Sample records for working group 19th

  1. FY 1998 annual report on the alcohol working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo alcohol bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the alcohol working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. (General situations of alcohol production project) reports income/expenditure of the alcohol production project, methods for producing alcohol by fermentation, actual results of alcohol production in FY 1998, alcohol production plans for FY 1999, and problems to be solved in the future. (Major purposes of industrial grade alcohol and recent demand trends) reports trends of alcohol demands in Japan, major purposes of alcohol, characteristics of Japan's demands, purposes of major oversea alcohol-producing countries, impetuses behind utilization of alcohol in food industry, unexpected purposes of industrial grade alcohol, and recent demand trends. (Oversea alcohol situations) reports ethanol importation of Japan, topics at the 1st. world ethanol conference, and alcohol management systems and stock situations in Brazil and Argentine. (NEDO)

  2. Report of the 19th Annual Meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) - TBE in a changing world. (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula


    The 19th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) - a group of neurologists, general practitioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians and epidemiologists-was held under the title "TBE in a changing world". Key topics within virology, current epidemiological developments and investigations, expansion of risk areas, clinical aspects and cases, traveling and mobility, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed. Over the past four decades, TBE has become a growing public health challenge in Europe and parts of Asia. It may be considered a complex eco-epidemiological system, characterized by an intricate interplay between the virus, ticks and tick hosts on the one hand and human exposure strongly influenced by socioeconomic conditions on the other hand. Although the facts are simple - vaccination is the best prevention - the socioeconomic conditions keep changing, and with them the ability or willingness of people to get vaccinated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. FY 1998 annual report on the solar energy technology research and development working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo taiyo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the solar energy R and D working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, gave a lecture titled (Expectation on and problems involved in power generation by solar light and wind power), and Mr. Kamon, a managing researcher of NEDO's solar technology development group, reported (Technological development trends of solar technology development group). The other topics reported by the individual groups include development of large-size wind power generation systems, development of techniques for increasing throughputs of high-efficiency, large-area amorphous solar cells, development of techniques for manufacturing high-reliability CdTe solar cell modules, development of techniques for manufacturing CIS solar cell modules, analysis/assessment of thin-film silicon-based solar cells, development of processes for manufacturing silicon of rationalized energy use, R and D of (new multi-layer structure) modules assembled into building materials to form monolithic structures, and development of techniques for manufacturing amorphous thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin- film solar cells. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1998 annual report on the fuel/storage working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo nenryo chozo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the fuel/storage working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, outlined the R and D activities for development of techniques for fuel cell power generation, development of decentralized cell power storage systems, demonstration of new load-leveling techniques, development of techniques for superlow-loss type power system components, development of techniques for ceramic gas turbines, pioneer R and D for MGC superhigh-efficiency turbine system techniques, demonstration tests for establishing centralized load controlling systems, development of techniques for network systems utilizing wide-area energy, development of techniques for application of superconductor-aided power systems, R and D for power storage aided by a high-temperature, superconducting flywheel, R and D for basic techniques for applying superconductors, and pioneer R and D for basic techniques for AC superconducting power equipment. The individual NEDO's researchers reported their results, which include outline of the fuel/storage technique development group, and current statuses of fuel cell technique development, new cell-aided power storage technique development, and superconductor technique development. (NEDO)

  5. Teaching of History of 19th Century Russia in the Visegrád Group Countries (United States)

    Kmet, Miroslav


    The study focuses on the content and extent of teaching of Russian history, or history of Russian culture and civilization, in the teaching of history in the states of the Visegrád Group (i.e. in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia). In each of these states, the subject of history (sometimes in different names) has a different status,…

  6. The 19th Party Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Høyrup Christensen, Nis


    The 19th Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing October 18-24 2017. Leading up to the congress there was intense speculation concerning the new line-up of the most important leadership bodies of the CPC: the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee. Would the Politburo...

  7. Group Work. (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J


    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by CBE-Life Sciences Education ( LSE ). The guide provides a tour of research studies and resources related to group work (including many articles from LSE ). Instructors who are new to group work, as well as instructors who have experienced difficulties in implementing group work, may value the condensed summaries of key research findings. These summaries are organized by teaching challenges, and actionable advice is provided in a checklist for instructors. Education researchers may value the inclusion of empirical studies, key reviews, and meta-analyses of group-work studies. In addition to describing key features of the guide, this essay also identifies areas in which further empirical studies are warranted. © 2018 K. J. Wilson et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  8. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

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    Özge Öztekin


    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  9. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł


    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  10. The graphic configurations of books destined to the reading process teaching both in Brazil and in France and its possible effects in the usage of works in print (19th and 20th centuries

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    Isabel Cristina Alves da Silva Frade


    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the usage of graphic and typographic resources of seven french books and of five brazilian books dated from the end of the 19th century and destined to the initial stages of the reading process. For this purpose, assumptions concerning the material bibliography, the history of the book, the history of reading and literacy presented in the works of Roger Chartier, Donald Mckenzie, Anne-Marie Chartier and Jean Hébrard are considered. Exploring the mise en page and instructions, this work aims to understand the roles of typography, letter-spacing, columns, colors, lines, numbers as well as other characters. The present work leads to the conclusion that similar methods of reading may use different resources and, on the other hand, the same resources may serve to differents methods. Usage notes suggest that graphic resources constitute a kind of instrument that influences the conception of language and the usage of the written page.

  11. La importancia social del trabajo en el México del siglo XIX Social importance of work in the 19th century Mexico

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    Pedro Miranda Ojeda


    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XIX la sociedad mexicana emprendió la constitución de un nuevo modelo de nación que incorporó el valor moral por el trabajo. La modernización y el progreso figuraron como elementos configuradores y se estimó al individuo según su grado de capacidades de contribución nacional. La imagen de ciudadano se vincula estrechamente con el trabajo y, por este motivo, las personas ociosas, jugadoras o sin oficio pertenecían al rango de los inútiles.During the nineteenth century Mexican society began the constitution of a new model of Nation which has incorporated the moral value related to work. Modernization and progress were pivotal elements for that, and the individual has started to be considered for his capacity of contributing with the Nation. The citizen image was closely related to work. In consequence, idlers, gamblers, and unemployed were classified as useless.

