WorldWideScience

Sample records for working group 19th

  1. FY 1998 annual report on the environmental technology working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo kankyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 activities by the environmental technology working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Mitsukawa, a NEDO's director, outlines the measures for diversifying environmental problems, prevention of global warming, waste disposal/recycling, and toxic chemical substances in the report entitled (Outlines of environmental technology development projects). The report entitled (Eco-cement production techniques for comprehensive utilization of urban type wastes (For efforts for construction of Ichihara eco-cement production facilities)) outlines characteristics of eco-cement production techniques, recyclability of eco-cement, and the facilities. The report entitled (Techniques for reutilization of plastics present in wastes as the blast furnace stocks) outlines the system, R and D project and commercialization, and vinyl chloride recycling system, to be developed by the financial support by NEDO. The other reports include (Development of universal controllers for coping with environmental problems) and (R and D of techniques of simplified dioxine analysis). (NEDO)

  2. FY 1998 annual report on the solar energy technology research and development working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo taiyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the solar energy R and D working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, gave a lecture titled (Expectation on and problems involved in power generation by solar light and wind power), and Mr. Kamon, a managing researcher of NEDO's solar technology development group, reported (Technological development trends of solar technology development group). The other topics reported by the individual groups include development of large-size wind power generation systems, development of techniques for increasing throughputs of high-efficiency, large-area amorphous solar cells, development of techniques for manufacturing high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules, development of techniques for manufacturing CIS solar cell modules, analysis/assessment of thin-film silicon-based solar cells, development of processes for manufacturing silicon of rationalized energy use, R and D of (new multi-layer structure) modules assembled into building materials to form monolithic structures, and development of techniques for manufacturing amorphous thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin- film solar cells. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1998 annual report on the solar energy technology research and development working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo taiyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the solar energy R and D working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, gave a lecture titled (Expectation on and problems involved in power generation by solar light and wind power), and Mr. Kamon, a managing researcher of NEDO's solar technology development group, reported (Technological development trends of solar technology development group). The other topics reported by the individual groups include development of large-size wind power generation systems, development of techniques for increasing throughputs of high-efficiency, large-area amorphous solar cells, development of techniques for manufacturing high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules, development of techniques for manufacturing CIS solar cell modules, analysis/assessment of thin-film silicon-based solar cells, development of processes for manufacturing silicon of rationalized energy use, R and D of (new multi-layer structure) modules assembled into building materials to form monolithic structures, and development of techniques for manufacturing amorphous thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin- film solar cells. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1998 annual report on the fuel/storage working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo nenryo chozo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the fuel/storage working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, outlined the R and D activities for development of techniques for fuel cell power generation, development of decentralized cell power storage systems, demonstration of new load-leveling techniques, development of techniques for superlow-loss type power system components, development of techniques for ceramic gas turbines, pioneer R and D for MGC superhigh-efficiency turbine system techniques, demonstration tests for establishing centralized load controlling systems, development of techniques for network systems utilizing wide-area energy, development of techniques for application of superconductor-aided power systems, R and D for power storage aided by a high-temperature, superconducting flywheel, R and D for basic techniques for applying superconductors, and pioneer R and D for basic techniques for AC superconducting power equipment. The individual NEDO's researchers reported their results, which include outline of the fuel/storage technique development group, and current statuses of fuel cell technique development, new cell-aided power storage technique development, and superconductor technique development. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Murase, a NEDO's director, outlines R and D of techniques for hydrogen-utilizing international clean energy systems, high-efficiency power generation by wastes, reutilization of combustible wastes as fuels, high-efficiency clean energy vehicles and pioneer techniques for utilization of supercritical fluids, and commercialization of waste water treatment techniques for prevention of global warming, in the report entitled (General situations of the hydrogen, alcohol and biomass technology development group). The researchers presented the R and D results of development of externally circulating type fluidized bed, demonstration tests therefor by a pilot plant, phase 1 WE-NET project, phase 1 hydrogen-fueled turbine, phase 1 closed type high-efficiency gas turbine system equipped with a CO2 recovery system, and simple systems for cleaning up industrial wastes. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1998 annual report on the introduction/dissemination working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo donyu fukyu jigyo bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the introduction/dissemination working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Yamaho, a NEDO's director, reports (General situations of the new energy introduction promotion department). The R and D project results include those of renewable energy sources, such as the results of the field test and supporting projects for solar light power generation, wind power generation and solar heat utilization; and those of recycling type energy, such as the results of the field test projects for power generation by wastes and fuel cells, and the results of the projects for district heat supply by co-generation systems. The other results presented include those of the projects for dissemination of clean energy vehicles, supporting new energy entrepreneurs, promotion of introducing district new energy, drawing visions for district new energy, field tests for introducing high-performance industrial furnaces, modeling for introducing facilities for rationalized use of pioneer energy, promotion of disseminating ice-aided, heat-storage type air conditioning systems, and promotion of introducing decentralized gas-aided air conditioning for existing small- to medium-sized buildings. (NEDO)

  7. How To Dance through Time. Volume VI: A 19th Century Ball--The Charm of Group Dances. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 48-minute VHS videotape is the sixth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It shows the festivity of the 19th century group dances, enabling the viewer to plan and participate in the elegant opening to the ball, a refined square dance, and flirtatious Cotillion dancing games. Professional dancers demonstrate the…

  8. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  9. Teaching of History of 19th Century Russia in the Visegrád Group Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmet, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on the content and extent of teaching of Russian history, or history of Russian culture and civilization, in the teaching of history in the states of the Visegrád Group (i.e. in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia). In each of these states, the subject of history (sometimes in different names) has a different status,…

  10. On specifics of pedagogical work and professional competence of teachers in theBritish scientists’ works of the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya V. Zharova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of establishing national education in Great Britain in the late 19th century demanded acceptance of cardinal measures on revising the system of primary education in general, changing the approaches to training and education of children and teacher training. A wide network of teacher training colleges required manuals on pedagogical psychology for elementary school teachers. Alexander Bain and James Sully were the first to develop the issues of pedagogical psychology in Great Britain. Psychology and pedagogical views of Alexander Bain can be found in the works “Education as a Science“, “Psychology“. Psychological ideas of James Sully are reflected in the works “The Teacher’s Handbook of Psychology“, “Studies of Childhood“, “Pedagogical Psychology“. In the works of the British scientists, a wide range of pedagogical psychology issues are presented: from lesson organization issues to problems of professional and basic qualities of teachers. Ideas on the value of a reflection and empathy as factors of efficacy of pedagogical activity were innovative ideas, for psychology and pedagogical science of the 19th century; readiness and ability of the teacher for self-control as basis of efficiency of training and education processes; on the value of communicative, organizing and pedagogical abilities of the teacher, etc. First mentioned in Alexander Bain and James Sully’s works, many ideas find reflection in works of modern scholars.

  11. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  12. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  13. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  14. Fusion energy 2002. 19th conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Fusion energy 2002, held in Lyon, France, on 14-19 October 2002. The CD-Rom contains HTML files for navigation via WEB brouser, the papers in PDF and Acrobat Reader 5 for Windows, Mac-OS and UNIX

  15. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  16. Report on the 19th SPACE Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Rune Gulev

    2008-01-01

    The 19th international space (European Network for Business Studies and Languages) conference that recently took place in Spain provided valuable insight into several areas of interest. Most notably, methods on how to successfully enhance the internationalization of higher learning institutions were shared through mobility and joint degrees programs. Furthermore, the conference provided an academic forum for a highly professional and earnest discourse on pertinent topics of relevance for high...

  17. Family and marital affairs in 19th century Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divac Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnology, as a science, continues to dedicate very much attention to the traditional culture of Serbian 19th century villages. In the past, material culture with all of the disappearing, relic artifacts no longer in use was in the focus of the science. A large amount of data was gathered, on the population origins, migrations, beliefs, rituals, social institutions such as cooperative associations and so on. In spite of these data, ethnology today has no detailed knowledge on life of Serbian 19th century villages especially there is a gap in our knowledge on family life in the first half of the 19th century. Family researches, such as ethnologists, sociologists and particularly those that deal with transformations, in their analyses use as a variable the so-called patriarchal-traditional model of the family. The model assumes: extended or cooperative family, stable and directed toward maintaining family ties and property; divorce is rare since the marriage itself is founded on duties toward family group and deference for a husband or father; the family is tied down to its land and family ties with male lineage are encouraged, and so on. In the first half of the 19th century however, Serbia was the battle-field of political turmoil, rebellion fights and huge social changes and general attitude of instability, migrations arguments, Turkish aggression, and frequent governmental changes, which brought about disturbance in patriarchal system, customs and regulations. Archival sources from the period reveal that courts were very busy dealing with cases of family and marital issues. It is evident that the regulations were put forward to enhance family solidity through marriage and family stability. Several available examples show "a dark side" of the Serbian family life of the period; today, it is not possible to establish the degree to which the family transformed itself from a patriarchal to a more liberated one.

  18. Infant Mortality in Germany in the 19th Century

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    Rolf Gehrmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developments in infant mortality in Germany have previously only been documented in a fragmentary fashion for the 19th century as a whole, and only on a small scale for the period prior to 1871. For the first time, this paper lays a solid statistical foundation by reprocessing the figures assembled by the German states of that time. The reconstructed national statistical series (from 1826 onwards reveals a comparatively high infant mortality, with minor deviations until the turn of the 20th century. The impact of urbanisation and industrialisation is not denied, but an evaluation of the different regional patterns and trends leads to a new weighting. The living and working conditions in the countryside were thus highly determining. The relationship between fertility and infant mortality is assessed differently for the era of the sustained reduction in fertility than for the preceding period. All in all, the prevalent customs and attitudes are regarded as being vital to infants’ survival chances. We therefore need to look at attitudes among the educated public and the authorities. Efforts on the part of these groups to bring about change were particularly observed in the South West, where an awareness of the dramatic problem arose comparatively early. Further historic research at the regional level will be needed in order to achieve a final evaluation of these processes.

  19. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  20. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  1. 19th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This PALO volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 19th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2015), held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 22-25, 2015. The IES series of conference is an annual event that was initiated back in 1997 in Canberra, Australia. IES aims to bring together researchers from countries of the Asian Pacific Rim, in the fields of intelligent systems and evolutionary computation, to exchange ideas, present recent results and discuss possible collaborations. Researchers beyond Asian Pacific Rim countries are also welcome and encouraged to participate. The theme for IES 2015 is “Transforming Big Data into Knowledge and Technological Breakthroughs”. The host organization for IES 2015 is the School of Information Technology (SIT), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), and it is technically sponsored by the International Neural Network Society (INNS). IES 2015 is collocated with three other conferences; namely, The 6th International Confere...

  2. Cast Iron in The 19th Century Building Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasek, Michał; Piwek, Aleksander

    2017-10-01

    Cast iron is a material, characteristics of which enable to receive extremely artistic elements. It maintains good strength properties at the same time. That combination of these seemingly contrary traits makes it a commodity that was widely used in the 19th century industry and architecture. These usages were not only as decorative elements, technical and structural ones. The production of new household utilities started, which made people’s lives more comfortable. Cast iron allowed for fast and cheap production while maintaining high aesthetic qualities. Useful elements, which often were ornamental parts of buildings were created. The aim of the article is to characterise elements of interior equipment of the 19th century building that are made of cast iron. As it appears from performed bibliography, archival and field studies, the ways of exploitation are very broad. Some were mounted into the building; the others were a mobile equipment. As it occurred they were most commonly used as functional items. Cast iron was used to produce the minor elements, which were only parts of the bigger wooden or stone items. Notwithstanding, there were also bigger ones casted as a whole, and frequently ones that were assembled from many elements. Nowadays, elements of an interior feature are one of the subjects of study during the restoration work of the buildings. They can provide important information about the building and the way people lived and are considered as the essential part of historical objects.

  3. BACKGROUND OF EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY INITIATION AS CENTERS OF CREATIVE INTELLIGENTSIA IN UKRAINE (late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Popeleshko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with socio-political and pedagogical background of educational communities in Ukraine as centers of forming creative intellectuals (late 19th century. Activities of educational societies of the late 19th century create a whole era in the development of education and culture history in Ukraine. Their work in the field of education has gained public appeal joining the General process of national revival. Progressive Ukrainian intelligentsia, working in societies, awakens the national consciousness, lay the foundations of mother tongue education. The emergence and activities of various public organizations in Ukraine in late 19th century are a kind of a phenomenon that has not only cultural and enlightening nature, but also an educational one. One of the main objectives is to change the content and quality of Ukrainian people’s education. Through an analysis of historical and pedagogical sources we have found that the end of the 19th century became for Ukrainians in Dnieper Ukraine the period of confrontation with the authorities for preserving the national culture. Changes in the Russian Empire began a strong push for the national awakening and intensification of national consciousness of the intelligentsia in the Ukrainian provinces. Seeing their duty in developing the national culture, Ukrainian intelegencia launched special enlightening trend. For the first time in the history of Ukrainian society pedagogical problems were widely discussed by the public, besides they became the subject of public initiatives, the country’s life was enriched with a new phenomenon – public-educational movement. The participants of the educational movement of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in cities led to the logical replacement of single individual cultural work to the activities of the whole associations, communities. In communities the future leaders of the enlightenment movement were formed. They were teachers, scientists, doctors, who

  4. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  5. Working Group 7 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev S.; Berg J.

    2012-06-10

    The primary subject of working group 7 at the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop was muon accelerators for a muon collider or neutrino factory. Additionally, this working group included topics that did not fit well into other working groups. Two subjects were discussed by more than one speaker: lattices to create a perfectly integrable nonlinear lattice, and a Penning trap to create antihydrogen.

  6. 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications, held at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman in May 2013. The conference brought together experts and novices in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems. The volume features papers in difference equations and discrete time dynamical systems with applications to mathematical sciences and, in particular, mathematical biology, ecology, and epidemiology. It includes four invited papers and eight contributed papers. Topics covered include: competitive exclusion through discrete time models, Benford solutions of linear difference equations, chaos and wild chaos in Lorenz-type systems, advances in periodic difference equations, the periodic decomposition problem, dynamic selection systems and replicator equations, and asymptotic equivalence of difference equations in Banach Space. This book will appeal to researchers, scientists, and educators who work in th...

  7. Collector at the Crossroads. Jan Działyński and the Kórnik Collection of Works of Art in the Second Half of the 19th Century: An Exhibition between the Romantic Spirit of Patriotism and a Modern Scientific Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłudkiewicz, Kamila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 19th century, a tendency for a scientific approach to collecting became visible in Europe. Collectors established contacts with art experts and art researchers in order to assemble works of high class. A Polish aristocrat, Jan Działyński, presented a collection of works of art in a specially prepared castle room of his family estate in Kórnik. The exhibition of his collection bears features characteristic for a systematic and scientific approach to collecting; nevertheless, certain elements still testify to inspiration in Romantic collecting of national tokens, popular at the beginning of the 19thcentury in Poland.

  8. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  9. Computational methods working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

  10. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  11. Parton Distributions Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, L. de; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data

  12. NIFS contributions to 19th IAEA fusion energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    NIFS has presented 21 papers at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (Lyon, France, 14-19 October 2002). The contributed papers are collected in this report. The 21 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work.

  14. 19th Radiation Hygiene Days. Conference Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The proceedings consists of a following chapters: (1) Invited presentation; (2) Nuclear accident: management and instrumentation; (3) Low activity in environmental; (4) Radon: sources, doses and effects; (5) Radiation protection in nuclear medicine; (6) Nuclear power plants: radiation safety. (J.K.)

  15. 19th Radiation Hygiene Days. Conference Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The proceedings consists of a following chapters: (1) Invited presentation; (2) Nuclear accident: management and instrumentation; (3) Low activity in environmental; (4) Radon: sources, doses and effects; (5) Radiation protection in nuclear medicine; (6) Nuclear power plants: radiation safety. (J.K.).

  16. Annual AFOSR Chemistry Program Review (19th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Chem., 42, 161 (1973). "A Rotating Ring Disk Electrode Study of the Adsorption of Lead on Gold in 0.5M Potassium Chloride," V. A. Vicente and S...Gold," D. F. Untereker and S. Bruckenstein, in preparation. "A Rotating Ring-Disk Study of the Adsorption of Thallium on Gold in 0.5H Potassium ... polyacrylic acid, and polydiallyl- phthalate. This paper will only cite the work on the photolysis of polydiallylphthalate. (PDAP). 70 The goal of this

  17. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900.

  18. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  19. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P. [et al.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  20. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  1. Multibunch working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this working group was to foment discussions about the use and limitations of multi-bunch, representatives from most operating or in-project synchrotron radiation sources (ALS, SPEAR, BESSY-2, SPRING-8, ANKA, DELTA, PEP-2, DIAMOND, ESRF...) have presented their experience. The discussions have been led around 3 topics: 1) resistive wall instabilities and ion instabilities, 2) higher harmonic cavities, and 3) multibunch feedback systems.

  2. Statures of 19th century Chinese males in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2007-01-01

    This study considers statures of 19th century male Chinese immigrant to the American West and assesses how their personal characteristics were related with stature variation. The subjects were 1423 male Chinese prisoners received between 1850 and 1920 in the Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington state prisons. The study compares 19th century Chinese inmate statures with other studies and employs stature regression models on time, socio-economic status and residence within the USA to account for biological variation. Between 1830 and 1870, Chinese youth male stature declined by over 2 cm. Between 1820 and 1860, Chinese adult male stature also declined by over 2 cm. Chinese stature did not vary with socio-economic status or residence. Nineteenth century Chinese emigrant statures were influenced more by political and economic events than socio-economic status, and male emigrants' biological conditions may have deteriorated throughout the 19th century.

  3. JAERI contribution to the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report compiles the contributed papers and presentation materials from JAERI to the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference held at Lyon, France, from October 14th to 19th, 2002. The papers describe the recent progress in the experimental research in JT-60U and JFT-2M tokamaks, theoretical studies, fusion technology and R and D for ITER and fusion reactors. Total 32 papers consist of 1 overview talk, 14 oral and 17 poster presentations. Eight papers written by authors from other institutes and universities under collaboration with JAERI are also included. The 40 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Provisions on illegitimate children in 19th century Montenegrin legislature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of illegitimate children according to 19th century Montenegrin legislature is examined in this paper. Provisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Montenegrin 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper.

  5. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  6. Fiction as a Medium of Social Communication in 19th Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Pstrocki-Sehovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will present the extent to which literature could be viewed as means of social communication – i.e. informing and influencing society – in 19thcentury France, by analysing the appearance of three authors at different points:  the beginning, the middle and the end of the century. The first is the case of Balzac at the beginning of the 19th Century who becomes the most successful novelist of the century in France and who, in his prolific expression and rich vocabulary, portrays society from various angles in a huge opus of almost 100 works, 93 of them making his Comédie humaine. The second is the case of Gustave Flaubert whose famous novel Madame Bovary, which depicts a female character in a realist but also in a psychologically conscious manner, around the mid-19th century reaches French courts together with Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire and is exposed as being socially judged for its alleged immorality. The last is the political affair of Dreyfus and its defender Emile Zola, the father of naturalism. This case confirms the establishment of more intense relations between writer and politics and builds a solid way for a more conscious and everyday political engagement in the literary world from the end of the 19th century onwards. These three are the most important cases which illustrate how fiction functioned in relation to society, state and readership in 19th century France.

  7. Business working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.W.

    2000-01-01

    The workshop of 26-27 june 2000, on nuclear power Plant LIfe Management (PLIM), also included working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for nuclear power plants were identified and discussed. The third group was on Business. The discussion concerned the following points: There are concerns about retaining experienced/trained personnel, and maintaining a good working relationship among them, as well as about the closure of research facilities, the reduction in staff numbers under increasing economic pressure and the lack of new nuclear power plant constructions. The marginal cost of producing electricity is lower for most existing nuclear power plants than for almost all other energy sources. Refurbishment costs are usually relatively small compared with new investments. The ongoing regulatory reform of the electricity market will bring increasing competition. Although PLIM has been carried out in many countries with favourable results, there are still uncertainties which affect business decisions regarding financial and market risks in PLIM activities. Recommendations were made. (author)

  8. Technology working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikura, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The workshop of 26-27 june 2000, on nuclear power Plant LIfe Management (PLIM), also included working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for nuclear power plants were identified and discussed. The first group was on Technology. Utilities should consider required provisions capacity by properly maintaining and preserving the existing power plants to the extent practicable and taking into account growing demand, limits of energy conservation, and difficulties in finding new power plant sites. Generally, the extension of the life of nuclear power plant (e.g. from 40 years to 60 years) is an attractive option for utilities, as the marginal cost of most existing nuclear power plants is lower than that of almost all other power sources. It is also an attractive option for environmental protection. Consequently, PLIM has become an important issue in the context of the regulatory reform of the electricity markets. Therefore, the three main objectives of the Technology working group are: 1) Documenting how the safety of nuclear power plants being operated for the long-term has been confirmed, and suggesting ways of sharing this information. 2) Addressing development of advanced maintenance technologies necessary over the plant lifetime, and clarifying their technical challenges. 3) Suggesting potential areas of research and development that might, be necessary. Some potential examples of such research include: - improving the effectiveness of maintenance methods to assure detection of incipient faults; - providing cost effective preventive maintenance programmes; - furnishing systematic, cost-effective refurbishment programmes framed to be consistent with efforts to extend the time between re-fuelling; - developing a methodology that moves routine maintenance on-line without compromising safety. (author)

  9. 19th Century Roots to the American Vocational Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Gordon F.

    Historical developments in the 18th and 19th centuries influenced the course of European and American education and the separate path of vocational education. The first of these developments was the emergence of schools as primary instruments for the transmission of knowledge and culture, as a result of the phenomenal growth of the American states…

  10. Working Group Report: Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  11. Oklo working group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Maravic, H.

    1993-01-01

    Natural analogue studies have been carried out for several years in the framework of the European Community's R and D programme on radioactive waste; and within its recent fourth five-year programme on 'Management and storage of radioactive waste (1990-94)' the Community is participating in the Oklo study, natural analogue for transfer processes in a geological repository. The Oklo project is coordinated by CEA-IPSN (F) and involves laboratories from several CEA directorates (IPSN, DTA and DCC) which collaborate with other institutions from France: CREGU, Nancy; CNRS, Strasbourg and ENSMD, Fontainebleau. Moreover, institutes from non-EC member States are also taking part in the Oklo study. The second joint CEC-CEA progress meeting of the Oklo Working Group was held in April 1992 in Brussels and gave the possibility of reviewing and discussing progress made since its first meeting in February 1991 at CEA in Fontenay-aux-Roses. About 40 participants from 15 laboratories and organizations coming from France, Canada, Gabon, Japan, Sweden and the USA underline the great interest in the ongoing research activities. The meeting focused on the different tasks within the CEC-CEA Oklo project concerning (i) field survey and sampling, (ii) characterization of the source term, (iii) studies of the petrographical and geochemical system, and (iv) studies of the hydrogeological system and hydrodynamic modelling. (author) 17 papers are presented

  12. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  13. Style and elegance in Bessarabian photographs of the 2nd half of the 19th century

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Dohot

    2017-01-01

    The author presents the fashion trends of Western Europe, Romania and Bessarabia in the second half of the 19th century through the prism of photography. The influence of European monarchic houses on the fashion of that time is considered, as well as the role of artistic and cultural emancipation, which has left its imprint on society through the visual arts. The article lists fashion designers who contributed to the development of fashion and whose work was reflected in the photographs.

  14. Tuberculosis in the Ottoman harem in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Y Izzetin; Hillerdal, Gunnar

    2009-08-01

    At least four of the sultans who ruled during the 19th century suffered from tuberculosis (TB), and probably many of the women and children in the harem too. Life there was crowded with low standards of hygiene, resulting in high mortality, especially among children. Infectious diseases were the main killers and TB was one of the many factors behind the decline and fall of the empire.

  15. Maks Fabiani and urbanism in Vienna at the turn of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mihelič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with new concepts in urban planning at the turn of the 19th century. It represents three key persons, all architects and urban planners: Camillo Sitte, Otto Wagner and Maks Fabiani. All three left an indelible mark on urban planning in the Hapsburg Monarchy. In particular, it focuses on Maks Fabiani, whose work is closely related with the reconstruction of Ljubljana after the earthquake at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Even though Fabiani was one of the most distinguished and respected urban planners in Vienna, his contribution to the history and theory of urban planning was until now relatively overlooked and not stressed enough upon in the context of the urban history within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  16. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2016-11-01

    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  18. Working group 5: Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.

    1976-01-01

    The technical aspects of safety for the LWR nuclear power plants, and a reprocessing plant are considered. The origin, the type and the extent of the risks for the civil populations are presented for normal working as well as accidental conditions. A general estimate of comparative risks is given for the nuclear industry with respect to other activities. The legal Belgian aspects and their applications, the kind and the quality of the technical testings, the back-fitting of plants are analysed. Considerations are given on the probabilistic analysis, the safety, and the off-shore power plants. (A.F.)

  19. Rising trends of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Baron, J H

    2010-10-01

    The risk of dying from gastric cancer appears to have increased among consecutive generations born during the 19th century. To follow the time trends of hospitalization for gastric cancer and test whether they confirm such increase. Inpatient records of the last two centuries from four hospitals in Scotland and three US hospitals were analysed. Proportional rates of hospitalization for gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were calculated during consecutive 5-year periods. The data from all seven cities revealed strikingly similar patterns. No hospital admissions for gastric cancer or peptic ulcer were recorded prior to 1800. Hospital admissions for gastric cancer increased in an exponential fashion throughout the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. In a majority of cities, the rise in hospitalization for gastric cancer preceded a similar rise in hospitalization for gastric ulcer. Hospitalization for these two latter diagnoses clearly preceded hospitalization for duodenal ulcer by 20-40 years. The occurrence of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer markedly increased during the 19th century. Improvements in hygiene may have resulted in the decline of infections by other gastrointestinal organisms that had previously kept concomitant infection by Helicobacter pylori suppressed. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c its relation with human ageing; and d the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept.

  1. Evolution of Electromagnetics in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lindell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Steps leading to the present-day electromagnetic theory made in the 19th Century are briefly reviewed. The progress can be roughly divided in two branches which are called Continental and British Electromagnetics. The former was based on Newton's action-at-a-distance principle and French mathematics while the latter grew from Faraday's contact-action principle, the concept of field lines and physical analogies. Maxwell's field theory and its experimental verification marked the last stage in the process.

  2. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Secondary-school chemistry textbooks in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Vesna D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of chemistry in Serbia as a separate subject dates from 1874. The first secondary-school chemistry textbooks appeared in the second half of the 19th century. The aim of this paper is to gain insight, by analysing two secondary-school chemistry textbooks, written by Sima Lozanić (1895 and Mita Petrović (1892, into what amount of scientific knowledge from the sphere of chemistry was presented to secondary school students in Serbia in the second half of the 19th century, and what principles textbooks written at the time were based on. Within the framework of the research conducted, we defined the criteria for assessing the quality of secondary-school chemistry textbooks in the context of the time they were written in. The most important difference between the two textbooks under analysis that we found pertained to the way in which their contents were organized. Sima Lozanić’s textbook is characterized by a greater degree of systematicness when it comes to the manner of presenting its contents and consistency of approach throughout the book. In both textbooks one can perceive the authors’ attempts to link chemistry-related subjects to everyday life, and to point out the practical significance of various substances, as well as their toxicness.

  4. Task Force Report, Safety of Personnel in LHC underground areas following the accident of 19th September 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Delille, B; Inigo-Golfin, J; Lindell, G; Roy, G; Tavian, L; Thomas, E; Trant, R; Völlinger, C

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, the Task Force on Safety of Personnel in the LHC underground areas following the accident in sector 3-4 of 19th September 2008 (Safety Task Force) received from the CERN Director General the mandate to investigate the impact of the accident of 19th September 2008 on the safety of personnel working in the LHC underground areas. This mandate includes the elaboration of preventive and/or corrective measures, if deemed necessary. This report gives the conclusions and recommendations of the Safety Task Force which have been reviewed by an external advisory committee of safety experts.

  5. 19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Barral, Patricia; Gómez, Dolores; Pena, Francisco; Rodríguez, Jerónimo; Salgado, Pilar; Vázquez-Méndez, Miguel; ECMI 2016; Progress in industrial mathematics

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses mathematics in a wide variety of applications, ranging from problems in electronics, energy and the environment, to mechanics and mechatronics. Using the classification system defined in the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020, several of the topics covered belong to the challenge climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials; and some to health, demographic change and wellbeing; while others belong to Europe in a changing world – inclusive, innovative and reflective societies. The 19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry, ECMI2016, was held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain in June 2016. The proceedings of this conference include the plenary lectures, ECMI awards and special lectures, mini-symposia (including the description of each mini-symposium) and contributed talks. The ECMI conferences are organized by the European Consortium for Mathematics in Industry with the aim of promoting interaction between academy and industry, leading...

  6. 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering continues a strong tradition of scientific meetings in the areas of sustainability and engineering within the community of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP). The focus of the conference is to review and discuss the current developments, technology improvements, and future research directions that will allow engineers to help create green businesses and industries that are both socially responsible and economically successful.  The symposium covers a variety of relevant topics within life cycle engineering including Businesses and Organizations, Case Studies, End of Life Management, Life Cycle Design, Machine Tool Technologies for Sustainability, Manufacturing Processes, Manufacturing Systems, Methods and Tools for Sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Supply Chain Management.

  7. 19th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers the best papers presented at the 19th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, which was held in Granada, Spain in July 2015. It covers a range of project management and engineering contexts, including: civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, information and communication technologies, safety, labour risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Project management and engineering is taking on increasing importance as projects continue to grow in size, more stakeholders become involved, and environmental, organisational and technological issues become more complex. As such, this book offers a valuable resource for all professionals seeking the latest material on the changing face of project management.

  8. 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Guralnick, David; Uhomoibhi, James

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, held 21-23 September 2016 at Clayton Hotel in Belfast, UK. We are currently witnessing a significant transformation in the development of education. The impact of globalisation on all areas of human life, the exponential acceleration of developments in both technology and the global markets, and the growing need for flexibility and agility are essential and challenging elements of this process that have to be addressed in general, but especially in the context of engineering education. To face these topical and very real challenges, higher education is called upon to find innovative responses. Since being founded in 1998, this conference has consistently been devoted to finding new approaches to learning, with a focus on collaborative learning. Today the ICL conferences have established themselves as a vital forum for the exchange of information on key trends and findings, and of practical lessons le...

