represented as a set of atom mappings, each of which relates an atom in a substrate metabolite to an atom of the same element in a product metabolite. Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions typically represent biochemistry at the level of reaction stoichiometry. However, a more detailed representation at the underlying level of atom mappings opens the possibility for a broader range of biological, biomedical and biotechnological applications than with stoichiometry alone. Complete manual acquisition of atom mapping data for a genome-scale metabolic network is a laborious process. However, many algorithms exist to predict atom mappings. How do their predictions compare to each other and to manually curated atom mappings? For more than four thousand metabolic reactions in the latest human metabolic reconstruction, Recon 3D, we compared the atom mappings predicted by six atom mapping algorithms. We also compared these predictions to those obtained by manual curation of atom mappings for over five hundred reactions distributed among all top level Enzyme Commission number classes. Five of the evaluated algorithms had similarly high prediction accuracy of over 91% when compared to manually curated atom mapped reactions. On average, the accuracy of the prediction was highest for reactions catalysed by oxidoreductases and lowest for reactions catalysed by ligases. In addition to prediction accuracy, the algorithms were evaluated on their accessibility, their advanced features, such as the ability to identify equivalent atoms, and their ability to map hydrogen atoms. In addition to prediction accuracy, we found that software accessibility and advanced features were fundamental to the selection of an atom mapping algorithm in practice.

  1. New Work Demands in Higher Education. A Study of the Relationship between Excessive Workload, Coping Strategies and Subsequent Health among Academic Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Marika; Astvik, Wanja; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the work conditions in higher education work settings, the academic staff's strategies for handling excessive workload and impact on well-being and work-life balance. The results show that there is a risk that staff in academic work places will start using compensatory coping strategies to deal with…

  2. Evaluating recharge to an ephemeral dryland stream using a hydraulic model and water, chloride and isotope mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Firmani, Giovanni; Hedley, Paul; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2015-02-01

    Dewatering associated with mining below water table to achieve dry mining conditions may exert significant pressure on water balance in terms of lowering the water table and change in the dynamics of interactions between surface water and groundwater. The discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may also affect the water balance, by elevating groundwater levels and altering the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers. However, it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of northwest Australia that has received continuous mine discharge for more than six years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 73 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.2‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ∼65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ∼35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the water balance of the creek

  3. Psychometric evaluation and short form development of The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this research were to evaluate the Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS translation of the BIDR-6 scale, develop its short form, and to present its initial convergent/discriminative validation. The sample included 827 participants. MIRT CFA analysis revealed that fourfactor model (containing 32/40 items fits the data best, with Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE and Impression Management (IM both splitting into the denial (SD-D and IM-D and enhancement (SD-E and IM-E factors. Fit and item properties were generally mediocre. SD-D and IM-E subscales were the strongest sources of misfit, thus SD-E and IM-D subscales were retained in the short form, which had good fit and replicated almost all main patterns of associations with other variables of interest (e.g., HEXACO personality traits typically reported for the full SDE and IM scales in other research. Thus, 17-item BIDR-6 short form, containing only SD-E and IM-D subscales, is recommended for use in the BCS speaking area.

  4. Evaluation of resource allocation and supply-demand balance in clinical practice with high-cost technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi; Lee, Jason; Hayashida, Kenshi

    2011-12-01

    Japan has one of the highest numbers of high-cost medical devices installed relative to its population. While evaluations of the distribution of these devices traditionally involve simple population-based assessments, an indicator that includes the demand of these devices would more accurately reflect the situation. The purpose of this study was to develop an indicator of the supply-demand balance of such devices, using examples of magnetic resonance imaging scanners (MRI) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripters (ESWL), and to investigate the relationship between this indicator, personnel distribution statuses and operating statuses at the prefectural level. Using data from nation-wide surveys and claims data from 16 hospitals, we developed an indicator based on the ratio of the supplied number of device units to the number of device units in demand for MRI and ESWL. The latter value was based on patient volume and utilization proportion. Correlation analyses were conducted between the supply-demand balances of these devices, personal distribution and operating statuses. Comparisons between our indicator and conventional population-based indicators revealed that 15% and 30% of prefectures were at risk of underestimating the availability of MRI and ESWL, respectively. The numbers of specialist personnel/device units showed significant, negative correlations with our indicators in both devices. Utilization-based analyses of health care resource placement and utilization status provide a more accurate indication than simple population-based assessments, and can assist decision makers in reviewing gaps between health policy and management. Such an indicator therefore has the potential to be a tool in helping to improve the efficiency of the allocation and placement of such devices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Modelling and Experimental Evaluation of a Static Balancing Technique for a New Horizontally Mounted 3-UPU Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banitalebi Dehkordi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and experimental evaluation of the gravity compensation of a horizontal 3-UPU parallel mechanism. The conventional Newton-Euler method for static analysis and balancing of mechanisms works for serial robots; however, it can become computationally expensive when applied to the analysis of parallel manipulators. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper we propose an approach, based on a Lagrangian method, that is more efficient in terms of computation time. The derivation of the gravity compensation model is based on the analytical computation of the total potential energy of the system at each position of the end-effector. In order to satisfy the gravity compensation condition, the total potential energy of the system should remain constant for all of the manipulator's configurations. Analytical and mechanical gravity compensation is taken into account, and the set of conditions and the system of springs are defined. Finally, employing a virtual reality environment, some experiments are carried out and the reliability and feasibility of the proposed model are evaluated in the presence and absence of the elastic components.

  6. Interchangeability of the Wii Balance Board for Bipedal Balance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnech?re, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2010, an increasing interest in more portable and flexible hardware for balance and posture assessment led to previously published studies determining whether or not the Wii Balance Board could be used to assess balance and posture, both scientifically and clinically. However, no previous studies aimed at comparing results from different Wii Balance Boards for clinical balance evaluation exist. Objective The objective of this crossover study is to assess the interchangeabilit...

  7. Front-line ordering clinicians: matching workforce to workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaoutis, Lisa B; Hicks, Patricia J; Kolb, Susan; Sladek, Erin; Geiger, Debra; Agosto, Paula M; Boswinkel, Jan P; Bell, Louis M

    2014-07-01

    Matching workforce to workload is particularly important in healthcare delivery, where an excess of workload for the available workforce may negatively impact processes and outcomes of patient care and resident learning. Hospitals currently lack a means to measure and match dynamic workload and workforce factors. This article describes our work to develop and obtain consensus for use of an objective tool to dynamically match the front-line ordering clinician (FLOC) workforce to clinical workload in a variety of inpatient settings. We undertook development of a tool to represent hospital workload and workforce based on literature reviews, discussions with clinical leadership, and repeated validation sessions. We met with physicians and nurses from every clinical care area of our large, urban children's hospital at least twice. We successfully created a tool in a matrix format that is objective and flexible and can be applied to a variety of settings. We presented the tool in 14 hospital divisions and received widespread acceptance among physician, nursing, and administrative leadership. The hospital uses the tool to identify gaps in FLOC coverage and guide staffing decisions. Hospitals can better match workload to workforce if they can define and measure these elements. The Care Model Matrix is a flexible, objective tool that quantifies the multidimensional aspects of workload and workforce. The tool, which uses multiple variables that are easily modifiable, can be adapted to a variety of settings. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  8. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, G A; Oudejans, J J; Koevoets, J J M; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-06-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for measuring the pathologists' workload that can take into account the changes mentioned above. The diagnostic process was analyzed and broken up into separate activities. The time needed to perform these activities was measured. Based on linear regression analysis, for each activity, the time needed was calculated as a function of the number of slides or blocks involved. The total pathologists' time required for a range of specimens was calculated based on standard protocols and validated by comparing to actually measured workload. Cutting up, microscopic procedures and dictating turned out to be highly correlated to number of blocks and/or slides per specimen. Calculated workload per type of specimen was significantly correlated to the actually measured workload. Modeling pathologists' workload based on formulas that calculate workload per type of specimen as a function of the number of blocks and slides provides a basis for a comprehensive, yet flexible, activity-based costing system for pathology.

  9. Evaluation of the oxidant and antioxidant balance in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cristóvão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the most common chronic diseases and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants (oxidative stress has been proposed as a critical event in the pathogenesis of COPD. The increased oxidative stress in patients with COPD is the result of exogenous oxidants namely pollutants and cigarette smoke as well as endogenous oxidant production during inflammation. The aim of the present study was to clarify the hypothesis about the presence of an imbalance between oxidants and the antioxidant defences associated to COPD. In this study, we evaluated a biomarker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation derived product and non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and the sulphydryl groups in COPD patients and healthy controls. The marker of oxidative stress was found to be significantly (p < 0.001 higher in COPD patients when compared with control group. No age dependent changes in the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were found. COPD patients had a significant (p < 0.001 decrease in antioxidant status as compared with control group. Our results show that oxidative stress is an important pathophysiologic change in COPD. Resumo: A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC é uma das doenças crónicas mais comuns e representa uma importante causa de morbilidade e mortalidade. Um desequilíbrio entre oxidantes e antioxidantes (stress oxidativo tem sido proposto como um acontecimento importante na patogénese da DPOC. O aumento do stress oxidativo em doentes com DPOC é o resultado da presença de oxidantes exógenos, nomeadamente, poluentes e fumo do tabaco, assim como oxidantes endógenos produzidos durante a inflamação. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu em clarificar a hipótese sobre a existência de um desequilíbrio entre oxidantes e as defesas antioxidantes associado à DPOC. Neste estudo, avaliou-se um biomarcador do

  10. Evaluation of Energy Balance and CO2 Emissions of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pazouki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Among the various factors affecting agricultural production, climatic conditions of the natural environment variables are effected .On the other hand the agriculture development , the exact knowledge of environmental characteristics and management practices is anywhere special in semi-arid zone. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. due to the extensive roots and permeability and also the ability to set the number of leaves and fruits when the plant is under water stress, is a suitable crop for planting in arid and semi-arid climate. South Khorasan Province has dry and desert climatic conditions in post-semi-arid and semi-arid climates in mountainous regions. South Khorasan province produces 34 thousand tons of cotton annually and planted 13 thousand hectares of irrigated cotton production ranks second in the country. Materials and Methods South Khorasan province is located in the east of Iran with an area of 149,107 square kilometers and is located between the geographical circle of 30° and 31´ to 34° and 53´of northern latitudes and 57° and 3´to 57° and 60´ of east. This study is to evaluate the climatic conditions for the cotton cultivation in the history of different cultures in South Khorasan province in a 25-year period (2015-1990 AD. For this purpose, fifteen stations of South Khorasan province and to help software environment for modeling and spatial analysis was performed by Arc GIS. By taking advantage of favorable climatic conditions at each stage of cotton growth, data layers of classification and weighting values for each zone was determined and prepared. Finally, in order to overlay layers by using multi-criteria decision-making methods based the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, the final maps was set for each date based on climatic factors for the cultivation date of cotton in Khorasan South, Results and Discussion According to the results obtained in the zoning of cultivars, in the western and southern parts of the

  11. Reliability, Validity, and Minimal Detectable Change of Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Its Short Versions in Older Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Miller, Kara; Smith, Kristin; Fredrickson, Kayle; Shilling, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is primarily a disease of older adults. About 77% of all cancers are diagnosed in persons aged 55 years and older. Cancer and its treatment can cause diverse sequelae impacting body systems underlying balance control. No study has examined the psychometric properties of balance assessment tools in older cancer survivors, presenting a significant challenge in the selection of outcome measures for clinicians treating this fast-growing population. This study aimed to determine the reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Balance Evaluation System Test (BESTest), Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), and Brief-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Brief-BESTest) in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. This study was a cross-sectional design. Twenty breast and 8 prostate cancer survivors participated [age (SD) = 68.4 (8.13) years]. The BESTest and Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale were administered during the first session. Scores of Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest were extracted on the basis of the scores of BESTest. The BESTest was repeated within 1 to 2 weeks by the same rater to determine the test-retest reliability. For the analysis of the inter-rater reliability, 21 participants were randomly selected to be evaluated by 2 raters. A primary rater administered the test. The 2 raters independently and concurrently scored the performance of the participants. Each rater recorded the ratings separately on the scoring sheet. No discussion among the raters was allowed throughout the testing. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. Concurrent validity of these balance tests with the ABC Scale was examined using the Spearman correlation. The BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest had high test-retest (ICC = 0.90-0.94) and interrater reliability (ICC = 0.86-0.96), small standard error of measurement (0

  12. Psychophysical workload in the operating room: primary surgeon versus assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Annika; Fenger, Sebastian; Neubert, Sebastian; Weippert, Matthias; Kreuzfeld, Steffi; Stoll, Regina

    2015-07-01

    Working in the operating room is characterized by high demands and overall workload of the surgical team. Surgeons often report that they feel more stressed when operating as a primary surgeon than in the function as an assistant which has been confirmed in recent studies. In this study, intra-individual workload was assessed in both intraoperative functions using a multidimensional approach that combined objective and subjective measures in a realistic work setting. Surgeons' intraoperative psychophysiologic workload was assessed through a mobile health system. 25 surgeons agreed to take part in the 24-hour monitoring by giving their written informed consent. The mobile health system contained a sensor electronic module integrated in a chest belt and measuring physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), breathing rate (BR), and skin temperature. Subjective workload was assessed pre- and postoperatively using an electronic version of the NASA-TLX on a smartphone. The smartphone served as a communication unit and transferred objective and subjective measures to a communication server where data were stored and analyzed. Working as a primary surgeon did not result in higher workload. Neither NASA-TLX ratings nor physiological workload indicators were related to intraoperative function. In contrast, length of surgeries had a significant impact on intraoperative physical demands (p NASA-TLX sum score (p < 0.01; η(2) = 0.287). Intra-individual workload differences do not relate to intraoperative role of surgeons when length of surgery is considered as covariate. An intelligent operating management that considers the length of surgeries by implementing short breaks could contribute to the optimization of intraoperative workload and the preservation of surgeons' health, respectively. The value of mobile health systems for continuous psychophysiologic workload assessment was shown.