  12. The 19th Century Anglo-Yoruba Relations | Abimbola | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the Anglo-Yoruba relations in the 19th century via the influence of the Ijebu people, a sub-group of the Yoruba; using oriki(Ijebu), a very important oral poetic genre among the Yoruba people of Southwestern Nigeria. 60 groups of oral art performers were sampled; data were drawn from 60 Ijebu towns ...

  13. The North Black Sea Region (the 18th-19th Centuries: A Historiographical Survey

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    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov


    Full Text Available This historiographical survey examines studies concerned with the exploration of the north Black Sea region in the 18th-19th centuries. Studies into the subject can be divided into three major groups: 1. Pre-revolutionary studies (Russian and foreign works published prior to 1917; 2. Soviet studies (1917-1991; 3. Modern Russian studies (1991-2014. In conclusion, the authors point up that despite the diversity of studies into the history of the Caucasus and the Caucasian War, fragmentary attention has been devoted to the history of the north Black Sea region in the 18th-19th centuries. To this day, there have been no comprehensive studies into the history of Jigets, the Sadz, and other tribes, which means that the subject of the history of the north Black Sea region is still waiting for its researcher.

  14. Famous Funerals in 19th Century Cracow


    Bernadeta Wilk


    Cracow, the old capital of Polish Kingdom, has always performed a particular role in the Polish history and culture. In the nineteenth century, particulary in the period of galician autonomy 1860-1914, Cracow became the spiritual capital of Poland for generations of Poles who lived in the partitioned country, which was ruled by the three foreign powers together. About this phenomenon decided not only the autonomy but also the old tradition and the symbolism of this town. In the 19 th century ...

  15. The 19th Project Integration Meeting (United States)

    Mcdonald, R. R.


    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project is described. Project analysis and integration is discussed. Technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation; cell and module formation; engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis. It includes a report on, and copies of visual presentations made at, the 19th Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California, on November 11, 1981.

  16. Famous Funerals in 19th Century Cracow

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    Bernadeta Wilk


    Full Text Available Cracow, the old capital of Polish Kingdom, has always performed a particular role in the Polish history and culture. In the nineteenth century, particulary in the period of galician autonomy 1860-1914, Cracow became the spiritual capital of Poland for generations of Poles who lived in the partitioned country, which was ruled by the three foreign powers together. About this phenomenon decided not only the autonomy but also the old tradition and the symbolism of this town. In the 19 th century and before the First World War, Cracow was the most influential centre of the Polish national life. In this time Crakow’s citizens decided to continue the old tradition of the royal burial. Since there were no longer any Polish monarchs, they resolved that the remains of the greatest national heroes, of writers and artists be buried on the Wawel Cathedral in the cemetery Rakowice and later in the Church of Paulinites fathers “on the rock”. Famous funerals in 19 th century Cracow, of which the best known were those of prince Joseph Poniatowski in 1817, general Thaddeus Kosciusko in 1818, king Casmir the Great in 1869 and of poet Adam Mickiewicz in 1890 alluded to royal ceremonies from the time of Polish independence. These funerals have been one of the main elements in patriotic and religious ceremonies and important part of the nation’s patriotic educations.

  17. 19th Asia Pacific Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan


    This PALO volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 19th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2015), held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 22-25, 2015. The IES series of conference is an annual event that was initiated back in 1997 in Canberra, Australia. IES aims to bring together researchers from countries of the Asian Pacific Rim, in the fields of intelligent systems and evolutionary computation, to exchange ideas, present recent results and discuss possible collaborations. Researchers beyond Asian Pacific Rim countries are also welcome and encouraged to participate. The theme for IES 2015 is “Transforming Big Data into Knowledge and Technological Breakthroughs”. The host organization for IES 2015 is the School of Information Technology (SIT), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), and it is technically sponsored by the International Neural Network Society (INNS). IES 2015 is collocated with three other conferences; namely, The 6th International Confere...

  18. Female Nomina Professionalia in Russian Vocabulary of the 19th Century (Ssociolinguistic Analysis

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    Olga I. Eremenko


    Full Text Available The authors focus on female nomina professionalia, which existed in Russian language of the 19th century. The appeal to this group of feminatives is determined by the fact that at that date they constituted an actual, actively replenishing lexical category. That was caused by changes in the socio-cultural life of the 19th century. The article analyzes the basic derivational models that produce nomina professionalia, traces the dynamics of such names throughout the 19th century, which is conditioned by extra-linguistic reasons.

  19. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted


    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  20. [19th century Russian research about collective behavior]. (United States)

    Engmann, Birk; Steinberg, Holger


    In the 19th century, collective behavior or crowd psychology was given a broad interest in psychiatric research. But until today the focus had always been on French, English or German publications neglecting the comprehensive Russian research that exists. That's why, the authors wish to elaborate 19th century Russian points of view on crowd psychology.Our research revealed that most of the Russian authors discussed imitation, suggestion, and hereditary predisposition - as did their colleagues in the West. Contrary to that, the 1881 monograph by Viktor Kandinsky could be regarded as an outstanding work because it presents an independent hypothesis on crowd psychology. Kandinsky postulated a gradual transition from normal to pathological based on neuro-anatomical und physiological presumptions. He postulated a causal chain which starts with exaltation followed by ecstasy, illusions, and at least hallucinations. He regarded exaltation to be a precondition in which a person accepts notions uncritically. Thus, in an exalted crowd one person that hallucinates may "infect" the others easily. People prone to mysticism, with a passion for mysterious things or on outstanding skills would be at a high risk of being infected. On the other hand, Kandinsky's hypothesis also implies that no one is exempt from such infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Cast Iron in The 19th Century Building Equipment (United States)

    Kwasek, Michał; Piwek, Aleksander


    Cast iron is a material, characteristics of which enable to receive extremely artistic elements. It maintains good strength properties at the same time. That combination of these seemingly contrary traits makes it a commodity that was widely used in the 19th century industry and architecture. These usages were not only as decorative elements, technical and structural ones. The production of new household utilities started, which made people’s lives more comfortable. Cast iron allowed for fast and cheap production while maintaining high aesthetic qualities. Useful elements, which often were ornamental parts of buildings were created. The aim of the article is to characterise elements of interior equipment of the 19th century building that are made of cast iron. As it appears from performed bibliography, archival and field studies, the ways of exploitation are very broad. Some were mounted into the building; the others were a mobile equipment. As it occurred they were most commonly used as functional items. Cast iron was used to produce the minor elements, which were only parts of the bigger wooden or stone items. Notwithstanding, there were also bigger ones casted as a whole, and frequently ones that were assembled from many elements. Nowadays, elements of an interior feature are one of the subjects of study during the restoration work of the buildings. They can provide important information about the building and the way people lived and are considered as the essential part of historical objects.