  9. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Book advertisements in Osijek’s 19th century newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Krtalić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the promotion of books through advertising in the newspapers published in Osijek in the second half of the 19th century. From late 18th century and in the course of the 19th century’s intense developments in the publishing of newspapers and journals, advertising in this medium was one of the ways to promote books. Booksellers and publishers advertised books in newspaper ads, relying on the fact that newspapers had become a common and omnipresent medium for disseminating information. Book advertisements were evidence of the position of books in relation to other aspects of culture and society, of the approach to their promotion and, finally, of the importance of book promotion. In order to investigate how and how much book ads were present, and how Croatian books were promoted and reached the readership, the paper analyses daily and monthly publications, such as Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung from 1869, Die Drau from 1968 to 1877, and Branislav from 1878. Among the eleven different papers published in the second half of the 19th century in Osijek, these were selected for their content, as they were the first illustrated newspapers (Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung. The investigation focused on the influence of the newly emerged illustrated press and on the influence of the newspapers published in Croatian language (Branislav, as a possible tool for spreading and promotion of Croatian books. Another focus was on the influence of continued publication and on the growth of a steady readership (Die Drau. The papers were analysed with the aim to locate book advertisements which were then subjected to content analysis. Also provided is a brief overview of the book production and publication in Croatia and in Osijek at the time, and an overview of the emergence of newspapers in Osijek with a brief account of the titles selected for study in order to gain an insight into the context in which book ads appeared. It

  11. The didactics of group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss aims and means of group work as a teaching and learning method. In Denmark, group work has been implemented at all levels of education since the 1970s from primary school to university but also in training sessions in organizations. The discussion in this paper...... will take its point of departure in pedagogical textbook introductions where group work is often presented as a means to learning social skills and co-workability. However, as most students and teachers know, this is not always the case. Observations of long-term group work show that this can be a tough...... experience for the students (Christensen 2013). Contrary to expectations, the group work seemed to foster anti-social behavior and development of selfish skills. The paper will therefore conclude by suggesting how the (often) laissez-faire group pedagogy, which is dominant in Denmark, could be improved...

  12. The politics of midwifery education and training in New South Wales during the last decades of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcal, Nita K

    2008-03-01

    This paper focuses on the introduction and development of midwifery education and training in Sydney during the last decades of the 19th century. The aim of the training, it is argued, was to displace the lay midwives by trained midwifery nurses who would work under medical control. The lay midwives were one of the largest occupational groups among women and two-thirds of births in NSW were being delivered by them in the late 19th century. It was a period of professionalisation of medicine and medical men laid claim to midwifery as a legitimate sphere of their practice and saw it as the gateway for establishing a family practice. The lay midwife stood in the way of their claim. The training programs were established purportedly to control maternal mortality. From the beginning in 1887 medical men were in control of midwifery nurse training. In addition to training at the Benevolent Society Asylum, three more women's hospitals were established in the 1890s in Sydney making it possible to train a stream of midwifery nurses. The midwifery nurses were charged exorbitant fees for their training; the fees contributed substantially towards running the new hospitals that delivered birth services to the poor and destitute women mostly in their homes. The midwifery nurses worked hard in miserable conditions under the guise of clinical experience required for training. When a critical mass of poorly trained midwifery nurses were in the offing, a Bill was introduced into the Parliament in 1895, restricting registration to midwifery nurses and this would have eliminated the lay midwife if passed. It took more than two decades to get a Registration Bill passed in the NSW Parliament.

  13. Reading Societies and their Social Exclusivity: Dalmatia in the First Half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lakuš

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading societies, known as the gabinetto di lettura, or the casino, appeared in Dalmatia in the middle of the 18th century modelled on their Western European, North Italian and Austrian counterparts. They became centres of social and cultural life in the region. However, their number was very small in comparison with other Central and Western European countries. In spite of that, their statutes can serve a historian as very fertile and useful historical sources. First of all, they can reveal the importance given to books and reading as well as changing attitude towards reading in the course of time. They can also indicate social structure of the reading circles as well as the interaction and communication among the members. In addition, they can reveal the participation of women in social and cultural life, internal functioning of the society, etc. Based on the statutes of several reading societies of the 19th century, this work suggests several important issues. First, it shows that in the first half of the 19th century the membership of these societies was still select and prestigious, acquired by position on the social scale. In other words, reading societies were still confined to very narrow social circles of the educated. Although in Western parts of Europe the reading public became more heterogeneous and open, in Dalmatia reading still preserved its exclusive features. Second, the work also suggests that what some historians of book and reading called the ”reading revolution” or ”revolution in reading” occurred in Dalmatia much later, and even then mostly in urban areas. Some changes in reading habits occurred in the region, albeit to a limited extent and with less influence on society as a whole. Third, the work also demonstrates that from the 1840s reading acquired a new dimension, becoming open to the more social strata and gradually losing its exclusive character. The reading societies, lending libraries and other cultural

  14. Style and elegance in Bessarabian photographs of the 2nd half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Dohot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the fashion trends of Western Europe, Romania and Bessarabia in the second half of the 19th century through the prism of photography. The influence of European monarchic houses on the fashion of that time is considered, as well as the role of artistic and cultural emancipation, which has left its imprint on society through the visual arts. The article lists fashion designers who contributed to the development of fashion and whose work was reflected in the photographs.

  15. H.C.Ørsted, Science and "Dannelse" in the early 19th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens Jakob

    philosophers/professors in humanities in creating a new idea about school curriculum and content. An idea based on the Humboldtian movement with the concept "Algemeine bildung" in the center of reforming the educational system, but in contrast to this movement with a focus on "naturvidenskabelig almendannelse......A research into the introduction of the concept "Almendannelse" (Litteracy/Education/Culture) in the Danish discourse about reforming the educational system in the early 19th Century, reveals a time in Danish history where the world famous scientist H.C. Ørsted was working together with central...

  16. Gender and Public Understanding of Science: Darwinism in the 19th Century Brazilian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema de Rezende Vergara

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.

  17. Group Work with Transgender Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Lore M.; Loewy, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the existing literature, the authors' research and clinical experiences, and the first author's personal journey as a member and leader of the transgender community, this article offers a brief history of group work with transgender clients followed by suggestions for group work with transgender clients from a social justice…

  18. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  19. Working with Difficult Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes types of group members who are challenging in group settings including entitled, manipulative, and character-disordered clients. Provides suggestions for working with these group members, either as isolated cases or as homogenous populations, emphasizing the protection of other clients' rights. Includes 31 references. (Author/CRR)

  20. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.

    2015-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  1. Spatial modelling of rural infant mortality and occupation in 19th-century Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Atkinson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality in 19th century rural places has been largely neglected: to study it offers new insight into rural demography. Objective: This study examines infant mortality, and census occupations, between 1851 and 1911 across all the rural Registration Districts (RDs of England and Wales. Methods: The decadal 1850s−1900s RD-level demographic data in the GB Historical GIS (GBHGIS is analysed using latent trajectory analysis to identify clusters of RDs whose infant mortality rate (IMR trajectories are most similar: these are mapped in ArcGIS. The recently published Integrated Census Microdata (I-CeM resource is then used to study relationships between IMR and census-reported occupation. Geographically Weighted Regression is employed to explore spatial variation in the coefficient with which occupation affected IMR. Results: The study describes a previously unreported pattern of mortality variation, identifying seven groups of RDs with distinctive trajectories of infant mortality. A spatially varying link between IMR and female occupation rates in agriculture is noted. Conclusions: Spatial variation in rural social structures had demographic consequences. The decline in female agricultural occupation may have removed a source of harm to infant lives in the arable economy of the south and east, but simultaneously a source of benefit in the upland, pastoral north and west. Contribution: Findings about the costs and benefits of female agricultural employment can help explain the different trajectories of infant mortality in different regions, suggesting that female occupation and the details of what work women did could be a strong influence, positive or negative, on infant mortality.

  2. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  3. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  4. Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Inês; Sousa Silva, Luís; Garcia, João Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) Inês Amorim CITCEM, Department of History, Political and International Studies, U. of Porto, Portugal. Luís Sousa Silva CITCEM, PhD Fellowship - FCT. João Carlos Garcia CIUHCT, Geography Department, U. of Porto, Portugal. The first major national project on Historical Climatology in Portugal, called "KLIMHIST: Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources (17th-19th centuries)", ended in September 2015, coordinated by Maria João Alcoforado. This project began in March 2012 and counted on an interdisciplinary team of researchers from four Portuguese institutions (Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, University of Porto, and University of Évora), from different fields of knowledge (Geography, History, Biology, Climatology and Meteorology). The team networked and collaborated with other international research groups on Climate Change and Historical Climatology, resulting in several publications. This project aimed to reconstruct thermal and rainfall patterns in Portugal between the 17th and 19th centuries, as well as identify the main hydrometeorological extremes that occurred over that period. The basic methodology consisted in combining information from different types of anthropogenic sources (descriptive and instrumental) and natural sources (tree rings and geothermal holes), so as to develop climate change models of the past. The data collected were stored in a digital database, which can be searched by source, date, location and type of event. This database, which will be made publically available soon, contains about 3500 weather/climate-related records, which have begun to be studied, processed and published. Following this seminal project, other initiatives have taken place in Portugal in the area of Historical Climatology, namely a Ph

  5. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete

  6. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete. 32 refs.; 16 figs

  7. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  8. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  9. Working group report: Neutrino physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    olation. PACS No. 14.6.q. 1. Introduction. It was decided to cover a myriad of topics for discussion and work in the neu- trino physics working group, rather than restrict ourselves to any one focal theme. 269 ..... [8] Super-Kamiokande Collaboration: K Abe et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 171801 (2006), hep-ex/0607059.

  10. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Professional veterinarians in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz, Spain during the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Suárez-Guzmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinarians had different names throughout the 19th century in Spain: veterinary surgeons, farriers, castrators, marshals, etc., and they were not professionally and socially recognized until the 20th century. In 1850 they were given sanitary and zootechnical responsibilities, although many of them continued practicing horse shodding. With the creation of veterinary schools, the foundations of modern veterinary medicine were established in Spain; this has a special importance for public health issues, especially regarding figures like deputy veterinary and meat inspector, as they tried to understand the impact of animal diseases on the population who consumed animal meat. Studies in the Historical Archives of Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz, Spain made it possible to analyze how veterinary professionals lived and worked there during the 19th century, how they settled in or left the city, how they treated epidemics in animals for human consumption, and how they suffered the economic difficulties of the period and the City. The destruction and loss of part of the Archives makes it difficult to obtain more data.

  12. A flame of sacred love: Mission involvement of women in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Kommers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century, women missionaries found acceptance in the public domain and opportunities for achievement that they were denied at home. Whilst they spearheaded movements for Christianising and modernising Asian (the focus of this article and African societies through the evangelisation, education and physical care of women, many questions were raised about their motives and the way they executed their work. We need to rediscover the sacrificial dedication women had that made the 19th century the greatest century of Christian expansion. These were remarkable women who left everything behind − many of them leaving a permanent impression upon the people in whose cities they eventually resided − and who stand as examples to the present generation. Having lost most of the things the world prizes, they gained one thing they esteemed so highly. For them, the relative value of things temporal might go, provided that they could forever settle the eternal values. They lived out the words of Paul: ‘I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus’ (Phlp 3:14.

  13. Mapping Utopia: Cartography and Social Reform in 19th Century Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the 16th century on, the great Southern continent figured in the European literary and political imagination as a field for utopian thought. While we might expect such Arcadian essays to tail off as the colonisation of Australia proceeded apace in the late 18th, early 19th centuries, such was not the case: there are many examples of utopian literature set in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries, and several examples from the 1830s , the period examined in this article. This article explores the utopian elements in the work of three near contemporaries: Edward G. Wakefield (1796-1862, Thomas J. Maslen (1787-1857 and James Vetch (1789-1869 who mapped onto Australia political and social projects that had their origin and rationale in objectives for reform in the mother country. They brought to their self-appointed task underlying assumptions and biases that reveal a range of influences, not least those of colonial expansionism, and an imperial disregard for the realities of the terrain and inhabitants of a country they had never visited. The article undertakes a close reading of the maps, systems of nomenclature and division of territory proposed by two of the three: Maslen and Vetch, and their underlying rationale and function. Both writers sought to redraw the map of Australia in order to advance projects for reform, imposing on an ‘empty land’ principles of division and sub-division claimed to be rational and scientific and yet essentially utopian.

  14. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  15. CFCC working group meeting: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report is a compilation of the vugraphs presented at this meeting. Presentations covered are: CFCC Working Group; Overview of study on applications for advanced ceramics in industries for the future; Design codes and data bases: The CFCC program and its involvement in ASTM, ISO, ASME, and military handbook 17 activities; CFCC Working Group meeting (McDermott Technology); CFCC Working Group meeting (Textron); CFCC program for DMO materials; Developments in PIP-derived CFCCs; Toughened Silcomp (SiC-Si) composites for gas turbine engine applications; CFCC program for CVI materials; Self-lubricating CFCCs for diesel engine applications; Overview of the CFCC program`s supporting technologies task; Life prediction methodologies for CFCC components; Environmental testing of CFCCs in combustion gas environments; High-temperature particle filtration ORNL/DCC CRADA; HSCT CMC combustor; and Case study -- CFCC shroud for industrial gas turbines.

  16. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  17. Working group report: Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. 12Cornell University ... This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth ... In view of the requirements of the hour and the available skills and interests, it was decided to .... The actual computation, which is long and somewhat tedious, is currently under way and is ...

  18. Group Work with Abusive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lois; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Social work students conclude from an experience that parents can consider alternative means of disciplining children when they participate in a parent group that is comfortable and when attendance is promoted by provision of tangible services. Parents achieved increased sense of self-worth and learned appropriate ways of expressing anger. (Author)

  19. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  20. The FORATOM Transport Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    Based in Brussels, the European atomic forum FORATOM is the trade association of the European nuclear industry which was established in the early 1960s to promote nuclear power and to facilitate relations with the European institutions. One of the main mechanisms which FORATOM uses, in its dealings with the European Commission and other international organisations, is the involvement of several working groups bringing together groups of experts drawn from the industrial companies in order to identify the issues and to develop the widest possible common views on which the industry must express its representative, substantial and deliverable opinion. The Transport Working Group (TWG) has the objective of dealing with transport of radioactive material, especially nuclear materials. The TWG usually meets three times a year in Brussels or another selected location. It has strong links with the European Commission which are evidenced by the fact that it officially represents the European nuclear industry, with the status of observer, at the meetings of the Standing Working Group on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material which was set up in 1982, upon a request of the European Parliament, to advise the European Commission in the field of safe transport of radioactive materials. The Standing Working Group (SWG) assists the European Union's Member States in the revision process of IAEA recommendations and helps a correct and harmonious application of these recommendations within the European Union. In previous years, the Standing Working Group has proposed over 40 different studies, financed by the European Commission, on important transport issues. The FORATOM TWG encourages its member organisations to participate in studies proposed by the Commission and has been cooperating for many years with the Commission in the field of many studies aimed to improve the application of transport regulations. The need to maintain the safe and reliable operation of plants that generate

  1. Spent Fuel Working Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary's initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group's Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities

  2. Working Group Report: Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-10-18

    This is the summary report of the energy frontier QCD working group prepared for Snowmass 2013. We review the status of tools, both theoretical and experimental, for understanding the strong interactions at colliders. We attempt to prioritize important directions that future developments should take. Most of the efforts of the QCD working group concentrate on proton-proton colliders, at 14 TeV as planned for the next run of the LHC, and for 33 and 100 TeV, possible energies of the colliders that will be necessary to carry on the physics program started at 14 TeV. We also examine QCD predictions and measurements at lepton-lepton and lepton-hadron colliders, and in particular their ability to improve our knowledge of strong coupling constant and parton distribution functions.

  3. Radiation sources working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations

  4. Two kinetic derivations of the law of perfect gases into Spanish physics books during the 19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero Martinez, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The political events occurred in the last years of the 18th century, the Independence war and the reign of Fernando VII, ruined the Spanish scientific panorama, physics included. During the 19th century, the national scientific production was restricted to textbooks and popularization works. Two kinetic derivations of the law of perfect gases corresponding to a textbook and a book about steam engines from the viewpoint of thermodynamics are presented and discussed. (Author) 16 refs

  5. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  6. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century | Banwo | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. ... DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. The Ilorin economy in the 19th century. Adeyinko O Banwo. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 1, 1998: 129-146 ...

  7. Report for Working Group 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The theme for the second working group was design education in civil and environmental engineering. Issues discussed during this meeting included the current state of the art of civil design education, the importance of civil design education, tools and techniques that can be used to build design...... competencies, the importance of balancing hard and soft skills, and the role that culture and context play and will continue to play in civil design in the future....

  8. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  9. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron......In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  10. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  12. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, Nathan W.; McCants, Sarah A.; Custodio, Joseph M.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Getty, Stephen R.; Hoffman, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  13. Mechanisms and microevolutionary consequences of social homogamy in a 19th-century Italian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Matteo

    2009-02-01

    Abstract Choosing a spouse has always been an event subjected to strong social control. Consideration of socioprofessional elements is therefore necessary for an in-depth understanding of the microevolutionary consequences of marriage. Thus in this paper I explore the extent and causes of reproduction isolation between different socioprofessional groups of a 19th-century Italian community, Casalguidi. Various features of mate choice pattern were investigated by means of individual-level data. The results show that Casalguidi was a community with strong socioeconomic internal boundaries, in which social belonging mattered much more than geographic provenience. The bourgeoisie showed such a high degree of social homogamy that it was almost reproductively isolated. Much more openness and less isolation was found between the two categories of farm laborers and sharecroppers, and day laborers.

  14. Working Group Report: Higgs Boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Sally; Gritsan, Andrei; Logan, Heather; Qian, Jianming; Tully, Chris; Van Kooten, Rick [et al.

    2013-10-30

    This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $CP$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Our report includes projections of measurement capabilities from detailed studies of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a Gamma-Gamma Collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), the Large Hadron Collider High-Luminosity Upgrade (HL-LHC), Very Large Hadron Colliders up to 100 TeV (VLHC), a Muon Collider, and a Triple-Large Electron Positron Collider (TLEP).

  15. Summary muon detection working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    The areas of concentration of the Muon Working Group reflected its composition: about half of the group was interested primarily is extending the capability of existing general purpose colliders (CDF, D0). Smaller numbers of people were interested in B physics with general purpose colliders at the SSC and LHC, with SSC fixed target experiments, and with dedicated forward colliders. Good muon tagging, and possibly also muon triggering, is essential for studying CP violation in B i →J/ψX, J/ψ→μ + μ - ; as a flavor tag, with the semimuonic decay B→μ + X or bar B→μ - X tagging the flavor of the partner; for studying the physics of the semimuonic B decays themselves; and for looking for really rare decays like B→μ + μ -

  16. Working group 8: inspection tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billey, Deb; Kania, Richard; Nickle, Randy; Wang, Rick; Westwood, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    This eighth working group of the Banff 2011 conference discussed the inspection tools and techniques used by the upstream and downstream pipeline industry to evaluate pipeline integrity. Special attention was given to the challenges and successes related to in-line inspection (ILI) technology. The background of current dent assessment criteria in B31.8 was presented, including dent definition for ILI vendors and pipeline operators as well as codes (CSA Z662 and B31.8). The workshop described examples of dents and assessments showing inconsistency with current criteria as set out by TCPL and Marathon. This workshop produced a single, industry-wide definition of the dent. It was found that the strain based criteria were more practical because depth based is conservative and may miss shallow occurrences. The creation of joint industry group was proposed to develop strain based criteria for incorporation into CSAZ662 and B31.8.

  17. Space Interferometry Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    1992-12-01

    Decisions taken by the astronomy and astrophysics survey committee and the interferometry panel which lead to the formation of the Space Interferometry Science Working Group (SISWG) are outlined. The SISWG was formed by the NASA astrophysics division to provide scientific and technical input from the community in planning for space interferometry and in support of an Astrometric Interferometry Mission (AIM). The AIM program hopes to measure the positions of astronomical objects with a precision of a few millionths of an arcsecond. The SISWG science and technical teams are described and the outcomes of its first meeting are given.

  18. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country's most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country's largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation's mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE's earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies

  19. 19th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 19 th International School on Condensed Matter Physics “Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations” (19 th ISCMP). The school was held from August 28 th till September 2 nd , 2016 in Varna, Bulgaria. It was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ISSP-BAS), and took place at one of the fine resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea “Saints Constantine and Helena”. The aim of this international school is to bring together top experimentalists and theoreticians, with interests in interdisciplinary areas, with the younger generation of scientists, in order to discuss current research and to communicate new forefront ideas. This year special focus was given to discussions on membrane biophysics and quantum information, also not forgotten were some traditionally covered areas, such as characterization of nanostructured materials. Participants from 12 countries presented 28 invited lectures, 12 short oral talks and 44 posters. The hope of the organizing committee is that the 19 th ISCMP provided enough opportunities for direct scientific contacts, interesting discussions and interactive exchange of ideas between the participants. The nice weather certainly helped a lot in this respect. The editors would like to thank all authors for their high-quality contributions and the members of the international program committee for their commitment. The papers submitted for publication in the Proceedings were refereed according to the publishing standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Editorial Committee members are very grateful to the Journal’s staff for the continuous fruitful relations and for giving us the opportunity to present the work from the 19 th ISCMP. Prof. DSc Hassan Chamati, Assist. Prof. Dr. Alexander A. Donkov, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Julia Genova, and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Emilia Pecheva (paper)

  20. WICCI Wildlife Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDee, Olivia E.; Hagell, Suzanne; Martin, K.; McFarland, David; Meyer, Michael; Paulios, Andy; Ribic, Christine A.; Sample, D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Wisconsin is world-renowned for its diversity of ecological landscapes and wildlife populations.  The northern forests, southern prairies, and interior and coastal wetlands of the state are home to more than 500 terrestrial animal species.  These animals supply the Wisconsin public with aesthetic, cultural, and economic benefits; our identity and economy are intertwined with these natural resources.  Climate change is altering the behavior, distribution, development, reproduction, and survival of these animal populations.  In turn, these changes will alter the aesthetic, cultural, and economic benefits we receive from them.  The focus of the Wildlife Working Group is to document past and current impacts, anticipate changes in wildlife distribution and abundance, and develop adaptation strategies to maintain the vitality and diversity of Wisconsin's wildlife populations.

  1. Nonaccelerator physics working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.S.; Beier, E.W.; Cherry, M.L.; Marciano, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Nonaccelerator Physics Working Group set itself the task of predicting the contributions of nonaccelerator experiments to particle physics during the 1990s, in order to assess the needs for new experimental facilities. The main topics studied by the subgroups were: (1) the possibility of doing particle physics experiments with high energy cosmic rays from astrophysical sources; (2) the prospects for experiments which seek to measure the masses of neutrinos and the mixing of neutrino flavors; (3) an examination of the implications for proton decay of recent theoretical developments in grand unified and string theories. Other topics included a survey of magnetic monopole searches, an assessment of future prospects for double-beta-decay and nucleon-decay experiments, and a review of recent progress on neutrino and dark-matter detectors based on quasiparticles in superconductors and phonons in crystals

  2. Theoretical Issues in Clinical Social Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Elizabeth; Wodarski, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews relevant issues in clinical social group practice including group versus individual treatment, group work advantages, approach rationale, group conditions for change, worker role in group, group composition, group practice technique and method, time as group work dimension, pretherapy training, group therapy precautions, and group work…

  3. Working group report on agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is provided of the results from a working group investigating the implications of climatic change on agriculture in the Great Plains. The group investigated the current state of knowledge concerning basic understanding of climatic impacts, scales of analysis, impact model validation, lack of integrated modelling, and incomplete and incompatible data sets. Basic understanding of current spatial and temporal climatic variability and its impacts and implications for agricultural production, land resource sustainability, and farm management decisions is imprecise. There is little understanding of the magnitude of potential longer-term changes, timing, likely regional changes, or probability of change. Most models are unvalidated, and knowledge of potential carbon dioxide enrichment effects on crops is very uncertain and the effects are poorly understood. Research should be expanded to develop a better understanding of the critical thresholds and sensitivity of Great Plains agricultural production and economic systems. Holistic methodology should be implemented to integrate weather and climatic information with crop and environmental processes, farm level decision making, and local and regional economic conditions

  4. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  5. A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkridge, David; Verjans, Steven; Wilson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Hawkridge, D., Verjans, S., & Wilson, G. (Eds.) (2012). A confrontation with reality - Proceedings of the 19th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2012). September, 11-14, 2012, Manchester, UK.

  6. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Jose M.; Santos, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the contents of 19th century Spanish textbooks. These textbooks are centered on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases. (SAH)

  7. Working group report on forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, D.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and information needs concerning potential climate change implications for forestry are presented. The lack of knowledge in some basic processes, for example physiological and genetics, limits ability to evaluate and project the adaptation and responses to climate change. Areas where knowledge is weak include: the potential maximum productivity for a given climate region; the extent to which climate change can be accomodated by genetic adaptation; ways to improve the temporal/spatial distribution of projected precipitation and temperature changes and their magnitudes; the effect of global warming on fire severity and behavior; the current lightning distribution and relationship to fire and the response of this to global warming; socio-economic needs and constraints for management of wilderness areas; carbon dioxide enrichment effects on forest growth and water use efficiency; carbon benefits associated with afforestation and other carbon sequestering programs; impacts of forest practices on the carbon cycle; and the definition of biological diversity on the Great Plains. Recommended research initiatives include improving climate projections, targetted biological process research, monitoring for change and adaptive management, and development of decision support systems

  8. `A novel, spicy delicacy': tamales, advertising, and late 19th-century imaginative geographies of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monrreal , Sahar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article explores how the tamale entered the national market as a mass-produced foodstuff at the end of 19th century. Closely reading advertising images, the article examines how the Armour Packing Company placed their chicken tamale in relation to imaginative geographies of Mexico from this era. Through tracing the symbolic transformations of the tamale from its existence in the street life of the late 19th century US to the nation-wide advertising campaign initiated ...

  9. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vaquero, J. M.; Santos, A.

    2000-01-01

    Spain was a scientifically backward country in the early 19th-century. The causes were various political events, the War of Independence, and the reign of Fernando VII. The introduction of contemporary physics into textbooks was therefore a slow process. An analysis of the contents of 19th-century Spanish textbooks is here presented, centred on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases.

  10. Military Librarians Workshop (19th). Intellectual Updating: Changes in the State of the Art of Librarianship, 30 September - 2 October 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    interest~i1g an.- perhaps One thing mnore. SystemTs Architects of one of tht best features of our users group is Boston did a very thorough study of eight...19th MILITARY SIJBRARIANS WORKSHOP -Intellectual Updating: Librarianship ) -195) 3A $eptembe~r -2 October 17 &p.aw hanh-gIlder (Chtanute). J NOV 2...7- / r 4 INTELLECTUAL UPDATING: S CHANGES IN THE STAT E-S" :2A:" J OF-THE-ART OF -. L LIBRARIANSHIP 19TH MILITALRY LIBRARIANS’ WORKSHOP 13 f I? T X

  11. The dawn of chelonian research: turtles between comparative anatomy and embryology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Burke, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleontology. Given the impact that these works still make on modern research, it is important to develop a thorough appreciation of previous authors, regarding how they arrived at their conclusions (i.e., what counted as evidence?), whether there was debate amongst these authors about shell development (i.e., what counted as an adequate explanation?), and even why these men, some of the most powerful and influential thinkers and anatomists of their day, were concerned with turtles. By tracing and exposing the context and content of turtle shell studies in history, our aim is to inform modern debates about the evolution and development of the turtle's shell. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MANAGEMENT BOARD MEETING OF 19th FEBRUARY 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Status of Earned Value Management (EVM) In his capacity as EVM Project Leader, J. Ferguson, Leader of AS Division, announced that significant progress had been made since his last status report to the Management Board the previous month and that the measures adopted in early January to accelerate completion of the current EVM data collection phase had now been applied to 16 of the 23 groups concerned. As a result, a large fraction of the materials and industrial services resources for the LHC machine had now been incorporated in the system for those groups, while the data for the final seven groups should be collected in the coming weeks in accordance with the ambitious but feasible schedule announced at the Board's January meeting. He was therefore cautiously optimistic that the end-of-March/early April deadline for completing that stage of the EVM preparations would be met. The period from April to June would then see intensive efforts to fine-tune the data and ensure consistent reporting across all the gro...

  13. The ascent of Mary Somerville in 19th century society

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    This biography traces the life and work of Mary Fairfax Somerville, whose extraordinary mathematical talent only came to light through fortuitous circumstances. Barely taught to read and write as a child, all the science she learned and mastered was self taught. In this delightful narrative the author takes up the challenge of discovering how Somerville came to be one of the most outstanding British women scientists and, furthermore, a popular writer. Particular attention is paid to the gender aspects of Somerville's success in what was, to put it mildly, a predominantly male domain.

  14. [Movement and tranquility in 19th century Aesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, S

    1993-01-01

    The nineteenth century sees the rise of the bourgeoisie to social and political power. The values of this class increased the attention paid to certain branches of the medical sciences, such as for example hygiene. A set of rules and methods to achieve better health and, at the same time, to come closer to the perfect image of man described by writers of aesthetics, often taking classical Greece as a point of reference, are believed to be found in these branches. In these strategies physical exercise plays a role which is positively valued as much by hygienists as by philosophers, some of whose works are studied in this article.

  15. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, T.; Inoue, J.