  13. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  14. The gLite workload management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreetto, P; Andreozzi, S; Cecchi, M; Ciaschini, V; Dorise, A; Giacomini, F; Gianelle, A; Guarise, A; Lops, R; Martelli, V; Marzolla, M; Mezzadri, M; Molinari, E; Monforte, S; Avellino, G; Beco, S; Cavallini, A; Grandinetti, U; Krop, A; Maraschini, A

    2008-01-01

    The gLite Workload Management System (WMS) is a collection of components that provide the service responsible for distributing and managing tasks across computing and storage resources available on a Grid. The WMS basically receives requests of job execution from a client, finds the required appropriate resources, then dispatches and follows the jobs until completion, handling failure whenever possible. Other than single batch-like jobs, compound job types handled by the WMS are Directed Acyclic Graphs (a set of jobs where the input/output/execution of one of more jobs may depend on one or more other jobs), Parametric Jobs (multiple jobs with one parametrized description), and Collections (multiple jobs with a common description). Jobs are described via a flexible, high-level Job Definition Language (JDL). New functionality was recently added to the system (use of Service Discovery for obtaining new service endpoints to be contacted, automatic sandbox files archival/compression and sharing, support for bulk-submission and bulk-matchmaking). Intensive testing and troubleshooting allowed to dramatically increase both job submission rate and service stability. Future developments of the gLite WMS will be focused on reducing external software dependency, improving portability, robustness and usability

  15. An evaluation of the power-to-gas concept in the balancing energy marker; Eine Bewertung der Regelenergievermarktung im Power-to-Gas-Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, Julia; Junker, Julian; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The integration of the increasing share of fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system requires more options in flexibility. A promising attempt is the power-to-gas concept (PtG) which allows the production of hydrogen and synthetic natural gas (SNG) from electricity and the storage in caverns or existing gas storage facilities. However, an economic operation in Germany is not expected before 2030, when the amount of surplus energy, mainly generated in wind parks, will be sufficient. Currently, a hardly analyzed aspect is the potential commercialization of the flexible electrolysis as controllable load on the electricity balancing market. This offers opportunities to generate additional revenues and to obtain cheap electricity in the form of balancing energy. The present article has been designed to analyze this aspect and to examine the impact of a potential commercialization of balancing energy on the gas production costs within the PtG concept. At first, the current legal framework, the funding instruments of SNG and the differences between the notion 'Speichergas' and 'Biogas' will be outlined. An overview of the current balancing market will be given and the development of prices on the secondary balancing market will be evaluated as well as expected market trends will be presented. The following calculation of gas production costs, which result from applying an optimal proposal strategy on the secondary balancing market, is model-based and uses historical data. Three scenarios are defined and examined, and the impact of variable electricity prices is analyzed. The electricity balancing market is profitable and offers many opportunities for PtG plants. The results show a decrease of SNG production costs by up to 74 % to 46,9 Euro/MWh. As for the hydrogen, the production costs amount to approximately 25,8 Euro/MWh which equals a cost reduction of up to 81 % compared to conventional PtG plants without commercialization of

  16. Heuristic Approach for Balancing Shift Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Yun, Young Su; Lee, Yong Hee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic approach for balancing shift schedules is proposed. For the shift schedules, various constraints which have usually been considered in realworld industry are used, and the objective is to minimize the differences of the workloads in each workgroup. The constraints and objective function are implemented in the proposed heuristic approach. Using a simple instance, the efficiency of the proposed heuristic approach is proved

  17. Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater using the water balance method and the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alslaibi, Tamer M; Abustan, Ismail; Mogheir, Yunes K; Afifi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Landfills are a source of groundwater pollution in Gaza Strip. This study focused on Deir Al Balah landfill, which is a unique sanitary landfill site in Gaza Strip (i.e., it has a lining system and a leachate recirculation system). The objective of this article is to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific site, using the approaches of (i) the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). The results show that when using the HELP model, the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the period 1997 to 2007 was around, 6800 m3/year. Meanwhile, the average volume of leachate percolated through the clay layer was 550 m3/year, which represents around 8% of the generated leachate. Meanwhile, the WBM indicated that the average volume of leachate discharged from Deir Al Balah landfill during the same period was around 7660 m3/year--about half of which comes from the moisture content of the waste, while the remainder comes from the infiltration of precipitation and re-circulated leachate. Therefore, the estimated quantity of leachate to groundwater by these two methods was very close. However, compared with the measured leachate quantity, these results were overestimated and indicated a dangerous threat to the groundwater aquifer, as there was no separation between municipal, hazardous and industrial wastes, in the area.

  18. The rational reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations in the justification of judicial decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution the author develops an argumentation model for the reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations. The model is intended as a heuristic and critical tool for the rational reconstruction of the justification of judicial decisions.

  19. Using Statistical Process Control Methods to Classify Pilot Mental Workloads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kudo, Terence

    2001-01-01

    .... These include cardiac, ocular, respiratory, and brain activity measures. The focus of this effort is to apply statistical process control methodology on different psychophysiological features in an attempt to classify pilot mental workload...

  20. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  1. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload. 11 janvier 2013. Image ... It aims to increase the production, improve the processing, develop new ... farmer societies, women's self-help groups, and the food-processing industry.

  2. Patient Workload Profile: National Naval Medical Center (NNMC), Bethesda, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    AD-A09a 729 WESTEC SERVICES NC SAN DIEGOCA0S / PATIENT WORKLOAD PROFILE: NATIONAL NAVAL MEDICAL CENTER NNMC),- ETC(U) JUN 80 W T RASMUSSEN, H W...provides site workload data for the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) within the following functional support areas: Patient Appointment...on managing medical and patient data, thereby offering the health care provider and administrator more powerful capabilities in dealing with and

  3. The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Margaret A. Bowers...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release. The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment Margaret A. Bowers1,2, James C...well as performance in a complex multitasking environment. The results of the NASA TLX and shortened DSSQ did not provide support for the position

  4. Nursing workload for cancer patients under palliative care

    OpenAIRE

    Fuly, Patrícia dos Santos Claro; Pires, Livia Márcia Vidal; Souza, Claudia Quinto Santos de; Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the nursing workload required by cancer patients undergoing palliative care and possible associations between the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and the nursing workload. METHOD This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study developed in the Connective Bone Tissue (TOC) clinics of Unit II of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva with patients undergoing palliative care. RESULTS Analysis of 197 ...

  5. Cognitive workload changes for nurses transitioning from a legacy system with paper documentation to a commercial electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colligan, Lacey; Potts, Henry W W; Finn, Chelsea T; Sinkin, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare institutions worldwide are moving to electronic health records (EHRs). These transitions are particularly numerous in the US where healthcare systems are purchasing and implementing commercial EHRs to fulfill federal requirements. Despite the central role of EHRs to workflow, the cognitive impact of these transitions on the workforce has not been widely studied. This study assesses the changes in cognitive workload among pediatric nurses during data entry and retrieval tasks during transition from a hybrid electronic and paper information system to a commercial EHR. Baseline demographics and computer attitude and skills scores were obtained from 74 pediatric nurses in two wards. They also completed an established and validated instrument, the NASA-TLX, that is designed to measure cognitive workload; this instrument was used to evaluate cognitive workload of data entry and retrieval. The NASA-TLX was administered at baseline (pre-implementation), 1, 5 and 10 shifts and 4 months post-implementation of the new EHR. Most nurse participants experienced significant increases of cognitive workload at 1 and 5 shifts after "go-live". These increases abated at differing rates predicted by participants' computer attitudes scores (p = 0.01). There is substantially increased cognitive workload for nurses during the early phases (1-5 shifts) of EHR transitions. Health systems should anticipate variability across workers adapting to "meaningful use" EHRs. "One-size-fits-all" training strategies may not be suitable and longer periods of technical support may be necessary for some workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECTIVE INDICES FOR MONITORING MENTAL WORKLOAD WHILE PERFORMING MULTIPLE TASKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bin-Wei; Wang, Mao-Jiun J; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Fang

    2015-08-01

    This study identified several physiological indices that can accurately monitor mental workload while participants performed multiple tasks with the strategy of maintaining stable performance and maximizing accuracy. Thirty male participants completed three 10-min. simulated multitasks: MATB (Multi-Attribute Task Battery) with three workload levels. Twenty-five commonly used mental workload measures were collected, including heart rate, 12 HRV (heart rate variability), 10 EEG (electroencephalography) indices (α, β, θ, α/θ, θ/β from O1-O2 and F4-C4), and two subjective measures. Analyses of index sensitivity showed that two EEG indices, θ and α/θ (F4-C4), one time-domain HRV-SDNN (standard deviation of inter-beat intervals), and four frequency-domain HRV: VLF (very low frequency), LF (low frequency), %HF (percentage of high frequency), and LF/HF were sensitive to differentiate high workload. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) and LF/HF were most effective for monitoring high mental workload. LF/HF showed the highest correlations with other physiological indices. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) showed strong correlations with subjective measures across different mental workload levels. Operation strategy would affect the sensitivity of EEG α (F4-C4) and HF.

  7. Using Pupil Diameter Changes for Measuring Mental Workload under Mental Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Ihsan; Ozturk, Mustafa

    In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the mental workload by using a practical way which based on measuring pupil diameter changes that occurs under mental processing. To determine the mental effort required for each task, the video record of subjects` eyes are taken while they are performed different tasks and pupils were measured from the records. A group of university student, one female 9 males participated to the experiment. Additionally, NASA-TLX questionnaire is applied for the related mental tasks. For verification of results obtained from both indices, the correlation coefficient is calculated task base. The results show that there is weak and negative correlation between the indices on task base except 3rd task. By investigating pupil diameter measurements data too, it is founded that pupil dilates under mental workload during performing related tasks. For all tasks, pupil diameters of response periods increased according to reference baseline period.

  8. Nurses' leadership styles in the ICU: association with personal and professional profile and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the association between nurses' leadership styles and personal and professional nursing profile and workload. The sample consisted of seven nurses and seven nursing technicians who were grouped into pairs. At the end of three months, nurses were queried regarding what leadership style would be adopted when the nursing technician under their evaluation delivered care to patients admitted to the ICU. Relevant data was analyzed by applying descriptive statistics, Tukey's multiple comparison test and Student's t-test (pleadership styles chosen by nurses (p>0.05). The determine, persuade, and share leadership styles prevailed. However, whenever the nursing workload peaked, the determine and persuade styles were used (p<0.05).

  9. A new algorithm for reducing the workload of experts in performing systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matwin, Stan; Kouznetsov, Alexandre; Inkpen, Diana; Frunza, Oana; O'Blenis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether a factorized version of the complement naïve Bayes (FCNB) classifier can reduce the time spent by experts reviewing journal articles for inclusion in systematic reviews of drug class efficacy for disease treatment. The proposed classifier was evaluated on a test collection built from 15 systematic drug class reviews used in previous work. The FCNB classifier was constructed to classify each article as containing high-quality, drug class-specific evidence or not. Weight engineering (WE) techniques were added to reduce underestimation for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-based and Publication Type (PubType)-based features. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the classifier's parameters and performance. Work saved over sampling (WSS) at no less than a 95% recall was used as the main measure of performance. The minimum workload reduction for a systematic review for one topic, achieved with a FCNB/WE classifier, was 8.5%; the maximum was 62.2% and the average over the 15 topics was 33.5%. This is 15.0% higher than the average workload reduction obtained using a voting perceptron-based automated citation classification system. The FCNB/WE classifier is simple, easy to implement, and produces significantly better results in reducing the workload than previously achieved. The results support it being a useful algorithm for machine-learning-based automation of systematic reviews of drug class efficacy for disease treatment.

  10. Subjective responses of mental workload during real time driving: A pilot field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N. I. A.; Dawal, S. Z. M.; Yusoff, N.

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated drivers’ mental workload in real time driving to identify the driving situation’s complexity influences in an attempt to further design on a complete experimental study. Three driving settings were prepared: Session A (simple situation); Session B (moderately complex situation); Session C (very complex situation). To determine the mental workload, the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered to four drivers after each experimental driving session. The results showed that the Own Performance (OP) was the highest for session A (highway), while Physical Demand (PD) recorded the highest mean workload score across the session B (rural road) and C (city road). Based on the overall results of the study, it can be concluded that the highway is less demanding compared to rural and city road. It can be highlighted in this study that in the rural and city road driving situation, the timing must be set correctly to assure the relevant traffic density. Thus, the sensitivity of the timing must be considered in the future experiment. A larger number of experience drivers must be used in evaluating the driving situations to provide results that can be used to draw more realistic experiments and conclusions.