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    Yuliia Popeleshko


    Full Text Available The article deals with socio-political and pedagogical background of educational communities in Ukraine as centers of forming creative intellectuals (late 19th century. Activities of educational societies of the late 19th century create a whole era in the development of education and culture history in Ukraine. Their work in the field of education has gained public appeal joining the General process of national revival. Progressive Ukrainian intelligentsia, working in societies, awakens the national consciousness, lay the foundations of mother tongue education. The emergence and activities of various public organizations in Ukraine in late 19th century are a kind of a phenomenon that has not only cultural and enlightening nature, but also an educational one. One of the main objectives is to change the content and quality of Ukrainian people’s education. Through an analysis of historical and pedagogical sources we have found that the end of the 19th century became for Ukrainians in Dnieper Ukraine the period of confrontation with the authorities for preserving the national culture. Changes in the Russian Empire began a strong push for the national awakening and intensification of national consciousness of the intelligentsia in the Ukrainian provinces. Seeing their duty in developing the national culture, Ukrainian intelegencia launched special enlightening trend. For the first time in the history of Ukrainian society pedagogical problems were widely discussed by the public, besides they became the subject of public initiatives, the country’s life was enriched with a new phenomenon – public-educational movement. The participants of the educational movement of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in cities led to the logical replacement of single individual cultural work to the activities of the whole associations, communities. In communities the future leaders of the enlightenment movement were formed. They were teachers, scientists, doctors, who

  3. Group Work. Research Brief (United States)

    Walker, Karen


    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  4. Change through Group Work. (United States)

    McAllan, Les; Friedman, Amy; Spears, Evans

    Perhaps the most well known treatment modalities in the field of prevention and treatment of addiction are groups. Group settings serve to bring individuals with addictions together at one time in one place to work on relevant issues together. Groups may serve as a safe environment for learning new social and relationship skills, gaining…

  5. Collector at the Crossroads. Jan Działyński and the Kórnik Collection of Works of Art in the Second Half of the 19th Century: An Exhibition between the Romantic Spirit of Patriotism and a Modern Scientific Approach

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    Kłudkiewicz, Kamila


    Full Text Available In the second half of the 19th century, a tendency for a scientific approach to collecting became visible in Europe. Collectors established contacts with art experts and art researchers in order to assemble works of high class. A Polish aristocrat, Jan Działyński, presented a collection of works of art in a specially prepared castle room of his family estate in Kórnik. The exhibition of his collection bears features characteristic for a systematic and scientific approach to collecting; nevertheless, certain elements still testify to inspiration in Romantic collecting of national tokens, popular at the beginning of the 19thcentury in Poland.

  6. 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber


    This volume contains the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications, held at Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman in May 2013. The conference brought together experts and novices in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems. The volume features papers in difference equations and discrete time dynamical systems with applications to mathematical sciences and, in particular, mathematical biology, ecology, and epidemiology. It includes four invited papers and eight contributed papers. Topics covered include: competitive exclusion through discrete time models, Benford solutions of linear difference equations, chaos and wild chaos in Lorenz-type systems, advances in periodic difference equations, the periodic decomposition problem, dynamic selection systems and replicator equations, and asymptotic equivalence of difference equations in Banach Space. This book will appeal to researchers, scientists, and educators who work in th...

  7. [The technicalization of medicine in the 19th century]. (United States)

    Olsén, J E


    The paper focuses on the role that instruments played in the medical discourse of the 19th century. Towards the end of the century, instruments had imbued the medical sciences to such an extent that the situation soon was compared to the vernacular confusion of the biblical tower of Babel. Whereas the autonomical recordings of laboratory apparatus, vouched for guarantee against biased test results, clinicians and general practitioners were finding it difficult to incorporate the new techniques into their daily routines. A tension between the instrument as invention, moulded to fit a particular series of experiments, and the instrument as a reproducible item, was inevitable. Hence, the unification of the science and practice of medicine, became an important topic at the international medical meetings of the late 19th century. Seen in the light of the industrialization and urbanization of occidental culture and society, the instrumentation of medicine entailed a number of significant issues which hinged on the relationship between the biological destiny of man and the artificial wonders of technology. Grand metaphors like the organic machine and the human motor, did not only signal a scientific preoccupation with the shortcomings of the living organism as opposed to the perfection of the machine, but also indicated closer ties between the human body and technology at large. In a certain sense, medical instruments, along with apparatuses such as the camera, the steam-engine, the telegraph, the phonograph and the cinematograph, offered a new set-up of codes with which the body and its functions could be reinterpreted. In this respect, the late nineteenth-century strive for the standardisation and unification of medical instruments, was not irreconcilable with the notion of the l'homme moyen, as conceived, for example, in the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet. The paper outlines the span of medical measuring devices, dating from the sphygmometer of

  8. Facilities removal working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.


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    Kotnikova Kseniya Valeryevna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the prepositional synonymy in the Russian literary language of the 19th century. The work studies structures in which prepositions are a means of expressing causality – conceptual and linguistic category presented as patrimonial relative to species categories of causes, purpose and concessions. The definition of the term preposition-synonym is given. In view of lexical and morphological differentiation of prepositional synonymy in this research the lexical synonymy is analyzed. The work is based on texts of various genres of the 19th century represented in the Russian National Corpus. It characterizes some ranks of synonymic causal prepositions in the Russian literary language of the 19th century: the analysis of the use of synonyms in different contexts, combined with one of the particular values of causality – the reasons, purpose, concessions determined specifics of using separate units; it identifies some trends in the development of synonyms for over a century. The main trends in the development of synonymic ranks of causal prepositions in the 19th century are revealed. Some lexical units fade; others are established and continue to expand the field of their application. Thus, on the basis of the material studied, we can conclude that the development of means of synonymous semantic causality expression in the 19th century followed the path of verbal marking of more subtle shades of causality.