    2007-03-01

    The 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces (ICMFS 2006) was held on 14-18 August 2006 at the Sendai International Center in Sendai, Japan. The purpose of the Colloquium was to bring together scientists working on magnetic thin films and surfaces and to provide an opportunity for presentation and discussion of recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field. 285 scientists from 17 countries (Japan: 167, overseas: 118) participated in the Colloquium, as well as 6 family members. There were 56 oral and 178 poster presentations. The oral presentations consisted of 3 plenary talks, 23 invited talks and 30 contributed talks. The number of presentations by scientific category are as follows: Spin dependent transport: 43 Magnetic storage/memory: 9 Magnetization reversal and fast dynamics: 15 Spin injection and spin transfer torque: 26 Magnetic thin films and multilayers: 71 High spin polarization materials: 17 Hard and soft magnetic materials: 3 Magneto-optics: 5 Characterization techniques for thin films and surfaces: 7 Exchange coupling: 13 Micro- and nanopatterned magnetic structures: 18 Micromagnetic modelling: 2 One of the characteristics of the present Colloquium is an increase in the number of presentations in the field of spin-electronics, as seen above. This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics includes several important papers in this rapidly developing field. We believe that, in the future, the field of magnetic materials will maintain its popularity and, on top of that, other fields such as spintronics materials, materials related to life sciences and medicine and also materials related to the environment will be investigated further. The ICMFS Conference started in London in 1964, and is now one of the world-wide conferences on magnetism. The Colloquium has been held in Japan four times now: the previous ones being the 5th ICMFS in the Mount Fuji area, the 10th at Yokohama and the 17th at Kyoto, which was

  16. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  17. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  18. [Disease, experiment and psychology in mid-19th century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, Valeria P

    2002-01-01

    This article offers a contribution to the thesis that considers H. Taine and Th. Ribot the theorists of the "pathological method" in psychology, and thus the forefathers of French experimental psychology. At the same time it points out that the idea of equivalence between observation of the pathological and experimentation could already be found in th psychological medicine of the 1840s. The author examines the early years of the Annals médico-psychologiques (1843-1844), the constitution of the Société médico-psychologique (1852), and the work of J. Moreau de Tours (1843) on hashish and mental alienation, with the intention of demonstrating that in the 1850s French psychiatry was actively engaged in the debate on the Science des rapports du physique et du moral, and that consequently the organicistic paradigm, proclaimed in those years in Germany, had not yet spread to France.

  19. 19th International School of Biophysics "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M; Bioelectrochemistry III : Charge Separation across Biomembranes

    1988-01-01

    This book contains aseries of review papers related to the lectures given at the Third Course on Bioelectrochemistry held at Erice in November 1988, in the framework of the International School of Biophysics. The topics covered by this course, "Charge Separation Across Biomembranes, " deal with the electrochemical aspects of some basic phenomena in biological systems, such as transport of ions, ATP synthesis, formation and maintenance of ionic and protonic gradients. In the first part of the course some preliminary lectures introduce the students to the most basic phenomena and technical aspects of membrane bioelectrochemistry. The remaining part of the course is devoted to the description of a selected group of membrane-enzyme systems, capable of promoting, or exploiting, the processes of separation of electrically charged entities (electrons or ions) across the membrane barrier. These systems are systematically discussed both from a structural and functional point of view. The effort of the many dis...

  20. Working group report: Quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 4Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 ... tant to extend the resummation framework to polarised process to look at polarised.

  1. Highlights from ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2011: the 19th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems: (Chicago, Illinois - November 1 - 4, 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian S.; Ofek, Eyal; Tanin, Egemen

    2012-01-01

    ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2011 was the 19th gathering of the premier event on spatial information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is also the fourth year that the conference was held under the auspices of ACM's most recent special interest group, SIGSPATIAL. Since its start in 1993, the con...

  2. D Representation of the 19TH Century Balkan Architecture Using Scaled Museum-Maquette and Photogrammetry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, E.; Karachaliou, E.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-08-01

    Characteristic example of the Balkan architecture of the 19th century, consists the "Tower house" which is found in the region of Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece. Nowadays, the only information about these heritage buildings could be abstracted by the architectural designs on hand and the model - Tower that is being displayed in the Folklore Museum of the Municipality of Kozani, Greece, as a maquette. The current work generates a scaled 3D digital model of the "Tower house", by using photogrammetry techniques applied on the model-maquette that is being displayed in the Museum exhibits.

  3. Social Maturation: Work Group Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Michael D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Each of the seven factors that affect adolescent social development is presented together with a description of potentially important research, service, and policy initiatives within each topic area. The factors are self-esteem, peer group, parenting, family, services, enforced dependency, and positive sexual socialization. (CT)

  4. Alice in Accounting Land: The Adventure of Two Economic Historians in Accounting Records of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Suarez Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to share our experience of working with São Paulo's municipal budgets published during the 19th century and discuss the difficulties of using this kind of source to analyze the municipal public finance from a historical perspective. The budget laws published draw the researcher's attention because they are abundant and relatively easy to work with, providing a huge documentary set that may be used as a means for studies in the fields of economic history, political history, and cultural history within the imperial period. These laws are printed, therefore, readable, and easily accessible through the digital web portal Acervo Histórico da Assembleia Legislativa do Estado de São Paulo Historical Collection of the São Paulo State Legislative Assembly]. They detail the origins and destinations of public resources, municipality by municipality, allowing the researcher to reconstruct the financial life of municipalities, identifying changes in time and space of the fortunes of the 19th-century São Paulo state communities. However, may we really trust these budgets? Conversations and collaborations between two researchers showed that these accessible, readable, and abundant sources are not as appropriate as they seem at first glance. This article reports our troubled and even contradictory journey into the world of municipal public accounting, in order to detail our findings and provide a warning on these sources. A comparative methodology between budget laws and handwritten balance sheets was used at time intervals of 1, 2, and 3 years, in search of correlations and adjustment patterns between budgeted and spent amounts of money. Our experience has shown that budget laws do not have much in common with the actual financial experience of municipalities within the imperial period, therefore, they are not the most appropriate sources to know the financial daily life in the 19th-century São Paulo state villages.

  5. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  6. 19th-century and early 20th-century jaundice outbreaks, the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, C G

    2018-01-01

    Historical enquiry into diseases with morbidity or mortality predilections for particular demographic groups can permit clarification of their emergence, endemicity, and epidemicity. During community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in the pre-vaccine era, clinical attack rates were higher among juveniles rather than adults. In community-wide hepatitis E outbreaks, past and present, mortality rates have been most pronounced among pregnant women. Examination for these characteristic predilections in reports of jaundice outbreaks in the USA traces the emergence of hepatitis A and also of hepatitis E to the closing three decades of the 19th century. Thereafter, outbreaks of hepatitis A burgeoned, whereas those of hepatitis E abated. There were, in addition, community-wide outbreaks that bore features of neither hepatitis A nor E; they occurred before the 1870s. The American Civil War antedated that period. If hepatitis A had yet to establish endemicity, then it would not underlie the jaundice epidemic that was widespread during the war. Such an assessment may be revised, however, with the discovery of more extant outbreak reports.

  7. EDITORIAL: The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 08), which took place at the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, from 28-30 September, 2008. The workshop is a well recognized and established European event in the field of micro system technology using thin-film technologies for creating micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. The first MME Workshop was held 1989 in Enschede (The Netherlands) and continued 1990 in Berlin (Germany), 1992 in Leuven (Belgium), and then was held annually in Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Pisa (Italy), Copenhagen (Denmark), Barcelona (Spain), Southampton (UK), Ulvik in Hardanger (Norway), Gif-sur-Yvette (France), Uppsala (Sweden), Cork (Ireland), Sinaia (Romania), Delft (The Netherlands), Leuven (Belgium), Göteborg (Sweden), Southampton (UK), and in Guimarães (Portugal). The two day workshop was attended by 180 delegates from 26 countries all over Europe and from Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States of America. A total of 97 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 22 high-quality papers from MME 2008 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing. I am eternally grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to the members of the Programme Committee of MME 2008, Dr Reinoud Wolffenbuttel, Professor José Higino Correia, and Dr Patrick Pons for pre-selection of the papers as well as to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers. My thanks also go to Dr Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process and to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I

  8. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    using literary terminology. Although all the late 19th century Estonian childhood stories share similar techniques (such as the perspective of the first-person or personal narrative, the split of the storyteller into the first-person child and the first-person adult, story elements (such as the first memory of a room flooded by golden sunlight, and recurrent motifs (such as child’s loneliness and close relation to nature, educational strivings, each story is written in a different way. The works written by professional writers are characterised by lively dialogue, individualised descriptions of the scenery, symbols, metaphors and other stylistic devices, whereas the texts written by the so-called ordinary intellectuals are not as rich in imagery and style. It is quite natural that the childhood memories written by professional writers have better withstood the test of time. The present study is the first to have a more comprehensive view of childhood as reflected in autobiographical writing in Estonia in the 19th century and therefore is somewhat fragmented; I attempt to make a list of possible research ideas and offer some methods for analysis that may be productive in the future. The broadening of the research perspective in the temporary, linguistic and spatial sense may offer more scope; a large number of childhood stories have been published in the 20th and the 21st century in Estonia and the comparison of stories telling us about Estonian children’s childhoods with those recounting German or Russian children’s experiences may offer new insights, as these ethnic groups have occupied one and the same geographical space, although there are significant differences. Another topic for research would be the study of autobiographical texts against the background of the authors’ fictional works.

  9. [Considerations concerning medical knowledge inherited in Mexico from 19th century: the diabetes mellitus case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Alba-García, Javier Eduardo; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana Leticia; Milke-Najar, María Eugenia; Alonso-Reynoso, Carlos; García de Alba-Verduzco, Javier Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico, as in the entire Western world, during the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century, medical knowledge developed in a remarkable way and the case of diabetes mellitus was not the exception. This situation, which arose on the basis of the antique paradigm, and which in turn was overthrown by the positivism as the emergent paradigm (with its clinical and anatomical, as well as physiopathological and etiopathological viewpoints), was reflected during the 19th the century through its actors and the communications that opened the access of Mexican medicine to the modernity.

  10. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  11. SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF PARISH CLERGY IN CIRCUMSTANCES OF GOVERNMENTALIZING OF ORTHODOX CHURCH IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE OF 19 TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Геннадиевна Зубанова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the experience of the Russian empire of the 19 th century in creating the conditions for social activities of the Russian Orthodox Church. The author describes such types of the Russian Orthodox Church activities aimed at helping those in need as helping the poor, coordinating the work of poor-houses, collecting donations, supporting parochial schools, poor houses, orphanages, hospitals, construction and reconstruction of churches. The author analyzes the role of the parochial patronages in the charity and social service activities, as well as in the moral and spiritual education of the population. The work of the well-known members of the clergy which forms a part of the Russian Orthodox Church and Russian history in general is given as an example of the above mentioned activities. The article extensively covers the responsibilities of parish priests, the difficulties which they come across, and highlights the reasons for the negative attitude towards the clergy in the late 19 th - early 20 th centuries. The author summarizes the historical lessons of the social activity of the Russian Orthodox Church. The article provides grounds for the opinion that the social activities of the Church should not interfere with its main religious functions, and the partnership of the state and the Russian Orthodox Church in the social projects should contribute to the improvement of people’s life and their moral and spiritual growth.

  12. Post-Disaster Social Justice Group Work and Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…

  13. Phonological and morphological means compensating for non-metricality in 19th-Century Czech Verse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecháč, Petr; Ibrahim, Robert; Brůhová, G.

    3 /6/, č. 1 (2013), s. 31-50 ISSN 2084-6045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/1825 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : generative metrics * vowel length * Czech 19-th Century verse * automatic analysis of verse Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  14. Visual Showcase: An Illustrative Data Graphic in an 18th-19th Century Style

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Pierre; Bach, Benjamin; Dufournaud, Nicole; Huron, Samuel; Isenberg, Petra; Jansen, Yvonne; Perin, Charles; Spritzer, André; Vuillemot, Romain; Willett, Wesley; Isenberg, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract and exhibition piece; International audience; We exhibit an data graphic poster that emulates the style of historic hand-made visualizations of the 18th -19th century. Our visualization uses real data and employs style elements such as an emulation of ink lines, hatching and cross-hatching, appropriate typesetting, and unique style of computer-assisted facial drawings.

  15. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  16. Historic lime-binders : An example of the 19th century Dutch military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, H.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Nijland, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  17. Historic lime-binders: An example of 19th Century Dutch Military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Copuroglu, O.; Heinemann, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  18. [Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpena, Amalio Lorente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

  19. Report of the Task Force on the Incident of 19th September 2008 at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bajko, M; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Claudet, S; Cruikshank, P; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Fessia, P; Garion, C; Jimenez, JM; Kirby, G; Lebrun, Ph; Le Naour, S; Mess, K-H; Modena, M; Montabonnet, V; Nunes, R; Parma, V; Perin, A; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Strubin, P; Tavian, L; Thiesen, H; Tock, J; Todesco, E; Veness, R; Verweij, A; Walckiers, L; Van Weelderen, R; Wolf, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Koratzinos, M; Limon, P; Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the AT department Task Force established to investigate the 19th September 2008 incident which occurred in sector 3-4 of the LHC. It includes a number of annexes where specific analyses are detailed.

  20. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  1. Family businesses and their anchorages in Central European society in the 19th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavačka, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 1-22 ISSN 1210-6860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19640S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Family Business * Central Europe * 19th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  2. The tale of the landscape in the Czech lands in the 19th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 119-142 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : 19th century * landscape transformation * Czechia * industrial ization * urbanization * nature * railroad * environment Subject RIV: AB - History

  3. Proceedings: 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Raquel Gonçalves; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    The 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium was hosted by the University of Campinas, College of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), and the Brazilian Association of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (ABENDI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on September 22–25, 2015. This Symposium was a forum for those involved in nondestructive...

  4. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  5. Summary of the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angioni, C.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, Volker

    2015-01-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force workshop, held in Culham, UK, during 8-11 September 2014. The workshop was organized under six topics: momentum transport, energetic particles, challenges in modelling transport i...

  6. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  7. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  8. MOSCOW PRINTERS-FOREIGNERS IN THE LAST THIRD OF THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г В Аксенова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of foreigners in the publishing business of Moscow in the last third of the 19th - early 20th century on the example of Moscow printers E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson, whose ancestors came to Russia from Austria and Germany. The historio-graphical review showed that the history of Moscow publishing houses and foreign printers who arrived in Russia remains beyond the scope of the current scientifi c interest. There are analyzed the stages of the development of the publishing business, it features, printing fi ndings, the specifi cs of the book market.E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson are the brightest fi gures in Russia in the fi eld of publishing. Starting from scratch, they were able to create unique typography, in which it was possible to produce multicolour hard products, phototype table, to improve engraving, chromolithography and colour photozincography. To perform these works, they attracted specialists who were able to develop and implement new ways of printing. E.-C. A. Lissner and A.A. Levenson collaborated with the best artists of Russia helping to implement the ideas of publishing quality printed products that contributed to the aesthetic education of readers. The article reveals the importance of the activities of the two publishers of German origin E.-C. A. Lissner and A. Levenson in the development of the Russian culture (literature and art and the popularization of scientifi c knowledge. They laid new principles of publishing and printing of illustrations, created a new trend in book production. Their activities contributed to the opening of new names in literature and art, promotion of Russian printing technology and book production to both domestic and foreign markets, development of book art and improve-ment of printing.

  9. Translation from the Classical Languages in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hriberšek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to affecting the Slovene education system, the Austrian denationalising policy in the second half of the 19th century had a direct impact on translation. Most of the already scarce Slovene philologists were appointed to posts outside the Slovene national territory. The conditions only began to improve in the 1860s, with the translation activity taken up by the first students of the newly established philology courses at the University of Vienna (Ladislav Hrovat, Matija Valjavec, etc.. More often than not, however, the translators were not philologists. The first longer classical texts published in Slovene were individual books of the Homeric epics, Xenophon’s Memorabilia, Plato’s dialogues Apology and Crito, Virgil's Georgics, and Sophocles' Ajax (the complete Bible, of course, had been translated much earlier, but it holds a special place in the history of translation. The translations published as books represent the first Slovene book-format editions of the ancient classics, but most appeared in magazines and newspapers . Many translations met with the same fate as a number of contemporary Slovene classical-language textbooks: they remained in manuscript because of insufficient funds (the publishers were unwilling to run the risk of such enterprises, for fear that their investment would not pay, and also because of the national-awakening emphasis on Slovene, which was accompanied by a preference for translating from other modern languages, particularly Slavic ones. A noteworthy example of these unpublished translations is Caesar’s De Bello Gallico as prepared by the Franciscan Ladislav Hrovat. From the beginnings to the present, Slovene translations of the Greek and Latin classics have displayed a marked predominance of poetry, with prose works remaining in the minority.

  10. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries

  11. AER Working Group B activities in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.

    2001-01-01

    Review of AER Working Group B Meeting in Czech Republic - Plzen is given. Regular meeting of Core Design Group was organized by SKODA JS, Inc. and held at Plzen-Bolevec, Czech Republic, May 21+22, 2001, together with Working Group A (Authors)

  12. AER Working Group B activities in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Review of AER Working Group B Meeting in Modra - Harmonia, Slovakia is given. Regular meeting of Core Design Group was organized by VUJE, Inc. and held at Modra - pension Harmonia, Slovakia, April 20-22, 2010, together with Working Group A. Presented papers (see List of papers and List of participants) covered topics as follows. (Author)

  13. Special Collections in ARL Libraries: A Discussion Report from the ARL Working Group on Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This discussion report identifies key issues in the management of special collections material in the 21st century. The report uses a broad definition of "special collections," which encompasses distinctive material in all media and attendant library services. The group's main focus was on 19th- and 20th-century materials, including…

  14. PERSPECTIVES ON GROUP WORK IN DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Sarromaa HAUSSTÄTTER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current distance education benefits greatly from educational software that makes group work possible for students who are separated in time and space. However, some students prefer distance education because they can work on their own. This paper explores how students react to expectations on behalf of the course provider to do their assignments in collaborative groups. They are seemingly both positively surprised by the challenges that group work offer, and they are less positive to the downsides of group work. The paper discusses both sides of the experiences and suggests why this might be a paradox to live with.

  15. Causes of mortality due to rheumatic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral Pacheco, Diego; Suárez-Guzmán, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    A total of 26,203 of the deaths in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century were collected and grouped according to the Bertillon's Classification, in order to study the causes of death from rheumatic diseases. An analysis was made using the Death Registers, those located in the Parish Archives, and files of the Municipal Archives. There were a total of 31 deaths due to rheumatic diseases, with the 65-74 years age group being most frequent. The lack of records may be due to the inaccuracy of the diagnoses. September was the month of increased mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Position of woman according to 19th century Montenegrin marital law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of woman in 19th century Montenegrin marital law is examined in this paper. Provisions on entering into marriage, woman's marital infidelity, legal separation, dissolution of marriage and its legal effects as well as widow's property rights are scrutinized and critically analyzed. The author also indicates to rules of customary law regarding legal status of a married woman. Married woman had restricted legal capacity, as well as restricted property rights and no rights of succession. However, gender inequality common in patriarchal society such as Montenegrin in 19th century is particularly accentuated in case of marital infidelity. Only woman's adultery is punishable and regarded as a serious crime. Beside marital infidelity, lower position of woman is noticeable in all aspects of married life. Hence, legislative attempts to improve woman's legal status are emphasized in the article.

  17. Historiography of mathematics in the 19th and 20th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Martina; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the historiography of mathematics as it was practiced during the 19th and 20th centuries by paying special attention to the cultural contexts in which the history of mathematics was written. In the 19th century, the history of mathematics was recorded by a diverse range of people trained in various fields and driven by different motivations and aims. These backgrounds often shaped not only their writing on the history of mathematics, but, in some instances, were also influential in their subsequent reception. During the period from roughly 1880-1940, mathematics modernized in important ways, with regard to its content, its conditions for cultivation, and its identity; and the writing of the history of mathematics played into the last part in particular. Parallel to the modernization of mathematics, the history of mathematics gradually evolved into a field of research with its own journals, societies and academic positions. Reflecting both a new professional identity and changes in its prim...

  18. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  19. Stillness and Motion: Depicting the Urban Landscape of Palestine in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Galazka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering valuable insights into the complex encounter between 19th-century Western travelers and the urban landscape of Palestine. The first part shows that, despite their efforts to distance themselves from the religious overtones of their predecessors, visitors tended to shove aside what they considered as ‘inauthentic’ or the product of acculturation in favor of a more conventional portrayal drawing on biblical imagery. This idealized vision was bound to struggle with disappointment, and the second part of this paper looks at how the representations of the city moved in the course of the 19th century from a purely pictorial transposition to a more practical and informed understanding of otherness. Travel writers began to devote considerable portions of their narratives to various aspects of life in the oriental town, while still predominately focusing on what they viewed as exotic and remote in comparison to European, and to a larger extent, Western culture.

  20. School Counselors' Experiential Training in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Samuel K.; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Womack, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    School counselors' perceptions of the efficacy and satisfaction of their experiential training in group work were investigated. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 304) revealed four salient factors: leader characteristics, leader responsibilities, child/adolescent group leadership and adult group leadership. A majority of participants indicated…

  1. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  2. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS IN THE RUSSIAN IDEAS IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labanov Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The given paper for the first time explores the ideas of architecture expressed by Russian thinkers of the first half of the 19th century: K.N. Batyushkov, N.M. Karamzin, Lyubomudry, A.S. Pushkin, A.S. Griboyedov, A.S. Khomyakov, I.V. Kireyevsky, representatives of the theory of official nationality, N.V. Kukolnik, P.Ya. Chaadayev, their evaluation of architectural styles of the ancient, Byzantine architecture, Gothic style, Romantic period.

  3. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a soci...

  4. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  5. Breaking through History. Genius and Literature among Slavs without a State in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rothe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hans RotheBreaking through History. Genius and Literature among Slavs without a State in the 19th CenturyWithin a broad comparative framework, the Author analyzes some of the main patterns of the development of national self-consciousness and identity among the peoples of Eastern Europe between the 1830s and 1850s. He discusses the general assumption that the French Revolution played a major role in the awakening of national consciousness in the Slavic (and the Hungarian cultures, and that an important part of the longing for self-determination was connected with the idea that Slavs where understood as a united family of peoples or even as one nation. The Author then addresses three main topics. It is generally accepted that in some countries it was primarily poetic geniuses who brought about a dramatic breakthrough in national consciousness thanks to the fact that their works were written in their own language (examples include Mickiewicz, Puškin, Ševčenko, Prešeren and others. Nonetheless, the importance of learning, academic training, gathering historical knowledge and folk tradition as primary sources of national consciousness should not be underestimated. These elements, the Author maintains, are connected rather with traditional ideas and mentality (and with Herder’s way of thinking, than with ‘revolutionary’ innovation. Unlike the French model of development that followed the 1789 revolution and largely identified nation with revolution, Slav peoples were confronted with their belonging to multiethnic and plurilingual political structures: they were either dominant powers (such as Russia, which dominated many other peoples or were dominated by ‘others’. From several points of view, Herder’s idea of Slav unity was often more of a hindrance than a way out for the definition of national unity. This was true for the dominated peoples, but for Russians too, although, politically speaking, they were effectively the only real

  6. Legislation and judicial practice on illegitimate children in 19th century Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of non-marital children according to 19th century Serbian legislature and judicial practice is examined in this paper. Provisions and court decisions on personal rights, property rights and rights of succession of illegitimate children are presented and critically analyzed. Children born out of wedlock were not equal to children born in lawful marriage. Therefore, significance of legalization of illegitimate children regarding improvement of their legal status is accentuated. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, legislative and judicial attempts to protect their interests and improve their legal position are emphasized in this paper. Beside legalization, adoption was also the way to better position of illegitimate children in great extent, as adopted child was granted the status of a child born in lawful marriage. That is a reason why judicial practice concerning adoption, widespread in 19th century Serbia, is scrutinized and critically analyzed in the article.

  7. Barter Trade in North Western Siberia in the Late of 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Tsys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of barter trade in the North Western Siberia by the local peoples who used different fishing and hunting products such as fish and animal fur by way of cash equivalent up to the end of 19th century. Particularly, squirrel fur was a most popular hunting product used as money equivalent in trade in the 19th century. The author notes that due to the spread of the Russian population and development of railways in the second half of the 19th century the situation gradually changed. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century natural barter was completely replaced by monetized trade with the use of bills and coins. The article describes a system of notes used by the local indigenous population to record the sums of money in trade, such as solar signs (hundreds, squares (tens, x-shaped crosses (units, vertical lines (hundredth parts of the main value. The article also indicates that during the Civil War and the transition to the NEP (New Economic Policy an abrupt rise in prices for fishing products occurred, with the following revival of barter, when squirrel fur and fish regained their roles as cost units and universal money equivalents.

  8. The treatment of syphilis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century: the example of the Ferrarese pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Mares, Donatella; Contini, Carlo; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice

    2010-03-01

    The authors have taken the Italian city of Ferrara as an example of the remedies against syphilis, commonly used worldwide in the 1800s. After having identified the terminologies used to diagnose syphilis, they evidence the legislative behaviours of the government authorities in 19th century in Italy and, in particular, the social and sanitary measures taken in Ferrara to limit the spread of the syphilis epidemic. Historical sources permitted description of the remedies employed in Ferrara from the beginning to the end of that century, not only to treat conditions linked directly to the malady itself, but also its complications and secondary pathologies. The pharmacopoeia written for the apothecaries of Ferrara by Antonio Campana, a famous Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany, won a great reputation and distribution in the international medical world not only of the first half of the 1800s. His authoritative work was much appreciated in Italy and abroad.

  9. 19th Biannual Symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR)

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Wagner, Claus; Breitsamter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 19th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. Special emphasis is given to collaborative research projects conducted by German scientists and engineers from universities, research-establishments and industries. By addressing a number of cutting-edge applications, together with the relevant physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field. Though the book’s primary emphasis is on the aerospace context, it also addresses further important applications, e.g. in ground transportation and energy. .

  10. From facial expressions to bodily gestures: Passions, photography and movement in French 19th-century sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19 th century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study.

  11. The Genus Heliopsis: Development of Varieties and Their Use in the European Gardens After the Mid 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Uher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes data on the development of varieties in historic gardens of the once very popular Ox-eyes (Heliopsis Pers., Asteraceae: Zinniinae after the mid 19th century, with regard to the development of varietal assortments in the periods corresponding to the most important architectural styles and to their fluctuating popularity. Old varietal assortments, usually derived from large-flowered H. helianthoides var. scabra, now rapidly disappear and the oldest varieties, including the once famous Lemoine’s selections, are virtually inaccessible. Until recently the most propagated Götz’s and Förster’s varieties also disappear and are replaced by modern, relatively small-flowered selections delivered from H. helianthoides var. helianthoides or patent protected variegated varieties. Neither of these groups, however, is applicable to the restoration of historic gardens. Tables show data on the origin of about eighty both still cultivated and vanished varieties.

  12. Preliminary recommendations of the Noise Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legerton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 the DTI set up a Working Group largely consisting of independent experts on wind turbine noise. The main objectives of the Working Group were to define a framework which can be used to measure and rate the noise from wind turbines and to provide indicative noise levels thought to offer a reasonable degree of protection to wind farm neighbours and encourage best practice in turbine design and wind farm siting and layout. This paper presents the preliminary recommendations of the Working Group. (Author)

  13. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century.

  14. Proceedings of the 19th ASPA Congress, Cremona, June 7-10, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest Editor: Giacomo Pirlo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The 19th Congress of the Animal Science and Production Association (ASPA, is held in the capital of one of the main European regions for animal production: Cremona. Despite its Gallic origin (Carra = rock, the name Cremona means big cream in modern Italian, in a clear allusion to milk. In this Congress, 153 oral presentations and 165 posters are presented, for a total of 318 scientific contributions. The Congress sessions with their relative number of papers are listed as follows: Animal breeding and genetics 87, Nutrition and feeding 57, Dairy production 40, Meat production 46, Animal welfare, Health and behaviour 37, Poultry and rabbit production 28 and Aquaculture 23. I would like to point out that 4 main lectures will be presented in the Animal breeding and genetics and Nutrition and feeding sessions (two in each, and that the Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura (Agricultural Research Council, the Agricultural Ministery research agency, which took charge of organizing the Congress, will award a prize for the best work here presented by young researchers. I would thank, first of all, Prof. Paolo Cescon, President of the Congress, for the contribution of all the CRA in organizing this event. I would also thank all the members of the Scientific Committee, dr. Riccardo Aleandri (President, dr. Fabio Abeni, dr. Fabiola Canavesi, dr. Giacinto Della Casa and dr. Marisanna Speroni, and of the Organizing Committee, dr. Giovanni Lo Piparo (President, dr. Stefania Barzaghi, dr. Maurizio Capelletti, dr. Giorgio Giraffa and dr. Luciano Migliorati. A special thanks to the secretary components, Maria Dissegna and Patrizia Re, assisted by Claudia Federici, Francesca Petrera, Miriam Odoardi, Maddalena Carli, Caterina Sanna, Stefania Marruso, Leonardo Boselli, Milena Rosi and Aldo Dal Prà. A special acknowlegment to Giacomo Pirlo, the real driving force organizing the Congress, a tireless and enthusiastic embroiderer of opportunities in scientific and

  15. The Kazakh Steppe at the Turn of the 18th-19th Centuries: Reforms and Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Dmitriy Valentinovich

    2015-12-01

    . Such approach couldn’t satisfy the Russian administration. Search of the most optimum model for Kazakh’s administration was continued in the 19th century.

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL WORK GROUPS AND WORK TEAMS – APPROACHES AND DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Work groups and work teams represents basic structures of traditional and modern organizations, and during the time they have been intensively researched. However, managers often do not always consider the fundamental differences between groups and teams, which will lead to unrealistic goals and results below expectations. Thus, in the present paper we propose a review of the main researching approaches on groups and teams (psychosocial, socio-technical, and behavioral approach, in the third part of the paper being detailed the fundamental differences between groups and teams in the light of these approaches.

  17. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group at ... discussions carried out during the workshop on selected topics in the above fields. ... Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, ...

  18. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group ... origin of the accelerating Universe: Dark energy and particle cosmology by Y-Y Keum, .... Neutrino oscillations with two and three mass varying supernova neutrinos ...

  19. Summary of the Linear Collider Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of the Linear Collider Working Group was on a next generation linear collider. Topics discussed are: parameters; damping rings; bunch compression and pre-acceleration; linac; final focus; and multibunch effects. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  1. Summary of the polarized beam working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Dyck, O. van.

    1989-05-01

    The polarized beam working group reviewed the AGS Bookster and TRIUMF KAON Factory facilities, heard an overview of the subject of siberian snakes, discussed internal polarized gas targets, and made recommendations for further study

  2. Working group report: Collider and B physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The activities of the working group including some of the seminars are summarized. The written ... The search for supersymmetry at future colliders also received a lot of attention. It is believed that ..... Then the kinematic regions can be divided.

  3. Beyond the Standard Model: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Right-handed neutrino production in hot dense plasmas and constraints on the ... We thank all the participants of this Working Group for their all-round cooperation. The work of AR has been supported by grants from the Department of Science ...

  4. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  5. Report of the tunnel safety working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannon, J.