  11. Burnout syndrome and weekly workload of on-call physicians: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Burnout syndrome (BS is characterized by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal fulfillment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a possible association between BS and weekly workload, and to describe the prevalence of BS and the sociodemographic and occupational profile of on-call physicians in Maceió. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in intensive care units (ICU at public and private hospitals in Maceió. METHODS: A self-administered form was used to evaluate sociodemographic characteristics and BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI among 67 on-call physicians at ICUs in Maceió. Pearson's R correlation test was used to compare workload and emotional exhaustion. For other dimensions, Spearman's S test was used (P < 0.05. Other variables were represented by simple frequencies. The 95% confidence interval was calculated for each variable. RESULTS: Among the physicians studied, 55.22% were female and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call was 43.85 ± 24.49 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 70.14%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence of BS, especially among physicians who did not practice regular physical activity, our data did not indicate any significant correlation between weekly workload and any of the three dimensions of BS in this sample. The high prevalence of BS draws attention to the importance of investigating other possible causes, in order to prevent and adequately treat it.

  12. Work conditions, mental workload and patient care quality: a multisource study in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Matthias; Müller, Andreas; Holland, Stephan; Wedel, Susanne; Woloshynowych, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Workflow interruptions, multitasking and workload demands are inherent to emergency departments (ED) work systems. Potential effects of ED providers' work on care quality and patient safety have, however, been rarely addressed. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and associations of ED staff's workflow interruptions, multitasking and workload with patient care quality outcomes. We applied a mixed-methods design in a two-step procedure. First, we conducted a time-motion study to observe the rate of interruptions and multitasking activities. Second, during 20-day shifts we assessed ED staff's reports on workflow interruptions, multitasking activities and mental workload. Additionally, we assessed two care quality indicators with standardised questionnaires: first, ED patients' evaluations of perceived care quality; second, patient intrahospital transfers evaluated by ward staff. The study was conducted in a medium-sized community ED (16 600 annual visits). ED personnel's workflow was disrupted on average 5.63 times per hour. 30% of time was spent on multitasking activities. During 20 observations days, data were gathered from 76 ED professionals, 239 patients and 205 patient transfers. After aggregating daywise data and controlling for staffing levels, prospective associations revealed significant negative associations between ED personnel's mental workload and patients' perceived quality of care. Conversely, workflow interruptions were positively associated with patient-related information on discharge and overall quality of transfer. Our investigation indicated that ED staff's capability to cope with demanding work conditions was associated with patient care quality. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the complex effects of interruptions and multitasking in the ED environment for creating safe and efficient ED work and care systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  13. Balancing health, work, and daily life: design and evaluation of a pilot intervention for persons with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Gary

    2008-01-01

    To design and evaluate a pilot intervention to promote self-management skills and work transition for persons with HIV/AIDS. The seven-week group intervention consisted of 1.5-hour bi-weekly sessions focused on goal setting and developing strategies to manage health, work and daily life routines while participating in a job skills training program in New York City. Six successive groups received the intervention over the course of two years (n = 53). Existing and newly-developed measures were used to examine key outcomes. Differences between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores on outcome measures were examined using paired-tests and effect sizes. Employment outcomes and participant satisfaction were examined post-intervention. The intervention was feasible to implement and sessions were viewed favorably by the majority of participants. Moderate to large effect sizes were found immediately post-intervention in participants' perceived ability to work and balance health, work and daily life. Fifty two percent of the participants were working part or full time and 41% were actively searching for employment at three to five months follow-up. Small effect sizes demonstrating improved outcomes at follow-up were found in symptom severity, self-advocacy and medication adherence self-efficacy. Small effect sizes demonstrating a potential decrement in outcomes at follow-up were found in participants' need satisfaction and perceived symptom impact on work performance. The results are promising, but further research is needed due to design limitations and the preliminary nature of the intervention and measures used. The potential decrement in outcomes might reflect a shift in participants' needs or view of how their health affected work performance and suggests that ongoing supports were needed post-intervention.

  14. Adapting the Wii Fit Balance Board to Enable Active Video Game Play by Wheelchair Users: User-Centered Design and Usability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Kirkland, William B; Misko, Samuel R; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Malone, Laurie A

    2018-03-06

    Active video game (AVG) playing, also known as "exergaming," is increasingly employed to promote physical activity across all age groups. The Wii Fit Balance Board is a popular gaming controller for AVGs and is used in a variety of settings. However, the commercial off-the-shelf (OTS) design poses several limitations. It is inaccessible to wheelchair users, does not support the use of stabilization assistive devices, and requires the ability to shift the center of balance (COB) in all directions to fully engage in game play. The aim of this study was to design an adapted version of the Wii Fit Balance Board to overcome the identified limitations and to evaluate the usability of the newly designed adapted Wii Fit Balance Board in persons with mobility impairments. In a previous study, 16 participants tried the OTS version of the Wii Fit Balance Board. On the basis of observed limitations, a team of engineers developed and adapted the design of the Wii Fit Balance Board, which was then subjected to multiple iterations of user feedback and design tweaks. On design completion, we recruited a new pool of participants with mobility impairments for a larger study. During their first visit, we assessed lower-extremity function using selected mobility tasks from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. During a subsequent session, participants played 2 sets of games on both the OTS and adapted versions of the Wii Fit Balance Board. Order of controller version played first was randomized. After participants played each version, we administered the System Usability Scale (SUS) to examine the participants' perceived usability. The adapted version of the Wii Fit Balance Board resulting from the user-centered design approach met the needs of a variety of users. The adapted controller (1) allowed manual wheelchair users to engage in game play, which was previously not possible; (2) included Americans with Disabilities Act-compliant handrails as part

  15. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lasota Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS with sampling. The results indicated that posture code 2111 (back code: 2 – bent forward; arms code: 1 – both below the shoulder joint; legs code: 1 – sitting position; load code: – 1 less than 10 kg was the most common working posture rating 38.1%; 63.9% of positions displayed non-neutral back postures and 52% received harmful action categories. The performed assembly tasks have an influence on harmless and harmful action categories. This study is crucial on assembly, and in the future work allows develop a framework for assessment the physical risk of WRMSDs in assembly.

  16. Medical Emergency Workload of a Regional UK HEMS Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nick; Cormack, Stef; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Regionalized trauma networks have been established in England to centralize specialist care at dedicated centers of excellence throughout the country. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the West Midlands region have been redesigned to form an integrated component of such systems. The continued use of such valuable and scarce resources for medical emergencies requires evaluation. A retrospective review of mission data for a regional Air Ambulance Service in England over a two year period. Medical emergencies continue to contribute a large proportion of the overall workload of the service. Requirement for advanced interventions at the scene was rare, with less than 10% of patients attended by HEMS teams having care needs that fall beyond the scope of standard paramedic practice. Dynamic solutions are needed to ensure that HEMS support for cases of medical emergency are appropriately targeted to incidents in which clinical benefit is conferred to the patient. Intelligent tasking of appropriate resources has the potential to improve the HEMS response to medical emergencies while optimizing the availability of resources to respond to other incidents, most notably cases of major trauma. Copyright © 2015 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...

  18. Dry thermophilic semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste: Performance evaluation, modified Gompertz model analysis, and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Chang, Soon Woong; Jeong, Seong Yeob; Jeung, Jaehoon; Kim, Sungsu; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy self-sufficiency/energy recovery with thermophilic DScAD of FW was evaluated. • The maximum biogas production rate was positively influenced by OLRs. • Maximum (average) electrical energy recoverable from a 1 tons of FW was 1050 kW h. • Thermophilic DScAD can substantially reduce the VS and recover energy to serve itself. • A modified Gompertz model fitted well with the experimental results for all phases. - Abstract: A thermophilic, dry semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (DScAD) method was used to effectively transform food waste (FW) into renewable energy. This study aims to thoroughly evaluate the system performance and model simulation to predict biogas production, intermediate products and their outcomes, energy recovery potential, and energy balance, while operating with organic loading rates ranging from 2.3 to 9.21 kg-TS/m"3 day. The results indicate that volatile solids (VS) reduction and biogas production both improved as the organic loading rates (OLR) increased, and the cost of FW valorization remained low. The greatest VS reduction achieved was 87.01%, associated with 170 m"3 of biogas yield per ton of sludge (69% methane) at an ORL of 9.21 ± 0.89 kg-TS/m"3 day (8.62 ± 0.34 kg-VS/m"3 day) although the amounts of ammonia (3700 mg/L), hydrogen sulfide (420 ppm), and total volatile fatty acids (7101 mg/L) during fermentation were relatively high. Furthermore, 75% of total energy requirement for the system could be recovered via biomethane production, resulting in a considerably reduced specific energy supply (kW h/ton of treating FW). The results suggest that a modified Gompertz model is suitable for estimating the biogas and methane production potential and rate. The results also reveal that the DScAD of FW at 55 °C is a reliable, stable, and robust option for both solids reduction and energy recovery via biogas generation.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT WORK-LOADING APPLIED TO THE WORKERS THAT WORK PRODUCING OF SHIRT TO THE SEAM FAULT RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder YÜCEL

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Human efficiency is of big importance in the clothing industry. So as to provide high quality and productivity stabilized work –loading must be given to the workers that work in the cloth production lines. In addition to it, the kind of work must be paid attention in the studies to be done on stabilized work-loading. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of different work-loading to the seam fault rates. For this purpose, four different work-loading had been applied to the workers and determined seam faults on the clothes had been recorded. As a result of this study, seam fault rates in the different work-loading had been evaluated.

  20. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  1. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  2. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Klimentov, A; Panitkin, S; Schovancova, J; Wenaus, T; Yu, D; De, K; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A

    2014-01-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  3. Multiplexing Low and High QoS Workloads in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboven, Sam; Vanmechelen, Kurt; Broeckhove, Jan

    Virtualization technology has introduced new ways for managing IT infrastructure. The flexible deployment of applications through self-contained virtual machine images has removed the barriers for multiplexing, suspending and migrating applications with their entire execution environment, allowing for a more efficient use of the infrastructure. These developments have given rise to an important challenge regarding the optimal scheduling of virtual machine workloads. In this paper, we specifically address the VM scheduling problem in which workloads that require guaranteed levels of CPU performance are mixed with workloads that do not require such guarantees. We introduce a framework to analyze this scheduling problem and evaluate to what extent such mixed service delivery is beneficial for a provider of virtualized IT infrastructure. Traditionally providers offer IT resources under a guaranteed and fixed performance profile, which can lead to underutilization. The findings of our simulation study show that through proper tuning of a limited set of parameters, the proposed scheduling algorithm allows for a significant increase in utilization without sacrificing on performance dependability.

  4. Smartphone form factors: Effects of width and bottom bezel on touch performance, workload, and physical demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Chan; Cha, Min Chul; Hwangbo, Hwan; Mo, Sookhee; Ji, Yong Gu

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of two smartphone form factors (width and bottom bezel) on touch behaviors with one-handed interaction. User experiments on tapping tasks were conducted for four widths (67, 70, 72, and 74 mm) and five bottom bezel levels (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5 mm). Task performance, electromyography, and subjective workload data were collected to examine the touch behavior. The success rate and task completion time were collected as task performance measures. The NASA-TLX method was used to observe the subjective workload. The electromyogram signals of two thumb muscles, namely the first dorsal interosseous and abductor pollicis brevis, were observed. The task performances deteriorated with increasing width level. The subjective workload and electromyography data showed similar patterns with the task performances. The task performances of the bottom bezel devices were analyzed by using three different evaluation criteria. The results from these criteria indicated that tasks became increasingly difficult as the bottom bezel level decreased. The results of this study provide insights into the optimal range of smartphone form factors for one-handed interaction, which could contribute to the design of new smartphones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Organizational impact of nurse supply and workload on nurses continuing professional development opportunities: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, Tracey H; Maslin-Prothero, Sian E; Smith, Gilly

    2015-12-01

    To identify the best evidence on the impact of healthcare organizations' supply of nurses and nursing workload on the continuing professional development opportunities of Registered Nurses in the acute care hospital. To maintain registration and professional competence nurses are expected to participate in continuing professional development. One challenge of recruitment and retention is the Registered Nurse's ability to participate in continuing professional development opportunities. The integrative review method was used to present Registered Nurses perspectives on this area of professional concern. The review was conducted for the period of 2001-February 2015. Keywords were: nurs*, continuing professional development, continuing education, professional development, supply, shortage, staffing, workload, nurse: patient ratio, barrier and deterrent. The integrative review used a structured approach for literature search and data evaluation, analysis and presentation. Eleven international studies met the inclusion criteria. Nurses are reluctant or prevented from leaving clinical settings to attend continuing professional development due to lack of relief cover, obtaining paid or unpaid study leave, use of personal time to undertake mandatory training and organizational culture and leadership issues constraining the implementation of learning to benefit patients. Culture, leadership and workload issues impact nurses' ability to attend continuing professional development. The consequences affect competence to practice, the provision of safe, quality patient care, maintenance of professional registration, job satisfaction, recruitment and retention. Organizational leadership plays an important role in supporting attendance at continuing professional development as an investment for the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the Wii Balance Board for walking aids prediction: proof-of-concept study in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Clark, Ross A; Ong, Peck-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To provide proof-of-concept for the validity of the Wii Balance Board (WBB) measures to predict the type of walking aids required by inpatients with a recent (≤4 days) total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A cross-sectional sample of 89 inpatients (mean age, 67.0±8 years) with TKA was analyzed. A multivariable proportional odds prediction model was constructed using 8 pre-specified predictors – namely, age, sex, body mass index, knee pain, knee range-of-motion, active knee lag, and WBB-derived standing balance. The type of walking aids prescribed on day 4 post-surgery was the outcome of interest – an ordinal variable with 4 categories (walking stick, narrow- and broad-base quadstick, and walking frame). Women, increasing body mass index, and poorer standing balance were independently associated with greater odds for requiring walking aids with a larger base-of-support. The concordance-index of the prediction model was 0.74. The model comprising only WBB-derived standing balance had nearly half (44%) the explanatory power of the full model. Adding WBB-derived standing balance to conventional demographic and knee variables resulted in a continuous net reclassification index of 0.60 (95%CI,0.19-1.01), predominantly due to better identification of patients who required walking aids with a large base-of-support (sensitivity gain). The WBB was able to provide quantitative measures of standing balance which could assist healthcare professionals in prescribing the appropriate type of walking aids for patients. Further investigation is needed to assess whether using the WBB could lead to meaningful changes in clinical outcomes such as falls.