  10. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P. [et al.


    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  11. Reimagining a Riemannian symbology for the structural harmonic analysis of 19th-century tonal music.

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    Marcus Alessi Bittencourt


    Full Text Available In the context of a preview of central topics taken from a larger research work, this article presents and explains a proposition of a functional analytical symbology which is currently being developed as a tool for the structural harmonic analysis of tonal music. This symbology constitutes a key component for a proposal of an analytical methodology for 19th century extended tonality, which is the core of the aforementioned larger research work. Based on a critical revision of the history of music theory and analysis, this methodology is mainly the result of the recasting and the amplification of thoughts and concepts developed by 19th century theorists such as Hugo Riemann and Arthur von Oettingen. The article introduces the proposed analytical symbology through a comparison to its historical counterparts, and it also highlights the ability of the proposed symbols to graph the harmonic language of 19th century extended tonality by means of a few analytical examples.

  12. Abandoning wells working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  13. Multibunch working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The goal of this working group was to foment discussions about the use and limitations of multi-bunch, representatives from most operating or in-project synchrotron radiation sources (ALS, SPEAR, BESSY-2, SPRING-8, ANKA, DELTA, PEP-2, DIAMOND, ESRF...) have presented their experience. The discussions have been led around 3 topics: 1) resistive wall instabilities and ion instabilities, 2) higher harmonic cavities, and 3) multibunch feedback systems.

  14. NIFS contributions to 19th IAEA fusion energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    NIFS has presented 21 papers at the 19th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (Lyon, France, 14-19 October 2002). The contributed papers are collected in this report. The 21 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Wrong lovers in the 19th century Netherlands. (United States)

    Hekma, G

    Various styles of "male love" occurring in the 19th century are introduced. Locations and public ordinances relating to these styles of love are discussed. The development of the homosexual role is broached along with the question of whether attitudes and laws of the 19th century were responsible in part for the development of normative expectations for homosexuality which might in turn have repressed its growth.

  16. Authority and leadership: the evolution of nursing management in 19th century teaching hospitals. (United States)

    Helmstadter, Carol


    This study shows why some 19th century nursing managers were successful and some were not. With the exception of Florence Nightingale, almost nothing has been written about 19th century nursing managers. Classical historical method is used. Extensive use is made of secondary sources. Primary sources are found in the archives of the 12 London teaching hospitals, the Radcliffe Infirmary, the Convents of St John the Divine and the All Saints Sisters, and 16,000 Nightingale documents in the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Success in delivering a highly competent nursing service depended on the matron's leadership and legitimate authority but she also had to have the support of her hospital board to gain access to allocation of scarce resources. While the 19th century hospital environment was very different, how nurses directed under different circumstances clarifies our knowledge of successful nursing management in 2007.

  17. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.


    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  18. Working Group Report: Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,


    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  19. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China (United States)

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun


    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  20. [The process of "sense-making" in nursing and in literature. Research and analysis of health care situations in several works of Russian authors of the 19th century]. (United States)

    Manara, D F; Campagnano, T


    In this article the authors examine an aspect that is seldom considered in the contemporary nursing research in Italy. Beside the well-known process of "decision-making" happens, in every relief situation, a process of "sense-making". This process, more or less shared by the various protagonists involved, is similar to what happens in artistic experience. Object of this research is to show the process of "sense-making" through a critical analysis of some famous works of russian literature of the late nineteenth century: Lev Nikolaevic Tolstoj, The death of Ivan Il'ic' and The stories of Sebastopol; Fedor Michajlovic Dostoevsky, The idiot; Michail Afanas'evic Bulgakov, Morphine. The similes between literature and nursing in the analysis of the process of "sense-making" will suggest, at last, some general reflections for our matter: moreover the hermeneutic comprehension of the other and the constructivist approach in the use of nursing theories.

  1. Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. Teaching with Documents. (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many people considered a radical change in the U.S. Constitution. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. In 1870 the 15th amendment to…

  2. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Przybyszewska


    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  3. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively (United States)

    Burke, Alison


    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  4. Late 19th- and early 20th-century discussions of animal magnetism. (United States)

    Alvarado, Carlos S


    The mesmerists explained the phenomena of what was later called hypnosis as the effects of a force called animal magnetism. Both psychologists' and physicians' writings generally create the impression that the magnetic movement disappeared after the mid-19th century. While the concept of animal magnetism declined significantly by the end of the 19th century, it did not disappear completely. Some examples include the work of Hector Durville, Henri Durville, Emile Magnin, and Edmund Shaftesbury. Detailed accounts of the work of Edmund Gurney and Albert de Rochas are presented. Similar to its earlier counterpart, the late mesmeric movement was associated with what today is known as parapsychological phenomena. This association, and the belief that the demise of magnetic theory represents scientific progress, has led many to emphasize a history that is incomplete.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  6. CSP - The 19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry (ECMI 2016) (United States)


    of daily life. Due to our dependence on fuel sources and our large demand for energy , power systems have become interdependent networks rather than...shorten development times, reduce global energy demand and minimize environmental impact. • The work of European scientists was coordinated to...FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT CSP- The 19th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry (ECM I 2016) Grant number: N62909-16-1-2072 Registered