    1991-04-01

    On 18 February 1991 the Project Manager formed a working group to address the safety guidelines and requirements for the underground facilities during the period of accelerator construction, installation, and commissioning. The following report summarizes the research and discussions conducted by the group and the recommended guidelines for safety during this phase of the project

  6. INMM Physical Protection Technical Working Group Workshops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) established the Physical Protection Technical Working Group to be a focal point for INMM activities related to the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. The Technical Working Group has sponsored workshops with major emphasis on intrusion detection systems, entry control systems, and security personnel training. The format for these workshops has consisted of a series of small informal group discussions on specific subject matter which allows direct participation by the attendees and the exchange of ideas, experiences, and insights. This paper will introduce the reader to the activities of the Physical Protection Technical Working Group, to identify the workshops which have been held, and to serve as an introduction to the following three papers of this session

  7. NEANSC Working Group on international evaluation cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.C.; Nordborg, C.; Dunford, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    In the last three years, several newly evaluated nuclear data libraries have been released. Japan completed JENDL-3 in late 1989, JEF-2/EFF-2 was completed by Europe in 1991, and ENDF/B-VI was completed by the US in 1989. With the support of the NEACRP and the NEANDC, (recently combined into the NEA Nuclear Science Committee NEANSC), a Working Group was formed in 1989 to promote cooperative activities among the evaluation groups in OECD countries. Technical activities of the Working Group are carried out by subgroups formed to carry out specific investigations. Seven subgroups are currently active, with four more initiated by the Working Group at its meeting in May 1991. Brief descriptions of current subgroup activities are given

  8. Group identity and positive deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Joung; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-12-05

    This study examines why and how identity cognitions, including group identification and individual differentiation, influence the positive deviance of employees. We identify the risk-taking intention of employees as a critical psychological mechanism to overcome stigma-induced identity threat of positive deviance. The analysis of data collected from 293 members comprising 66 work teams reveals that the relationship between individual differentiation and positive deviance is partially mediated by risk-taking intention. The indirect effect of group identification on positive deviance through risk-taking intention is also significant and positive in groups with low conformity pressure, whereas the same indirect effect is neutralized in groups with high conformity pressure. The current analysis offers new insights into the way the group context and the identity cognition of members explain the development of positive deviance and workplace creativity.

  9. Working group report: heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Jan-E; Chattopadhyay, S.; Assamagan, K.; Gavai, R.; Gupta, Sourendra; Mukherjee, S.; Ray, R.; Layek, B.; Srivastava, A.; Roy, Pradip K.

    2004-01-01

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5-16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III during the workshop. The activities of group III were focused to understand the collective behaviours of the system formed after the collisions of two nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies from the interactions of the elementary degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons, governed by non-Abelian gauge theory, i.e. QCD. This was initiated by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and lattice QCD and several working group talks and discussions. (author)

  10. THE DYNAMICS OF STYLISTICALLY MARKED VERBAL LEXIS IN THE INFINITIVE FORM IN THE RUSSIAN LITERARY CRITICISM OF THE MIDDLE AND SECOND HALF OF THE 19th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovenko Larisa Aleksandrovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the functioning of stylistically marked verbal lexis in the infinitive form in literary critical articles of Russian publicists of the middle and second half of the 19th century. The critical texts of that period are characterized by the use of different functional, stylistic and expressive emotional coloring verbal lexemes. The author reveals the lexical content of infinitive forms, determines the markedness character (functional and stylistic, or expressive and emotional. The article presents the dynamics of using infinitive forms which shows that in the texts of 19th century they are used to express critics' attitude to fiction works, litetrary images, and this attitude is determined by publicists' ideas about the ways of reality depiction. It is revealed that in the second half of 19th century this form reflects the urge to evaluate the social maturity and fiction skills of a writer, and that serves to increasing number of stylistically marked lexemes in the texts of that period.

  11. The Ghost-Image on Metropolitan Borders—In Terms of Phantom of the Opera and 19th-Century Metropolis Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changnam Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Gaston Leroux’s Phantom of the Opera in the context of the social and cultural changes of the metropolis Paris at the end of the 19th century. The Phantom of the Opera, a success in the literary world and widely proliferated in its musical and film renditions afterward, is considered and interpreted mainly in the literary and artistic tradition. In this paper, however, this work will be considered from an urban sociological perspective, especially from that of Walter Benjamin, who developed the theory of the urban culture, focusing on the dreaming collectives at the end of the 19th century. Leroux’s novel can be regarded as an exemplary social form of the collective dreams of the period expressed in arts, architectures, popular stories and films and other popular arts. Given the premise that the dream images in the novel, so-called kitsch, reflect the fears and desires of the bourgeois middle class that were pathologized in the figure of the ghost, this paper reveals the cultural, social and transnational implications of the Ghost-Image in relation to the rapidly changing borders of the 19th century metropolis.

  12. The networks of prostitution in the Spain of the 19th century. The city of Cartagena in the beginnings of the Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro María EGEA BRUNO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the «old trade» was assumed during the 19th century by the local and provincial authorities. The surveillance on that group spread with particular emphasis during the period of the Restoration. Medical and police control, had become a way to discipline women and to control dangerous classes. The figure of the prostitute was, then, supported by the established power. Cartagena —military port and working nucleus— emerges as a pioneering model in such an intervention, when the profession was regulated in 1874 and it was established the register of prostitutes. The source gives us a whole series of considerations: the development in the family area, structure of the brothels, urban geography of the activity and the Spanish prostitution network connections. Other variables of interest are: marital status and age, while the previous occupation indicates us the majority presence of the popular classes. Anthometric parameters are also included from height to the eyes colour, appearing scars, which indicate violence of genre. The last point includes personal problems, which allows understanding their decisions and their experiences in life. Selling their bodies was the only possible option for many of them to face up misery. Genre and classes agreed in that exploitation.  

  13. Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyung KIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera

  14. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  15. [History of pediatric anesthesia: from the beginnings to the end of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourdin, N

    2013-12-01

    The first intuitions and descriptions of anesthesia can be found in the antique civilizations. In the 19th century, the invention of anesthesia took place in Boston, and quickly spread to Europe. In France, regulations and structures were created before the beginning of the 20th century to organize this new profession, for children as well as for adults. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Report on the 19th SPACE Conference = 10. mednarodna konferenca SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Gulev

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The 19th international space (European Network for Business Studies and Languages conference that recently took place in Spain provided valuable insight into several areas of interest. Most notably, methods on how to successfully enhance the internationalization of higher learning institutions were shared through mobility and joint degrees programs. Furthermore, the conference provided an academic forum for a highly professional and earnest discourse on pertinent topics of relevance for higher learning institutions, which this year pivoted around intercultural awareness and dialogue. In sum, the space network provides a wealth of academic and administrative advantages that the academic sphere could greatly benefit from.

  17. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aversano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  18. [Asylum: the Huge Psychiatric Hospital in the 19th century U.S].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazano, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale state psychiatric hospitals, referred to as "asylums," were built in the USA in the 19th century and generally have a bad reputation in Japan as institutions with an unpleasant environment for the patients. Asylums were not built for institutionalizing mental patients. The original meaning of the word asylum is a "retreat" or "sanctuary," and these institutions were originally built to act as sanctuaries for the protection of mental patients. The field of psychiatric medicine in western countries in the 19th century began to embrace the concept of "moral treatment" for mental patients, including no restraint of the patients and treating them in a more open environment. With this background, asylums were built according to the efforts of social activist Dorothea Dix with financial assistance from the Quakers. The psychiatrist Dr. Thomas Kirkbride had a large influence on asylum architecture, and believed that the hospital building and environment as well as location have healing effects on the patients, which he called the "therapeutic landscape". Kirkbridelater proposed an architectural plan that became the basis for subsequent mental hospital architecture, and many asylums were built according to this plan. As the architecture was considered part of the treatment, many leading architects and landscape architects at the time became involved in building asylums. In the later half of the 19th century, over 150 asylums were built across the USA. However, moral treatment fell out of favor toward the end of the 19th century, and the concept of therapeutic landscape was also neglected. The hospitals had many uncured patients, and caregivers became pessimistic about the efficacy of the treatments. Abuse and neglect of the patients were also common. The environment at the asylums deteriorated, which created the image of asylums that, we hold today. Many asylums have been demolished or abandoned. These early attempts at asylum failed due to insufficient

  19. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  1. Extension activities of Kazan Imperial University in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuravleva Evgenia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based primarily on archival documents, this article explores the development of additional education in Kazan province, Russia, in the 19th century. Its genesis is found in the varying order of Kazan Imperial University extension activities which take the form of foreign academic and scientific mobility; individual mentoring practice of recognised scholars; masters’ advancement at Pedagogical Institute; creation of the Pedagogical Society in the framework of University Extension Movement. The historiography shows that in the course of its development additional education in Kazan Imperial University largely relied on the international experience and enthusiasm of its teaching staff.

  2. The treatment of scrofula in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Altieri, Lorenzo; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    The therapeutic approaches used against scrofula in the 19th Century in Ferrara are discussed. In the manuscripts and treatises of the time treasured in the town's libraries, hygienic and dietetic rules and treatment of this illness were described. In particular, baths and mineral water spas (sulphurous, ferruginous and other mineral waters, such as a bromo-iodine-salt water) and the sea-bathing establishment were recommended. The remedies reported in Campana's Pharmacopoeia ferrarese and the efficacious treatments employed in St Anna Hospital are discussed. The Committee and its President, Marquis Giovanni Manfredini, decided to cure the scrofulous in bathing establishments.

  3. [Rabies in Tunisia during the 19th century: case increase or disease emergence?].

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Néfissa , Kmar; Moulin , Anne Marie; Dellagi , Koussay

    2007-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, a canine rabies epidemics started in Tunis and in several other cities of the Beylik. Archives' data trace the epidemics back to 1870 and at that time its rapid progression was ascribed to the increase of immigration from Europe. Whether the European "street rabies virus" was also imported with the settlers' pet dogs is controversial. The epidemics might rather be linked to other factors such as socio-cultural or ecological changes. The authors try to reconstru...

  4. Risk analysis update of the LHC cryogenic system following the 19th September 2008 incident

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Modlinski, Z; Polinski, J; Tavian, L; Wach, J

    2011-01-01

    On 19th September 2008, during powering tests of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider, an electrical fault occurred producing an electrical arc and resulting in mechanical and electrical damage, release of helium from the magnet cold mass to the insulation vacuum enclosure and consequently to the tunnel, via the spring-loaded relief discs on the vacuum enclosure. The pressurization of the vacuum space exceeded significantly the allowed design value. Mathematical modeling based on a thermodynamic approach has enabled the revision of the helium discharge system protecting the vacuum enclosure against the over-pressurization in case of a redefined maximum credible incident (MCI) occurrence.

  5. [The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, Enric J

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the socio-political connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

  6. Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students’ ability to learn is still lacking. Similarly, the question of why some group work is successful and other group work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students’ experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students’ positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students’ explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students’ experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function, and organization) for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students’ learning, as well as impact their experiences with

  7. Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Schatz, Hendrik; Timmes, Frank X.; Wiescher, Michael; Greife, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    The Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group has been established to develop and promote the nuclear astrophysics research anticipated at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). RIA is a proposed next-generation nuclear science facility in the U.S. that will enable significant progress in studies of core collapse supernovae, thermonuclear supernovae, X-ray bursts, novae, and other astrophysical sites. Many of the topics addressed by the Working Group are relevant for the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, the planned GSI-Fair facility, and other advanced radioactive beam facilities

  8. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

  9. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices

  10. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-30

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices.

  11. S3T working group. Report 1: group aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouey, M.

    1983-04-01

    The work group S3T which is aimed to designing and developing devices using unconventional holographic optics is presented. These devices find applications that are classified here in four items high resolution spectrometers, high definition imaging, high flux devices, metrology and interferometry. The problems to solve and the aims of the group in each of these cases are presented. Three synthesis of lectures are in this report. The main one concerns stigmatism conditions of concave holographic gratings used in normal incidence. This new process of focusing is very interesting for hot plasma diagnostics [fr

  12. Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eHammar Chiriac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students’ ability to learn is still lacking. Likewise, the question of why some group work is successful and other work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students’ experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students’ positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students’ explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students’ experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function and organization for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students’ learning, as well as impact their

  13. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  14. Rethinking Engineering by Working Interdisciplinary in Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. J.B.F. van Zonneveld; Dr.Ir. Hay Geraedts

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will describe and present the results of an experiment at the Fontys University of Professional Education in which engineering students work together with students from other disciplines in a multidisciplinary group at the end of their study on a real-life environmental problem

  15. Particle physics-astrophysics working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.W.; Kolb, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    The working group met each afternoon and listened to mini-symposia on a broad range of subjects covering all aspects of particle physics---astrophysics both theoretical and experimental. This paper reports that as a result, a number of papers which follow were commissioned to reflect the present status and future prospects of the field

  16. Scattering kernels and cross sections working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.; MacFarlane, B.; Brun, T.

    1998-01-01

    Topics addressed by this working group are: (1) immediate needs of the cold-moderator community and how to fill them; (2) synthetic scattering kernels; (3) very simple synthetic scattering functions; (4) measurements of interest; and (5) general issues. Brief summaries are given for each of these topics

  17. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  18. Educational laws of music in primary schools in Spain in 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Valle MOYA MARTÍNEZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The revolutions in the Spain of the 19th century affected, as it could not be otherwise, to the educational world. 19th legislative and normative regulations show us that, although the musical education was a thoughtful and matter with legal references about its inclusion in primary or elementary school, failed to materialize, in practice, until a century later. Educational past offered to music an important role in its organization of subjects to impart but as we advance in history, it retracts the presence of musical education, until the nonexistence. This way, all the educational analyses were ignored, from Greek philosophy, they had been granted to music an important power in the formative process of the person. The analysis of the whole documentation and legal educational normative of the XIX century, referring to the elementary school, it does not support any discussion in this respect: Seldom, music was included in the official study plans and, even less, it became a reality, so its practice in the classroom was left to the discretion of the musical knowledge of the teachers and their willing to bring it closer to the scholars. Being faithful to the duality of the romantic spirit, this situation took place during the century that granted more value to the music.

  19. Human Genetic Variation and Yellow Fever Mortality during 19th Century U.S. Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P < 0.01). Caucasians diagnosed with YF were 6.8 times more likely to succumb than non-Caucasians with the disease. No other major causes of death during the 19th century demonstrated a similar mortality skew toward Caucasians. Nongenetic host factors were examined and could not explain these large differences. We propose that the remarkably lower case mortality rates for individuals of non-Caucasian ancestry is the result of human genetic variation in loci encoding innate immune mediators. PMID:24895309

  20. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Dabernat

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th-19(th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  1. [Medecine, Law, and Knowledge Production about the "Civilized" War in the Long 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltermann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The aim to 'civilize' warfare accompanied Medicine and International Law ever since the mid-19th century. However, the entanglement of Medicine and Law, crucial for such an endeavour, has not been taken into consideration so far; likewise, the huge importance of medical knowledge for the perception of wars and their ramifications did not garner much attention in historical research. Hence, by focusing on the 'long' 19th century, this paper shows, firstly, that the production of surgical knowledge during warfare aimed at measuring the effects of combat on human bodies in order to develop prognostic medical knowledge for future wars, as well as maintaining the combat strength of soldiers. Moreover, this knowledge production during warfare strived for the enhancement of medical competence in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds in general. Secondly, I show that this medical knowledge was not only relevant for warfare, but also crucial for the design of International Law: it served to nourish the debates among the so called 'civilized' nations about legitimate and illegitimate weaponry and warfare.

  2. Traffic - Special arrangements for the official ceremony on 19th October

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary will take place on 19th October 2004 in the presence of Member State delegations and observers. Many VIPs are to attend the ceremony, which will be held in the Globe of Science and Innovation and in the adjacent marquee. The arrival and departure of the official delegations and guests will cause some disruption to traffic on and around the Meyrin site: The Route de Meyrin will probably be closed to traffic by the police between 2.00 p.m. and 3.00 p.m. and between 5.00 p.m. and 7.00 p.m. for the arrival and departure of VIPs. Access to the Saint-Genis-Pouilly roundabout will be difficult between 2.00 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., when the new entrance to the Meyrin site will be inaugurated. Use of the following car parks will be prohibited from 16th to 19th October inclusive (Open day and official ceremony; the appropriate road signs will be erected): the car parks located between the two lines on the drawing below (guests will register in a tent set up oppo...

  3. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasmoro W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  4. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  5. Complex dynamics in supervised work groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Merlone, Ugo

    2013-07-01

    In supervised work groups many factors concur to determine productivity. Some of them may be economical and some psychological. According to the literature, the heterogeneity in terms of individual capacity seems to be one of the principal causes for chaotic dynamics in a work group. May sorting groups of people with same capacity for effort be a solution? In the organizational psychology literature an important factor is the engagement in the task, while expectations are central in the economics literature. Therefore, we propose a dynamical model which takes into account both engagement in the task and expectations. An important lesson emerges. The intolerance deriving from the exposure to inequity may not be only caused by differences in individual capacities, but also by these factors combined. Consequently, solutions have to be found in this new direction.

  6. PM of the Vuotos working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, J.; Oikarinen, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the program for the Finnish Government will study the premises of the Vuotos Basin Project in the light of the most recent environment studies. For this purpose the Ministry of Trade and Industry appointed a working group. The working group has studied the latest reports on the Vuotos Project which were available up to 30 9.1995. The working group also updated the projections of the energy significance of the project and how it would affect employment. The working group arrived at these conclusions: The Vuotos Project is still of energy economy significance because the need for domestic energy production capacity - and also capacity that can be regulated - is on the rise. The project will not cause any fatal diminishing of the abundance of any Finnish plant or animal species, but it will diminish the number of habitants for some threatened plants and birds. Thus it will diminish the diversity of Finnish nature and the possibilities to use the area for many purposes. The project will cause the weakening of water quality in the streams beneath the basin for the first few years. The project is important for employment reasons, because it will diminish unemployment during construction by 2-8 %-units, depending on the county, and it will make the creation of new jobs possible in the long run. The working group thinks that estimates of experts concerning the pros and cons of the project are quite different and that the final weighing of the considerable body of research and reports can best be made at the Water Court proceedings. (author)

  7. [Group psychotherapy. Working team in community psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, J S; Barrera, E H

    1977-01-01

    A Community Psychiatry program was begun, based on the needs and requests of a clinic (this approach is restricted because there are institutional factors that only the institution can change). The work was aimed at sensitizing the beneficiaries and change clinic factors modifiable through operative group technique. When a great deal of every day stereotypes appeared, role playing was used: as a result, people in the clinic realized how they acted and how they asked from others behaviors that they themselves found difficult to show. As results, it was found that when workers were confronted with reality, desertion from operative groups appeared, with projection of problems (them, not me), great fear of change (fantasized in different ways), group passivity and the image of the institution, that the group saw as a persecutor.

  8. Volcanism/tectonics working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Young, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the impacts of earthquakes, fault rupture, and volcanic eruption on the underground repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The tectonics and seismic history of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is discussed and geologic analogs to that site are described

  9. Summary from working group on noninterceptive diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    The working group for noninterceptive diagnostics spent much of its time comparing diagnostic techniques from different fields and their possible application to high-power injectors. The group included backgrounds from electron beam diagnostics, fusion power diagnostics, cw ion source and transport design, and ion beam of diagnostics. The probability of success for adapting techniques from these different areas is quite difficult to judge, short of a detailed examination of each application. Unexpected flaws or unforeseen noise sources can eliminate an idea that would otherwise appear promising. The report presents several ideas that were discussed, with an indication of those ideas most likely to succeed if implemented

  10. Radiation Sources Working Group Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, Michael V.

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, component technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigarion, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to pulsed RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations

  11. Radiation Sources Working Group Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, component technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigarion, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to pulsed RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  12. Summary of the Physics Opportunities Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin; McDonald, K.T.

    1992-12-01

    The Physics Opportunities Working Group was convened with the rather general mandate to explore physic opportunities that may arise as new accelerator technologies and facilities come into play. Five topics were considered during the workshop: QED at critical field strength, novel positron sources, crystal accelerators, suppression of beamstrahlung, and muon colliders. Of particular interest was the sense that a high energy muon collider might be technically feasible and certainly deserves serious study

  13. Group Organized Project Work in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten; Jensen, Lars Peter

    2001-01-01

    Project organized problem based learning is a successful concept for on-campus education at Aalborg University. Recently this "Aalborg concept" has been used in networked distance education as well. This paper describes the experiences from two years of Internet-mediated project work in a new...... Master of Information Technology education. The main conclusions are, that the project work is a strong learning motivator, enhancing peer collaboration, for off-campus students as well. However, the concept cannot be directly transferred to off-campus learning. The main reasons are that the students...... must communicate electronically, and that they are under a fierce time strain, studying part time and typically with a full time job and a family. In this paper, the main problems experienced with group organized project work in distance education are described, and some possible solutions are listed...

  14. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux and the Symbolic Interpretation of Architectural Origins in 19th-Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Ghoche

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the design by French architect Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux of a tomb of the maritime explorer Jules Dumont d’Urville, erected in the 'cimetière du Sud' in Paris (today, Montparnasse cemetery in 1844. Its unusual parabolic profile and the vivid polychromy of its surface made it something of an archetype for architects in Paris in the 1840s, who saw it as an assault on the neoclassical ideals promoted by the French Academy. In the world of the visual arts, music, and literature, Romanticism is among the most fundamental movements, a watershed moment in which art was rethought in light of the exigencies of the modern world. Romanticism in architecture, however, is more difficult to describe. Drawing on French Romantic philosophy, particularly the works of Pierre Leroux and Victor Cousin, and from archeologists, especially the work of Charles Lenormant, this essay interprets the tomb of Dumont d’Urville within the Romantic discourses of the early 19th century. It argues that the tomb’s Romanticism lay in its ability to enact a totalizing ideology, one which fused form and content, communication, and expression.

  16. Professional Responsibility and the Welfare System in Spain at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Sanz, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the attitudes of physicians prior to the establishment of a social welfare system in Spain, based on professional sources from 1890-1910. Firstly we revised the Systems of Collectivised Assistance during the Transition from the 19th to the 20th Century; then, the article discusses the corporativist reaction of Physicians to the different Welfare Systems. We observe that the criticism of insurance companies was unanimous. Nonetheless, there was a diversity of opinions regarding mutual societies and the associations of mutual assistance. The professional arguments used against the associations, mutuals and insurance companies were formulated around, in addition to the professional instability of the times, the changes in civil and criminal responsibility of the physician as a result of new legal regulations. We found physicians in favour of establishing a welfare system that was not exclusively public and which, in addition to benefiting the needy, would benefit the interests of the profession as well.

  17. Between dandis and rastacueros. Approaches to Snobbery of the Latin American 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Goldgel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the precedents and the articulation of snobbery in 19th-century Latin America. Focusing on a number of key figures in the literature of the period, such as the catrín, the paquete, the siútico, the rastaquouère, and the dandy, it emphasizes the tension between snobs who are challenged (like the rastaquouère, who aims in vain to become part of the grand Parisian world and snobs who triumph (like the dandy, who relies on the increasing legitimacy of fashion and the aesthetic sphere in order to show that snobbery consists not only of the exhibition  of one's own symbolic capital in pursuance of social gains but also of the effort to transform the pose into something authentic and imitation into something original.

  18. [Healthcare in times of epidemics in Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Tânia Salgado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the provision of healthcare for the population of Rio de Janeiro in the mid-19th century and describe its reorganization during the crisis caused by outbreaks of yellow fever and cholera. In this context, it is essential to consider the significant changes taking place in healthcare during this period, also affecting the spaces in which hospital care was offered. Therefore, we focussed our investigation on Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, the most important hospital in the capital of the Brazilian Empire. The sources used are the correspondence between the government and the hospital, the hospital annual reports, archives of the Central Board of Public Hygiene, and wide-circulation medical journals.

  19. Religion, State and Nation in Spain and Mexico in the 19th Century: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Suárez Cortina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationships between religion, state and nation in Spain and Mexico in the 19th Century. The comparison between the Mexican and Spanish experiences illustrates two approaches to the reaccommodation of the Catholic Church in societies that questioned the role of the church in a new political order but not the Catholic faith of their citizens. It also examines the role given to religion in the construction of national identity by both liberals and conservatives. Parallels can be observed among Spanish and Mexican conservatives in terms of identifying the nation with the colonial past, Catholic tradition and the monarchy. On the other hand, Spanish progressives and Mexican federalists both sided with an anticlericalism that nevertheless distanced itself from antireligious positions. Readings of the past and projects for the future in both Spain and Mexico established affinities and distances between the conservative and liberal wings of Spanish and Mexican liberalism.

  20. [Our medicinal preparations in the mid-19th century. Part I--Introduction and chemical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábek, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    The paper deals with the development of the first editions of the Austrian Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoea Austriaca, since its origin in the year 1812. It demonstrates its gradual retardation in the period when nearly all medicinal substances had to be prepared only in pharmacies. The conception was changed as late as 1855 in the Fifth Edition, when it was allowed to buy many medicinal substances from producers or wholesalers. At the same time, requirements for organoleptic properties and chemical purity began to be introduced. The present communication also deals with the chemical drugs used in the mid-19th century and is based on a comparison of the pharmacopoeias of 1836 and 1855. It presents some typical examples, such as alkaloids and metal compounds.

  1. François Arago a 19th century French humanist and pioneer in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, James

    2016-01-01

    François Arago, the first to show in 1810 that the surface of the Sun and stars is made of incandescent gas and not solid or liquid, was a prominent physicist of the 19th century. He used his considerable influence to help Fresnel, Ampere and others develop their ideas and make themselves known. This book covers his personal contributions to physics, astronomy, geodesy and oceanography, which are far from negligible, but insufficiently known. Arago was also an important and influential political man who, for example, abolished slavery in the French colonies. One of the last humanists, he had a very broad culture and range of interests. In parallel to his biography, this title also covers the spectacular progresses of science at the time of Arago, especially in France: the birth of physical optics, electromagnetism and thermodynamics. Francois Arago’s life is a fascinating epic tale that reads as a novel.

  2. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  3. [Animal ethics in the 19th century and Swiss animal protection law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, I

    2018-01-01

    The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations. With the Swiss animal protection law, which came into force in 1981, most of the postulates could be realised. It is shown, how animal protection has developed since that time.

  4. [Biased objectivity--images of women in 19th century German neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, A; Riha, O; Steinberg, H

    2012-09-01

    At the beginning of the 19 (th) century German scholars wanted to differentiate men and women on the basis of anatomic brain or cerebrum particularities. With the help of scientific criteria such as the weight of the brain they aimed not only to prove pre-postulated intellectual differences, but also to find scientific justification for the inferiority of women in general and their inferior position and treatment in society. This paper presents insights into and excerpts from studies written by renowned scientists such as S. T. von Soemmerring, J. F. Ackermann, K. F. Burdach, F. Tiedemann, E. Huschke, H. Schaaffhausen, or P. J. Möbius. Covering the years from 1780 to 1900, these materials show how at the beginning the interest was primarily in comparative anatomic studies and results, but was soon mingled with sociological intentions. Hence this study gives insights into the history of modern gender studies of neurosciences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.

  6. George Beard and Lydia Pinkham: gender, class, and nerves in late 19th century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D L

    1989-01-01

    A historical comparison of the careers of George Beard, medical doctor, and Lydia Pinkham, feminist and patent medicine maker, demonstrates the complex social nature of the experience of nerves among late 19th century women. Special attention is paid to the roles played by changing gender and class ideologies in Pinkham's and Beard's theories of nerves during the period from the 1870s to World War I. A comparison of contemporary anthropological and historical studies of gender and nerves leads to the conclusion that nerves, as a female complaint, takes hold of the popular and medical imagination during periods of dramatic social change which threaten women's traditional family roles and challenge their sense of self-identity.

  7. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  8. Two Web-GIS Projects on Russian Historical Sources of the 15-19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Aleksei A.; Golubinskiy, Aleksei A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper describes an experience of online-publication of Russian archival materials by means of two web-GIS projects. The first project is devoted to publication of the collection of the earliest Russian cartographic drawings (mainly 2nd half of the 17th century), which cover a significant part of Russian territory, mainly the European part (http://rgada.info/geos2). Most of them have never been published and were not easily accessible for scholars and users due to poor physical condition. We tried to combine opportunities of geocoding of the picture with capacity to use an authentic image. The second project offers the results of localization of toponyms and land parcels from various documents (15-19th cc.) connected with one region of the Russian State called Bezhetsk Upland (http://rgada.info/bezheck/popup.html). These results were arranged in the set of layers which may be combined by the user.

  9. Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century London

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    Artful Dodgers : Youth and Crime in early 19th century LondonPar Heather ShoreThe Boydell press, Woodridge, 2002, 193 p. Cet ouvrage d’une historienne universitaire, dont la première édition date de 1999, se propose d’étudier l’émergence de la catégorie des « délinquants juvéniles » au cours de la première moitié du XIXème siècle. L’auteur compare les représentations de ces mineurs véhiculées par les autorités publiques, les réformateurs et dans l’opinion publique avec les réalités de leur vi...

  10. Prospects for using sonar for underwater archeology on the Yenisei: surveying a 19th century shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Current progress in underwater archeology is based on a rich arsenal of high-tech appliances, among which sonar technology plays a key role; it enables scientists not only to detect submerged archeological objects, but to examine them in high definition without having to conduct diving operations or use expensive underwater unmanned vehicles. While the majority of sensational scientific discoveries using sonar have been made in saltwater environments, freshwater ones, rivers in particular, have seen limited activity. The river Yenisei in central Siberia contains an unrecorded number of shipwrecks that await being discovered and studied. In this article we focus on the peculiarities of using sonar for detecting archeological sites on the Yenisei. This article is based on the results of the 2016 expedition, which has determined the location of Thames, a 19th century British steam schooner which was wrecked on the Yenisei.