  7. Evaluation of the Wii Balance Board for walking aids prediction: proof-of-concept study in total knee arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hao Pua

    Full Text Available To provide proof-of-concept for the validity of the Wii Balance Board (WBB measures to predict the type of walking aids required by inpatients with a recent (≤4 days total knee arthroplasty (TKA.A cross-sectional sample of 89 inpatients (mean age, 67.0±8 years with TKA was analyzed. A multivariable proportional odds prediction model was constructed using 8 pre-specified predictors – namely, age, sex, body mass index, knee pain, knee range-of-motion, active knee lag, and WBB-derived standing balance. The type of walking aids prescribed on day 4 post-surgery was the outcome of interest – an ordinal variable with 4 categories (walking stick, narrow- and broad-base quadstick, and walking frame.Women, increasing body mass index, and poorer standing balance were independently associated with greater odds for requiring walking aids with a larger base-of-support. The concordance-index of the prediction model was 0.74. The model comprising only WBB-derived standing balance had nearly half (44% the explanatory power of the full model. Adding WBB-derived standing balance to conventional demographic and knee variables resulted in a continuous net reclassification index of 0.60 (95%CI,0.19-1.01, predominantly due to better identification of patients who required walking aids with a large base-of-support (sensitivity gain.The WBB was able to provide quantitative measures of standing balance which could assist healthcare professionals in prescribing the appropriate type of walking aids for patients. Further investigation is needed to assess whether using the WBB could lead to meaningful changes in clinical outcomes such as falls.

  8. File-System Workload on a Scientific Multiprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, David; Nieuwejaar, Nils

    1995-01-01

    Many scientific applications have intense computational and I/O requirements. Although multiprocessors have permitted astounding increases in computational performance, the formidable I/O needs of these applications cannot be met by current multiprocessors a their I/O subsystems. To prevent I/O subsystems from forever bottlenecking multiprocessors and limiting the range of feasible applications, new I/O subsystems must be designed. The successful design of computer systems (both hardware and software) depends on a thorough understanding of their intended use. A system designer optimizes the policies and mechanisms for the cases expected to most common in the user's workload. In the case of multiprocessor file systems, however, designers have been forced to build file systems based only on speculation about how they would be used, extrapolating from file-system characterizations of general-purpose workloads on uniprocessor and distributed systems or scientific workloads on vector supercomputers (see sidebar on related work). To help these system designers, in June 1993 we began the Charisma Project, so named because the project sought to characterize 1/0 in scientific multiprocessor applications from a variety of production parallel computing platforms and sites. The Charisma project is unique in recording individual read and write requests-in live, multiprogramming, parallel workloads (rather than from selected or nonparallel applications). In this article, we present the first results from the project: a characterization of the file-system workload an iPSC/860 multiprocessor running production, parallel scientific applications at NASA's Ames Research Center.

  9. Nursing workloads in family health: implications for universal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Machado, Rosani Ramos; Soratto, Jacks; Scherer, Magda dos Anjos; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Resque; Trindade, Letícia Lima

    2016-01-01

    to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health.

  10. Subjective Mental Workload and Its Correlation With Musculoskeletal Disorders in Bank Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Ebrahim; Maleki, Afshin; Giahi, Omid; Akbarzadeh, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of subjective mental workload (SMWL) and its correlation with musculoskeletal disorders among bank staff members in Kurdistan Province located in western Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 bank staff members in Kurdistan Province, Iran. The mental workload was assessed using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) computerized version. NASA-TLX is a multidimensional rating procedure that derives an overall workload score based on a weighted average of ratings on 6 subscales. These subscales include Mental Demands, Physical Demands, Temporal Demands, Performance, Effort, Effectiveness, and Frustration. The musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were documented with the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and generic body diagram. Of the staff members, 78.5% experienced pain at least once during the past year in 1 of their 9 musculoskeletal body regions. The highest frequencies of pain were in the neck and lower back. The NASA-TLX estimated the Effort and Performance scales with mean ± SD of 72.8 ± 25.2 and 36 ± 22.6, respectively, as the maximal and minimal scores among the 6 subscales of SMWL. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant correlation between the overall mental workload score and also among the 6 subscales of SMWL separately with MSDs (P < .05). SMWL appears to be a risk factor in the incidence of MSDs, so that the odds of MSDs increased by 11% with each additional 1-point increase in SMWL score. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Relative individual workload changes may be a risk factor for rerupture of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Khalil, Lafi S; Ahmad, Christopher S; ElAttrache, Neal

    2017-03-01

    With an increasing number of Major League Baseball (MLB) players undergoing ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction, there remains limited literature on appropriate post-reconstruction workload management to limit the risk of reinjury. A total of 28 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction were identified and compared with 137 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared 3 years before and after primary reconstruction. Results were then compared between groups. Pitchers who later required revision increased their games pitched by 14.1% after reconstruction whereas the no-revision group pitched 13.6% fewer games than before reconstruction (P < .01). Inning workload was reduced by 9.8% after surgery (89.8 innings after vs 99.6 innings before) for the revision group compared with the no-revision group, which threw 26% fewer innings after surgery (86.3 innings after vs 116.7 innings before) (P = .05). In addition, the revision group pitched 6.6% more pitches after reconstruction, 1138.9 pitches, compared with before reconstruction, 1068.6 pitches. Pitchers who did not require revision, in contrast, pitched 19.6% fewer pitches after reconstruction than before reconstruction (P = .08). This study's findings suggest that MLB pitchers who require revision UCL reconstruction after returning to play following primary UCL reconstruction pitch at or above their pre-primary UCL reconstruction workload whereas control pitchers who do not require revision pitch significantly less, below their pre-primary UCL reconstruction workload. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Research on Workload Dispatching Mechanism for Internet Datacenters%Internet数据中心工作负载分配机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽华; 段哲民

    2014-01-01

    当前的工作负载机制只考虑数据中心的部分因素,不能从整体上降低分布式数据中心的总体电力成本。为此,以减少分布式Internet数据中心的电力成本为目标,提出一种数据中心间和数据中心内的智能工作负载分配机制JECF。通过联合考虑数据中心所在地区的时变电价、数据中心内冷却系统的效率和服务器的动态运行频率,JECF对分布式数据中心中运行服务器和冷却系统的电力成本进行折中,以降低整体电力成本。实验结果表明,与当前的数据中心工作负载分配机制相比,JECF的性能更好,能降低分布式Internet数据中心的电力成本。%Cutting the electricity cost of geographically distributed data centers is a hot topic in the area of cloud computer. Each of current workload dispatching mechanism only considers one factor that impacts the electricity cost of geographically distributed datacenters and thus cannot achieve the global minimization. This paper proposes a smart workload dispatching mechanism, Joint Electricity Price-aware, Cooling Efficiency-aware, and Dynamic Frequency Scaling-aware Datacenter Load Balancing(JECF), to cut the electricity cost of distributed Internet datacenters. JECF jointly considers the time-variant electricity prices among datacenters, the efficiency of the cooling system, and the dynamic frequency of active servers in each datacenter, and thus, reduces the total electricity cost of distributed datacenters by trading off the electricity cost consumed by active servers and cooling systems. The evaluation results show JECF outperforms existing datacenter workload dispatching mechanism and achieves significant reduction on the electricity cost of distributed Internet datacenters.

  13. Comparison of a Mass Balance and an Ecosystem Model Approach when Evaluating the Carbon Cycling in a Lake Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva; Sobek, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Carbon budgets are frequently used in order to understand the pathways of organic matter in ecosystems, and they also have an important function in the risk assessment of harmful substances. We compared two approaches, mass balance calculations and an ecosystem budget, to describe carbon processing in a shallow, oligotrophic hardwater lake. Both approaches come to the same main conclusion, namely that the lake is a net auto trophic ecosystem, in spite of its high dissolved organic carbon and low total phosphorus concentrations. However, there were several differences between the carbon budgets, e.g. in the rate of sedimentation and the air-water flux of CO 2 . The largest uncertainty in the mass balance is the contribution of emergent macrophytes to the carbon cycling of the lake, while the ecosystem budget is very sensitive towards the choice of conversion factors and literature values. While the mass balance calculations produced more robust results, the ecosystem budget gave valuable insights into the pathways of organic matter transfer in the ecosystem. We recommend that when using an ecosystem budget for the risk assessment of harmful substances, mass balance calculations should be performed in parallel in order to increase the robustness of the conclusions

  14. The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1976: An Analysis and Evaluation. Discussion Paper 346-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael C.

    The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of l976, S-50, the Humphrey-Hawkins bill, is an attempt to focus the nation's attention and energy on the problem of attaining full employment. As a matter of law the nation would be committed to achieving an adult unemployment rate of 3% within four years. If those charged with the development and…

  15. Long-term Evaluation of Landuse Changes On Landscape Water Balance - A Case Study From North-east Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehenkel, M.

    In this paper, long-term effects of different afforestation scenarios on landscape wa- ter balance will be analyzed taking into account the results of a regional case study. This analysis is based on using a GIS-coupled simulation model for the the spatially distributed calculation of water balance.For this purpose, the modelling system THE- SEUS with a simple GIS-interface will be used. To take into account the special case of change in forest cover proportion, THESEUS was enhanced with a simple for- est growth model. In the regional case study, model runs will be performed using a detailed spatial data set from North-East Germany. This data set covers a mesoscale catchment located at the moraine landscape of North-East Germany. Based on this data set, the influence of the actual landuse and of different landuse change scenarios on water balance dynamics will be investigated taking into account the spatial distributed modelling results from THESEUS. The model was tested using different experimen- tal data sets from field plots as well as obsverded catchment discharge. Additionally to such convential validation techniques, remote sensing data were used to check the simulated regional distribution of water balance components like evapotranspiration in the catchment.

  16. NASA TLX: software for assessing subjective mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Alex; Chintamani, Keshav K; Pandya, Abhilash K; Ellis, R Darin

    2009-02-01

    The NASA Task Load Index (TLX) is a popular technique for measuring subjective mental workload. It relies on a multidimensional construct to derive an overall workload score based on a weighted average of ratings on six subscales: mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort, and frustration level. A program for implementing a computerized version of the NASA TLX is described. The software version assists in simplifying collection, postprocessing, and storage of raw data. The program collects raw data from the subject and calculates the weighted (or unweighted) workload score, which is output to a text file. The program can also be tailored to a specific experiment using a simple input text file, if desired. The program was designed in Visual Studio 2005 and is capable of running on a Pocket PC with Windows CE or on a PC with Windows 2000 or higher. The NASA TLX program is available for free download.

  17. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark

    2016-01-01

    workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...... of measurements throughout the day showed significant positive relations (p ABP and 0.30 ± 0.04 mmHg (95 % CI 0.22-0.38 mmHg) in diastolic ABP. Correlations between...

  18. Physics of the fuel cycle. Evaluation of methods, uncertainties and estimation of the material balance for fuels UO2 and UO2-PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier, C.

    1997-09-01

    The research works of this thesis are aimed to evaluate the methods and the associated uncertainties for the material balances estimation of the burn-up UO 2 and MOX fuels which intervene in the fuel cycle physics. The studies carried out are used to qualify the cycle 'package' DARWIN for the PWRs material balances estimation. The elaboration and optimisation of the calculation routes are carried out following a very specific methodology, aimed at estimating the bias introduced by the modelizations simplification by a comparison with almost exact reference modelizations. Depending on the precision goals and the informations, the permissible approximation will be determined. Two calculation routes have been developed and the qualified by applying them to the used fuels isotopic analysis interpretation: one 'industry-oriented' calculation route which can calculate full UO 2 assemblies material balances with a 2 % precision on the main actinides, respecting the industrial specifications. This route must run with a reasonable calculation time and stay user-friendly; one reference calculation route for the precise interpretation of fuel samples made of pieces of burn-up MOX rods. Aiming to provide material balances with the best possible precision, this route does not have the same specifications concerning its use and its calculation time performance. (author)

  19. CaPSCA: Evaluation of a Brief Cancer Prevention Education Programme to Promote Balanced Diet in French School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura J; Bazillier-Bruneau, Cécile; Rouëssé, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two cancer prevention interventions in improving balanced diet among French children aged 12-14 years. The educational techniques used were taken from the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (BCTs; Abraham & Michie, 2008). Allocation to intervention group (intervention versus control) was randomised at the school-level, the intervention group received two interventions, each of 1-h duration, containing BCTs including advocated attitude, anticipated success/regret, behaviour modelling and barrier identification. Self-reported diet was assessed pre- and post-interventions. The resulting data were coded by a nutritionist and transformed into a novel measure representing the extent to which the participant achieved a balanced diet. Multilevel modelling indicated that, having taken into account the clustered nature of the data, gender and the differing socio-economic status of the participants, balanced diet decreased over time, b=-1.23, t(1830)=-2.79, p=0.005, but this was qualified by a significant interaction effect with intervention, b=1.42, t(1830)=1.98, p=0.047. Separate models for each intervention group revealed that balanced diet decreased over time in the control group, b=-1.25, t(1195)=-2.47, p=0.014, but did not in the intervention group, b=0.19, t(635)=0.44, p=0.66, suggesting a buffering effect of the interventions on balanced diet over time. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of educational interventions using established behaviour change techniques, to change behaviour.