  7. Maks Fabiani and urbanism in Vienna at the turn of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mihelič


    Full Text Available This article deals with new concepts in urban planning at the turn of the 19th century. It represents three key persons, all architects and urban planners: Camillo Sitte, Otto Wagner and Maks Fabiani. All three left an indelible mark on urban planning in the Hapsburg Monarchy. In particular, it focuses on Maks Fabiani, whose work is closely related with the reconstruction of Ljubljana after the earthquake at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Even though Fabiani was one of the most distinguished and respected urban planners in Vienna, his contribution to the history and theory of urban planning was until now relatively overlooked and not stressed enough upon in the context of the urban history within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  8. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen. (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L


    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Strategies for Successful Group Work (United States)

    Nipp, Mary Beth; Palenque, Stephanie Maher


    The thought of group work, or CLC Groups often strikes fear and loathing in the hearts and minds of both students and instructors. According to Swan, Shen, and Hiltz (2006) collaborative work presents the possibilities of many difficulties including a largely unequal contribution of group participants, an inability of the students to manage the…

  10. Evolution of Electromagnetics in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lindell


    Full Text Available Steps leading to the present-day electromagnetic theory made in the 19th Century are briefly reviewed. The progress can be roughly divided in two branches which are called Continental and British Electromagnetics. The former was based on Newton's action-at-a-distance principle and French mathematics while the latter grew from Faraday's contact-action principle, the concept of field lines and physical analogies. Maxwell's field theory and its experimental verification marked the last stage in the process.

  11. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta


    Full Text Available The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c its relation with human ageing; and d the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept.

  12. Group Work with Transgender Clients (United States)

    Dickey, Lore M.; Loewy, Michael I.


    Drawing on the existing literature, the authors' research and clinical experiences, and the first author's personal journey as a member and leader of the transgender community, this article offers a brief history of group work with transgender clients followed by suggestions for group work with transgender clients from a social justice…

  13. Working group report: Quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The participants of the QCD working sub-group are: Rahul Basu, D Indumathi,. E Laenen, Swapan Majhi, Prakash Mathews, Anuradha Misra, Asmita Mukherjee,. R Ratabole, V Ravindran and W Vogelsang. The main focus of this working group had been to concentrate on some issues in resummation which are essential to ...

  14. Working group report: Neutrino physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Neutrino physics. Coordinators: SANDHYA CHOUBEY1,∗ and D INDUMATHI2. Working group members: S Agarwalla1, A Bandyopadhyay1, G Bhattacharyya3,. E J Chun4, B Dasgupta5, A Dighe5, P Ghoshal5, A K Giri6, S Goswami1,. M Hirsch7, T Kajita8, M Kaplinghat9, H S Mani10, R Mohanta11,.

  15. Challenges Facing Group Work Online (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun


    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  16. Working group report: Quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the subgroup QCD of Working Group-4 at WHEPP-9. We present the activities that had taken place in the subgroup and report some of the partial results arrived at following the discussion at the working group meetings. Keywords. Quantum chromodynamics; resummation; extra dimensions; multi-leg.

  17. The didactics of group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd


    will take its point of departure in pedagogical textbook introductions where group work is often presented as a means to learning social skills and co-workability. However, as most students and teachers know, this is not always the case. Observations of long-term group work show that this can be a tough...

  18. Group Work in Science Classrooms (United States)

    McGregor, Debbie; Tolmie, Andrew


    This article considers how students might work together in small groups, from two to eight, in either a primary or secondary science classroom. The nature of group work can vary widely and could include, for example, a pair carrying out an illustrative experiment, a trio or quad debating climate change, or six or seven rehearsing how they will…

  19. Institutionalising senile dementia in 19th-century Britain. (United States)

    Andrews, Emily Stella


    This article explains how old, poor people living with dementia came to be institutionalised in 19th-century Britain (with a focus on London), and how they were responded to by the people who ran those institutions. The institutions in question are lunatic asylums, workhouses and charitable homes. Old people with dementia were admitted to lunatic asylums, workhouses and charitable homes, but were not welcome there. Using the records of Hanwell lunatic asylum, published texts of psychiatric theory, and the administrative records that all of these institutions generated at local and national levels, this article argues that 'the senile' were a perpetual classificatory residuum in the bureaucracy of 19th-century health and welfare. They were too weak and unresponsive to adhere to the norms of the asylum regime, yet too challenging in their behaviour to conform to that of the workhouse, or the charitable home. Across all of these institutions, old people with dementia were represented as an intractable burden, many decades before the 'ageing society' became a demographic reality. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  20. [Suicide and cultural criticism in 19th century Spanish medicine]. (United States)

    Plumed Domingo, José Javier; Novella, Enric J


    This paper explores the major role of suicide in the cultural criticism deployed by 19th century Spanish doctors by analysing the most important theoretical models that inspired their contributions to its aetiology. In the first half of the century, the most commonly debated causal factor was the passions, which were thought to stand in a permanent tension with a free, reflexive and conscious self, in accordance with the spiritualist doctrine that was then dominant. In the context of a growing somatisation of moral and intellectual phenomena, the notion of suicide as an act of free will was later modified, and it became considered the consequence of certain organic disturbances. However, this process did not alter the central role of suicidal behaviour within 19th-century cultural criticism, because the advent of degeneration theory meant that doctors finally had a doctrine that allowed them to combine biological determinism with the extended perception of a moral and social crisis threatening the stability and achievements of bourgeois society.

  1. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  2. Working group report: Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-9) held at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India in January 2006. Some of the work subsequently done on these problems by the subgroups formed during the workshop is ...

  3. Quantum chromodynamics: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the QCD working group at WHEPP-6. Discussions and work on heavy ion collisions, polarized scattering, and collider phenomenology are reported. Keywords. QCD; polarized scattering; light front field theory; heavy ion physics; non-equilibrium field theory; parton distributions at LHC; fragmentation ...

  4. Social Maturation: Work Group Proceedings. (United States)

    Resnick, Michael D.; And Others


    The work group's discussion centers on seven factors affecting disabled adolescents' social development. Each of the following factors is addressed in terms of potentially important research, service, and policy initiatives: self esteem, peer groups, parenting, family, services, enforced dependency, and positive sexual socialization. (CL)

  5. 19th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador


    This book gathers the best papers presented at the 19th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, which was held in Granada, Spain in July 2015. It covers a range of project management and engineering contexts, including: civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, information and communication technologies, safety, labour risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Project management and engineering is taking on increasing importance as projects continue to grow in size, more stakeholders become involved, and environmental, organisational and technological issues become more complex. As such, this book offers a valuable resource for all professionals seeking the latest material on the changing face of project management.