  11. Test Blanket Working Group's recent activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) has continued its activities during the period of extension of the EDA with a revised charter on the co-ordination of the development work performed by the Parties and by the JCT leading to a co-ordinated test programme on ITER for a DEMO-relevant tritium breeding blanket. This follows earlier work carried out until July 1998, which formed part of the ITER Final Design Report (FDR), completed in 1998. Whilst the machine parameters for ITER-FEAT have been significantly revised compared to the FDR, testing of breeding blanket modules remains a main objective of the test programme and the development of a reactor-relevant breeding blanket to ensure tritium fuel self-sufficiency is recognized a key issue for fusion. Design work and R and D on breeding blanket concepts, including co-operation with the other Contacting Parties of the ITER-EDA for testing these concepts in ITER, are included in the work plans of the Parties

  12. Childcare in Reggio Emilia: Origins and Changes between the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Raimondo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the evolution in the type of interventions and childcare models adopted by the institutions charged with caring for orphans in 18th- and 19th-century Reggio Emilia, Italy. Through analysis of the documents – some previously unseen – preserved at the archives of ASP Reggio Emilia Città delle Persone and Polo Archivistico Comunale, it is possible to understand how the city of Reggio Emilia adapted itself to the developing needs of its wards, and social, legislative and especially educational changes, seeking to go beyond the isolatory and custodial spirit that characterised life within orphanages until the end of the 19th century. The history of the local institutions intertwines with that of the national processes and changes which revolutionised the traditional concept of «institute». The monolithic, centuries-old and obsolete «orphanage» gave way to care within the community (1962, founded on the principles of protection, promotion and education of individuals. The stories of these individuals that emerge from the personal records and material analysed enable us to broaden our gaze on the reconstruction of institutional history, starting from a more internal perspective and focusing on the «subjectivity» of those in need of basic care. Such personal histories enable us to not only to understand the peculiarities of the various «cases», but also their living conditions, and the ways in which care, and at the same time education, was provided.

  13. Penal symbolism in Serbia in the first half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explores a scarce and unusual phenomenon for the 19th century Serbia, of the emphasized nexus between crime and penalty. The author marks that special, symbolical relation of penalty, on the one hand, and sanction on the other, as 'penal symbolism'. This term refers to penalization which reflects the ties between crime and punishment by copying crime in terms of modus or place of execution, or by 'punishing' those body parts which partook in committing a crime. The author classifies the examples of preserved judgments and legislations containing penal symbolism to those referring to modus or place of execution of death penalty, those which are examples of penal symbolism related to other sanctions, and those which are examples of the symbolic talion. The author raises the questions of the origin of this phenomenon, as well as of its justification, and aims at providing answers by reconstructing legal and social framework of Serbia in the first half of the 19th century. With this objective in mind, she discusses the development of Criminal Law and its basic features, as well as the development of judiciary, the systematic institutionalization of the network of criminal courts, and, especially, the composition thereof. In the conclusion, the author rejects the possibility that penal symbolism is a product of legal transplantation or that of the continuity of Serbian medieval law. She asserts that the scarcity of material criminal law sources led to judging by 'justice and fairness', and that those facts created conditions for the primitive sense of justice to find its way into judgments and legislations as penal symbolism.

  14. Cold moderator test facilities working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Guenter S.; Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The working group meeting was chaired by Bauer and Lucas.Testing is a vital part of any cold source development project. This applies to specific physics concept verification, benchmarking in conjunction with computer modeling and engineering testing to confirm the functional viability of a proposed system. Irradiation testing of materials will always be needed to continuously extend a comprehensive and reliable information database. An ever increasing worldwide effort to enhance the performance of reactor and accelerator based neutron sources, coupled with the complexity and rising cost of building new generation facilities, gives a new dimension to cold source development and testing programs. A stronger focus is now being placed on the fine-tuning of cold source design to maximize its effectiveness in fully exploiting the facility. In this context, pulsed spallation neutron sources pose an extra challenge due to requirements regarding pulse width and shape which result from a large variety of different instrument concepts. The working group reviewed these requirements in terms of their consequences on the needs for testing equipment and compiled a list of existing and proposed facilities suitable to carry out the necessary development work.

  15. FAVL work group: report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document reports the works of a work group dedicated to the process of search for storage site for low activity and long life radioactive wastes. The authors recall the history of this process which started in the early 1990's, and resulted in the selection of two sites, in Auxon and in Pars-les-Chavanges, and finally in the withdrawal of both towns. Then, the authors analyse the whole process in terms of intervention or participation of local authorities, of information and participation of waste producers. They also discuss the roles of the ASN, IRSN, DGEC, ANDRA and ANDRA's Coesdic. They make recommendations regarding site selection, agenda, responsibilities, preferential representative at the local level, public information, consultation, and project support

  16. Activities of covariance utilization working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a interest in the calculational uncertainties induced by nuclear data uncertainties in the neutronics design of advanced nuclear system. The covariance nuclear data is absolutely essential for the uncertainty analysis. In the latest version of JENDL, JENDL-4.0, the covariance data for many nuclides, especially actinide nuclides, was substantialy enhanced. The growing interest in the uncertainty analysis and the covariance data has led to the organisation of the working group for covariance utilization under the JENDL committee. (author)

  17. Report of ITER Special Working Group 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1994-01-01

    ITER Special Working Group 2 (SWG-2) was established by the terms of the ITER-EDA Agreement. According to that agreement, open-quotes SWG-2 shall submit guidelines for implementation of task assignments by the Home Teams to the Council for approval at its second meeting. This SWG shall also draft Protocol 2 to the ITER-EDA Agreement and submit a draft to the Council not later than by 21 May 1993.close quotes The members of SWG-2 for Protocol 2 drafting are listed. The rest of this paper is the verbatim report of SWG-2 on Protocol 2

  18. Reports from the Combined Performance Working Groups

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Haywood

    The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...

  19. The negotiation of rules and state intervention in irrigation management: The Júcar Canal in the mid-19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Calatayud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The way the rules for distributing water work in irrigation communities has been the object of numerous studies. Yet, little is known about how the negotiation process that is required to design such rules has developed historically, which is what this article focuses on. Specifically, the case of the Júcar Canal, which was built in the 13th century and went on to become the largest irrigation system in Spain after undergoing an extension in the early 19th century. As a result of said extension, there were many clashes between the old and the new irrigators, the climate of cooperation between users diminished and it became necessary to draw up a new set of regulations. Two crucial factors allowed a new agreement to be reached: the fact that the irrigators were able to redesign the institutions with a high degree of autonomy, and the intervention of representatives of the political authorities of the State who adopted the role of external arbitrators.

  20. Private action and public power in the struggle for instruction: Portugal in the second half of the 19th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslau Gonçalves Neto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For the consolidation of their power in the 19th century, the national states developed new mechanisms to impart their ideology, among which the national systems of teaching. Because of the fi nancial diffi culties, the states allowed the private sphere in, what turned out to be a way to change instruction into a national cause. In Portugal, the State did not have the economic resources neither the political will. The private sphere was invited to take part in that effort to offer popular instruction. Various types of participation occurred in that period, reaching evidence the engagement of an entrepreneur of a neighborhood in the country area of Portugal. He tried all that he could to build and to offer a school to the community. Even though there was a great scarcity of instruction in the country and the political discourse supported the enterprise, the task would not be easy at all. He had to face the local political power, in the sequence the same problem in the higher spheres of political power. Even the civil governor of Aveiro and the direction of the Secretary of Public Instruction of the government. Taking up fi les and documents of the “Torre do Tombo”, in Lisbon, this work tries to show the complexity of the process of the diffusion of education and the confl icts of power that followed, specially those issues which seemed to be consensual.

  1. 19. srednjeevropska konferenca o informatiki in inteligentnih sistemih = 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems, CECIIS 2008, which took place between 24th and 26th September in Varaždin and was organised by the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin. The central theme of this year’s conference was e-government. During those 3 days, 250 participants could attend presentations of 90 scientific and professional works in 15 sections and 9 invited lectures on the newest trends in the area of information and communication technology management, information technologies, security of information systems, multimedia systems, strategic planning of information systems, education for information society. Two other parallel events were held within the international conference, namely the workshop ‘Activities towards ICT professionalism’ and a round table on the subject ‘Competences of ICT Professionals’. Experts in the field of human resources, leaders of information centres and managers of the leading Croatian companies participated in the latter.

  2. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  3. The recommendations of the noise working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legerton, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993 the DTI set up a Working Group to define a framework which can be used to measure and rate the noise from wind turbines. The final report of the Noise Working Group is now available for publication. The advice on the setting of noise limits for wind farms is largely unaltered from the preliminary recommendations presented at the 17th BWEA Annual Conference [1]. This paper recaps on those recommendations and provides additional information on the measurement procedures to be used with the recommendations on noise limits. The paper describes the measurement of the existing background noise climate on which the limits are based and the procedure to be used for the measurement of turbine noise levels in the investigation of complaints. The noise limits are rated noise levels in that they can include a penalty for tones present in the noise. The level of penalty depends upon the audibility of the tone and measurement procedure for determining audibility and the associated penalty system are also described. (author)

  4. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  5. Summary Report of Working Group 2: Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, P. H.; Tsung, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    The working group on computation addressed three physics areas: (i) plasma-based accelerators (laser-driven and beam-driven), (ii) high gradient structure-based accelerators, and (iii) electron beam sources and transport [1]. Highlights of the talks in these areas included new models of breakdown on the microscopic scale, new three-dimensional multipacting calculations with both finite difference and finite element codes, and detailed comparisons of new electron gun models with standard models such as PARMELA. The group also addressed two areas of advances in computation: (i) new algorithms, including simulation in a Lorentz-boosted frame that can reduce computation time orders of magnitude, and (ii) new hardware architectures, like graphics processing units and Cell processors that promise dramatic increases in computing power. Highlights of the talks in these areas included results from the first large-scale parallel finite element particle-in-cell code (PIC), many order-of-magnitude speedup of, and details of porting the VPIC code to the Roadrunner supercomputer. The working group featured two plenary talks, one by Brian Albright of Los Alamos National Laboratory on the performance of the VPIC code on the Roadrunner supercomputer, and one by David Bruhwiler of Tech-X Corporation on recent advances in computation for advanced accelerators. Highlights of the talk by Albright included the first one trillion particle simulations, a sustained performance of 0.3 petaflops, and an eight times speedup of science calculations, including back-scatter in laser-plasma interaction. Highlights of the talk by Bruhwiler included simulations of 10 GeV accelerator laser wakefield stages including external injection, new developments in electromagnetic simulations of electron guns using finite difference and finite element approaches.

  6. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion [Fusion Working Group (FWG)] was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project

  7. Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, M B

    1988-05-01

    Although other forms of allergic disease were described in antiquity, hay fever is surprisingly modern. Very rare descriptions can be traced back to Islamic texts of the 9th century and European texts of the 16th century. It was only in the early 19th century that the disease was carefully described and at that time was regarded as most unusual. By the end of the 19th century it had become commonplace in both Europe and North America. This paper attempts to chart the growth of hay fever through the medical literature of the 19th century. It is hoped that an understanding of the increase in prevalence between 1820 and 1900 may provide an insight for modern researchers and give some clues into possible reasons for the epidemic nature of the disease today.

  8. Ethnic Entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the Era of Economic Modernization in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Century (as Illustrated in the Example of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the 19th century brought about the modernization reforms in the Russian political system, which accelerated the development of the country's capitalist economy. The abolition of segregationist regulations contributed to the development of bourgeois relations in industry and agriculture. The pace of economic modernization was faster in European Russia, while the country’s frontier regions in the Asiatic part of the Russian Empire seriously lagged behind the center. The role of agents for capitalist change in industry and agriculture was accepted by the members of non-Russian ethnic groups, such as Jews, Germans, Poles and others. They became new bourgeois who were former government officials who had required connections to establish factories, and traders, who accumulated significant capital. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, a major role was performed by individual entrepreneurship inside ethnic communities. Its scope comprised the sectors which generated no economic interest among Russians living in Siberia, and which required large capital investments (distilling, shipping companies. In the early 20th century the social composition of communities was blurry thanks to peasants who formed a key component in migratory flows to Siberia. This shifted emphasis to small and medium-sized enterprises in the agricultural sector. The purpose of the paper is to use specific examples to show how ethnic entrepreneurship depended on a community's social composition, and determine its place in the regional economy in the conditions of ongoing political modernization and initial steps to industrialization. The foundation for the study is built on the archival documents, statistical digests and current research. The work is based on comparativism.

  9. Summary of the accelerator working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Noble, R.J.

    1998-03-01

    We present a summary of the main topics discussed in the Accelerator Working Group during the ''Workshop on the Physics at the First Muon Collider''. The discussions centered on critical design issues for a high-intensity, medium-energy proton synchrotron that would replace the present Fermilab 8 GeV Booster early in the next century. Such a machine is intended both to serve the hadron program with an order of magnitude increase in average proton current and to be compatible as a source for a future muon collider. Particular issues discussed at length include rf system design, control of longitudinal space-charge effects, bunching of proton beams and beam instabilities

  10. Working Group Report: Lattice Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, T.; et al.,

    2013-10-22

    This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

  11. Executive Committee Working Group: Women in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, Francesca; Maddison, Sarah; Primas, Francesca; Aerts, Conny; Clayton, Geoffrey; Combes, Françoise; Elmegreen, Debra; Feretti, Luigina; Jog, Chanda; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Lazzaro, Daniela; Liang, Yanchun; Mandrini, Cristina; Mathews, Brenda; Rovira, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The gender† dimension of science and technology has become one of the most important and debated issues worldwide, impacting society at every level. A variety of international initiatives on the subject have been undertaken, including the continued monitoring of the status of women in science by Unesco Institute for Statistics (UIS) or the annual reports ``Education at a Glance'' by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as field-related working groups and networking in order to collect data in a consistent manner. The majority of the international organizations have made clear statements about their discrimination policies (independently of their main field(s) of action), including the International Council for Science whose regulations are followed by the IAU. Gender equality at large is one of the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which clearly calls for action related to science, technology and gender.

  12. The height increments and BMI values of elite Central European children and youth in the second half of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, John

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal height measurements on children and youth are very rare prior to the 20th century, as are BMI values. Growth increments and BMI values were determined among elite (select) Habsburg children and youth in the late 19th century and compared with other extant historical and contemporary data. Archival data on height and weight were collected for approximately 3500 students attending Habsburg Military schools. The students were measured once a year for 4 years. Because of the minimum height requirement, truncated regression was used in order to estimate height trends, but standard procedures were used to determine height increments and BMI values. Heights increased at most 0.9-1.6 cm between the birth cohorts of circa 1870s and 1900. These future officers were about the same size as their counterparts in the USA and France, but smaller than those attending the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst, England, who were taller and probably the tallest in the world at the time. Height increments were markedly smaller than those experienced by German students in the 18th century after age 15. Central European BMI values were above those obtained in the USA in the 19th century but well below modern values. Although peak height velocity was experienced as early as ages 13 and 14, the height increments were very small compared even to other historical populations. The military academy selected mainly precocious applicants (with probably larger height increments at younger ages and smaller increments at older ages). BMI values in this sample were well below modern standards, but they were unexpectedly as high as those of contemporary US West Point cadets, a well nourished group. There were significant differences in the height of elites in Central Europe in the 19th century, pointing to substantial socio-economic inequality, but at least the elites were as well nourished as the US population.

  13. Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management

  14. Charter for Systems Engineer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffredini, Michael T.; Grissom, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This charter establishes the International Space Station Program (ISSP) Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG). The MSS SEWG is established to provide a mechanism for Systems Engineering for the end-to-end MSS function. The MSS end-to-end function includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Remote Servicer (MRS) Base System (MBS), Robotic Work Station (RWS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Video Signal Converters (VSC), and Operations Control Software (OCS), the Mobile Transporter (MT), and by interfaces between and among these elements, and United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) distributed systems, and other International Space Station Elements and Payloads, (including the Power Data Grapple Fixtures (PDGFs), MSS Capture Attach System (MCAS) and the Mobile Transporter Capture Latch (MTCL)). This end-to-end function will be supported by the ISS and MSS ground segment facilities. This charter defines the scope and limits of the program authority and document control that is delegated to the SEWG and it also identifies the panel core membership and specific operating policies.

  15. Summary of the laser working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigio, I.J.; Kurnit, N.A.; Donaldson, W.R.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.

    1988-10-01

    The laser working group considered several options to deliver synchronized laser pulses of the required energy to the photocathode and laser triggered switches. These requirements actually decreased during the course of the workshop, and the values finally settled upon (<10 μJ in 100 fs at ∼250 nm for the photocathode and ∼20 mJ in 2 ps near either 250 nm or 1 μm for the switches) were considered to be well within the state of the art. Some development work may be required, however, to provide a system that has the desirable characteristics of stability, ease of use and low maintenance. The baseline concept, which is similar to a number of existing systems, utilizes doubled Nd:YAG-pumped dye oscillator/amplifiers to produce an upconverted picosecond pulse that can be amplified to tens of mJ in a KrF excimer laser. A fraction of the dye oscillator output is also compressed by means of a fiber-grating compressor and further amplified in a dye amplifier before being upconverted to produce the synchronized pulse for the photocathode. 9 refs., 1 fig

  16. Two hegemonies – two technological regimes : American and Norwegian whaling in the 19th and 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2006-01-01

    The 19th century whaling industry was dominated by the United States while the 20th century industry had its origins in Norway and was dominated for years by that nation. The focus of the paper, is to explore the relationship between the two so-called hegemonic whaling nations. Specifically, we are looking for encounters between the two industries that in one way or another may explain why the Norwegians did not enter into traditional pelagic whaling in the mid 19th century, an...

  17. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  18. [About smallpox and vaccination practices in Minas Gerais (Brazil) in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anny Jackeline Torres; Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-02-01

    This article discusses the impact of smallpox and vaccination practices used against the disease used in the province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, during the Imperial Period (1822-1889). Despite the existence of services responsible for the organization and dissemination of the vaccine in the country since the early 19th century, some administrative and cultural factors, as identified in documents produced by the province's public health authorities at the time, had a negative impact upon the full implementation of both practice and organization of services aimed at the dissemination of smallpox vaccination. Based upon historiographic sources, it is argued that despite the trend towards centralization observed at different governmental spheres during the structuring of the Imperial State, in particular, in the provision of vaccination services, there was a prevailing disharmony between the different agencies responsible for the implementation and management of such services. A further contributor to the difficulties in the service implementation was the resistance of the population to submit to the vaccination, a phenomenon that can be best understood through examination of the social construction of perceptions about diseases and the vaccination method used against the smallpox.

  19. (History – telling the nation: the narrative construction of Romanianism in the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Stelian Rusu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study in historical socio-anthropology, focusing on the political process of Romanian nation building and its corresponding anthropological program of creating the national self. Starting from the assumption that human being is a “storytelling animal” nested in a (history-telling community pillared upon “narrative traditions,” this paper examines the stock of stories told through history schoolbooks about the Romanian past as a means of narrative construction of Romanian national identity. Consequently, the paper looks at the nationalizing process launched by Romanian state authorities in the wake of the political union of 1859, arguing that the political building of Romanian nation implied the narrative articulation, followed by the recursive institutional reciting within the public educational system, of a “Romanian master story” as a means of breeding national Romanians out of Orthodox peasants. After detailing the pedagogy of the nation emerged in the second half of the 19th century as establishing the norms of (history-telling the national past, the study concludes by highlighting the main themes, or “schematic narrative templates,” into which the Romanian master story has been poured out.

  20. From swill milk to certified milk: progress in cow's milk quality in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization jeopardized infant nutrition during the 19th century. Cow's milk was produced in the cities or transported long distances under suspect conditions. Milk was contaminated with bacteria or adulterated with water, flour, chalk and other substances. When distilleries proliferated in the metropoles, their waste slop was fed to cows which then produced thin and contaminated swill milk. Following a press campaign in the USA, the sale of swill milk was prohibited by law in 1861. Bacterial counts became available in 1881 and helped to improve the quality of milk. Debates on pasteurization remained controversial; legislation varied from country to country. Disposal of the wastewater of millions of inhabitants and the manure of thousands of cows was environmentally hazardous. It was not until 1860 and after several pandemics of Asiatic cholera that effective sewage systems were built in the metropoles. Milk depots were established in the USA by Koplik for sterilized and by Coit for certified milk. In France, Budin and Dufour created consultation services named goutte de lait, which distributed sterilized milk and educated mothers in infant care. Multiple efforts to improve milk quality culminated in the International gouttes de lait Congresses for the Study and Prevention of Infantile Mortality.

  1. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn’s Context in the 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By the late 19th Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology – all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn’s Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive “index of nature” was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  2. ["Fabulous things". Drug narratives about coca and cocaine in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2009-12-01

    This contribution focuses on the history of Coca leaves and Cocaine in the second half of 19th century Europe. Even though, to date, no direct link has been established between the activities of the Milano physician Paolo Mantegazza, and the Göttingen chemist Friedrich Wöhler, it is not a mere coincidence that both published their findings in the same year, namely, 1859. Mantegazza authored the first treatise claiming that Coca had psychoactive qualities and touted its broad therapeutic faculties; he claimed that it should be introduced into European pharmacotherapy. In Wöhler's laboratory, cocaine was isolated from leaves by his pupil Alfred Niemann; later, Wilhelm Lossen refined and corrected Niemann's results. Narratives about medicinal drugs often streamline history into a story that starts with multiple meanings and impure matters and ends with well-defined substances, directed at clear-cut diseases and symptoms. In the case of Coca, however, the pure substance triggered no such process well into the 1880s, whereas the leaves continued to circulate as an exotic, pluripotent drug whose effects where miraculous and yet difficult to establish.

  3. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  4. Solar rotational cycle in lightning activity in Japan during the 18-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Mikami, Takehiko; Zaiki, Masumi; Hirano, Junpei; Yoshimura, Minoru; Aono, Yasuyuki; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2018-04-01

    Thunderstorm and cloud activities sometimes show a 27-day period, and this has long been studied to uncover a possible important link to solar rotation. Because the 27-day variations in the solar forcing parameters such as solar ultraviolet and galactic cosmic rays become more prominent when the solar activity is high, it is expected that the signal of the 27-day period in meteorological phenomena may wax and wane according to the changes in the solar activity level. In this study, we examine in detail the intensity variations in the signal of the 27-day solar rotational period in thunder and lightning activity from the 18th to the 19th centuries based on 150-year-long records found in old diaries kept in Japan and discuss their relation with the solar activity levels. Such long records enable us to examine the signals of solar rotation at both high and low solar activity levels. We found that the signal of the solar rotational period in the thunder and lightning activity increases as the solar activity increases. In this study, we also discuss the possibility of the impact of the long-term climatological conditions on the signals of the 27-day period in thunder/lightning activities.

  5. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  6. The Norwegian system for wild reindeer management — major development since the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Olav Bråta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 19th century the hunting of wild reindeer was relatively unrestricted in Norway. This, combined with a more efficient hunting, caused a severe reduction in the number of wild reindeer at the turn of the century. The national authorities responded by stricter hunting control, and in 1930 hunting quotas related to the size of the wild reindeer areas were introduced. The Ministry of Agriculture decided the number of licences, and the number of wild reindeer increased. During the 1950s a major controversy between the Ministry and local people arose in the Snøhetta area. People there increased their power over the wild reindeer management by organising a "Wild Reindeer Board" (WRB. This inspired people in other districts to organise similar boards. These WRBs had no formal power according to the law, but became important managers of the herds. An official organisation for each wild reindeer area, the Wild Reindeer Committee (WRC, was introduced in 1988. Since the WRCs are official institutions, legal power is decentralised to them.

  7. Relevance of 19th century continuous tone photomechanical printing techniques to digitally generated imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Stephen; Thirkell, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Collotype and Woodburytype are late 19th early 20th century continuous tone methods of reproducing photography in print, which do not have an underlying dot structure. The aesthetic and tactile qualities produced by these methods at their best, have never been surpassed. Woodburytype is the only photomechanical print process using a printing matrix and ink, that is capable of rendering true continuous tone; it also has the characteristic of rendering a photographic image by mapping a three-dimensional surface topography. Collotype"s absence of an underlying dot structure enables an image to be printed in as many colours as desired without creating any form of interference structure. Research at the Centre for Fine Print Research, UWE Bristol aims to recreate these processes for artists and photographers and assess their potential to create a digitally generated image printed in full colour and continuous tone that will not fade or deteriorate. Through this research the Centre seeks to provide a context in which the development of current four-colour CMYK printing may be viewed as an expedient rather than a logical route for the development of colour printing within the framework of digitally generated hard copy paper output.

  8. Music Societies in the 19th Century Oporto : Private Spaces of Amateur and Professional Music Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Liberal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of private societies and clubs flourished in Oporto in the 19th Century, whose aim was to encourage in their members "benevolence relationships and good society" offering them "an honest and civilized leisure times". Clearly elitist, these nineteenth century recreational clubs had strict membership admission policies, which generally belonged to the higher echelons of society, more specifically the bourgeois, since the titled aristocracy was scarce in Oporto. It is worth mentioning here in parenthesis that Oporto was an essentially bourgeois, commercial city, unlike the capital, Lisbon, where the court "drags with it the whole official and unofficial world which conceitedly flutters around it". Each association organised musical concerts, balls and soirées musicales – weekly, twice a week or once a month – which also offered members other amusements, like conversation, reading, playing cards or dancing. Events of a musical character were normally performed by the club members, usually amateurs – referred to as dilettanti – who would be joined by prestigious Portuguese or foreign professionals. The purpose of this article is to describe the musical activity of the five main venues for private socialising in Oporto in the 1800s, and their contribution to the development of the musical taste of the city's society, taking into account both amateur and professional practice and particularly the repertoire performed.

  9. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  10. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  11. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  12. Chemistry in Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Stanko M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is selection and analysis of articles with chemistry content in selected Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century, which were aimed towards general public, in order to get insight into the level and quality of additional chemistry informing of readers. Two journals were selected, that contained entertaining, literature and scientific content ('Sedmica' and 'Vila', and two other, with entertainment and literature nature ('Danica' and 'Matica'. The analyzed journals primarily addressed the general public and played an important role in readers' information and education. Historical method was applied in this research. The above-mentioned journals were analyzed separately, with the short historical survey. Complete editions of these journals were analyzed, and the selection of articles was made according to the textual content or the title itself. The chemistry content presented in these journals is of the great variety. Among other things, interesting comments of the chemical schoolbooks are found, as well as lectures on science.

  13. THE HIGGS WORKING GROUP: SUMMARY REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAWSON, S.; ET AL.

    2005-08-01

    This working group has investigated Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Once Higgs bosons are found their properties have to be determined. The prospects of Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC and a high-energy linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider are discussed in detail within the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension (MSSM). Recent improvements in the theoretical knowledge of the signal and background processes are presented and taken into account. The residual uncertainties are analyzed in detail. Theoretical progress is discussed in particular for the gluon-fusion processes gg {yields} H(+j), Higgs-bremsstrahlung off bottom quarks and the weak vector-boson-fusion (VBF) processes. Following the list of open questions of the last Les Houches workshop in 2001 several background processes have been calculated at next-to-leading order, resulting in a significant reduction of the theoretical uncertainties. Further improvements have been achieved for the Higgs sectors of the MSSM and NMSSM. This report summarizes our work performed before and after the workshop in Les Houches. Part A describes the theoretical developments for signal and background processes. Part B presents recent progress in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron collider. Part C addresses the determination of Higgs boson couplings, part D the measurement of tan {beta} and part E Higgs boson searches in the VBF processes at the LHC. Part F summarizes Higgs searches in supersymmetric Higgs decays, part G photonic Higgs decays in Higgs-strahlung processes at the LHC, while part H concentrates on MSSM Higgs bosons in the intense-coupling regime at the LHC. Part I presents progress in charged Higgs studies and part J the Higgs discovery potential in the NMSSM at the LHC. The last part K describes Higgs coupling measurements at a 1 TeV linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  14. THE HIGGS WORKING GROUP: SUMMARY REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAWSON, S.

    2005-01-01

    This working group has investigated Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Once Higgs bosons are found their properties have to be determined. The prospects of Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC and a high-energy linear e + e - collider are discussed in detail within the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension (MSSM). Recent improvements in the theoretical knowledge of the signal and background processes are presented and taken into account. The residual uncertainties are analyzed in detail. Theoretical progress is discussed in particular for the gluon-fusion processes gg → H(+j), Higgs-bremsstrahlung off bottom quarks and the weak vector-boson-fusion (VBF) processes. Following the list of open questions of the last Les Houches workshop in 2001 several background processes have been calculated at next-to-leading order, resulting in a significant reduction of the theoretical uncertainties. Further improvements have been achieved for the Higgs sectors of the MSSM and NMSSM. This report summarizes our work performed before and after the workshop in Les Houches. Part A describes the theoretical developments for signal and background processes. Part B presents recent progress in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron collider. Part C addresses the determination of Higgs boson couplings, part D the measurement of tan β and part E Higgs boson searches in the VBF processes at the LHC. Part F summarizes Higgs searches in supersymmetric Higgs decays, part G photonic Higgs decays in Higgs-strahlung processes at the LHC, while part H concentrates on MSSM Higgs bosons in the intense-coupling regime at the LHC. Part I presents progress in charged Higgs studies and part J the Higgs discovery potential in the NMSSM at the LHC. The last part K describes Higgs coupling measurements at a 1 TeV linear e + e - collider

  15. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  16. Working group report on wetlands and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teels, B.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and knowledge gaps concerning climatic change impacts on wetlands and wildlife are presented. Prairie pothole wetlands are extremely productive and produce ca 50% of all ducks in North America. The most productive, and most vulnerable to climate change, are small potholes, often less than one acre in area. Changes in water regimes and land use will have more impact on wildlife than changes in temperature. There are gaps in knowledge relating to: boreal wetlands and their wildlife, and response to climate; wetland inventories that include the smallest wetlands; coordinated schemes for monitoring status and trends of wetlands and wildlife; and understanding of ecological relationships within wetlands and their wildlife communities. Recommendations include: coordinate and enhance existing databases to provide an integrated monitoring system; establish research programs to increase understanding of ecological relationships within wetland ecosystems; evaluate programs and policies that affect wetlands; and promote heightened public awareness of general values of wetlands

  17. Beam-beam interaction working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The limit in hadron colliders is understood phenomenologically. The beam-beam interaction produces nonlinear resonances and makes the transverse tunes amplitude dependent. Tune spreads result from the latter, and as long as these tune spreads do not overlap low order resonances, the lifetime and performance is acceptable. Experience is that tenth and sometimes twelfth order resonances must be avoided, and the hadron collider limit corresponds roughly to the space available between resonances of that and lower order when operating near the coupling resonance. The beam-beam interaction in e + e - colliders is not understood well. This affects the performance of existing colliders and could lead to surprises in new ones. For example. a substantial amount of operator tuning is usually required to reach the performance limit given above, and this tuning has to be repeated after each major shutdown. The usual interpretation is that colliding beam performance is sensitive to small lattice errors, and these are being reduced during tuning. It is natural to ask what these errors are, how can a lattice be characterized to minimize tuning time, and what aspects of a lattice should receive particular attention when a new collider is being designed. The answers to this type of question are not known, and developing ideas for calculations, simulations and experiments that could illuminate the details of the beam-beam interaction was the primary working group activity

  18. Working group report on water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulder, J.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss climate change implications for water resources are presented. The existing water resources and climatological databases necessary to develop models and functional relationships lack integration and coordination. The density and spatial distribution of the existing sampling networks for obtaining necessary climatological data is inadequate, especially in areas of complex terrain, notably higher elevations in the Rocky Mountains. Little information and knowledge is available on potential socio-economic responses that can be anticipated from either increases in climate variability or major change. Recommended research initiatives include the following. Basic functional relationships between climatic events, climatic variability and change, and both surface and groundwater hydrologic processes need to be investigated and improved. Basin-scale and regional-scale climatic models need to be developed, tested, and interfaced with existing global climate models. Public sector attitudes to water management issues and opportunities need to be investigated, and integrated scientific, socio-economic, multidisciplinary, regional databases on climatic change and variability and associated processes need to be developed

  19. Switched power workshop power supply working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseroth, H.; Hopkins, D.; Ikezi, H.; Kirbie, H.; Lincke, E.; Wilson, M.