  20. Training improves laparoscopic tasks performance and decreases operator workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jesse S L; Lu, Jirong; Tan, Wee Boon; Lomanto, Davide

    2016-05-01

    It has been postulated that increased operator workload during task performance may increase fatigue and surgical errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a validated tool for self-assessment for workload. Our study aims to assess the relationship of workload and performance of novices in simulated laparoscopic tasks of different complexity levels before and after training. Forty-seven novices without prior laparoscopic experience were recruited in a trial to investigate whether training improves task performance as well as mental workload. The participants were tested on three standard tasks (ring transfer, precision cutting and intracorporeal suturing) in increasing complexity based on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum. Following a period of training and rest, participants were tested again. Test scores were computed from time taken and time penalties for precision errors. Test scores and NASA-TLX scores were recorded pre- and post-training and analysed using paired t tests. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse differences in NASA-TLX scores between the three tasks. NASA-TLX score was lowest with ring transfer and highest with intracorporeal suturing. This was statistically significant in both pre-training (p NASA-TLX scores mirror the changes in test scores for the three tasks. Workload scores decreased significantly after training for all three tasks (ring transfer = 2.93, p NASA-TLX score is an accurate reflection of the complexity of simulated laparoscopic tasks in the FLS curriculum. This also correlates with the relationship of test scores between the three tasks. Simulation training improves both performance score and workload score across the tasks.

  1. Upper limb muscular activity and perceived workload during laryngoscopy: comparison of Glidescope(R) and Macintosh laryngoscopy in manikin: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldiroli, D; Molteni, F; Sommariva, A; Frittoli, S; Guanziroli, E; Cortellazzi, P; Orena, E F

    2014-03-01

    The interaction between operators and their working environment during laryngoscopy is poorly understood. Numerous studies have focused on the forces applied to the patient's airway during laryngoscopy, but only a few authors have addressed operator muscle activity and workload. We tested whether different devices (Glidescope(®) and Macintosh) use different muscles and how these differences affect the perceived workload. Ten staff anaesthetists performed three intubations with each device on a manikin. Surface electromyography was recorded for eight single muscles of the left upper limb. The NASA Task Load Index (TLX) was administered after each experimental session to evaluate perceived workload. A consistent reduction in muscular activation occurred with Glidescope(®) compared with Macintosh for all muscles tested (mean effect size d=3.28), and significant differences for the upper trapezius (P=0.002), anterior deltoid (P=0.001), posterior deltoid (P=0.000), and brachioradialis (P=0.001) were observed. The overall NASA-TLX workload score was significantly lower for Glidescope(®) than for Macintosh (P=0.006), and the factors of physical demand (P=0.008) and effort (P=0.006) decreased significantly. Greater muscular activity and workload were observed with the Macintosh laryngoscope. Augmented vision and related postural adjustments related to using the Glidescope(®) may reduce activation of the operator's muscles and task workload.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2012-01-01

    . The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise. Data collection......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have...... been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim...

  3. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  4. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  5. Hospitalist workload influences faculty evaluations by internal medicine clerkship students

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Robert L Robinson Department of Internal Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois, USA Background: The last decade has brought significant changes to internal medicine clerkships through resident work-hour restrictions and the widespread adoption of hospitalists as medical educators. These key medical educators face competing demands for quality teaching and clinical service intensity. Objective: The study reported here was conducted to explore the rel...

  6. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in elderly women performing aquatic exercise and gymnastics DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n1p55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated static and dynamic balance and related motor valences in elderly women who had been undergone gymnastics or aquatic exercise training for at least 6 months, three times a week. Thirty-one women performed water gymnastics (mean age: 69.32 ± 6.57 years and 28 gymnastics (65.57 ± 7.67 years. Height (cm, weight (kg and waist, hip and abdominal circumference (cm were measured and the body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Physical fitness was measured using the “sit and get up in 30 seconds” test (leg endurance and “8-foot up-and-go” test (dynamic balance, both proposed by Rikli and Jones (1999, and the “sit and reach” (flexibility and static balance tests described by Caromano (1998. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t-test and Pearson’s correlation, with a level of significance of 0.05. No significant difference in the anthropometric measures (BMI and WHR was observed between groups. In the physical fitness tests, significant differences were only found in the “8-foot up-and-go” and “sit and get up” tests, with the gymnastics group presenting better results. No correlations within or between groups were observed regarding static and dynamic balance or motor valences. In conclusion, neither type of exercise was superior but the gymnastics group tended to show better results in terms of parameters such as agility, balance and flexibility.

  7. Workload comparison between hiking and indoor physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Luigi; Pittiglio, Giancarlo; Federico, Bruno; Pallicca, Anastasia; Bernardi, Marco; Rodio, Angelo

    2012-10-01

    Walking is a physical activity able to maintain and improve aerobic fitness. This activity can easily be performed in all seasons both outdoors and indoors, but when it is performed in its natural environment, the use of specific equipment is required. In particular, it has been demonstrated that the use of trekking boots (TBs) induces a larger workload than those used indoors. Because an adequate fitness level is needed to practice hiking in safety, it is useful to know the energy demand of such an activity. This research aims at defining the metabolic engagement of hiking on natural paths with specific equipment at several speeds and comparing this with indoor ones (on a treadmill). This can thence be used to define the load that better reflects the one required to walk on natural paths. The walking energy cost (joules per kilogram per meter) at several speeds (0.28, 0.56, 0.84, 1.11, and 1.39 m·s(-1))-on level natural terrain while wearing suitable footwear (TBs) and on a treadmill at various raising slopes (0, 1, 2, 3, 4%) while wearing running shoes-was measured in 14 healthy young men (age 23.9 ± 2.9 years, stature 1.75 ± 0.04 m, and body mass 72.9 ± 6.3 kg). A physiological evaluation of all the subjects was performed before energy cost measurements. The results showed that outdoors, the oxygen uptake was consistently less than the ventilatory threshold at all speeds tested and that a 3% slope on the treadmill best reflects the outdoor walking energy expenditure. These findings will prove useful to plan proper training for hiking activity or mixed (outdoors and indoors) training program.

  8. The development and evaluation of a program for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Tae; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, a program was developed for leg-strengthening exercises and balance assessment using Microsoft Kinect. [Subjects and Methods] The program consists of three leg-strengthening exercises (knee flexion, hip flexion, and hip extension) and the one-leg standing test (OLST). The program recognizes the correct exercise posture by comparison with the range of motion of the hip and knee joints and provides a number of correct action examples to improve training. The program mea...

  9. The evaluation of body mass index, balance and agility features of amateur soccer players according to their positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Erdem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare of body mass index (BMI, balance and agility features of soccer players at different positions and to investigate the relation between these features. Material and Methods: Research was carried out on 44 amateur soccer player whom played in different positions in various teams that compete in amateur league of İstanbul. In the research, it was tested vki, balance, agility with ball and agility without ball on soccer players. The average of variables was taken and Kruskal Wallis nonparametric variance analysis was used to determine the difference between groups. Pearson correlation was used to determine correlations between variables. Results: As a result of measuments, when compare between positions, it was found that there was a statistical difference on body mass measurement (p0,01. As a result of correlations, it was found statistically significant relation between body mass and agility with ball between BMI and agility with ball and between body mass and BMI variables (p<0,01. Conclusion: As a result of assesstments it has been revealed that there was a correlation between BMI and dribbling skills on soccer players however there wasn’t found any differences between other parameters as balance and agility because of the trainings that carried out regardless of the positions in soccer. As a conclusion, optimal training programmes that will be held on according to positions of players, additional balance trainings and the identified shortcomings may contribute to the development of soccer players performance and skill with appliying ideal diet programme to maintain the appropriate body weight for players heights.

  10. Multi-objective efficiency enhancement using workload spreading in an operational data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi Khalaj, Ali; Scherer, Thomas; Siriwardana, Jayantha; Halgamuge, Saman K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of the heat-flow reduced order model (HFROM) for the IBM ZRL data center. • Verification of the developed HFROM with the experimentally verified CFD model. • Multi-objective efficiency enhancement of the HFROM using particle swarm optimization. • Improving the COP of the data center’s cooling system by about 17%. • Increasing the total allocated workload of the servers by about 10%. - Abstract: The cooling systems of rapidly growing Data Centers (DCs) consume a considerable amount of energy, which is one of the main concerns in designing and operating DCs. The main source of thermal inefficiency in a typical air-cooled DC is hot air recirculation from outlets of servers into their inlets, causing hot spots and leading to performance reduction of the cooling system. In this study, a thermally aware workload spreading method is proposed for reducing the hot spots while the total allocated server workload is increased. The core of this methodology lies in developing an appropriate thermal DC model for the optimization process. Given the fact that utilizing a high-fidelity thermal model of a DC is highly time consuming in the optimization process, a three dimensional reduced order model of a real DC is developed in this study. This model, whose boundary conditions are determined based on measurement data of an operational DC, is developed based on the potential flow theory updated with the Rankine vortex to account for buoyancy and air recirculation effects inside the DC. Before evaluating the proposed method, this model is verified with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model simulated with the same boundary conditions. The efficient load spreading method is achieved by applying a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm whose objectives are to minimize the hot spot occurrences and to maximize the total workload allocated to servers. In this case study, by applying the proposed method, the Coefficient of

  11. How we can measure the non-driving-task engagement in automated driving: Comparing flow experience and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang Min; Ji, Yong Gu

    2018-02-01

    In automated driving, a driver can completely concentrate on non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs). This study investigated the flow experience of a driver who concentrated on NDRTs and tasks that induce mental workload under conditional automation. Participants performed NDRTs under different demand levels: a balanced demand-skill level (fit condition) to induce flow, low-demand level to induce boredom, and high-demand level to induce anxiety. In addition, they performed the additional N-Back task, which artificially induces mental workload. The results showed participants had the longest reaction time when they indicated the highest flow score, and had the longest gaze-on time, road-fixation time, hands-on time, and take-over time under the fit condition. Significant differences were not observed in the driver reaction times in the fit condition and the additional N-Back task, indicating that performing NDRTs that induce a high flow experience could influence driver reaction time similar to performing tasks with a high mental workload. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of three energy balance-based evaporation models for estimating monthly evaporation for five lakes using derived heat storage changes from a hysteresis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zheng; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.

    2017-02-01

    The heat storage changes (Q t) can be a significant component of the energy balance in lakes, and it is important to account for Q t for reasonable estimation of evaporation at monthly and finer timescales if the energy balance-based evaporation models are used. However, Q t has been often neglected in many studies due to the lack of required water temperature data. A simple hysteresis model (Q t = a*Rn + b + c* dRn/dt) has been demonstrated to reasonably estimate Q t from the readily available net all wave radiation (Rn) and three locally calibrated coefficients (a-c) for lakes and reservoirs. As a follow-up study, we evaluated whether this hysteresis model could enable energy balance-based evaporation models to yield good evaporation estimates. The representative monthly evaporation data were compiled from published literature and used as ground-truth to evaluate three energy balance-based evaporation models for five lakes. The three models in different complexity are De Bruin-Keijman (DK), Penman, and a new model referred to as Duan-Bastiaanssen (DB). All three models require Q t as input. Each model was run in three scenarios differing in the input Q t (S1: measured Q t; S2: modelled Q t from the hysteresis model; S3: neglecting Q t) to evaluate the impact of Q t on the modelled evaporation. Evaluation showed that the modelled Q t agreed well with measured counterparts for all five lakes. It was confirmed that the hysteresis model with locally calibrated coefficients can predict Q t with good accuracy for the same lake. Using modelled Q t as inputs all three evaporation models yielded comparably good monthly evaporation to those using measured Q t as inputs and significantly better than those neglecting Q t for the five lakes. The DK model requiring minimum data generally performed the best, followed by the Penman and DB model. This study demonstrated that once three coefficients are locally calibrated using historical data the simple hysteresis model can offer

  13. Evaluation of an open-rota system in a Danish psychiatric hospital: a mechanism for improving job satisfaction and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Joanna; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Karina

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of an open-rota scheduling system on the health, work-life balance and job satisfaction of nurses working in a psychiatric ward in Denmark. The effects of shift rotation and scheduling are well known; however, little is known about the wider benefits of open-rota systems. Method A structured questionnaire was distributed to control and intervention groups preintervention and postintervention (20 months). Nurses within the intervention group trialed an open-rota system in which nurses designed their own work-rest schedules. Nurses in the intervention group reported that they were more satisfied with their work hours, less likely to swap their shift when working within the open-rota system and reported significant increases in work-life balance, job satisfaction, social support and community spirit when compared with nurses in the control groups. The ownership and choice over work-rest schedules has benefits for nurses, and potentially the hospital.