  6. 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Linke, Barbara


    The 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering continues a strong tradition of scientific meetings in the areas of sustainability and engineering within the community of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP). The focus of the conference is to review and discuss the current developments, technology improvements, and future research directions that will allow engineers to help create green businesses and industries that are both socially responsible and economically successful.  The symposium covers a variety of relevant topics within life cycle engineering including Businesses and Organizations, Case Studies, End of Life Management, Life Cycle Design, Machine Tool Technologies for Sustainability, Manufacturing Processes, Manufacturing Systems, Methods and Tools for Sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Supply Chain Management.

  7. Book advertisements in Osijek’s 19th century newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Krtalić


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the promotion of books through advertising in the newspapers published in Osijek in the second half of the 19th century. From late 18th century and in the course of the 19th century’s intense developments in the publishing of newspapers and journals, advertising in this medium was one of the ways to promote books. Booksellers and publishers advertised books in newspaper ads, relying on the fact that newspapers had become a common and omnipresent medium for disseminating information. Book advertisements were evidence of the position of books in relation to other aspects of culture and society, of the approach to their promotion and, finally, of the importance of book promotion. In order to investigate how and how much book ads were present, and how Croatian books were promoted and reached the readership, the paper analyses daily and monthly publications, such as Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung from 1869, Die Drau from 1968 to 1877, and Branislav from 1878. Among the eleven different papers published in the second half of the 19th century in Osijek, these were selected for their content, as they were the first illustrated newspapers (Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung. The investigation focused on the influence of the newly emerged illustrated press and on the influence of the newspapers published in Croatian language (Branislav, as a possible tool for spreading and promotion of Croatian books. Another focus was on the influence of continued publication and on the growth of a steady readership (Die Drau. The papers were analysed with the aim to locate book advertisements which were then subjected to content analysis. Also provided is a brief overview of the book production and publication in Croatia and in Osijek at the time, and an overview of the emergence of newspapers in Osijek with a brief account of the titles selected for study in order to gain an insight into the context in which book ads appeared. It

  8. 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Guralnick, David; Uhomoibhi, James


    This book presents the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, held 21-23 September 2016 at Clayton Hotel in Belfast, UK. We are currently witnessing a significant transformation in the development of education. The impact of globalisation on all areas of human life, the exponential acceleration of developments in both technology and the global markets, and the growing need for flexibility and agility are essential and challenging elements of this process that have to be addressed in general, but especially in the context of engineering education. To face these topical and very real challenges, higher education is called upon to find innovative responses. Since being founded in 1998, this conference has consistently been devoted to finding new approaches to learning, with a focus on collaborative learning. Today the ICL conferences have established themselves as a vital forum for the exchange of information on key trends and findings, and of practical lessons le...

  9. Gender and Public Understanding of Science: Darwinism in the 19th Century Brazilian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema de Rezende Vergara


    Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.

  10. Reading Societies and their Social Exclusivity: Dalmatia in the First Half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lakuš


    Full Text Available Reading societies, known as the gabinetto di lettura, or the casino, appeared in Dalmatia in the middle of the 18th century modelled on their Western European, North Italian and Austrian counterparts. They became centres of social and cultural life in the region. However, their number was very small in comparison with other Central and Western European countries. In spite of that, their statutes can serve a historian as very fertile and useful historical sources. First of all, they can reveal the importance given to books and reading as well as changing attitude towards reading in the course of time. They can also indicate social structure of the reading circles as well as the interaction and communication among the members. In addition, they can reveal the participation of women in social and cultural life, internal functioning of the society, etc. Based on the statutes of several reading societies of the 19th century, this work suggests several important issues. First, it shows that in the first half of the 19th century the membership of these societies was still select and prestigious, acquired by position on the social scale. In other words, reading societies were still confined to very narrow social circles of the educated. Although in Western parts of Europe the reading public became more heterogeneous and open, in Dalmatia reading still preserved its exclusive features. Second, the work also suggests that what some historians of book and reading called the ”reading revolution” or ”revolution in reading” occurred in Dalmatia much later, and even then mostly in urban areas. Some changes in reading habits occurred in the region, albeit to a limited extent and with less influence on society as a whole. Third, the work also demonstrates that from the 1840s reading acquired a new dimension, becoming open to the more social strata and gradually losing its exclusive character. The reading societies, lending libraries and other cultural

  11. CFCC working group meeting: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report is a compilation of the vugraphs presented at this meeting. Presentations covered are: CFCC Working Group; Overview of study on applications for advanced ceramics in industries for the future; Design codes and data bases: The CFCC program and its involvement in ASTM, ISO, ASME, and military handbook 17 activities; CFCC Working Group meeting (McDermott Technology); CFCC Working Group meeting (Textron); CFCC program for DMO materials; Developments in PIP-derived CFCCs; Toughened Silcomp (SiC-Si) composites for gas turbine engine applications; CFCC program for CVI materials; Self-lubricating CFCCs for diesel engine applications; Overview of the CFCC program`s supporting technologies task; Life prediction methodologies for CFCC components; Environmental testing of CFCCs in combustion gas environments; High-temperature particle filtration ORNL/DCC CRADA; HSCT CMC combustor; and Case study -- CFCC shroud for industrial gas turbines.

  12. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) (United States)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.


    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  13. Report for Working Group 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte; Thompson, Mary Kathryn


    The theme for the second working group was design education in civil and environmental engineering. Issues discussed during this meeting included the current state of the art of civil design education, the importance of civil design education, tools and techniques that can be used to build design...