    1988-01-01

    The power supply working group was assigned the problem of pulse charging the 3-MeV gun. The gun is a radial line structure that has two charging configurations: a single ring charged to 500 kV or nine rings charged from 100 to 200 kV. In either configuration, the pulsed source must rapidly charge the structure's ring(s) before breakdown can begin. The issues encountered in charging the structure can be divided into two categories. First, the charging system must be well matched to the gun structure. Proper impedance matching will avoid reflections and limit the fault current if the ring should spark. Second, several systems can achieve the wide range of charge voltages necessary. Some are better suited to high voltages, while others are better at low voltages. The following paragraphs will address the impedance matching issues are review three choices for pulse generators. A system for each type of source is described along with a very rough cost estimate. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  1. Neutron radiography working group test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1989-03-01

    Scope and results of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group Test Program are described. Seven NR centers from six European Community countries have performed this investigation using eleven NR facilities. Four test items were neutron radiographed using 30 different film/converter combinations. From film density measurements neutron beam components were determined. Radiographic sensitivity was assessed from visual examinations of the radiographs. About 25,000 dimensional measurements were made and were used for the assessment of accuracies of dimensional measurements from neutron radiographs. The report gives a description of the test items used for the Test Program, the film density and dimensional measurements, and concentrates on the assessment of the measuring results. The usefulness of the beam purity and sensitivity indicators was assessed with the conclusion that they are not suitable for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Ample information is included in the report about measuring accuracies which can be reached in dimensional measurements of fuel pins. After a general comparison of measuring accuracies is discussed. Results from different NR facilities are treated separately as are the different kinds of dimensions of the fuel pins. Finally human and instrument factors are discussed. After presenting final conclusions (which take into account the above-mentioned factors) results of other investigations about dimensional measurements are shortly reviewed

  2. Working group written presentation: Atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L.J.; Visentine, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier Shuttle flight experiments have shown NASA and SDIO spacecraft designed for operation in low-Earth orbit (LEO) must take into consideration the highly oxidative characteristics of the ambient flight environment. Materials most adversely affected by atomic oxygen interactions include organic films, advanced (carbon-based) composites, thermal control coatings, organic-based paints, optical coatings, and thermal control blankets commonly used in spacecraft applications. Earlier results of NASA flight experiments have shown prolonged exposure of sensitive spacecraft materials to the LEO environment will result in degraded systems performance or, more importantly, lead to requirements for excessive on-orbit maintenance, with both conditions contributing significantly to increased mission costs and reduced mission objectives. Flight data obtained from previous Space Shuttle missions and results of the Solar Max recovery mission are limited in terms of atomic oxygen exposure and accuracy of fluence estimates. The results of laboratory studies to investigate the long-term (15 to 30 yrs) effects of AO exposure on spacecraft surfaces are only recently available, and qualitative correlations of laboratory results with flight results have been obtained for only a limited number of materials. The working group recommended the most promising ground-based laboratories now under development be made operational as soon as possible to study the full-life effects of atomic oxygen exposure on spacecraft systems

  3. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  4. Switched power workshop: Power supply working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseroth, H.; Hopkins, D.; Ikezi, H.; Kirbie, H.C.; Lincke, E.; Wilson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The power supply working group was assigned the problem of pulse charging the 3-MeV gun. The gun is a radial line structure that has two charging configurations: a single ring charged to 500 kV or nine rings charged from 100 to 200 kV. In either configuration, the pulsed source must rapidly charge the structure's ring(s) before breakdown can begin. The issues encountered in charging the structure can be divided into two categories. First, the charging system must be well matched to the gun structure. Proper impedance matching will avoid reflections and limit the fault current if the ring should spark. Second, several systems can achieve the wide range of charge voltages necessary. Some are better suited to high voltages, while others are better at low voltages. The following paragraphs will address the impedance matching issues and review three choices for pulse generators. A system for each type of source is described along with a very rough cost estimate. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Working with Group-Tasks and Group Cohesiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the connection between the use of group task and group cohesiveness. This study is very important because the nature of the learner's success is largely determined by the values of cooperation, interaction, and understanding of the learning objectives together. Subjects of this study are 28 students on the course…

  6. [The new hospital model established at the end of 19th Century and the professional nursing schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargoni, A

    2008-04-01

    The historical research in hospitals organisation began in Europe only after the II World War. In particular, studies regarding the nursing in Italy are very scarce and heavily influenced by the fragmented political and organisational management due to the historical divisions within Italy. All the same, the social and working conditions, at least in the north of Italy, were similar in this respect. The workforce up to the beginning of the 20th Century was equally divided between males and females. The female recruitment took place exclusively from the foundlings left in front of the hospital and raised within the hospital walls. The work was very hard with long working hours, under a total subordination to the religious administrators with miserable wage. These conditions remained unchanged until the second half of the 19th Century when, in central Europe, a change in the reorganisation of hospital management occurred, together with a cultural improvement in the nursing profession. This process of reforms had started in England some decades earlier from the reorganisation of nursing made by Florence Nightingale. After Italian post-unification the healthcare field was involved in the tentative to homologate the vast differences in the hospital organisation within the Italian states which also generated tension, bitterness and many political debates. The particular conditions created in the main hospital of Turin in the second half of the 19th Century, together with the political and social climate at the time and the reopening of debates between Socialist, Liberals and Catholics favoured the reorganizational improvement of the San Giovanni Battista hospital. Under this prospective, the foundation of the nursing school came into being, preceded by the intense control of a behavioral and ethical cleaning of the nurses, in particular the males. The availability of the hospital administrations in carrying out the recommendations of the medical staff in the

  7. 19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford, 11.-13. 7. 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslivcová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, 2-3 (2016), s. 300-301 ISSN 0018-7003. [19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference. Oxford, 11.07.2016-13.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music ological conference * nineteenth-century music * Antonin Dvorak * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. Sickly slaves, soldiers and sailors. Contextualising the Cape's 18th–19th century Green Point burials through isotope investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbeki, Linda; Kootker, Lisette M.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Strontium isotope data of multiple dental enamel samples, and carbon and nitrogen isotope data of dentine and bone collagen samples from 27 individuals excavated from the mid-18th to mid-19th century Victoria & Albert Marina Residence paupers burial ground in the vicinity of Green Point, Cape Town,

  9. The Reception of Origen's Ideas about Universal Salvation in Danish Theology and Literature in the 19th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anders-Christian

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the question of a possible reception of Origen's ideas about universal salvation in Danish theology and literature in the 19th century. The focus is on H.L. Martensen, B.S. Ingemann and H.C. Andersen who were positive towards the idea about universal salvation and P...

  10. Written reports on the effects of mining activities on the natural environment in Idrija in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Car, J.; Dizdarevic, T.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental conditions in the Idrija Mercury Mine and its broader surroundings were strongly affected in the first half of the 19th century by two disastrous pit fires. The fire could only be extinguished by flooding of the pit. The consequences of such flooding was extensive poisoning with

  11. Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Banić-Grubišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Radmila Radić. Narodna verovanja, religija i spiritizam u srpskom društvu 19. i u prvoj polovini 20. veka. [Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century]. 2009. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, pp. 295

  12. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  13. Group work is political work: a feminist perspective of interpersonal group psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, A; Ewashen, C

    2000-01-01

    When practicing as group leaders, mental health nurses often incorporate Irvin Yalom's (1995, 1998) concepts of social microcosm and here-and-now. This article examines these concepts from a feminist perspective and offers an approach to group psychotherapy that processes gender issues and fosters collective consciousness-raising. A feminist perspective in group therapy challenges us to view the social microcosm as a reenactment of sociopolitical contexts and the here-and-now as a medium for developing personal and social responsibility. Therapy is not only about individual and interpersonal change in group members, but is an opportunity for healthy social change. Therapy becomes political work, raising the social consciousness of each participant as well as the group as a whole.

  14. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  15. James Craufurd Gregory, 19th century Scottish physicians, and the link between occupation as a coal miner and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, K; Wallace, W A; Elliot, T A; Henry, C

    2017-09-01

    By the mid-19th century about 200,000 miners were employed in a UK coal mining industry still growing with the advances of the Industrial Revolution. Coal miners were long known to suffer poor health but the link to inhaling dust in the mines had not been made. In 1813 George Pearson was the first to suggest that darkening of lungs seen in normal individuals as they aged was caused by inhaled soot from burning oil, candles and coal, which were the common domestic sources of heat and light. In 1831 Dr James Craufurd Gregory first described black pigmentation and disease in the lungs of a deceased coal miner and linked this to pulmonary accumulation of coal mine dust. Gregory hypothesised that the black material seen at autopsy in the collier's lungs was inhaled coal dust and this was confirmed by chemical analysis carried out by Professor Sir Robert Christison. Gregory suggested that coal dust was the cause of the disease and warned physicians in mining areas to be vigilant for the disease. This first description of what came to be known as 'coal worker's pneumoconiosis' sparked a remarkable intellectual effort by physicians in Scotland, culminating in a large body of published work that led to the first understandings of this disease and its link to coalblackened lungs. This paper sets out the history of the role of Scottish physicians in gaining this understanding of coal worker's pneumoconiosis. It describes Gregory's case and the lung - recently discovered in the pathology collection of the Surgeons' Hall Museums, Edinburgh, where it has lain unnoticed for over 180 years - on which Gregory based his landmark paper.

  16. The Restoration of Paintings at the Imperial Hermitage (Saint-Petersburg at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Nikogosyan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Le début du XIXe siècle fut une période charnière pour l’histoire de la formation des restaurateurs en Russie. F.K. Labensky, conservateur de la Galerie de l’Ermitage de 1797 à 1850, met en place un atelier de restauration avec un personnel permanent, travaillant sur la collection de la peinture impériale. Assistant de Labensky, restaurateur A.F. Mitrokhine, apprend toutes les techniques connues de restauration mécanique - doublage, parquetage et même transposition des peintures, - et les développe. Une école spéciale est créée près de l’atelier de l'Ermitage à 1819, supervisé par Mitrokhine, ou les jeunes diplômés de l'Académie impériale de l'Art se familiarise à la fois avec la restauration mécanique et picturale des peintures. Les apprentis de l'école de Mitrokhine transmettent ensuite ses techniques à la prochaine génération de restaurateurs de l’Ermitage.The beginning of the 19th century was a period of formation of restoration school in Russia. F.K.Labensky, Curator of the Hermitage Picture Gallery from 1797 onwards till 1850, arranged a restoration studio with a permanent staff working on Imperial painting collection.  Labensky’s assistant, a restorer A.F. Mitrokhin learned all known techniques of mechanical restoration – relining, cradling and even transfer of paintings, - and developed them on his own. A special school was established by the Hermitage studio in 1819, supervised by Mitrokhin, were young graduates of Imperial Academy of Art were taught both mechanical and painting restoration. The apprentices of Mitrokhin school passed his techniques to next generation of Hermitage restorers.

  17. Azañón's disease. A 19th century epidemic of neurolathyrism in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Roldán, S; Spencer, P S

    2016-12-01

    The cultivation and consumption of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) in Spain probably dates back centuries, especially during times of famine when the neurotoxic potential of this legume was expressed in the form of a spastic paraparesis known as neurolathyrism. Little known outside the country, the epidemic of neurolathyrism in the years following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) came to affect more than a thousand people. In late 1872, during the Six Years Revolutionary Term, young Alejandro San Martín Satrústegui (1847-1908), then editor of the popular weekly El Siglo Médico, travelled to Azañón, a remote village in the province of Guadalajara, to clarify a so-far unknown disease. We analysed the original article published in 1873 by San Martin, as well as communications sent by El Siglo Médico readers reporting similar cases in many other Castilian provinces. San Martín's neurological findings in seven personally examined cases were astonishingly accurate; he concluded the subjects' neurological deficits resulted from injury to the lateral columns in the lower portion of the spinal cord. Description of the clinical findings provided both by San Martín, and by the readers of El Siglo Médico, leave no doubt as to the diagnosis of neurolathyrism. However, none suspected the patient's staple food was the determinant cause of the disease. San Martín proposed the eponym Azañón's disease for lack of a better name the same year (1873) in which Cantani in Italy introduced the term lathyrism. The epidemic of neurolathyrism that affected many Castilian towns represents one of the best-documented in Europe during the last third of the 19th century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion.

  19. COMMERCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND SPAIN IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О В Волосюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of trade relations between Russia and Spain during the reign of two Spanish kings: Charles IV and Ferdinand VII. The author’s attention is focused on the agency of diplomats, who made a big advance in the formation of trading relations between the two countries. The author concentrates on Ivan Muravyov-Apostol, the Russian ambassador to Spain (1802-1805, his Spanish partner Gaspar Maria de la Nava y Álvarez de Noroña (1802-1807, and on the consuls of Spain Antoni de Colombí (St. Petersburg and Francisco de Baguer y Ribas (Odessa. Based on their reports, which are located in both Rus-sian and Spanish archives, it is possible to trace the dependence of commercial relations from the political situation in the world, established in Europe in the era of Napoleonic wars. Their information also allows revealing the main stages of development in trading during these years and the future, observe the merchantry on the Baltic Sea and in the area of the Black Sea. Ana-lyzing these materials, conclusions about the cause of diminishing of the commercial activity between Russia and Spain during the reign of Ferdinand VII can be made. The attention of the author is also paid to the conditions, which were established for the trade of Spain´s main export product to Russia - wine, and trading of grain through the area of the Black and Mediterranean Seas, which received special progress in the beginning of the 19th century.

  20. Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnéa Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar “Akakomugi,” was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The “Akakomugi” allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  1. Group Chaos Theory: A Metaphor and Model for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael; Frank-Saraceni, James; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice; Phan, Loan T.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Group phenomena and interactions are described through the use of the chaos theory constructs and characteristics of sensitive dependence on initial conditions, phase space, turbulence, emergence, self-organization, dissipation, iteration, bifurcation, and attractors and fractals. These constructs and theoretical tenets are presented as applicable…

  2. HIDE working groups: synchrotron based system: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the work resulting from a one-week workshop on the use of synchrotrons in heavy ion fusion, i.e., a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE). Topics discussed concerned the number of beams on target, space charge limitations, choice of ion charge state, and areas identified as needing further work

  3. Synthesis of the working group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    activities. In coming years, a greater emphasis on EBS integrity issues can be expected within SKI's long-term programme for gradual development of review capability. In the autumn of 2004, an additional EBS workshop is planned, which will focus on EBS component quality and the expected initial state of the EBS. Subsequently, specialised workshops are planned for more detailed insight in selected areas, targeting issue resolution as well as identification. A few of the technical issues that received considerable attention during the workshop are noted below: The performance assessment need to contain a description of the initial state of the system that can be regarded as realistic rather than idealised. In particular, the characterisation and statistical analysis of both large and small defects in the weldments of the copper canister has to be rigorous. The long-term experiments aimed at demonstrating feasibility of the KBS-3 concept have to be reviewed in more detail. It was suggested that SKB consider whether the present programme needs to be extended. SKB needs to present a plan for monitoring during repository operation. One of the working groups recommended that SKB should set up a demonstration tunnel in the repository, which would be dismantled and examined, with the purpose of performance confirmation prior to sealing the repository. The understanding of the resaturation phase for the buffer needs to be improved. Preliminary results indicate that the resaturation phase may be more extended that previously anticipated. In addition, an uneven resaturation of the buffer may result in localised stress transfer to the canister. All conceivable implications of an extended or uneven resaturation phase has to be evaluated, if they cannot be very convincingly ruled out, e.g. thermal gradients across the buffer may lead to mass transfer of chemical components, and consequently variations in thermal, hydrological and mechanical properties. More data is needed for evaluation of

  4. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with...

  5. 19th annual meeting of the European society of nuclear methods in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    179 abstracts are presented but only 91 of them are in INIS scope and are treated separately. The content is indicated in the headings of the 12 working groups: food irradiation; radiation induced stimulation effects in living organisms; tracer techniques in animal sciences; physical methods; soil-plant relationships; applied mutagenesis; environment pollution; energy in agriculture; genetical methods in pest control; radioisotopes in insect ecology. (qui)

  6. and collider physics: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory Group, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 ... One such is anomaly mediation, wherein there is no tree level coupling ..... The role of the spectator quarks effect in the inclusive beauty decays were studied.

  7. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...... of the situation. Interwoven situational awareness appears to facilitate response to dynamic, constraint-bound situations. The second theme describes the need for dense social networks or frequent communication between participants about the work context and situation, the work process and domain...

  8. HIDE working groups. A. Synchrotron based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of a week's discussions on an ion source to target scenario for a synchrotron for heavy ion fusion. Topics considered include: the number of beams on the target; beam dynamics; and a number of areas explicitly identified as needing further work

  9. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  10. AER Working Group B activities in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.

    2009-01-01

    Regular meeting of Core Design Group was organized by SKODA JS a.s. in Plzen (Czech Republic) during the period of 4 to 6 May 2009. There were presented altogether 17 participants from 7 member organizations and 7 presentations were read. Presented papers covered topics as follows: 1) Two presentations dealt with upgrade of calculation and display tools. 2) Three presentations were devoted to benchmark calculations. 3) Two presentations informed about gradual improvement of fuel assembly and cycle for VVER-440 reactors

  11. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  12. State Reforms in the Field of Education in Russia (Late 18th-Early 19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya M. Rumyantseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy of Russia in the field of education during the late 18th - early 19th centuries. This period is characterized by a great democratization of education and the definition of new goals, objectives and content of education: the professional training of a young person becomes inseparable from the education of a citizen - a patriot of a state and a broadly enlightened personality in different sciences. The paper analyzed historical documents (orders of Russian emperors concerning public education, school and university statutes, historical references. In the chronological order, state reforms in the field of education in Russia were constructed and characterized at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the statistical data on the number of pupils, teachers and schools within the period under review were presented.

  13. The Concert of Europe and Great Power Governance Today: What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About International Order in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    13 These differences became alarmingly clear once liberal revolutions broke out across multiple European polities in 1820.61 The eastern powers ...dealings with that eastern power that they had so often worked with in concert. For in that treat- ment, the western powers ultimately “ broke the first...KYLE LASCURETTES The Concert of Europe and Great- Power Governance Today What Can the Order of 19th-Century Europe Teach Policymakers About

  14. The puzzle of human emotions: some historical considerations from the 17th to the 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Caterina

    2008-07-01

    Emotions are both central to life experience itself and highly pertinent to various disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, social studies, philosophy, and the arts. The definition of emotion lies at the interface of nature and culture reflecting an understanding of the components that shape emotional states and experiences across time and cultures. This review describes how the concept of emotion developed in Western thought, from the Renaissance notion of the passions to the 19th century idea of 'emotion'.

  15. Adaptation of Proper Nouns in Czech-American Periodicals at the End of the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Burdová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of adaptation of proper nouns in chosen periodicals of the end of the 19th century that were published in the USA by Czech immigrants. Based on the analysis of periodicals collected from the Library of the Naprstek Museum of Prague there originated a list of proper nouns that has been studied from various points of view, namely the phonetics and phonology, morphology including the word-class competition (Cedar Rapidský - Cedar Rapids), translatedan...

  16. Working Group Report: Dark Energy and CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S.; Honscheid, K.; Abazajian, K.; Carlstrom, J.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Kim, A.; Kirkby, D.; Lee, A.; Padmanabhan, N.; Rhodes, J.; Weinberg, D.

    2013-09-20

    The American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields initiated a long-term planning exercise over 2012-13, with the goal of developing the community's long term aspirations. The sub-group "Dark Energy and CMB" prepared a series of papers explaining and highlighting the physics that will be studied with large galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background experiments. This paper summarizes the findings of the other papers, all of which have been submitted jointly to the arXiv.

  17. Summary Report of Working Group: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.; Tochitsky, Sergei; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2004-01-01

    A summary is given on the work presented and discussed in the Laser-Plasma Acceleration Working Group at the 2004 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, including the Plasma Acceleration Subgroup (Group-Leader: Eric Esarey; Co-Group-Leader: Sergei Tochitsky) and the Plasma Guiding Subgroup (Group-Leader: Howard Milchberg; Co-Group-Leader: Carl Schroeder)

  18. The emergence of the confessional theology in Russia (18th – first half of the 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lyutko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at a text dealing with theology as a text dealing with the reality that stands behind this text. Based on examples of three Russian church hierarchs who tried to systematise theology in the 18th and 19th centuries — Archbishop Feofan (Prokopovich, St. Philaret (Drozdov, St. Innocent (Borisov — the paper reveals and interprets the following issues: gradual penetration of categories of history, administration and church service into the structure of theology; rejection of the socalled natural theology (theologia naturalis, which takes place at the beginning of the 19th century. Proceeding from Foucauld’s methodology, we come to a conclusion about the emergence of confession in the Russian Empire of the fi rst half of the 19th century. This was an integrated and distinct social body, the key category of which was theology. Theology unites the social space of the confession by means of three key narratives: the identity (a complex of historical disciplines, administration (the canon law, or “theologia rectrix”, and pastoral theology, participation practices (liturgics. At the end of the period in question, the category of “Church” emerges within the theological system. On the one hand, this fact refl ects the completion of the process of constructing the confession; on the other hand, it is a sign of the emergence of ecclesiology, the new practice of theological discourse that came to be dominant in the following period.

  19. Malaria, Tarai Adivasi and the Landlord State in the 19th century Nepal: A Historical-Ethnographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Rai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interplay between malaria, the Tarai Adivasi and the extractive landlord state in the 19th century Nepal by focusing on Dhimal, one indigenous community from the easternmost lowlands. Throughout the 19th century, the Nepali state and its rulers treated the Tarai as a state geography of extraction for land, labor, revenue and political control. The malarial environment of the Tarai, which led to the shortage people (labor force, posed a major challenge to the 19th  century extractive landlord state and the landowning elites to materialize the colonizing project in the Tarai. The shortage of labor added pressure on the malaria resistant Tarai Adivasi to reclaim and cultivate land for the state. The paper highlights the need for ethnographically informed social history of malaria in studying the changing relations between the state and the ?div?si communities in the Tarai DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10438 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 87-112

  20. Working group 2: regulatory and standards development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Chad; Lee, Shu; Peters, Mike; Parsonage, Kevin; Saad, Ziad

    2011-07-01

    This second workshop explored regulatory standards and developments in the pipeline industry. New methods of improved damage prevention for regulators and pipelines to implement were presented. First, incident trends were discussed, using incident analysis to identify the possible causes and solutions of incidents. The determination of realistic goals was attempted. Next, leak detection was discussed with the presentation of current work in annex E which will form part of the new CSA Z662 standard in a few years time. New testing methods such as external methods of leak detection were studied. A third presentation showed the recent development in overpressure protection with reference to the new annex M incorporated in the CSA Z662-11 standard. The last presentation introduced the topic of public safety issues associated with CO2 pipelines with regard to different failure scenarios and the appropriate emergency responses.

  1. Report of the Working Design Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The engineering study group in the LOUISA workshop was responsible for producing a preliminary general design for an optical synthetic aperture telescope on the Moon. This design is intended to be a test case for focusing continuing design studies. The scope of the design included consideration of the array geometry, individual telescopes, metrology, site attributes, and construction. However, no attempt was made to go into further depth in the design than to cover the essential characteristics of the instrument. The starting point for the array design was the lunar optical array discussed by Burke (1985). His array geometry followed the design and correlation procedure of the 27-element Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescopes near Socorro, New Mexico.

  2. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-02-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  3. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases

  4. Report from the neutron diffraction work group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This progress report of the neutron diffraction group at the Hahn Meitner Institute in Berlin comprises the following contributions: Three-dimensional critical properties of CsNiF 3 around the Neel point; Spin waves in CsNiF 3 with an applied magnetic field; Solitons in CsNiF 3 : Their experimental evidence and their thermodynamics; Neutron diffraction study of DAG at very low temperatures and in external magnetic field; Neutron diffraction investigation of tricritical behaviour in DyPO 4 ; Crystalline modifications and structural phase transitions of NaOH; Gitterdynamik von Cerhydrid; Investigation of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic phase transition in KH 2 PO 4 and RbH 2 PO 4 by means of γ-ray diffractometry; A γ-ray diffractometer for systematic measurements of absolute structure factors; Electron density in pyrite by combined γ-ray and neutron diffraction measurements: Thermal parameters from short wavelength neutron data; Accurate determination of temperature parameters from neutron diffraction data: Direct observation of the thermal diffuse scattering from silicon using perfect crystals; A Compton spectrometer for momentum density studies using 412 keV γ-radiation; Investigation of the electronic structure of Niobiumhydrides by means of gamma-ray Compton scattering; Interpretation of Compton profile data in position space; High resolution neutron scattering measurements on single crystals using a horizontally bent monochromator and a multidetecter; Statistical analysis of neutron diffraction studies of proteins. (orig.) [de

  5. Health in Transportation Working Group 2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Health in Transportation Working Group 2016 Annual Report provides an overview of the Working Groups activities and accomplishments in 2016, summarizes other USDOT health-related accomplishments, and documents its progress toward the recommend...

  6. Uganda group works to reduce AIDS' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrier, P

    1996-10-01

    War and AIDS-related mortality in Uganda have created an estimated 1.2 million orphans in the country. Child welfare advocates and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have therefore been working together for the past 4 years under an umbrella organization to coordinate efforts for vulnerable children. The Uganda Community-Based Association for Child Welfare (UCOBAC), links people and organizations involved in child advocacy, facilitates relations between the government and NGOs, and helps to strengthen the capacity of NGOs to identify and implement projects. UCOBAC emphasizes community-based initiatives which allow children to remain in their own communities instead of being institutionalized. One example of such an approach is a vocational skills training program in Rakai district established to help young orphans trying to make it on their own. More than 300 youths had benefitted from the program as of December 1994 and plans are underway to expand the program to 10 more districts. UCOBAC is also training communities and NGOs to identify and implement viable projects, and helps child welfare organizations by serving as a network for sharing information. UCOBAC came into existence in October 1990 with 93 members, including 57 local NGOs, 17 international NGOs, and 19 individual members. The organization has since established local offices in 35 of Uganda's 39 districts. UNICEF has thus far provided about US$130,000 for UCOBAC activities and will continue to fund local NGO initiatives through UCOBAC. UCOBAC, however, is giving priority to becoming financially independent of UNICEF within a couple of years. Future projects include an inventory of NGO child welfare projects, a child welfare resource library, and networking workshops with NGOs and government policymakers.

  7. Agricultural advertising in periodicals of the late 19th - early 20th centuries from the collection of NMHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Serjant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the stage of development, advertising as a historical phenomenon was expanding its sphere of influence penetrating more and more in various spheres of human activity. Agriculture, which is an important branch of the national economy closely related to the trade, always needs advertising. The absence of serfdom and the agrarian reforms have contributed to the integration of Bessarabian agriculture into the system of market relations. Local farmers needed promotion and marketing of agricultural products. For this they applied to various means of advertising. Agricultural advertisings can be found in the pages of the Bessarabian press from the late 19th - early 20th centuries. Most often, they were printed in publications of agricultural profile. An example is the magazine "Bessarabskoe sel'skoe khozyaistvo" ("Bessarabian Agriculture", the publication of Agronomic Section of the Bessarabian Naturalists' Society and the Chişinău Department of the Imperial Russian Society for Horticulture. The magazine was published from 1908 to 1917. In the collection of MNHM there are 28 issues of this magazine (in all there were 240 issues. The years of publication: 1909, 1910, 1912 and 1916. They are the main source of research on the topic. The aim of this work is to determine the themes of agricultural advertisements and their contribution to the im- provement of agricultural management in Tsarist Bessarabia. All issues of the journal had the ads section. Regular customers of the journal were both local and foreign manufac- turers. Among the local: Fruit an Grape Nurseries "EKO" (Soroca; Bucovăţ Fruit and Grape Nurseries; Baron A. Stuart's Fruit Nursery (Chişinău; Cocorozeni Agricultural School; E.P. Melega-Kuzminskaia's estate of Temeleuţi and F.F. Köppen's estate of Voinovo-Ikel; Horticulture, Viticulture and Winemaking Bureau and Storage of Agricultural Machinery of N.G. Kavsan (Chişinău, etc. The ads offered planting material tested

  8. The hydroclimatology of UK droughts: evidence from newly recovered and reconstructed datasets from the late 19th century to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.; Hannaford, J.; Bloomfield, J.; McCarthy, M.; Parry, S.; Barker, L. J.; Svensson, C.; Tanguy, M.; Marchant, B.; McKenzie, A.; Legg, T.; Prudhomme, C.