  14. Mean precipitation estimation, rain gauge network evaluation and quantification of the hydrologic balance in the River Quito basin in Choco, state of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoba, Samir; Zea, Jorge A; Murillo, W

    2006-01-01

    In this work the calculation of the average precipitation in the Quito River basin, state of Choco, Colombia, is presents through diverse techniques, among which are those suggested by Thiessen and those based on the isohyets analysis, in order to select the one appropriate to quantification of rainwater available to the basin. Also included is an estimation of the error with which the average precipitation in the zone studied is fraught when measured, by means of the methodology proposed by Gandin (1970) and Kagan (WMO, 1966), which at the same time allows to evaluate the representativeness of each one of the stations that make up the rain gauge network in the area. The study concludes with a calculation of the hydrologic balance for the Quito river basin based on the pilot procedure suggested in the UNESCO publication on the study of the South America hydrologic balance, from which the great contribution of rainfall to a greatly enhanced run-off may be appreciated

  15. Antecedents of basic psychological need satisfaction of pharmacy students: The role of peers, family, lecturers and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Mariëtta J; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2018-04-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a model to improve pharmacy students' well-being or functioning in their study context. According to SDT, students need a context that satisfies their needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in order to function optimally. Contextual factors that could have an impact on a student's functioning are lecturers, family, peers and workload. To investigate whether there is a difference between the contributions family, lecturers, peers and workload make towards the satisfaction of pharmacy students' basic psychological needs within a university context. An electronic survey was administered amongst students registered with the North-West University's School of Pharmacy. Registered pharmacy students, 779, completed said electronic survey comprised of a questionnaire on demographics, BMPN (Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs) and self-developed ANPNS (Antecedents of Psychological Need-satisfaction Scale). Data derived from the afore-going was analysed with the aid of structural equation modelling (SEM). Structural equation modelling explained 46%, 25% and 30% respectively of the total group's variances in autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction, and 26% of the variance in psychological need frustration. Peers and family played a significant role in the satisfaction of students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence, whilst workload seemingly hampered satisfaction with regards to relatedness and autonomy. Workload contributed towards frustration with regards to psychological need satisfaction. The role played by lecturers in satisfying pharmacy students' need for autonomy, relatedness and competence will also be highlighted. This study added to the body of knowledge regarding contextual factors and the impact those factors have on pharmacy students' need satisfaction by illustrating that not all factors (family, lecturers, peers and workload) can be considered equal. Lecturers ought to recognise the

  16. HIV infection, tuberculosis and workload in a general paediatric ward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Child Health ... To describe the impact of HIV infection and tuberculosis on the workload of a general paediatric ward at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in 2007. Methods. Prospective descriptive surveillance of the patient composition of a general paediatric ward over a 1-year period.

  17. Bitwise dimensional co-clustering for analytical workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Baumann (Stephan); P.A. Boncz (Peter); K.-U. Sattler

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractAnalytical workloads in data warehouses often include heavy joins where queries involve multiple fact tables in addition to the typical star-patterns, dimensional grouping and selections. In this paper we propose a new processing and storage framework called Bitwise Dimensional

  18. Bitwise dimensional co-clustering for analytical workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Stephan; Boncz, Peter; Sattler, Kai Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Analytical workloads in data warehouses often include heavy joins where queries involve multiple fact tables in addition to the typical star-patterns, dimensional grouping and selections. In this paper we propose a new processing and storage framework called bitwise dimensional co-clustering (BDCC)

  19. Workloads in Australian emergency departments a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneham, Joy; Cloughessy, Liz; Martin, Valmai

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to identify the current workload of clinical nurses, managers and educators in Australian Emergency Departments according to the classification of the department Additionally the relationship of experienced to inexperienced clinical staff was examined. A descriptive research method utilising a survey distributed to 394 Australian Emergency departments with a 21% response rate. Nursing workloads were calculated and a ratio of nurse to patient was established. The ratios included nurse to patient, management and educators to clinical staff. Additionally the percentage of junior to senior clinical staff was also calculated. Across all categories of emergency departments the mean nurse:patient ratios were 1:15 (am shift), 1:7 (pm shift) and 1:4 (night shift). During this period an average of 17.1% of attendances were admitted to hospital. There were 27 staff members for each manager and 23.3 clinical staff for each educator. The percentage of junior staff rostered ranged from 10% to 38%. Emergency nurses cannot work under such pressure as it may compromise the care given to patients and consequently have a negative effect on the nurse personally. However, emergency nurses are dynamically adjusting to the workload. Such conditions as described in this study could give rise to burnout and attrition of experienced emergency nurses as they cannot resolve the conflict between workload and providing quality nursing care.

  20. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a measure of cognitive workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Eric R; Moss, Jason D; Rosopa, Patrick J; Salley, James N; Walker, Alexander D

    2012-01-01

    The current standard for measuring cognitive workload is the NASA Task-load Index (TLX) questionnaire. Although this measure has a high degree of reliability, diagnosticity, and sensitivity, a reliable physiological measure of cognitive workload could provide a non-invasive, objective measure of workload that could be tracked in real or near real-time without interrupting the task. This study investigated changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during seven different sub-sections of a proposed selection test for Navy aviation and compared them to changes reported on the NASA-TLX. 201 healthy participants performed the seven tasks of the Navy's Performance Based Measure. RSA was measured during each task and the NASA-TLX was administered after each task. Multi-level modeling revealed that RSA significantly predicted NASA-TLX scores. A moderate within-subject correlation was also found between RSA and NASA TLX scores. The findings support the potential development of RSA as a real-time measure of cognitive workload. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  2. Estimation of the workload correlation in a Markov fluid queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaynar, B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a Markov fluid queue, focusing on the correlation function of the stationary workload process. A simulation-based computation technique is proposed, which relies on a coupling idea. Then an upper bound on the variance of the resulting estimator is given, which reveals how the

  3. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  4. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity $\\rho$. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of $\\rho$ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotic properties of these estimators....

  5. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  6. Comparison of physical workload in four Gari -frying working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All physical labour requires physical exertion which indicates the level of physical workload involved. This paper examines the energy expenditure in four working postures of gari-frying (garification) workers in southwestern Nigeria. The postures include sitting-beside (SB), sitting-in-front (SF), ...

  7. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-11

    Jan 11, 2013 ... Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ... Farmers also like the design because, unlike other machines, it can be easily adjusted for different millet varieties and sizes. ... Local manufacturing. Discussions have begun with local entrepreneurs to manufacture the grain mill, which ...

  8. Work and workload of Dutch primary care midwives in 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Warmelink, J.C.; Spelten, E.R.; Klomp, G.M.T.; Hutton, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To re-assess the work and workload of primary care midwives in the Netherlands. Background: In the Netherlands most midwives work in primary care as independent practitioners in a midwifery practice with two or more colleagues. Each practice provides 24/7 care coverage through office

  9. The effect of inclement weather on trauma orthopaedic workload.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict increasing frequency of extreme weather. One of the challenges hospitals face is how to make sure they have adequate staffing at various times of the year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this severe inclement weather on hospital admissions, operative workload and cost in the Irish setting. We hypothesised that there is a direct relationship between cold weather and workload in a regional orthopaedic trauma unit. METHODS: Trauma orthopaedic workload in a regional trauma unit was examined over 2 months between December 2009 and January 2010. This corresponded with a period of severe inclement weather. RESULTS: We identified a direct correlation between the drop in temperature and increase in workload, with a corresponding increase in demand on resources. CONCLUSIONS: Significant cost savings could be made if these injuries were prevented. While the information contained in this study is important in the context of resource planning and staffing of hospital trauma units, it also highlights the vulnerability of the Irish population to wintery weather.

  10. Development of a nursing workload measurement instrument in burn care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.; Leeman, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Existing workload measurement instruments fail to represent specific nursing activities in a setting where patients are characterized by a diversity of cause, location, extent and depth of burns, of age and of history. They also do not include educational levels and appropriate time standards. The

  11. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  12. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.; Oudejans, J.J.; Koevoets, J.J.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a

  13. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  14. Benchmarking transaction and analytical processing systems the creation of a mixed workload benchmark and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Bog, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces a new benchmark for hybrid database systems, gauging the effect of adding OLAP to an OLTP workload and analyzing the impact of commonly used optimizations in historically separate OLTP and OLAP domains in mixed-workload scenarios.

  15. Analysis and modeling of social influence in high performance computing workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai; Shae, Zon Yin; Zhang, Xiangliang; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Fong, Liana

    2011-01-01

    Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies

  16. Effects of in-car support on mental workload and driving performance of older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidse, Ragnhild J; Hagenzieker, Marjan P; van Wolffelaar, Peter C; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the extent to which driving performance of 10 older (70-88 years old) and 30 younger participants (30-50 years old) improves as a result of support by a driver assistance system. Various studies have indicated that advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) may provide tailored assistance for older drivers and thereby improve their safe mobility. While drivers followed an urban route in a driving simulator, an ADAS provided them with prior knowledge on the next intersection. The system was evaluated in terms of effects on workload and safety performance. Messages informing drivers about the right-of-way regulation, obstructed view of an intersection, and safe gaps to join or cross traffic streams led to safer driving performance. A message regarding an unexpected one-way street led to fewer route errors. In general, effects were the same for all age groups. Workload was not reduced by the support system. The evaluated support system shows promising effects for all age groups. Longer evaluation periods are needed to determine long-term effects. The messages provided by the evaluated system are currently not provided by existing ADAS such as advanced cruise control and navigation systems, but they could possibly be added to them in the future.

  17. Unsupervised classification of operator workload from brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Kraft, Matthias; Dähne, Sven; Gugler, Manfred; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this study we aimed for the classification of operator workload as it is expected in many real-life workplace environments. We explored brain-signal based workload predictors that differ with respect to the level of label information required for training, including entirely unsupervised approaches. Approach. Subjects executed a task on a touch screen that required continuous effort of visual and motor processing with alternating difficulty. We first employed classical approaches for workload state classification that operate on the sensor space of EEG and compared those to the performance of three state-of-the-art spatial filtering methods: common spatial patterns (CSPs) analysis, which requires binary label information; source power co-modulation (SPoC) analysis, which uses the subjects’ error rate as a target function; and canonical SPoC (cSPoC) analysis, which solely makes use of cross-frequency power correlations induced by different states of workload and thus represents an unsupervised approach. Finally, we investigated the effects of fusing brain signals and peripheral physiological measures (PPMs) and examined the added value for improving classification performance. Main results. Mean classification accuracies of 94%, 92% and 82% were achieved with CSP, SPoC, cSPoC, respectively. These methods outperformed the approaches that did not use spatial filtering and they extracted physiologically plausible components. The performance of the unsupervised cSPoC is significantly increased by augmenting it with PPM features. Significance. Our analyses ensured that the signal sources used for classification were of cortical origin and not contaminated with artifacts. Our findings show that workload states can be successfully differentiated from brain signals, even when less and less information from the experimental paradigm is used, thus paving the way for real-world applications in which label information may be noisy or entirely unavailable.

  18. Heavy vehicle driver workload assessment. Task 7B, in-cab text message system and cellular phone use by heavy vehicle drivers in a part-task driving simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains the results of a simulator study conducted to serve as a supplement to a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) heavy vehicle driver workload field study. Its purpose was the evaluation of effects of cellular phon...

  19. Use of Rasch Analysis to Evaluate and Refine the Community Balance and Mobility Scale for Use in Ambulatory Community-Dwelling Adults Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Courtney L.; Brouwer, Brenda; Garland, S. Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Background The Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) is increasingly used to evaluate walking balance following stroke. Objective This study applied Rasch analysis to evaluate and refine the CB&M for use in ambulatory community-dwelling adults following stroke. Methods The CB&M content was linked to task demands and motor skill classifications. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate internal construct validity (structural validity) and refine the CB&M for use with ambulatory community-dwelling adults following stroke. The CB&M data were collected at 3 time points: at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation and at 6 and 12 months postdischarge (N=238). Rasch analysis evaluated scale dimensionality, item and person fit, item response bias, scoring hierarchy, and targeting. Disordered scoring hierarchy was resolved by collapsing scoring categories. Highly correlated and “misfitting” items were removed. Sensitivity to change was evaluated with standardized response means (SRMs) and one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results The CB&M was primarily linked to closed body transport task demands. Significant item-trait interaction, disordered scoring hierarchies, and multidimensionality were found. Scoring categories were collapsed in 15/19 items, and 5 misfitting items were removed. The resulting stroke-specific 14-item unidimensional CB&M (CB&MStroke) fit Rasch model expectations, with no item response bias, acceptable targeting (13% floor effects and 0% ceiling effects), and moderate-to-strong sensitivity to change at 6 months postdischarge (SRM=0.63; 95% confidence interval=−1.523, −0.142) and 12 months postdischarge (SRM=0.73; 95% confidence interval=−2.318, −0.760). Limitations Findings are limited to a modest-sized sample of individuals with mild-to-moderate balance impairment following stroke. Conclusions The CB&MStroke shows promise as a clinical scale for measuring change in walking balance in ambulatory community-dwelling adults

  20. Balance between beneficial microflora and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation: in vivo evaluation in patients with atopic dermatitis during hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrain, Muriel; Ribet, Virginie; Calvez, Audrey; Lebaron, Philippe; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The role of the balance between Staphylococcus aureus and commensal flora in the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions is not well understood. To determine the structure of skin microbiome in patients with AD and its changes during an 18-day course of hydrotherapy and to assess the association between S. aureus and micro-organism colonisation, local skin condition and AD severity. Three skin areas (xerotic, inflammatory and healthy) were identified in 25 moderate to severe AD patients for sampling before treatment, just after (day 1), and at day 10 and day 18. The structure of the bacterial community in the samples was assessed using a molecular biology approach based on 16S rRNA gene profiling. At each visit, AD severity was measured globally by the SCORAD index and at the lesional and healthy sampling sites. Clustering analysis of 296 samples showed two different bacterial community profiles: one with 2 peaks corresponding to S. aureus, the other displayed multiple peaks, identified as diversified microflora. At baseline, xerotic areas seemed to be less colonised by S. aureus than inflammatory areas. After 18 days of hydrotherapy, the number of lesional sites colonised by S. aureus (p<0.05) and the SCORAD index (p<0.00001) were significantly reduced, mainly in inflammatory and moist areas, promoting the emergence of a diversified microflora. We identified two bacterial community profiles corresponding to S. aureus and diversified microflora. The competitive balance between both profiles appears to be a key element associated with the severity of AD lesions.