  14. Heavy flavours: working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gladilin, Leonid [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tonelli, Diego [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)


    The talks presented in the working group ''Heavy flavours'' of the DIS 2009 workshop are summarised. New and recently updated results from theory, proton antiproton and heavy ion colliders, as well from HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  15. [Scientific methods in 19th century clinical laboratories]. (United States)

    Büttner, Johannes


    In the middle of the 19th century the first chemical laboratories were established at hospitals and clinics in Central Europe which performed chemical analyses for purposes of practical medicine and clinical research. A characteristic feature of these new laboratories was the use of measuring instruments. The results of these chemical methods could serve as "signs" in the diagnosis of diseases. A great step forward was the introduction of "quantitative" data as results of measurements. They allowed a greater differentiation in the description of phenomena compared with the "qualitative" data used before. Another important feature of the new signs is the possibility to derive from it knowledge of causal relations of physiological and pathological processes in the organism. The influence of this methodological change on the thinking of the physicians at the sickbed is discussed using several examples. The "chemical signs" were used in the description of diseases and for the "quantification of health" by use of "normal values" which allow a discrimination between health and disease. Chemical quantities became also important for the description and examination of functional systems in the body, e.g. the metabolism.

  16. Social religious movement in java 19Th - 20Th century (United States)

    Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.


    Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th – 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.

  17. Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) (United States)

    Amorim, Inês; Sousa Silva, Luís; Garcia, João Carlos


    Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) Inês Amorim CITCEM, Department of History, Political and International Studies, U. of Porto, Portugal. Luís Sousa Silva CITCEM, PhD Fellowship - FCT. João Carlos Garcia CIUHCT, Geography Department, U. of Porto, Portugal. The first major national project on Historical Climatology in Portugal, called "KLIMHIST: Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources (17th-19th centuries)", ended in September 2015, coordinated by Maria João Alcoforado. This project began in March 2012 and counted on an interdisciplinary team of researchers from four Portuguese institutions (Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, University of Porto, and University of Évora), from different fields of knowledge (Geography, History, Biology, Climatology and Meteorology). The team networked and collaborated with other international research groups on Climate Change and Historical Climatology, resulting in several publications. This project aimed to reconstruct thermal and rainfall patterns in Portugal between the 17th and 19th centuries, as well as identify the main hydrometeorological extremes that occurred over that period. The basic methodology consisted in combining information from different types of anthropogenic sources (descriptive and instrumental) and natural sources (tree rings and geothermal holes), so as to develop climate change models of the past. The data collected were stored in a digital database, which can be searched by source, date, location and type of event. This database, which will be made publically available soon, contains about 3500 weather/climate-related records, which have begun to be studied, processed and published. Following this seminal project, other initiatives have taken place in Portugal in the area of Historical Climatology, namely a Ph

  18. Working Group Report: Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    This is the summary report of the energy frontier QCD working group prepared for Snowmass 2013. We review the status of tools, both theoretical and experimental, for understanding the strong interactions at colliders. We attempt to prioritize important directions that future developments should take. Most of the efforts of the QCD working group concentrate on proton-proton colliders, at 14 TeV as planned for the next run of the LHC, and for 33 and 100 TeV, possible energies of the colliders that will be necessary to carry on the physics program started at 14 TeV. We also examine QCD predictions and measurements at lepton-lepton and lepton-hadron colliders, and in particular their ability to improve our knowledge of strong coupling constant and parton distribution functions.

  19. Radiation sources working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazio, M.V.


    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

  20. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw


    In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  1. Impacts of laboratory methodology on medical thinking in the 19th century. (United States)

    Büttner, J


    During the 19th century the first laboratories at hospitals and clinics in Central Europe were established. These 'clinical laboratories' were devoted to chemical analyses in practical medicine and clinical research. A characteristic feature of these laboratories was the use of measuring instruments, e.g. volumetric apparatus, polarimeters, spectroscopes, colorimeters, photometers. Using these techniques new phenomena were introduced into clinical medicine which could serve as signs in the diagnosis of diseases. Many of the new diagnostic signs were quantitative data as results of measurements. Their main advantage was the greater differentiation in the description of phenomena compared with the qualitative data used before. Another important characteristic of the new diagnostic signs was the discovery of causal relations to physiological and pathological processes in the organism. The physicians and chemists in the clinical laboratory were eager not only to collect empirical data but also to find causal relationships by research work similar to that carried out in physics and chemistry. Once causal chains were been identified more general relationships became clear. One example is the concept of metabolism which comprised a dynamic view on chemical processes in the body and the variation of "Stoff" (material) in time, including a quantitative input-output analysis of the body in health and disease. In the second half of the 19th century, scientifically based diagnostic signs began to replace the traditional symptoms and signs used since antiquity.

  2. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou. (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E


    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mapping Utopia: Cartography and Social Reform in 19th Century Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves


    Full Text Available From the 16th century on, the great Southern continent figured in the European literary and political imagination as a field for utopian thought. While we might expect such Arcadian essays to tail off as the colonisation of Australia proceeded apace in the late 18th, early 19th centuries, such was not the case: there are many examples of utopian literature set in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries, and several examples from the 1830s , the period examined in this article. This article explores the utopian elements in the work of three near contemporaries: Edward G. Wakefield (1796-1862, Thomas J. Maslen (1787-1857 and James Vetch (1789-1869 who mapped onto Australia political and social projects that had their origin and rationale in objectives for reform in the mother country. They brought to their self-appointed task underlying assumptions and biases that reveal a range of influences, not least those of colonial expansionism, and an imperial disregard for the realities of the terrain and inhabitants of a country they had never visited. The article undertakes a close reading of the maps, systems of nomenclature and division of territory proposed by two of the three: Maslen and Vetch, and their underlying rationale and function. Both writers sought to redraw the map of Australia in order to advance projects for reform, imposing on an ‘empty land’ principles of division and sub-division claimed to be rational and scientific and yet essentially utopian.