    2017-12-01

    While the UK is regarded as a wet country, it has periodically suffered from major droughts which have caused serious environmental and societal impacts. Parts of the UK are water stressed and, in a warming world, changes to supply/demand balances could have major implications. There is a pressing need for improved tools for drought risk assessment, which is contingent on a proper understanding of past occurrence of droughts. However, our understanding of hydrological drought occurrence is grounded in the post-1960 period when most UK river flow and groundwater records commenced. As such, water resources planners would benefit from a more thorough assessment of historical drought characteristics and their variability. The multi-disciplinary `Historic Droughts' project thus aims to rigorously characterise droughts in the UK back to the 1890s to inform improved drought management. The foundation of this is a comprehensive characterisation of the hydroclimatology of UK droughts. Here, we present the results of this initiative, based on a hydrological reconstruction campaign of unparalleled scope and detail. Driven by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data, extended in time using newly recovered observational records, hydro(geo)logical models are used to reconstruct, back to 1890, river flows for >300 catchments across the UK, and groundwater levels from >50 boreholes. The reconstructions are derived within a state-of-the-art modelling framework which allows a comprehensive assessment of uncertainty. A suite of indicators are then applied to these datasets to identify and characterise drought events, integrating precipitation, evapotranspiration, streamflow and groundwater. The work provides new insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of hitherto poorly quantified late 19th and early 20th century droughts. Similarly, the assessment of temporal variability of drought characteristics benefits from the long timescale of the reconstructions, in turn

  9. Milk, social acceptance of a new food in Europe: Catalonia, 19th-20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau-Nos, Roser; Pujol-Andreu, Josep; Hernández, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    In this article we analyse the time course of the consumption of fresh milk in different regions of Europe between the 1870s and 1930s. Working from the case of Catalonia, we affirm that the increasing consumption of milk in that period must be especially linked to the spreading of new scientific knowledge in microbiology and nutrition that followed Pasteur's discoveries. We particularly highlight the information dissemination activities in this direction carried out by health sector professionals (medical doctors and pharmacists), governing local institutions and the milk industry. The initiatives developed by these groups changed people's preferences--fresh milk became accepted as a necessary food-stuff, and demand for it increased. However, the evolution of consumption was not the same in all regions of Europe due to their different environmental and agronomic conditions.

  10. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group...

  11. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  12. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research...

  13. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  14. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  15. Student Collaboration in Group Work: Inclusion as Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Hammar Chiriac, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Group work is an educational mode that promotes learning and socialisation among students. In this study, we focused on the inclusive processes when students work in small groups. The aim was to investigate and describe students' inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supported or impeded these transactions. Social…

  16. Learning rights, participation and toleration in student group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    2013-01-01

    . This article offers a moral perspective on group work by introducing a concept of ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work. The aim of the paper is theoretically to offer a vocabulary concerning ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work by applying John Dewey’s metaphor ‘the spectator versus...

  17. Are groups working in the Information Technology class? | Mentz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We discuss teache rs' perce ption of the use of group work in the Information Technology (IT) classroom. We describe the current situation regarding the implementation of group work in IT classrooms in South Africa as well as the challenges that IT teachers face when implementing group work. This information will be used ...

  18. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  19. Former manufactured gas plants of Missouri: 19th century enigmas of today's site and waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Anderson, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Missouri's first gas works began operation in 1845 (St. Louis). By 1900, gas works operated in many northern-Missouri coal belt towns, major cities, and Hannibal and Cape Girardeau (Mississippi River supply). Today's 40-odd former manufactured gas plant (FMPGs) sites are fiscal nightmares for parent utility companies; all hazardous waste groups are prevalent to the plants. Tar residuals may migrate along/through geologic anomalies. Tar-water emulsions typically were disposed in tar wells or nearby drainages or many times plumbed directly into sewers, which typically leaked into the environment at unpredictable down gradient locations. Just as well site geologic characteristics and current groundwater usage may render FMPGs relatively harmless from the human exposure standpoint. Geologic deduction, photo interpretation, careful subsurface exploration and engineering geophysics can locate hot spots and delimit contaminant migration. Many types of historic documents chronicle changes in plant character and equipment, as well as mode of operation. Without such details, mistakes in characterization are likely and errors in risk assessment and selection of remedial technologies are possible

  20. Students Life in the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the First Years of Its Existence (Late 19th — Early 20th Ct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Bilyavska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the various pages of the life of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the first years of its existence — educational, scientific, casual and students participated in the revolutionary-democratic movement of Kyiv late 19th—early 20th centuries. Study of student life Kyiv Polytechnic Institute late 19th and early 20th centuries is a separate page in the history of this institution. In conditions of autocracy, strict control of the Government, of the Ministry of Finance, which was subject to institute systematic interference in its activities of the Kyiv authorities and police, students themselves organized and find different ways to influence the improvement of educational and methodical process, improve their daily lives. Analysis of historical sources provides an answer to the causes of the growth of public and revolutionary activity of a large number of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute that time. General political crisis of the Russian Empire, autocratic way, national and social oppression, lack of political rights and freedoms have caused strong protests from students. One of the main requirements of students was the recognition of the autonomy of higher education institutions, police interference in their activities. Unfair considered sexual, national and class limit admission to the KPI. Object of study was chosen by the author as Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, its work in the late 19th and early 20th century, as the oldest and reputable higher engineering school at that time. Experience of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute is of great importance for the modern transformation of higher education in Ukraine.

  1. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  2. Economic Development of Sarepta District of the Tsaritsyn County at the Turn of the 19th-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfenov Aleksandr E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of the industrial development of Sarepta district (now the southern part of Volgograd at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. By the end of the 19th century the Sarepta district comprised 17 production entities. The majority of them were small workshops that manufactured various household goods and had from 5 to 10 workers. Besides, Sarepta had a larger industrial enterprise – the Mustard Factory of the Glitsch – which was known throughout Russia for the high quality of its produce. Agriculture played a minor role in Sarepta district. The population of Sarepta district amounted to about 1800 people in 1894. It comprised landowners, small industrialists, and their hired workers. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a rapid industrial development of the area. The first stage of the process was the building of the Tsaritsyn- Tikhoretskaya railway line. It connected the Kuban wheat-growing region with central areas of Russia. A 13-kilometres long section of the railway line passed through Sarepta district. Near Sarepta a station, a locomotive depot, and repair workshops were built in 1895-98. In 1901 the railway line and station were supplemented with a large cargo port on the Volga near Sarepta. The creation of the large transport hub sharply raised the economic significance of Sarepta district. Social and demographic characteristics of the area also changed dramatically. Due to the inflow of workers to the station and port, the district population nearly doubled and the ratio of proletariat raised sharply.

  3. 77 FR 45370 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders... take place at the North Fork Grange Hall, Dutch Creek Road, Junction City, CA 96048. The group will...

  4. The Science of Birth: Visions of the Female Body in the Making of Scientific Obstetrics in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Vosne Martins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the production of specialized knowledge about the female body between the 19th and 20th centuries. Its main goal is to analyze the production of images displayed in obstetrics treatises and manuals published in Europe and used by Brazilian medical students and doctors. It seeks to understand the realism of the medical-scientific images of the female body as a means of expression of a new relationship between doctors and women, resulting from the investigation methods used in anatomy-pathology laboratories and in the clinical examination of pregnant women.

  5. The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Joerg; Pelger, Ines; Twrdek, Linda

    2009-12-01

    This anthropometric study focuses on the histories of three important Latin American countries - Brazil, Peru, and Argentina - during the 19th century, and tests hypotheses concerning their welfare trends. While non-farm Brazil and Lima, Peru, started at relatively low height levels, Brazil made substantial progress in nutritional levels from the 1860s to the 1880s. In contrast, Lima remained at low levels. Argentinean men were tall to begin with, but heights stagnated until 1910. The only exception were farmers and landowners, who benefited from the export boom.

  6. Contesting French Aesthetics of Space and Nature Enjoyment in Moroccan Travel Writing in the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Idrissi Alami, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    In their travel writings about Europe in the 19th century, Moroccan visitors compare and contrast what they see of the European artistic designs and aesthetic values with experiences from their own native cultures. In this paper, I analyze the discourse and rhetoric about the enjoyment of nature, landscape design and leisure aesthetics as explored in the travel writing of the Moroccan traveler al-‘Amrāwī in his travelogue Tuḥfat al-Malik al-ʿAzīz bimamlakat Bārīz (1860). Here we see a signifi...

  7. An archival exploration of homicide--suicide and mass murder in the context of 19th-century American parricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Roberts, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    There has been little attempt to integrate contemporary studies of suicide and mass murder to homicide-suicides. The current research attempts to do so in the context of 19th-century parricides in America. This project uses archival records from The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, 1851-1899, resulting in a total of 231 incidents. Our results indicate that parricides, mass murders, and suicides tended to originate as spontaneous acts, usually during the course of an argument, gathering momentum as the interaction unfolded. We contend that suicide is one way of alleviating threats to offender's loss of self-identity.

  8. An application of the variable-r method to subpopulation growth rates in a 19th century agricultural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Sparks

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the differential growth rates of the farming and non-farming segments of a rural Scottish community during the 19th and early 20th centuries using the variable-r method allowing for net migration. Using this method, I find that the farming population of Orkney, Scotland, showed less variability in their reproduction and growth rates than the non-farming population during a period of net population decline. I conclude by suggesting that the variable-r method can be used in general cases where the relative growth of subpopulations or subpopulation reproduction is of interest.

  9. Confessional Ethical Base of Muslim Entrepreneurship in Russian Empire in Late 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гадиля Гизатуллаевна Корноухова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the confessional and ethical base of the Muslim entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The author analyzes the differentiation of the value-institutional system of the broad public on the one hand, and that of entrepreneurs - on the other hand. Whereas the former adhered to the national and ethical values of the traditional culture, the latter - to religious and moral values based on Islam and developed by the Russian Empire reformers of that period.

  10. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  11. The Unsung Past: Afro-American Women Writers of 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Renate

    Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…

  12. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  13. Summary of the TeV33 working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Colestock, P.

    1996-10-01

    This summary of the TeV33 working group at Snowmass reports on work in the areas of Tevatron store parameters, the beam-beam interaction, Main Injector intensity (slip stacking), antiproton production, and electron cooling

  14. Occupational closure in nursing work reconsidered: UK health care support workers and assistant practitioners: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Nissen, Nina; Lincoln, Carol; Buus, Niels

    2015-07-01

    In healthcare, occupational groups have adopted tactics to maintain autonomy and control over their areas of work. Witz described a credentialist approach to occupational closure adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the recent advancement of assistant, 'non-qualified' workers by governments and managers forms part of a reconfiguration of traditional professional work. This research used focus groups with three cohorts of healthcare support workers undertaking assistant practitioner training at a London university from 2011 to 13 (6 groups, n = 59). The aim was to examine how these workers positioned themselves as professionals and accounted for professional boundaries. A thematic analysis revealed a complex situation in which participants were divided between articulating an acceptance of a subordinate role within traditional occupational boundaries and a usurpatory stance towards these boundaries. Participants had usually been handpicked by managers and some were ambitious and confident in their abilities. Many aspired to train to be nurses claiming that they will gain recognition that they do not currently get but which they deserve. Their scope of practice is based upon their managers' or supervisors' perception of their individual aptitude rather than on a credentialist claim. They 'usurp' nurses claim to be the healthcare worker with privileged access to patients, saying they have taken over what nursing has considered its core work, while nurses abandon it for largely administrative roles. We conclude that the participants are the not unwilling agents of a managerially led project to reshape the workforce that cuts across existing occupational boundaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Summary, Working Group 1: Electron guns and injector designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Bazarov, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the proceedings of Working Group 1 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Workshop. The subject of this working group, the electron gun and injector design, is arguably the most critical part of the ERL as it determines the ultimate performance of this type of accelerators. Working Group 1 dealt with a variety of subjects: The technology of DC, normal-conducting RF and superconducting RF guns; beam dynamics in the gun and injector; the cathode and laser package; modeling and computational issues; magnetized beams and polarization. A short overview of these issues covered in the Working Group is presented in this paper

  16. Contribution of anthropogenic pollutants to the increase of tropospheric ozone levels in the Oporto Metropolitan Area, Portugal since the 19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Sousa, S.I.V.; Pereira, M.C.; Martins, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollutants to the increase of tropospheric ozone levels in the Oporto Metropolitan Area (Portugal) since the 19th century. The study was based on pre-industrial and recent data series, the results being analyzed according to the atmospheric chemistry. The treatment of ozone and meteorological data was performed by classical statistics and by time-series analysis. It was concluded that in the 19th century the ozone present in the troposphere was not of photochemical origin, being possible to consider the respective concentrations as reference values. For recent data a cycle of 8 h for ozone concentrations could be related to traffic. Compared to the 19th century, the current concentrations were 147% higher (252% higher in May) due to the increased photochemical production associated with the increased anthropogenic emissions. - Compared to the 19th century, the current ozone concentrations are 147% higher at Oporto, Portugal

  17. The role of fenestration in promoting daylight performance. The mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingy I. El-Darwish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosques have always been sacred places with distinctive sustainable environments. Fenestration in the prayers’ zone whether clerestories, screened windows, dome lighting and other light features have managed to produce significant spiritual human comfort areas. This paper focuses on fenestration of divine mosques and relates them to promoting daylight performance. The research process emphasizes the importance of daylight performance by promoting simulation tools on historical mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century that has witnessed change over time. The paper is a step toward sustainable lighting schemes in prayers’ zones that help to achieve human comfort as well as minimize use of energy. This study aimed at investigating the daylight performance by the use of climate based daylighting metrics which is “Daylight Autonomy” (DA. Daylight Autonomy is evaluated in the year round for the day lighted prayer periods to evaluate the behavior of fenestration of the different selected sample of mosques since the 19th century in Alexandria on a simulation tool in order to check whether it complies with the required illuminate and glare levels. The research findings are an attempt to lead to performative design guidelines introducing a contemporary interpretation for use in enhancing new designs of these holistic buildings.

  18. Hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and indigestion in London and New York in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J H; Sonnenberg, A

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of peptic ulcer increased rapidly in all Western countries from the 19th to the 20th century, attributed to a possible epidemic of Helicobacter pylori, a new pathogenic strain, or a change in host susceptibility. The early trends in hospital admissions for peptic ulcer and dyspepsia in London and New York during the 19th century are reviewed to test these hypotheses. PMID:11889081

  19. Has Group Work Education Lost Its Social Group Work Essence? A Content Analysis of MSW Course Syllabi in Search of Mutual Aid and Group Conflict Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweifach, Jay Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of MSW group work course syllabi in an effort to better understand the extent to which mutual aid and group conflict, two important dimensions of social group work, are included and featured as prominent elements in MSW-level group work instruction.

  20. The treatment of tuberculosis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Mares, Donatella; Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    The present work is a review of the remedies in use in Ferrara against tuberculosis in the 1800s. The work started from the discovery of accounts describing methods and remedies. These remedies were also in use world wide. Of particular interest is the work by Antonio Campana, a famous professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany in Ferrara, who wrote a pharmacopoeia which had several editions between 1797 and 1841. The Farmacopea Ferrarese was addressed to the apothecaries of Ferrara. Nevertheless, due to its great reputation it had an international distribution. It provided us with an exhaustive view about the medical field in Ferrara in the early 1800s. The remedies adopted in the city in the second half of the century were in line with those present abroad. The work was also supported by the discovery of statistical accounts of the Sant'Anna hospital from 1871. The manuscript written by Alessandro Bennati enabled elucidation of the methods used to treat tuberculosis in the second half of the century. Bennati's work is an historical document completed by the work of the physician Cesare Minerbi.

  1. Deported Ñáñigos to Fernando Po in the 19th century.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group as portrayed in the news and press information in Spanish newspapers from 1865 to. 1950 that .... preserved many of its rites, ceremonies, masks, instruments, and music and language features in ...... Procesos etnoculturales cubanos.

  2. Sexual education of youth in the light of the 19th century paraenetic guidebooks [Wychowanie seksualne młodzieży w świetle XIX-wiecznych poradników parenetycznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz SZUBERT

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/pu9th century. The analysis of moralistic treaties and parental guidebooks, perceived as important cultural texts, allows investigation of the process of changes taking place in – what is called – the sexual pedagogy. The turn of the 18th and the 19th centuries can be interpreted as a visible increase in the interest in human sexuality at the level of a paraenetic narrative. Thus, a moral discourse is combined with the discourse of hygiene. From the perspective of cultural history, special attention should be paid to the increased popularity of the category of shame understood as a regulator of social bonds (including family bonds. The transformation of intimacy in the culture of the 19th century seems to be important and interesting evidence of the formation of double morality (overt and covert as well as of the functioning of conflicting tendencies for tabooing and, at the same time, speaking about sexual experiences. The fear of social condemnation effectively shaped everyday life. Scandals and social embarrassment were avoided almost as much as a detriment to one’s health or a risk of sudden death. The second half of the 19th century was the time of a rapid increase in the popularity of educational and social guides. Emotions and spontaneous behaviour become inappropriate, and the social life became dominated by mechanisms and self-disciplinary tendencies. Social life was under heavy peer pressure and – by the same token – individual gestures and tendencies were eradicated. The culture of the 19th century is a particularly interesting reservoir of matrimonial and parental models. The education of children and teenagers focuses on teaching one how to play desired social roles: of virtuous misses from good families or, a little less restrictive, of model bachelors, potential ideal husbands and fathers. The theatricalisation of everyday life reached its peak in the 19th century culture. At the same time, it must be

  3. A working group for Japanese nuclear data measurement network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2013-01-01

    A new working group in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee has been established to make a cooperative network among researchers involved in nuclear data measurements and to discuss the strategy for nuclear data measurements. The working group activities are reported. (author)

  4. 77 FR 20789 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Measuring.... SUMMARY: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to develop... states in laws, regulations, methods, and testing equipment that comprises the regulatory control of...

  5. Commission 41 Working Group on Astronomy and World Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Badolati, Ennio; Batten, Alan; Belmonte, Juan; Bhathal, Ragbir; Brosche, Peter; Dbarbat, Suzanne; DeVorkin, David; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.; Epifania, Priscilla; Ferlet, Roger; Funes, Jos; Glass, Ian S.; Griffin, Elizabeth; Gurshtein, Alexander; Hearnshaw, John; Helou, George; Hidayat, Bambang; Hockey, Thomas; Holbrook, Jarita; Incerti, Manuela; Kepler, S. O.; Kochhar, Rajesh; Krupp, Edwin C.; Locher, Kurt; Maglova-Stoeva, Penka; Mickaelian, Areg; Pettersen, Bjorn R.; Pineda de Caras, Mara Cristina; Pinigin, Gennadiy; Pompeia, Luciana; Pozhalova, Zhanna; Yun-li, Shi; Simonia, Irakli; Le Guet Tully, Francoise; Wainscoat, Richard

    2010-05-01

    What follows is a short report on the Business Meeting of the Astronomy and World Heritage Working Group held on Thursday August 6, 2009. This was the first formal Business Meeting of the Working Group since its formation following the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between the IAU and UNESCO on Astronomy and World Heritage in October 2008.

  6. 75 FR 17158 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2010-N065; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  7. 75 FR 51284 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2010-N168; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  8. 77 FR 10766 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2012-N039; FXFR1334088TWG0W4-123-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders...

  9. 75 FR 70947 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2010-N253; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  10. 76 FR 52345 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2011-N168; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  11. 76 FR 70751 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2011-N237; FXFR1334088TWG0W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  12. 75 FR 27814 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2010-N101; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  13. 76 FR 14044 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2011-N044; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  14. 77 FR 74203 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2012-N266; FXFR1334088TWG0W4-123-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders...

  15. 76 FR 34248 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2011-N116; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  16. 76 FR 23621 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2011-N083; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  17. 77 FR 30314 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2012-N124: FXFR1334088TWG0W4-123-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders...

  18. 77 FR 50155 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2012-N201;FXFR1334088TWG0W4-123-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders...

  19. 75 FR 10501 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R8-FHC-2010-N041; 81331-1334-8TWG-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the...

  20. 75 FR 21602 - Online Safety and Technology Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... OSTWG is tasked with evaluating industry efforts to promote a safe online environment for children. The... and Technology Working Group Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... public meeting of the Online Safety and Technology Working Group (OSTWG). DATES: The meeting will be held...

  1. 75 FR 1338 - Online Safety and Technology Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... promote a safe online environment for children. The Act requires the OSTWG to report its findings and... and Technology Working Group Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... public meeting of the Online Safety and Technology Working Group (OSTWG). DATES: The meeting will be held...

  2. Report of the Working Group on Publicity and Funding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder

    2014-01-01

    The report highlights the activities of the working group in raising awareness of the need for geographical names standardization and the work of the Group of Experts, particularly in advancing the digital presence of UNGEGN, through web presence and updated Media Kit and Wikipedia presence...

  3. Division X, XII / Commission 40, 41 / Working Group Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann, Kenneth; Orchiston, Wayne; Davies, Rod; Gurvits, Leonid; Ishiguro, Masato; Lequeux, James; Swarup, Govind; Wall, Jasper; Wielebinski, Richard; van Woerden, Hugo

    The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA) was formed at the 2003 General Assembly of the IAU as a Joint Working Group of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy), in order to: a) assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and

  4. Effects of Personality on Attitudes toward Academic Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, William R.; Tashchian, Armen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of personality on attitudes toward academic group work among a sample of 225 business students. Data were collected using pre-existing scales for measuring personality and attitudes toward academic group work. Specifically, the Neo-FFI scale was used to measure the five personality dimensions of openness,…

  5. Summary records of the meetings of INFCE Working Group 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These were 6 meetings of Working Group 6 that took place between 8 December 1977 and 7 September 1979. This document consists of the summaries of those meetings and it reports on the objectives of the Working Group, the participants, the guidelines for the study, and the outline of the final report

  6. Group Work in Schools: A Process Consultation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Shaalan

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a description of how an educational psychologist can consult with groups of teachers mostly in relation to their work with pupils who display emotional behavioural difficulties. The paper includes a review of the work on group consultation in schools, followed by a description of process consultation (Schein, 1988 ) and how the…

  7. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  8. Group Work, Interlanguage Talk,and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael H.; Porter, Patricia A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses both the pedagogical arguments and the psycholinguistic rationale for small-group work in the second language classroom. Claims that the negotiation work possible in group actiity makes it an attractive alternative to the teacher-led discussion. Reviews research findings on interlanguage which generally support the claims made for group…

  9. Figurative Potential of Russian Hydronymes in the Poetry of 19th – 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azaliya R. Gizatullina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of Dnieper, Don, Volga and Neva hydronyms use as aesthetically significant elements of an artistic text. The urgency of the work is that the development of language and speech aesthetics issues are among the promising trends of linguistic studies. However, the aesthetic resources of most onomastic units, including toponyms, are still poorly studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the figurative possibilities of these hydronyms, functioning in the poetic works of Russian authors. The following methods were used as the main ones in the work: modeling, distributive, semantic-stylistic and quantitative analysis. The material for the study was represented by the poetic works of the 19-20th centuries, extracted from the "National Corpus of the Russian Language". The novelty of the work was made up of selected figurative paradigms, in which the considered hydronyms are used as the subject of comparison. During the performed study five most voluminous figurative paradigms were revealed, in which the position of the right member is replaced by lexical units related to the concepts of "being", "water", "substance", "tissue" and "terrestrial space". The criteria of intentional rapprochement of hydronyms with other subject lexemes were determined in order to develop the imagery of a poetic text. The findings can be used to study the onomastic space of Russian language, as well as for the further development of artistic speech theory.

  10. Louis Figuier translated in Brazil: science popularizers in the last quarter of 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kodama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address aspects of the history of the divulgation of sciences in Brazil in the nineteenth century, through the analysis of the circulation of some translations into Portuguese of the works of French popularizer of science, Louis Figuier. His works, which were translated to different languages, received editions in Brazil and Portugal since late 1860. During this period, a model of popularization of science for non-specialists - working class, women and youth - with emphasis on applied science was gaining terrain. However, this model was also marked by limitations and discontinuities that reflect social issues in the passage to the twentieth century. This paper attempts to highlight the role of translators and editors, understood as mediators of science, whose projects of social reform was primarily focused in popular instruction.

  11. Group work and undergraduate accounting students: a Bourdieusian analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Teviotdale, Wilma; Clancy, David; Fisher, Roy; Hill, Pat

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated students’ views and experiences of group work in a vocationally oriented undergraduate Accounting and Finance degree course in an English post-1992 university. In this context tutors prepare students for the profession and for the workplace, and the development of team-working skills is a core element in the curriculum. This presents a significant challenge to tutors given that students commonly report an aversion to aspects of group work, including a perceived loss of...

  12. Funções e condições de trabalho de um enfermeiro no Hospital de S. José (meados do século XIX Funciones y condiciones de trabajo de un enfermero en el Hospital de S. José (a mediados del siglo XIX Functions and working conditions of a nurse at the Hospital de S. José (mid-19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lousada Subtil

    2011-12-01

    Estado (1836-1862, según la metodología de análisis histórica. Se presentan aspectos del ambiente físico y económico del hospital, la posición del grupo de enfermeros respecto a los demás trabajadores, la organización del día a día en las enfermerías y las funciones de los diversos empleados. Existian dos grupos de empleados: los mayores y los menores donde estaban incluidos los enfermeros. El enfermero - figura central en las rutinas y gestión de la enfermería - tenía funciones de supervisión de los auxiliares de enfermería y ”moços”. Los auxiliares eran quienes realizaban los cuidados a los enfermos. Sería útil proseguir este estudio en periodos subsecuentes o realizar un estudio comparativo con el Hospital Termal de Caldas o un hospital bajo la tutela de las Misericordias.Portuguese nurses currently have several tools and ressouces that regulate their professional practice. Nevertheless, the consolidation of the identity process requires efforts to clarify the practices and contexts of the profession in earlier historical periods, namely during the constitutional monarchy. We intend to contribute to clarifying the professional and social status of the nurse stated in the Regulation of Hospital de S. José, of 21st January 1851. We consulted and analysed the Regulation and Colection of State Budgets (1836-1862, using the historical analysis method. We present aspects of the physical and economic environment of the hospital, the position of the nursing staff compared with the other employees, the daily organization in wards and the role of each employee. They were two groups of employees: employees with major functions and employees with minor functions, which included nurses. The nurse - central figure in the management and routines of the ward- had supervisory responsibilities over nursing assistants and ”moços”. Patient care was perfomed by nursing assistants. It would be useful to conduct further research on subsequent periods or carry

  13. Investigating the Effectiveness of Group Work in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Sofroniou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Group work permits students to develop a range of critical thinking, analytical and communication skills; effective team work; appreciation and respect for other views, techniques and problem-solving methods, all of which promote active learning and enhance student learning. This paper presents an evaluation of employing the didactic and pedagogical customs of group work in mathematics with the aim of improving student performance as well as exploring students’ perceptions of working in groups. The evaluation of group work was carried out during tutorial time with first year civil engineering students undertaking a mathematics module in their second semester. The aim was to investigate whether group work learning can help students gain a deeper understanding of the module content, develop improved critical and analytical thinking skills and see if this method of pedagogy can produce higher performance levels. The group work sessions were conducted over four weeks whilst studying the topic of integration. Evaluation surveys were collected at the end of the intervention along with an investigation into the examination results from the end of semester examinations. In order to derive plausible and reasonable conclusions, these examination results were compared with an analogous cohort of first year mathematics students, also studying integration in their engineering-based degree. The investigation into the effectiveness of group work showed interesting and encouraging positive outcomes, supported by a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  14. Group Work and Leadership: Perception of FCS Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Susan W.; Gregoire, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    No known studies have examined the perception of family and consumer science (FCS) students related to group work in the classroom and its relationship to leadership. In this qualitative study, two groups of FCS students--hospitality management and dietetics--viewed group projects as exercises in leadership skills that had many barriers.…

  15. Letting the Drama into Group Work: Using Conflict Constructively in Performing Arts Group Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    The article examines conflict avoidance in performing arts group work and issues arising in relation to teaching and learning. In group theory, conflict is addressed largely in terms of its detrimental effects on group work, and its constructive potential is often marginalized. Similarly, undergraduate students usually interpret "effective…

  16. Enlightenment and School History in 19th Century Greece: the Case of Gerostathis by Leon Melas (1862-1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Athanasiades

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Students in present-day Greek schools are taught History as a biography of the Greek nation from the Mycenaean times to the present. Over the course of three millennia, the Greek nation has experienced three periods of cultural flourishing and political autonomy: (i the period of Antiquity (from the times of legendary King Agamemnon to those of Alexander the Great, (ii the Byzantine period (from Justinian’s ascension in the 6th century to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and (iii the modern era (from the War of Independence in 1821 to the present day. However, in this article we argue that in the 19th century the history taught in Greek schools differed substantially from the tripartite schema described above. In support of our thesis, we examine the most popular school textbook of the 19th century, O Gerostathis, by Leon Melas. In the Gerostathis, the history of the Greek nation is identified with that of Classical Greece (i.e. from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC, which is held up as an exemplary era worthy of emulation. In contrast, the rise of Macedon under Philip II signals the cultural decline of the Greeks and the loss of their political autonomy, which was not regained for two millennia, until the 1821 national revolution. In that period, the Greek nation ceased not to exist, but survived as a subjugate of the Macedonians, the Romans, and finally the Ottomans. The Byzantine, on the other hand, is described as an unremarkable period of decadence that is only worth mentioning in relation to its final period, that of the Palaeologus dynasty, which bestowed upon the Greeks a legacy of resistance against the Ottomans. We argue that the above reading of the Greek past owed much to the Enlightenment, which as an intellectual movement still exerted a powerful influence (albeit to a gradually diminishing degree on Greek intellectuals up to the latter third of the 19th century.

  17. Introduction: Towards a Framework for Studying the Politics of National Peculiarity in the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkova, Diana

    2013-01-01

    THE PROJECT This volume is the result of a 15-month research work which brought together young scholars from different Southeast-European academic cultures on a project initiated and hosted by the Centre for Advanced Study in Sofia in partnership with Collegium Budapest. The project entitled We, the People. Visions of National Peculiarity and Political Modernities in Southeastern Europe, is inscribed into a broad and daunting design: to help craft a more coherent methodological and structural...

  18. The Cerrado of Saint-Hilaire: naturalists representations of a 19th century French traveler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Borges Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the different motivations and goals behind the traveler Saint-Hilarie intentions to invest in a project to enter the Cerrado, and from his narratives and perceptions, we intend to understand how the nature of the Cerrado was interpreted during the nineteenth century. We seek to see why so many derogatory assertions were made by observing the natural surroundings of Goiás.

  19. Fresnel's original interpretation of complex numbers in 19th century optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avelar Sotomaior Karam, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    In 1823, Fresnel published an original (physical) interpretation of complex numbers in his investigations of refraction and reflection of polarized light. This is arguably the first time that complex numbers were given a physical interpretation, which led to a better understanding of elliptical a...... and circular polarizations. This rather unknown episode of the history of physics is described in this work, and some of the pedagogical lessons that can be extracted from it are discussed....