  1. Physical and mental workload in single-incision laparoscopic surgery and conventional laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Dilek; Yıldız, Sedat; Soyupek, Feray; Günyeli, İlker; Erdemoglu, Ebru; Soyupek, Sedat; Erdemoglu, Evrim

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate mental workload and fatigue in fingers, hand, arm, shoulder in single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and multiport laparoscopy. Volunteers performed chosen tasks by standard laparoscopy and SILS. Time to complete tasks and finger and hand strength were evaluated. Lateral, tripod, and pulp pinch strengths were measured. Hand dexterity was determined by pegboard. Electromyography recordings were taken from biceps and deltoid muscles of both extremities. The main outcome measurement was median frequency (MF) slope. NASA-TLX was used for mental workload. Time to complete laparoscopic tasks were longer in the SILS group (P NASA-TLX score was 73 ± 13.3 and 42 ± 19.5 in SILS and multiport laparoscopy, respectively (P < .01). Mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort, and frustration were, respectively, scored 10.7 ± 3.8, 11.7 ± 3.5, 12.2 ± 2.7, 11 ± 3, 13.6 ± 2.7, and 13.5 ± 2.8 in SILS and 6.3 ± 3.1, 6.6 ± 3.3, 7.3 ± 3.3, 7.1 ± 4.1, 7.9 ± 3.9, and 6.6 ± 3.8 in standard laparoscopy (P < .01). SILS is mentally and physically demanding, particularly on arms and shoulders. Fatigue of big muscles, effort, and frustration were major challenges of SILS. Ergonomic intervention of instruments are needed to decrease mental and physical workload. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Workload and job satisfaction among general practitioners: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1991-01-01

    The workload of general practitioners (GPs) is an important issue in health care systems with capitation payment for GPs services. This article reviews the literature on determinants and consequences of workload and job satisfaction of GPs. Determinants of workload are located on the demand side

  3. Role of Academic Managers in Workload and Performance Management of Academic Staff: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…

  4. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M. M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  5. The Use of the Dynamic Solution Space to Assess Air Traffic Controller Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Engelbronner, J.G.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.; De Stigter, S.; Huisman, H.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic capacity is mainly bound by air traffic controller workload. In order to effectively find solutions for this problem, off-line pre-experimental workload assessment methods are desirable. In order to better understand the workload associated with air traffic control, previous research

  6. ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION...in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-16-M-166 ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION...UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-16-M-166 ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION Erich W

  7. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M.M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  8. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  9. The performance of workload control concepts in job shops : Improving the release method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, MJ; Gaalman, GJC

    1998-01-01

    A specific class of production control concepts for jobs shops is based on the principles of workload control. Practitioners emphasise the importance of workload control. However, order release methods that reduce the workload on the shop floor show poor due date performance in job shop simulations.

  10. Exergames for women with fibromyalgia: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects on mobility skills, balance and fear of falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Exergames are a new form of rehabilitation that combine the characteristics of physical exercise and the benefits of non-immersive virtual reality (VR. Effects of this novel therapy in women fibromyalgia are still unknown. The objective was to evaluate the effects of exergame-based intervention on mobility skills, balance and fear of falling in women with fibromyalgia. Methods This study was a randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation. Seventy-six women with fibromyalgia were divided into two groups: the exercise group received an eight week intervention based on exergames, while the control group continued their usual activities. Mobility skills were evaluated using the timed up and go test, while balance was assessed using the functional reach test, and the CTSIB protocol. Fear of falling was evaluated on a scale of 0–100 (0, no fear; 100, extreme fear. Measurements were performed before and after the intervention. A repeated-measures linear mixed model was used to compare the effects of the intervention between the two groups. Results The exercise group was significantly quicker than the control group in the timed up and go test (MD, −0.71; 95% CI [−1.09–0.32]; p < 0.001. There were also significant improvements in functional reach and a reduced fear of falling (MD, 4.34; 95% CI [1.39–7.30]; p = 0.005 and MD, −9.85; 95% CI [−0.19–−0.08]; p = 0.048, respectively. Discussion The improved TUG observed herein was better than the smallest real difference. Based on the results on mobility skills, balance and fear of falling, exergames may be an effective tool as a therapy for women with fibromyalgia.

  11. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vertigo. If you have additional problems with motor control, such as weakness, slowness, tremor, or rigidity, you can lose your ability to recover properly from imbalance. This raises the risk of falling and injury. What are some types of balance disorders? There are more than a dozen different ...

  12. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  13. The feasibility of evaluating the effect of using Wii Fit balance games to train postural control in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Almuwais, Afrah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the usability and potential effect of Wii Fit games as postural control intervention and Wii Balance Board [WBB] as postural control assessment tool in clinical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy [CP]. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the intra- and inter-session reliability of the WBB in measuring Centre of Pressure [COP] path length of children with and without CP. 12 children {mean age 8.75 ± 1.7}, and 12 aged matched children w...

  14. Efficient graph-based dynamic load-balancing for parallel large-scale agent-based traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Cai, W.; Aydt, H.; Lees, M.; Tolk, A.; Diallo, S.Y.; Ryzhov, I.O.; Yilmaz, L.; Buckley, S.; Miller, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the issues of parallelizing large-scale agent-based traffic simulations is partitioning and load-balancing. Traffic simulations are dynamic applications where the distribution of workload in the spatial domain constantly changes. Dynamic load-balancing at run-time has shown better efficiency

  15. Evaluation of Key Dependent S-Box Based Data Security Algorithm using Hamming Distance and Balanced Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balajee Maram K.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data security is a major issue because of rapid evolution of data communication over unsecured internetwork. Here the proposed system is concerned with the problem of randomly generated S-box. The generation of S-box depends on Pseudo-Random-Number-Generators and shared-secret-key. The process of Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator depends on large prime numbers. All Pseudo-Random-Numbers are scrambled according to shared-secret-key. After scrambling, the S-box is generated. In this research, large prime numbers are the inputs to the Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator. The proposed S-box will reduce the complexity of S-box generation. Based on S-box parameters, it experimentally investigates the quality and robustness of the proposed algorithm which was tested. It yields better results with the S-box parameters like Hamming Distance, Balanced Output and Avalanche Effect and can be embedded to popular cryptography algorithms

  16. Performance evaluation and optimization of multiband phase-modulated radio over IsOWC link with balanced coherent homodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Kang; Zhu, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a multiband phase-modulated (PM) radio over intersatellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) link with balanced coherent homodyne detection. The proposed system can provide the transparent transport of multiband radio frequency (RF) signals with higher linearity and better receiver sensitivity than intensity modulated with direct detection (IM/DD) system. The expressions of RF gain, noise figure (NF) and third-order spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) are derived considering the third-order intermodulation product and amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. The optimal power of local oscillator (LO) optical signal is also derived theoretically. Numerical results for RF gain, NF and third-order SFDR are given for demonstration. Results indicate that the gain of the optical preamplifier and the power of LO optical signal should be optimized to obtain the satisfactory performance.

  17. [Evaluation of postural characteristics in patients with vertigo by modified clinical test of sensory interaction and balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kong, Weijia; Lai, Changqin

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the application of modified clinical test of sensory interaction and balance (mCTSIB) in the patients with vertigo. One hundred and six patients with vertigo (62 cases with peripheral and 44 cases with central vestibular disorder) were taken the mCTSIB of the firm surface and foam surface with eye open and eye closed for 30 seconds respectively. The standing foam surface was to interrupt the somatosensory and closing eyes was to interrupt the visual input in the postural stability. The falling during the test was recorded. The results between the mCTSIB and video nystagmography (VNG) were compared. In vestibular peripheral disorder, the abnormal of mCTSIB was 45.16% (28/62) and agreement to VNG was 67.74% (42/62). In vestibular central disorder, the abnormal of mCTSIB was 27.27% (12/44) and agreement to VNG was 81.82% (36/44). For all these patients with vertigo in this study, the abnormal of mCTSIB was 37.74% (40/106) and agreement to VNG was 73.58% (78/106). Regarding the falling as abnormality, the mCTSIB was not significant different between the vestibular peripheral and central disorders (chi2 = 3.505, P > 0.05). Although the mCTSIB, which was easy to carry out, can not be a method to differentiate the vestibular peripheral and central disorders, it was a suitable to assess the ability of sensory interaction to maintain balance in patients with vertigo.

  18. A systematic review of Registered Nurses; experiences of the influence of workplace culture and climatic factors on nursing workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Walker, Cheryl; Rogers-Clark, Cath; Pearce, Susanne

    papers and 39 conclusions from the 4 text/ opinion papers. While the research and non research evidence was analysed separately, both sets of evidence gave the same synthesised findings. The qualitative research findings were grouped into eight categories and textual data into six categories; all textual categories were also identified in the qualitative synthesis. These categories were aggregated into two synthesised findings. Nursing workloads are influenced by the largely immeasurable cultural factors within hospital environments. These factors signify 'how we do things around here'. Organisational climate influences nursing workloads because of inter-professional relationships, clinical governance, workplace support, non-nursing duties, organisational structure and organisation, work redesign, workflow and diversity within nursing roles. The component of registered nurses' workloads that are not patient-care should be recognised. Reviewing nursing roles to remove unnecessary work unrelated to patient care would positively influence nursing workloads, giving time for cognitive workload and clinical education and mentorship. Further qualitative research should explore the complexity of clinical nurses' roles in a diversity of settings, to address the responsibilities that registered nurses routinely assume, but which do not involve direct patient care. New workload models, which capture the non-measurable aspects of a registered nurse's role, should be developed and evaluated.

  19. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  20. Single Pilot Workload Management During Cruise in Entry Level Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Silverman, Evan; Hackworth, Carla; Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Drechsler, Gena; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Advanced technologies and automation are important facilitators of single pilot operations, but they also contribute to the workload management challenges faced by the pilot. We examined task completion, workload management, and automation use in an entry level jet (ELJ) flown by single pilots. Thirteen certificated Cessna Citation Mustang (C510-S) pilots flew an instrument flight rules (IFR) experimental flight in a Cessna Citation Mustang simulator. At one point participants had to descend to meet a crossing restriction prior to a waypoint and prepare for an instrument approach into an un-towered field while facilitating communication from a lost pilot who was flying too low for ATC to hear. Four participants experienced some sort of difficulty with regard to meeting the crossing restriction and almost half (n=6) had problems associated with the instrument approach. Additional errors were also observed including eight participants landing at the airport with an incorrect altimeter setting.

  1. Evolutionary Multiobjective Query Workload Optimization of Cloud Data Warehouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  2. Measurement of nurses' workload in an oncology outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alves de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand and the degree of patient care in oncological outpatient services, as well as the complexity of treatment have had an impact on the workload of nurses. This study aimed at measuring the workload and productivity of nurses in an oncological outpatient service. An observational study using a work sampling technique was conducted and included seven nurses working in an oncological outpatient service in the south-eastern region of Brazil. A total of 1,487 intervention or activity samples were obtained. Nurses used 43.2% of their time on indirect care, 33.2% on direct care, 11.6% on associated activities, and 12% on personal activities. Their mean productivity was 88.0%. The findings showed that nurses in this service spend most of their time in indirect care activities. Moreover, the productivity index in this study was above that recommended in the literature.

  3. TideWatch: Fingerprinting the cyclicality of big data workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Williams, Daniel W.

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic to \\'big data\\' processing workloads (e.g., iterative MapReduce, Pregel, etc.) are cyclical resource utilization patterns that are highly synchronized across different resource types as well as the workers in a cluster. In Infrastructure as a Service settings, cloud providers do not exploit this characteristic to better manage VMs because they view VMs as \\'black boxes.\\' We present TideWatch, a system that automatically identifies cyclicality and similarity in running VMs. TideWatch predicts period lengths of most VMs in Hadoop workloads within 9% of actual iteration boundaries and successfully classifies up to 95% of running VMs as participating in the appropriate Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, we show how TideWatch can be used to improve the timing of VM migrations, reducing both migration time and network impact by over 50% when compared to a random approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Reducing Concurrency Bottlenecks in Parallel I/O Workloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingate, Meghan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    To enable high performance parallel checkpointing we introduced the Parallel Log Structured File System (PLFS). PLFS is middleware interposed on the file system stack to transform concurrent writing of one application file into many non-concurrently written component files. The promising effectiveness of PLFS makes it important to examine its performance for workloads other than checkpoint capture, notably the different ways that state snapshots may be later read, to make the case for using PLFS in the Exascale I/O stack. Reading a PLFS file involved reading each of its component files. In this paper we identify performance limitations on broader workloads in an early version of PLFS, specifically the need to build and distribute an index for the overall file, and the pressure on the underlying parallel file system's metadata server, and show how PLFS's decomposed components architecture can be exploited to alleviate bottlenecks in the underlying parallel file system.