  20. Fresnel's original interpretation of complex numbers in 19th century optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo

    2018-04-01

    In 1823, Fresnel published an original (physical) interpretation of complex numbers in his investigations of refraction and reflection of polarized light. This is arguably the first time that complex numbers were given a physical interpretation, which led to a better understanding of elliptical and circular polarizations. This rather unknown episode of the history of physics is described in this work, and some of the pedagogical lessons that can be extracted from it are discussed.

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Preparations for the 19th Party Conference, Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-30

    After all, in our cinematography arts institute, a party meeting was held the day before yesterday, where the Communists from the institute stated...sciousness is inherently divorced from reality in other words involves all manner of fantasy. But if artistic fantasy is found in works of art and...authority), in science (the number of young people has been halved), and in the arts . We "did not notice" how young people were being squeezed out of the

  2. Performance measurement in Juliusz Au's theory of agricultural accounting in 19th century Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Turzyński, Mikołaj

    2011-01-01

    Before the Partitions, Poland, beside Russia, was the largest, territorially compact European state. As a result of the Partitions of Poland, which were carried out in 1772, 1793 and 1795, Polish territory was divided and annexed by the three partitioning powers: Russia, Germany and Prussia. In an attempt to resist aggressive Germanization by the invader, Poles employed, among others, the methods of “organic work” and “work at the grass roots” (a programme, launched by the Poli...

  3. Causal Relationships between Communication Confidence, Beliefs about Group Work, and Willingness to Communicate in Foreign Language Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushino, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the causal relationships between three factors in second language (L2) group work settings: communication confidence (i.e., confidence in one's ability to communicate), beliefs about group work, and willingness to communicate (WTC). A questionnaire was administered to 729 first-year university students in Japan. A model…

  4. A Child in a Working Class Family in the Kingdom of Poland at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta BOŁDYREW

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of studies in humanities and social science (pedagogy, history of education, sociology, ethnology an important issue of discussion is the position and the role of a child in a workingclass family, the conditions of his sohttps://doaj.org/publisher/metacializing and the norms of education at the time of intensive social and economic changes. Financial situation, the structure of a family, emotional ties, cultural message of the environment influenced the methods and aims of bringing up children. The reconstruction of the phenomenon is possible due to the archive sources (for instance, the documents of social organizations which supported poor town families, newspapers, guide books, diaries, statistic data, acts of law (for instance, laws concerning children and young people, ethnologic materials, literature, photographs, and numerous methodological solutions used at that timedata

  5. Paths to Theo-Humanity in the Work of Russian Thinkers of the 19th and 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sládek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study introduces the conception of theo-humanity against the background of the lives of six Russian Christian thinkers (Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky, Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov, Pavel Alexandrovich Florensky, Sergey Nikolayevich Bulgakov, Pavel Nikolayevich Evdokimov, Vladimir Nikolayevich Lossky, whose experience is integrated in a systematic reflection of their relationship to theo-humanity. The text is divided into three main sections discussing the search for paths to theo-humanity upon experiencing a crisis of the soul among the intelligentsia of czarist Russia, theo-humanity as a way of struggling with evil and theosis by synergy of humanity and theo-humanity in the theology of the new generation of Russian theologians, and finally theo-humanity in the neo-Palamitic synthesis of Russian exiles. Cesty k boholidství u ruských myslitelů 19. a 20. století V předložené studii je představeno pojetí boholidství na pozadí osudů šesti ruských křesťanských myslitelů (Fjodor Michailovič Dostojevskij, Vladimír Sergejevič Solovjov, Pavel Alexandrovič Florenskij, Sergej Nikolajevič Bulgakov, Pavel Nikolajevič Evdokimov, Vladimír Nikolajevič Losskij, přičemž jejich zkušenost bude následně vřazena do systematické reflexe nad jejich vztahem k boholidství. Text je rozdělen na tři hlavní kapitoly sledující: hledání cest k boholidství po prožití vnitřní duševní krize u inteligence carského Ruska, boholidství jako cesta boje se zlem a cesta zbožštění synergií mezi lidstvím a boholidstvím v teologii nové generace ruských teologů a konečně boholidství v neoplamitské syntéze ruských emigrantů.

  6. Atomic Pioneers Book 2 From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1971-01-01

    This book gives a brief account of the lives and work of 26 men and women who contributed to the great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science from the 1800s to the mid-1900s. The 26 are: William Prout, Michael Faraday, Eilhardt Mitscherlich, Joseph Henry, Thomas Graham, Stanislao Cannizzaro, James Clerk Maxwell, Dmitri I. Mendeleev, Joseph Norman Lockyer, John William Strutt, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, Antione Henri Becquerel, Hendrik A. Lorentz, J.J. Thomson, Max Planck, Svante A. Arrhenius, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, Pieter Zeeman, Theodore W. Richards, C.T.R. Wilson, Ernest Rutherford, Francis W. Aston, Frederick Soddy, Lise Meitner, and Otto Hahn.

  7. Discussions of the uranium geology working groups IGC, Sydney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The report is divided into six working group discussions on the following subjects: 1) Chemical and physical mechanisms in the formation of uranium mineralization, geochronology, isotope geology and mineralogy; 2) Sedimentary basins and sandstone-type uranium deposits; 3) Uranium in quartz-pebble conglomerates; 4) Vein and similar type deposits (pitchblende); 5) Other uranium deposits; 6) Relation of metallogenic, tectonic and zoning factors to the origin of uranium deposits. Each working group paper contains a short introductory part followed by a discussion by the working group members

  8. The work of the 'Irradiation Damage' sub-group of the EURATOM Working Group on Research Reactor Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genthon, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The EURATOM Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry is investigating the problems of the dosimetry of radiation damage experiments. Papers have been published on the dosimetry of graphite and irradiation of metals: the model chosen, the quantities employed to express the fluences, numerical values, measurements, and measurement techniques. The ensuing work of the EURATOM Working Group of Reactor Dosimetry in these areas will deal with the measurement methods required for the dosimetry of radiation damage. (Auth.)

  9. The Investigation in Terms of Design Component of Ottoman Women Entari in 19th Century and Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.

  10. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  11. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  12. «Hombre al moro»: jailbreaks from the Melilla penitentiary in the 19th century (1684-1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Marín

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study of jailbreaks from the Melilla penitentiary is based upon legal documents preserved in the Archivo Central of Melilla. These documents describe the personal situation of the convicts, how they made their escape and which were the legal procedures implemented on this respect. Moreover, they highlight the complexity of the relations between Melilla and the Moroccan «campo infiel». Moroccans, who captured a great majority of the escaped, were also requested as witnesses in many of these procedures. In the general context of Spanish-Moroccan relations during the 19th century, jailbreaks from Melilla discover hidden aspects of the contacts between both societies, well beyond the warlike conflict.

  13. The dentist's armamentarium: a collection of 19th century instruments in the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheramie, Toby J; Strother, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    A small collection of antique dental instruments located in the LSU School of Dentistry Library (LSUSD) provides a glimpse into the world of the 19th century dentist. The instruments in this collection, with handles carved from common and rare early materials such as bone, wood, ivory, ebony, cameo, shell and pearl, provide a striking contrast to all-steel instruments of the 20th century. An understanding of their development and function substantially increases appreciation of these instruments, which can be categorized as instruments for oral surgery, prophylaxis, restoration, and general use. In this article, the authors summarize the historical development of each type of instrument and describe the specific items in the LSUSD Library collection.

  14. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent.

  15. The Scandinavian Advantage: A Comparative Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth in four European Countries during the 19th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Catalina

    lower levels of living standards and a later introduction of improvements in medicine and sanitation. This study aims to illustrate the evolution of life expectancy at birth in four different countries (England and Wales 1841-1905, France 1816-1905, Norway 1846-1905, and Sweden 1800-1905) and in the 2nd......As a result of the health transition, there have been sustained gains in the average length of life (Vallin and Meslé 2009), starting as far as more than 150 years ago in some human populations. For instance, the maximum recorded levels of life expectancy at birth illustrate a linear increase since...... 1840 (Oeppen and Vaupel 2002). During the 19th century, some few countries occupied the top 1 and 2 positions in terms of life expectancy at birth (Fig. 1). In some of these countries, such as Norway and Sweden, the average length of life was longer compared to most other European populations, despite...

  16. Power, Business and Family in Guatemala at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This text analyzes the conflict that played out in Guatemala City over the governor’s decision to favor his intimates with licenses to trade with neutral countries during the years 1797 and 1799. This crisis is used to reconstruct the networks of two interest groups that struggled for power in the capital. Even though both factions were headed by merchants and their principal objective was profit, their members were situated in the primary institutions of the royal and local governments and they pursued ambitious political projects. This text shows how networks established around a merchant who had received permits to carry out trade with neutral countries were fundamentally structured around family relations in which women built solid connections with men through ties of kinship and ethnicity. These traditional connections were supplemented by modern ties of business, friendship and, especially, the common creed of liberal values. In the case in question, traditional relationships became adverse due to a family conflict, which was taken advantage of by the antagonistic group.

  17. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L

    2017-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dos propuestas constitucionales en el Caribe del siglo XIX Two Constitutional Proposals in the 19th Century's Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Arpini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el complejo escenario socio-político del Caribe del siglo XIX tuvieron lugar experiencias históricas de lucha por la independencia y la conquista de la libertad. Centramos la atención en dos episodios que se plasmaron en sendas propuestas de organización nacional: uno, en los albores del siglo XIX -la Constitución de 1801, redactada por disposición de Toussaint Louverture para Saint Domingue, siendo todavía colonia Francesa-; y otro, al promediar la centuria -plasmada en el texto elaborado por Eugenio María de Hostos "El programa de los independientes" de 1876, que contiene las bases de una futura organización nacional de Puerto Rico-. Nuestra lectura está orientada por el interrogante acerca de las formas de afirmación de la subjetividad que surgen de los textos y de las prácticas que ellos habilitan.In the complex sociopolitical scenario of the 19th Century's Caribbean several historical experiences of fights for independence and freedom took place. We focus our attention on two episodes, each one conveying a proposal for national organization: one in the early 19th Century -the 1801Constitution for Saint Domingue, still e French colony, written according to Toussaint Louverture's regulation-; and the other around the mid century -expressed in Eugenio María Hostos's "El programa de los independientes" from 1876, which conveys the basis for a future national organization of Puerto Rico. Our approach is determined by the question about the ways of subjectivity reinforcement in the texts and the practices rising from them.

  19. The early steps of chloroform anaesthesia in Turkey during the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulman, Yesim Isil

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to research the pioneering steps for the employment of chloroform in Turkey in comparison with the developments in the West i.e. in the United States and in Europe. The development of anaesthesiology in the West started in the first half of the 19th century. As an anaesthetic substance, ether was first employed in a medical operation by R. Liston in December 1846. But taking into consideration of its bronchially irritant effect, British gynaecologist Dr. J.Y. Simpson preferred to utilize chloroform in obstetrical operations in 1847. The paper aims at shedding light on the earlier steps for modern anaesthesiology in Turkey in that sense. The survey used evaluation of archival documents, first hand-original sources such as the annual medical reports of the Medical School, books, official journals, and newspapers of the time, and also secondary sources concerned with the subject. In view of the findings of the survey, chloroform, as an anaesthetic material, began to be administered surgically in Turkey much earlier than it was already known. It was experienced and used in operations at the surgical clinic of the Imperial School of Medicine at the Capital city, Istanbul in 1848. The Crimean War (1853-1855) induced to the prevalent surgical use of chloroform in Istanbul on the soldiers back from the front. In other words, it was evidenced that surgeons started to make use of this anaesthetic substance in the Ottoman Empire, shortly after it was put into medical practice in Europe. This study deals with that phenomenal progress of chloroform anaesthesia in the medical history in Turkey during the second half of the 19th century.

  20. The Idea of Modernity in Italian Literature at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Golubtsova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various concepts of modernity in Italian literature at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Modernity is considered a key category of the literary process of the period: different views of modernity reveal philosophical, historical, and aesthetic ideas of the major authors and literary currents. The term modernity in its relation to Italy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries may be understood in two different ways: as a specific time period after the unification of Italy and as an aesthetic ideal, both reachable and unreachable. Modernity as a historical period is inseparable from the sense of disappointment and awareness of Italian backwardness and provincialism. The Scapigliati manifest their socio-critical position as a Romantic conflict between individual and society, Verism represents the same idea as a tragic clash of traditional peasant world and modernity that is destroying it. Luigi Pirandello belongs to the same socio-critical tradition. The sense of weariness and decadence is one of the aspects of modern worldview: Gabriele D’Annunzio expresses it in the form of decadent aestheticism; the Crepusculars reject modernity and replace it with the idea of everyday life; Luigi Pirandello puts a special emphasis on the state of perplexity and confusion experienced by a modern man. From the aesthetic point of view, modernity in Italy begins as a struggle against Romanticism; however, here we encounter the controversial nature of the concept again. Giosue Carducci and the Scapigliati reject Italian Romanticism but turn to European Romanticism trying to overcome Italian cultural backwardness. A Verist writer Luigi Capuana elaborates a positivist ideal of modern literature and yet abandons it later. D’Annunzio sees the ideal of modern art in restoring cultural continuity. Futurists, on the contrary, understand modernity as breaking with tradition. Thus, all aesthetic interpretations of modernity in Italy focus

  1. The Power and Promise of Group Work: Consumer Evaluation of Group Work Services in Gauteng, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Shahana; Ross, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In light of the limited research into consumers' experiences of group work services in South Africa, the study evaluated groups offered by a range of social service agencies in Gauteng to determine whether group interventions were perceived by users as developmental and empowering. Methods: Program evaluation was employed to evaluate 47…

  2. Food-related Desires and Misgivings: its Foreshadowing in 19th Century Utopian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMMANUEL LIZCANO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We know how we should eat but we don?t eat as we should. This paradox of the modern eaterhas long been the subject of debate amongst sociologists, nutritionists and healthcare workers. The difficulties faced when dealing with this paradox suggest the need for new approaches. By considering food from the potentially conflictive social imageries, it may be possible to shed some light on this paradox. In this work, we have approached this issue from the perspective of four canonical texts of utopian literature that were created at the dawn of the industrial revolution. Our analysis reveals a long-lasting confl ict between two views of the ideal diet: that of modern and enlightened utopias, which is shared by nutrition experts, and that of the ?popular? utopias, in which social rationality, based on culinary habits and traditions, opposed a rational approach to eating.

  3. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  4. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cO Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. ... This is the report of flavor physics and model building working group at ... those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. ..... [12] Andrei Gritsan, ICHEP 2004, Beijing, China.

  5. Linear Collider Working Group reports from Snowmass '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report contains a summary of the Linear Collider Working Group. Papers on the following topics are discussed: parameters; damping ring; bunch compressor; linac; final focus; and multibunch effects

  6. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  7. Environmental Working Group Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Working Group (EWG) was established in June 1995 under the framework of the U.S.-Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technological...

  8. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  9. Summary of the BDS and MDI CLIC08 Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Ahmed, I; Ambatu, PK; Angal-Kalinin, D; Barlow, R; Baud, J P; Bolzon, B; Braun, H; Burkhardt, H; Burt, GC; Corsini, R; Dalena, B; Dexter, AC; Dolgashev, V; Elsener, K; Fernandez Hernando, JL; Gaillard, G; Geffroy, N; Jackson, F; Jeremie, A; Jones, RM; McIntosh, P; Moffeit, K; Peltier, F; Resta-López, J; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Toader, A; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    This note summarizes the presentations held within the Beam Delivery System and Machine Detector Interface working group of the CLIC08 workshop. The written contributions have been provided by the presenters on a voluntary basis.

  10. "Pittura Romeica" in Italy: Artistic transfers across the Adriatic sea (18th - 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Drakopoulou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex historical reality of the Adriatic region, an area located even today on the borderline between East and West, is reflected in the works of religious painting and in the painters’ geographical movements. The art of Orthodox regions was mainly influenced by Venice, but also by the rest of Italy, and, as a result, a unique art emerged in the Ionian Islands, which remained under Venetian control until the end of the eighteenth century. In the course of the eighteenth century, political and economic conditions contributed to the growth of the Orthodox communities in Italy. Their members were interested in the art of the country where they lived and prospered, but they simultaneously wished to preserve the “pittura romeica” in the decorations of churches and in the icons used for their personal worship. From Naples to the cosmopolitan Trieste, Orthodox painters, coming mainly from the Ionian Islands, produced artworks which were adapted to the new surroundings, thereby making the Adriatic region once again a privileged area for cultural exchanges.

  11. Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    Remarks of the SFRP working group about ICRP recommendations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has proposed last summer on its Web site the draft text of the 2005 ICRP recommendations for consultation. As it was done for the previous drafts, the French Society for Radiation Protection, has sent his comments to the ICRP, through a specific working group. The text sent to the ICRP is presented here to the readers of the SFRP's Journal. (author)

  12. Report of the Working Group on Publicity and Funding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder

    2017-01-01

    The report presents the aims and activities of the working group and in its efforts with raising awareness of the need for geographical names standardization and the work of the Group of Experts, through presence on the web and social media and Media Kit. The report also highlights efforts to find...... financial support for training and for representatives from developing countries attending UNSCGN Conferences and UNGEGN Sessions....

  13. Fish and fishery historical data since the 19th century in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Libralato, Simone; Arneri, Enrico; Giovanardi, Otello; Solidoro, Cosimo; Raicevich, Saša

    2017-09-01

    Historic data on biodiversity provide the context for present observations and allow studying long-term changes in marine populations. Here we present multiple datasets on fish and fisheries of the Adriatic Sea covering the last two centuries encompassing from qualitative observations to standardised scientific monitoring. The datasets consist of three groups: (1) early naturalists' descriptions of fish fauna, including information (e.g., presence, perceived abundance, size) on 255 fish species for the period 1818-1936 (2) historical landings from major Northern Adriatic fish markets (Venice, Trieste, Rijeka) for the period 1902-1968, Italian official landings for the Northern and Central Adriatic (1953-2012) and landings from the Lagoon of Venice (1945-2001) (3) trawl-survey data from seven surveys spanning the period 1948-1991 and including Catch per Unit of Effort data (kgh-1 and/or nh-1) for 956 hauls performed at 301 stations. The integration of these datasets has already demonstrated to be useful to analyse historical marine community changes over time, and its availability through open-source data portal will facilitate analyses in the framework of marine historical ecology.

  14. WORK GROUP DEVELOPMENT MODELS – THE EVOLUTION FROM SIMPLE GROUP TO EFFECTIVE TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, work teams are increasingly studied by virtue of the advantages they have compared to the work groups. But a true team does not appear overnight but must complete several steps to overcome the initial stage of its existence as a group. The question that arises is at what point a simple group is turning into an effective team. Even though the development process of group into a team is not a linear process, the models found in the literature provides a rich framework for analyzing and identifying the features which group acquires over time till it become a team in the true sense of word. Thus, in this article we propose an analysis of the main models of group development in order to point out, even in a relative manner, the stage when the simple work group becomes an effective work team.

  15. Investigating the Effectiveness of Group Work in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofroniou, Anastasia; Poutos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Group work permits students to develop a range of critical thinking, analytical and communication skills; effective team work; appreciation and respect for other views, techniques and problem-solving methods, all of which promote active learning and enhance student learning. This paper presents an evaluation of employing the didactic and…

  16. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  17. TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish Progress report 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolle, L.J.; Damm, U.; Diederichs, B.; Jager, Z.; Overzee, van H.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Building on previous work done by the TMAP ad hoc Working Group Fish, a meeting and a workshop were held in Hamburg in June and October 2007. The most important aim of both was to come to an agreement on how to proceed with the data preparations and analyses, and to facilitate the exchange of data

  18. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  19. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti-Zogg, Stefanie; Mundwiler, Jonas; Schüpbach, Ulla; Dieterle, Thomas; Wolfer, David Paul; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel; Miedinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max). In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories) according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day). VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12), 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (pphysical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%), when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group. PMID:27136206

  20. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  1. Facilitating Support Groups for Professionals Working with People with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Silverstein, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Describes support groups for health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and who are experiencing burnout from excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Discusses group administration, effective intervention techniques, and issues of health…

  2. Understanding the Process by Which New Employees Enter Work Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Donald B.

    1977-01-01

    The Group Integration Process, described in this article, serves as a broad and guiding set of steps (invitation, induction, orientation, training, relationship, and integration) that helps the supervisor better understand what is to be done in managing a new employee's entrance into a work group. (TA)

  3. Group dream work as a support for self – awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Brumen Žarn, Zarja

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis discusses group dream work as a form of support for increasing the individual's self-awareness. Working with dreams encourages creativity, opens up the possibilities of self-knowing and helps individuals to guide their life paths. One of the fundamental concepts of social pedagogy is the empowerment of individuals for problem solving and self-development. For this purpose, social educational profession develops and uses a number of methods and approaches. Working with dreams i...

  4. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  5. Elucidation of molecular and elementary composition of organic and inorganic substances involved in 19th century wax sculptures using an integrated analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regert, M.; Langlois, J.; Laval, E.; Le Ho, A.-S.; Pages-Camagna, S.

    2006-01-01

    Wax sculptures contain several materials from both organic and inorganic nature. These works of art are particularly fragile. Determining their chemical composition is thus of prime importance for their preservation. The identification of the recipes of waxy pastes used through time also provides valuable information in the field of art history. The aim of the present research was to develop a convenient analytical strategy, as non-invasive as possible, that allows to identify the wide range of materials involved in wax sculptures. A multi-step analytical methodology, based on the use of complementary techniques, either non- or micro-destructive, was elaborated. X-ray fluorescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used in a non-invasive way to identify inorganic pigments, opacifiers and extenders. The combination of structural and separative techniques, namely infrared spectroscopy, direct inlet electron ionisation mass spectrometry and high temperature gas chromatography, was shown to be appropriate for unravelling the precise composition of the organic substances. A micro-chemical test was also performed for the detection of starch. From this study it has been possible to elucidate the composition of the waxy pastes used by three different sculptors at the end of the 19th century. Complex and elaborated recipes, in which a large range of natural substances were combined, were highlighted

  6. Lithographic image simulation for the 21st century with 19th-century tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ronald L.; Rosenbluth, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    unit cell area; this number can cause even the fastest computers to balk if one needs to study medium- or long-range effects. One can reduce this computational burden by approximating with a smaller area, but accuracy is usually a concern, especially when building a model that will purportedly represent a manufacturing process. This work will review the current methodologies used to simulate the intensity distribution in air above the resist and address the above problems. More to the point, a methodology has been developed to eliminate the expensive numerical integrations in the TCC calculations, as the resulting integrals in many cases of interest can be either evaluated analytically, or replaced by analytical functions accurate to within machine precision. With the burden of computing these numbers lightened, more accurate representations of the image field can be realized, and better overall models are then possible.

  7. Patterns of long bone growth in a mid-19th century documented sample of the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Rachel; Humphrey, Louise

    2017-05-01

    Studies of male and female long bone growth in past populations are limited and usually constrained by the lack of personal identification. This article aimed to evaluate long bone growth in a series of mid-19 th century documented burials associated with the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK. Maximum diaphyseal lengths from 74 males and 70 females (2 months to 12 years) were compared to modern reference data from North America. Diaphyseal lengths were expressed as a percentage of expected length and an average percentage value was calculated across all available long bones. An index of growth progression was introduced to explore differences in the progress of males and females towards their projected adult size. Deviation from the expected growth attainment was evident in both sexes in the archaeological series by 2-4 months of age. Only 19.4% (28/144) of the children had attained an average long bone length >90% of the predicted mean in the reference series. The percentage of expected growth attainment decreased steadily in both sexes during infancy and early childhood. Overall, females deviated further from their expected growth progression than males. Growth faltering in both males and females was established during infancy (<1 year) with no evidence for recovery in older age groups. Early weaning and inadequate artificial feeding, together with impoverished living conditions and limited sanitary provision, most likely impacted on childhood growth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ethnic Migration in North-West Ingermanland: The Influence of Economic Development on Local Differences in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Kalinitchev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingermanland became a destination point for migrants of many nationalities and had an inner circulation of the domestic population in the 19th century. Migratory routes, as well as the outflow and inflow volumes in the region differed for each ethnic group. A micro-historical approach enables one to assess the various reasons for the mobility of the homogeneous domestic population. There was a specific migration of orphans to Lutheran Finnish communities. Indeed the main reason for this migration was due to economic factors. A structural change of employment in the case of the closure of factories resulted in the outward movement of the population, alongside the allure of higher wages in localities with an industrial and trade infrastructure. The expansion of St. Petersburgs city border led to complex migratory processes as a result of the rapid economic development of the capital region. Ingermanland became an important part of the international market exchange that created opportunities for migrants and businesses of residents affected by the changes, who increasingly gave up agricultural production and sought other ways of earning a livelihood.

  9. Analysis of 19th century ceramic fragments excavated from Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil) using FT-IR, Raman, XRF and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Coelho, Filipe A.; Felix, Valter S.; Pereira, Marcelo O.; de Souza, Marcos André Torres; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2018-03-01

    This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500 °C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO2. Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples. The results of the PCA showed that the samples excavated in one of the slave quarters (senzalas) group with those excavated at the farmhouse, where the landowner lived, which indicates a paternalistic attitude towards captives, including the sharing of ceramic materials of everyday use.

  10. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  11. 19th International Summer School on Vacuum, Electron and Ion Technologies (VEIT2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Education and Science of Republic of Bulgaria for there generosity that enabled us to support the attendance of students and provided support to deal with mailing, printing, renting the conference site, etc. We are also grateful to the members of the International Advisory Committee - Th. Czerwiec, M. Dimitrova, G. Dinescu, A. Ehiasarian, N. Guerassimov, V. Guerra, I. Katardjiev, H. Kersten, K. Larsson, D. Mataras, W. Möller, M. Mozetic, R. Panek, I. Petrov, Z. Petrovic, B. Rauschenbach, M.C.M. (Richard) van de Sanden, M. Ürgen, for their continuous concern about the high scientific level and the future of the event, as well as for their contribution to the formation of a new generation of scientists and experts in the field. And, last but not least, we would also like to thank all authors for their valuable contributions to these proceedings and to the school, and all reviewers for their hard and tedious, but very important, work. The next conference in the series will be held in September 2017. M.C.M. van de Sanden, Miglena Dimitrova, Chavdar Ghelev, Guest Editors (paper)

  12. Discussing ethnohistory: The Blin between periphery and international politics in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolbert G.C. Smidt

    2006-10-01

    massivement au catholicisme. Les Blins du /Hal/hal se convertirent à l’Islam, afin de parer aux raids futurs des vassaux du Soudan Égyptien. Cet article vise a montrer que la stratégie principale des Blins a été de participer activement à la nouvelle présence des pouvoirs dominants, que ce soit sur le plan politique ou religieux, et que cette adaptation leur a permis de préserver leur système très sophistiqué d’autonomie interne, fondé sur une confédération non centralisée, un réseau reliant entre eux les différents chefs Blins.Borderlands, which are often experiencing challenges of different kind, can be regarded as a "laboratory" for new political or cultural projects or solutions. The country of the Blin ethnic group in northern-central Eritrea was such a land, especially between the 1840’s to 1880’s. Originally living in peaceful isolation, autonomously organizing their political live with a minimum of external intervention, this changed with the arrival of expanding Egypt in the adjacent Sudanese region of Taka in 1840. In the 1850’s, international brokers of religion – Catholic missionaries – and of academic exploration – Orientalists – appeared in the region, immediately followed by agents of imperialism – the British and French vice consuls of the port of Massawa. Simultanously reuniting Ethiopia sought to regain lost influence in the borderregions, including the Hamasen province, with the Blin of Bogos as their historic vassals. The Egyptian expansion resulted in the regular appearance of violent raids against the Blin, which gave a chance to the consuls and missionaries – with the few academics involved as their collaborators – to intervene, declare the Blin as protected by them and free the enslaved Blin men and women. Orientalists, the mission and consuls appeared to the Blin as agents of one idea: the inclusion of the Blin into the sphere of European influence. The Blin actively responded to the new challenges from all

  13. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter's mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps

  14. Flattening the organization: implementing self-directed work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, G M

    1996-01-01

    In response to tremendous growth of managed care and threats to financial stability and job security, the Greater Baltimore Medical Center (GBMC) restructured itself into independent business units. The radiology department at GBMC resolved to reduce cost per unit-of-service, improve service, determine optimal staffing levels and reduce the number of layers of organization. It was decided to achieve those goals by implementing self-directed work groups. Staff buy-in was critical to success of the project. To begin, the staff was educated intensively about current trends in healthcare, managed care and potential changes in the job market. The radiology department was allowed to reduce the size of its staff through attrition and worked hard to focus staff concern on the impact each individual could have on the bottom line and the resultant effect on job security. Self-directed work groups were designed on a matrix that used small "service teams" in combinations to form larger "work groups." Actual work and daily activities occur at the service team level; information exchange and major decisions occue at the work group level. Seventeen months after beginning the project and 10 months after implementation, the organization has flattened, staff members have adjusted well to new roles, there have been no lay-offs, and the matrix system of small and large groups have proved particularly valuable.

  15. Working Group on Isotopes in Hydrology, Grenoble, October 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-08-01

    The purpose of this Working Group organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which met at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires in Grenoble by invitation of the French Atomic Energy Commission, was to provide an opportunity for the different groups engaged upon the use of isotope techniques in hydrology to discuss their present work and indicate the main lines of future work. In accordance with the decision of the meeting, members of the Section of Hydrology of the Agency have prepared this report based on written contributions submitted by participants of the meeting and on the discussions which took place. It is hoped that this report will be of interest not only to groups engaged in this work but also to hydrologists wishing to know what types of studies are in progress and where they are being carried

  16. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Hun Rieh; Kunmo Chung; Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of aregional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation. (author)

  17. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieh, C.H.; Chung, K.; Hamlin, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of a regional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation

  18. Standardization activities of the Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.

    1982-06-01

    In 1979 a working group on neutron radiography was formed at Euratom. The purpose of this group is the standardization of neutron radiographic methods in the field of nuclear fuel. Activities of this Neutron Radiography Working Group are revised. Classification of defects revealed by neutron radiography is illustrated in a special atlas. Beam purity and sensitivity indicators are tested together with a special calibration fuel pin. All the Euratom neutron radiography centers will perform comparative neutron radiography with those items. The measuring results obtained, using various measuring aparatus will form the basis to formulate conclusions about the best measuring methods and instruments to be used in that field. Besides the atlas of neutron radiographic findings in light water reactor fuel, the Euratom Neutron Radiogrphy Working Group has published a neutron radiography handbook in which the neutron radiography installations in the European Community are also described. (author)

  19. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  20. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.