  5. Active and passive fatigue in simulated driving: discriminating styles of workload regulation and their safety impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, Dyani J; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Hitchcock, Edward M; Neubauer, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Despite the known dangers of driver fatigue, it is a difficult construct to study empirically. Different forms of task-induced fatigue may differ in their effects on driver performance and safety. Desmond and Hancock (2001) defined active and passive fatigue states that reflect different styles of workload regulation. In 2 driving simulator studies we investigated the multidimensional subjective states and safety outcomes associated with active and passive fatigue. Wind gusts were used to induce active fatigue, and full vehicle automation to induce passive fatigue. Drive duration was independently manipulated to track the development of fatigue states over time. Participants were undergraduate students. Study 1 (N = 108) focused on subjective response and associated cognitive stress processes, while Study 2 (N = 168) tested fatigue effects on vehicle control and alertness. In both studies the 2 fatigue manipulations produced different patterns of subjective response reflecting different styles of workload regulation, appraisal, and coping. Active fatigue was associated with distress, overload, and heightened coping efforts, whereas passive fatigue corresponded to large-magnitude declines in task engagement, cognitive underload, and reduced challenge appraisal. Study 2 showed that only passive fatigue reduced alertness, operationalized as speed of braking and steering responses to an emergency event. Passive fatigue also increased crash probability, but did not affect a measure of vehicle control. Findings support theories that see fatigue as an outcome of strategies for managing workload. The distinction between active and passive fatigue is important for assessment of fatigue and for evaluating automated driving systems which may induce dangerous levels of passive fatigue. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Analysis and Modeling of Social In uence in High Performance Computing Workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai

    2011-06-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a common tool in many research areas. Social influence (e.g., project collaboration) among increasing users of HPC systems creates bursty behavior in underlying workloads. This bursty behavior is increasingly common with the advent of grid computing and cloud computing. Mining the user bursty behavior is important for HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, which has direct impact on overall HPC computing performance. A representative work in this area is the Mixed User Group Model (MUGM), which clusters users according to the resource demand features of their submissions, such as duration time and parallelism. However, MUGM has some difficulties when implemented in real-world system. First, representing user behaviors by the features of their resource demand is usually difficult. Second, these features are not always available. Third, measuring the similarities among users is not a well-defined problem. In this work, we propose a Social Influence Model (SIM) to identify, analyze, and quantify the level of social influence across HPC users. The advantage of the SIM model is that it finds HPC communities by analyzing user job submission time, thereby avoiding the difficulties of MUGM. An offline algorithm and a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups are proposed. Both offline and online algorithms are applied on several HPC and grid workloads, including Grid 5000, EGEE 2005 and 2007, and KAUST Supercomputing Lab (KSL) BGP data. From the experimental results, we show the existence of a social graph, which is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of identified user groups, we show the pattern discovered by the offline algorithm follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. We finally conclude the thesis and discuss future directions of our work.

  7. The impact on the workload of the Ward Manager with the introduction of administrative assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Rachel; Leach, Camilla; Kitsell, Fleur; Griffith, Jacki

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the impact on the workload of the Ward Manager (WM) with the introduction of administrative assistants into eight trusts in the South of England in a year-long pilot. Ward Managers are nurse leaders who are responsible for ward management and delivering expert clinical care to patients. They have traditionally been expected to achieve this role without administrative assistance. Meeting the workload demands of multiple roles and overload has meant the leadership and clinical role has suffered, presenting issues of low morale among existing WMs and issues of recruiting the next generation of WMs. Sixty qualitative interviews were carried out with 16 WMs, 12 Ward Manager Assistants (WMAs), and six senior nurse executives about the impact of the introduction of the WMA post. Quantitative data to measure change in WM workload and ward activity was supplied by 24 wards. Ward Managers reported spending reduced time on administrative tasks and having increased time available to spend on the ward with patients and leading staff. With the introduction of WMAs, there was also improvement in key performance measures (the maintenance of quality under service pressures) and increased staff motivation. There was overwhelming support for the introduction of administrative assistants from participating WMs. The WMAs enabled WMs to spend more time with patients and, more widely, to provide greater support to ward teams. The success of the pilot is reflected in wards working hard to be able to extend contracts of WMAs. The extent of the success is reflected in wards that were not participants in the pilot, observing the benefits of the post, having worked to secure funding to recruit their own WMAs. The widespread introduction of administrative assistance could increase ward productivity and provide support for clinical leaders. Continuing professional development for WMs needs to incorporate training about management responsibilities and how to best use administrative

  8. Tai Chi and balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alice M K; Lan, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Balance function begins to decline from middle age on, and poor balance function increases the risk of fall and injury. Suitable exercise training may improve balance function and prevent accidental falls. The coordination of visual, proprioceptive, vestibular and musculoskeletal system is important to maintain balance. Balance function can be evaluated by functional balance testing and sensory organization testing. Tai Chi Chuan (TC) is a popular conditioning exercise in the Chinese community, and recent studies substantiate that TC is effective in balance function enhancement and falls prevention. In studies utilizing functional balance testing, TC may increase the duration of one-leg standing and the distance of functional reach. In studies utilizing sensory organization testing, TC improves static and dynamic balance, especially in more challenging sensory perturbed condition. Therefore, TC may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for elderly subjects or balance-impaired patients. Participants can choose to perform a complete set of TC or selected movements according to their needs. In conclusion, TC may improve balance function and is appropriate for implementation in the community.

  9. Hipster: hybrid task manager for latency-critical cloud workloads

    OpenAIRE

    Nishtala, Rajiv; Carpenter, Paul M.; Petrucci, Vinicius; Martorell Bofill, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, U. S. data centers accounted for 2.2% of the country's total electricity consumption, a figure that is projected to increase rapidly over the next decade. Many important workloads are interactive, and they demand strict levels of quality-of-service (QoS) to meet user expectations, making it challenging to reduce power consumption due to increasing performance demands. This paper introduces Hipster, a technique that combines heuristics and reinforcement learning to manage latency-crit...

  10. Investigating Facial Electromyography as an Indicator of Cognitive Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    operator’s ability to perform at the level required to prevent hazardous consequences (Young & Stanton, 2002). Cognitive overload and underload can both...the operator’s performance to lessen performance abatement induced by cognitive overload or underload (Wilson & Russell, 2007; Hoepf, Middendorf...Investigating Facial Electromyography as an Indicator of Cognitive Workload 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  11. Modeling Workload Impact in Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Supervisory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    task (e.g., replanning the path of a UV because of an emergent target). Compared to more common measures of workload (e.g., pupil dilation, NASA TLX ...utilization (p=.005). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 W ai t t im es d ue t o at te nt io n in ef fic ie nc ie s (s ec ) Utilization (%) No

  12. Workload of Attending Physicians at an Academic Center in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Fen Chen

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: This study found that work hours among departments differed significantly and that physicians in surgical departments spend the longest hours in clinical work. Those in administrative positions are most involved in clinical work. However, work hours do not definitely represent work intensity, and to define the workload by working hours may be inappropriate for some departments. This possible difference between work hours and work intensity merits further consideration.

  13. Assessment of mental workload and academic motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Kumru Didem; Can, Gulin Feryal; Erdem, Saban Remzi; Muderrisoglu, Ibrahim Haldun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the level of correlation and direction of linearity between academic motivation and subjective workload. The study was conducted at Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, from December 2013 to February 2014, and comprised Phase 5 Phase 6 medical students. Subjective workload level was determined by using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scale that was adapted to Turkish. Academic motivation values were obtained with the help of Academic Motivation Scale university form. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 105 subjects, 65(62%) students were in Phase 5 and 40(38%) were in Phase 6. Of the Phase 5 students, 18(27.7%) were boys and 47(72.3%) were girls, while of the Phase 6 students, 16(40%) were boys and 24(60%) were girls. There were significant differences in Phase 5 and Phase 6 students for mental effort (p=0.00) and physical effort (p=0.00). The highest correlation in Phase 5 was between mental effort and intrinsic motivation (r=0.343). For Phase 6, highest correlation was between effort and amotivation (r= -0.375). Subjective workload affected academic motivation in medical students.

  14. A Balanced Scorecard-Based Model for Evaluating E-Learning and Conventional Pedagogical Activities in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovelja, Tomaž; Vavpotic, Damjan; Žvanut, Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities in nursing programmes has focused either on a single pedagogical activity or the entire curriculum, and only on students' or teachers' perspective. The goal of this study was to design and test a novel approach for evaluation of e-learning and conventional pedagogical activities…

  15. Evaluation of Primary Production in the Lower Amazon River Based on a Dissolved Oxygen Stable Isotopic Mass Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne-Maynard, William C.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Keil, Richard G.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Da Cunha, Alan C.; Neu, Vania; Brito, Daimio C.; Da Silva Less, Diani F.; Diniz, Joel E. M.; De Matos Valerio, Aline; Kampel, Milton; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.

    2017-02-07

    The Amazon River outgasses nearly an equivalent amount of CO2 as the rainforest sequesters on an annual basis due to microbial decomposition of terrigenous and aquatic organic matter. Most research performed in the Amazon has been focused on unraveling the mechanisms driving CO2 production since the recognition of a persistent state of CO2 supersaturation. However, although the river system is clearly net heterotrophic, the interplay between primary production and respiration is an essential aspect to understanding the overall metabolism of the ecosystem and potential transfer of energy up trophic levels. For example, an efficient ecosystem is capable of both decomposing high amounts of organic matter at lower trophic levels, driving CO2 emissions, and accumulating energy/biomass in higher trophic levels, stimulating fisheries production. Early studies found minimal evidence for primary production in the Amazon River mainstem and it has since been assumed that photosynthesis is strongly limited by low light penetration attributed to the high sediment load. Here, we test this assumption by measuring the stable isotopic composition of O218O-O2) and O2 saturation levels in the lower Amazon River from Óbidos to the river mouth and its major tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós rivers, during high and low water periods. An oxygen mass balance model was developed to estimate the input of photosynthetic oxygen in the discrete reach from Óbidos to Almeirim, midway to the river mouth. Based on the oxygen mass balance we estimate that primary production occurred at a rate of 0.39 ± 0.24 g O m3 d-1 at high water and 1.02 ± 0.55 g O m3 d-1 at low water. This translates to 41 ± 24% of the rate of O2 drawdown via respiration during high water and 67 ± 33% during low water. These primary production rates are 2-7 times higher than

  16. Application of balanced scorecard in the evaluation of a complex health system intervention: 12 months post intervention findings from the BHOMA intervention: a cluster randomised trial in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful evaluation of such complex health

  17. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Junsu; Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance

  18. Balancing Human-machine Interface (HMI) Design in Complex Supervisory Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Junsu [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Human performance aspects such as plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, teamwork, and anthropomorphic/physiological factor are evaluated with the HUPESS. Even though the HUPESS provides evaluation results in each of the performance aspects for the integrated system validation (ISV), additional researches have been needed to develop methods on how to find out design deficiency leading to poor performance and give a solution for design improvement in HMI. The authors have developed a method of HMI design improvement for the monitoring and detection tasks which was named as 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching)'. The DEMIS is a HMI evaluation method which bridge poor performance and design improvement. Lessons learned from the existing studies lead to a question about how to optimize the whole HMI design. Human factors principles provide the foundation for guidelines of various codes and standards in designing HMIs. Also in NPPs, a lot of guidelines directly from various codes and standard and derived from various research and development projects are available for designing MCR HMIs. In this study, a balancing principle and relevant two measures for HMI design optimization are proposed to be used in the HMI design of complex supervisory tasks in NPPs. The balancing principle is that a HMI element (e. g., an indicator or a push button) should be designed according to its importance.

  19. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine. Preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.Y. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zhu, Wenyuan [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab Pulp and Paper Engineering; OBryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Peoria, IL (United States). National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research; Tian, Shen [Capital Normal Univ., Beijing (China). College of Life Science; Gleisner, Rolland [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Pan, X.J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    2010-05-15

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quasi-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance. (orig.)

  20. Ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine: preliminary evaluation of mass balance and process energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Zhu, Wenyuan; Obryan, Patricia; Dien, Bruce S; Tian, Shen; Gleisner, Rolland; Pan, X J

    2010-05-01

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 L per metric ton of wood or 72% of theoretical yield. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subjected to sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) pretreatment and then disk-milled; the recovered cellulose substrate was quais-simultaneously saccharified enzymatically and fermented to ethanol using commercial cellulases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. The liquor stream from the pretreatment containing hydrolyzed sugars mainly from hemicelluloses was fermented by the same yeast strain after detoxification using an XAD resin column. The SPORL pretreatment was conducted at 180 degrees C for a period of 25 min with a liquor-to-wood ratio of 3:1 (v/w) in a laboratory digester. Three levels of sulfuric acid charge (0.0%, 1.4%, and 2.2% on an oven dried wood basis in w/w) and three levels of sodium bisulfite charge (0.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% in w/w) were applied. Mechanical and thermal energy consumption for milling and pretreatment were determined. These data were used to determine the efficiency of sugar recoveries and net ethanol energy production values and to formulate a preliminary mass and energy balance.