  4. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W


    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  5. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact (United States)

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U


    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  6. Ethnographic research in Russia in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerimova Marina


    Full Text Available Systematic and structured ethnographic data collection started in Russia with the formation of the Emperor’s Academy of Science and in 1765 the Emperor’s Economic Society. In the beginning of the 18th century, the Academy had supported numerous expeditions and scientific research in Siberia. A handbook was introduced, with questions regarding peoples in the region, their customs, borders, languages and rituals. Later on, at the time of foundation of the Emperor’s Russian geographic society, in 1845, several special ethnographic programs were formulated, with the idea to facilitate data collection about many aspects of everyday life, customs and various questions related to the exclusively Russian population of the Russian Empire. In this process, a significant role was played by the Department of Ethnography and its head, the anthropologist K.M. Ber and later on, a famous publicist, art historian and ethnographer, N.I. Nadeždin. The program suggested in 1852 by N.I. Nadeždin was incorporated in “the handbook collection for Kamtchatka expedition”, undertaken by the Russian geographic society. Afterwards, many other departments and individuals had successfully continued to improve ethnographic program and design of the various data collection. For example, in the 19th century, a private ethnographic practice by prince Vjačeslav N. Tenjišev was very active, by collecting data on all life aspects among the rural population. The practice had 348 employees of various status and background. Today, the collected data and sources are being kept in the archive of the Russian Ethnographic Museum in St. Petersburg.

  7. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact. (United States)

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U


    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism.The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  8. Working Group Report: Higgs Boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Sally; Gritsan, Andrei; Logan, Heather; Qian, Jianming; Tully, Chris; Van Kooten, Rick [et al.


    This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $CP$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Our report includes projections of measurement capabilities from detailed studies of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a Gamma-Gamma Collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), the Large Hadron Collider High-Luminosity Upgrade (HL-LHC), Very Large Hadron Colliders up to 100 TeV (VLHC), a Muon Collider, and a Triple-Large Electron Positron Collider (TLEP).

  9. Thermal Control Working Group report (United States)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas


    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  10. Working group 3: Coronal streamers (United States)

    Kopp, Roger A.


    The working group on coronal streamers convened on the first day of the 2nd SOHO Workshop, which took place in Marciana Marina, Isola d'Elba, 27 September 1 October 1993. Recent progress in streamer observational techniques and theoretical modeling was reported. The contribution of streamers to the mass and energy supply for the solar wind was discussed. Moreover, the importance of thin electric current sheets for determining both the gross dynamical properties of streamers and the fine-scale filamentary structure within streamers, was strongly emphasized. Potential advances to our understanding of these areas of coronal physics that could be made by the contingent of instruments aboard SOHO were pointed out.

  11. Working group 1: Coronal streamers (United States)

    Kopp, R. A.


    The working group on coronal streamers convened on the first day of the 2nd SOHO Workshop, which took place in Marciana Marina, Isola d'Elba, 27 September--1 October 1993. Recent progress in streamer observational techniques and theoretical modeling was reported. The contribution of streamers to the mass and energy supply for the solar wind was discussed. Moreover, the importance of thin electric current sheets for determining both the gross dynamical properties of streamers and the fine-scale filamentary structure within streamers, was strongly emphasized. Potential advances to our understanding of these areas of coronal physics that could be made by the contingent of instruments aboard SOHO were shown.

  12. SETI science working group report (United States)

    Drake, F.; Wolfe, J. H.; Seeger, C. L.


    This report covers the initial activities and deliberations of a continuing working group asked to assist the SETI Program Office at NASA. Seven chapters present the group's consensus on objectives, strategies, and plans for instrumental R&D and for a microwave search for extraterrestrial in intelligence (SETI) projected for the end of this decade. Thirteen appendixes reflect the views of their individual authors. Included are discussions of the 8-million-channel spectrum analyzer architecture and the proof-of-concept device under development; signal detection, recognition, and identification on-line in the presence of noise and radio interference; the 1-10 GHz sky survey and the 1-3 GHz targeted search envisaged; and the mutual interests of SETI and radio astronomy. The report ends with a selective, annotated SETI reading list of pro and contra SETI publications.

  13. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  14. Flechsig and Freud: late 19th-century neurology and the emergence of psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Keegan, Eduardo


    The author analyzes the potential influences of Paul Flechsig's work on early Freudian theory, particularly on Sigmund Freud's 1966b/1895 Project for a Scientific Psychology. Gehirn und Seele, a discourse authored by Flechsig in 1894, is the focus of this analysis. The author believes that the links between the intellectual production of both German-speaking neurologists have been underrated to this day and attempts to establish that the early Freudian approach to many key issues in the history of psychoanalysis--dreams, unconscious processing, and drives, to name a few--was not unique but shared with some distinguished colleagues in neuropathology and psychiatry. Thus, he attempts to shed additional light on the transition from state-of-art neurology in the last decade of the 19th century to the creation of psychoanalysis as a discipline on its own.

  15. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology. (United States)

    Walusinski, O


    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The morbidification of love between women by 19th-century sexologists. (United States)

    Faderman, L


    Twentieth-century attitudes toward love between women are very different from those of previous centuries. Fiction and personal correspondence that antedate the work of Krafft-Ebing and Havelock Ellis in the late 19th century indicate that a much broader spectrum of expression of love and affection between women had been acceptable than that to which we have become accustomed. Medical science and psychology for the past 100 years have morbidified intense love relationships between women by inventing a syndrome of ills that supposedly accompany such affection, and by denying the validity or seriousness of the affection where such ills are clearly not present. The result has been that (until the lesbian-feminist movement) 20th-century women were largely forced to deny their love for other women unless they were willing to acknowledge their concomitant morbidity.

  17. Contemporary criticism on the representation of female travellers of the Ottoman harem in the 19th century: A review


    Aimillia Mohd Ramli


    A common problem that needs addressing in the study of narratives concerning the Orient and the Ottoman harem in the 19th century, through an emphasis on gender, is the popular belief amongst certain groups in post-colonial and feminist scholarships that writings by women on these subjects are the alternative to hegemonic imperial discourse. Post-colonial and feminist critics whose research deals with women travel writers to the Middle East and North Africa—Sara Mills, Reina Lewis, Billie Me...

  18. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail:; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)


    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  19. JP Morgan Hambrecht & Quist - 19th Annual Healthcare Conference. Gilead Sciences, American Home Products and Curis. (United States)

    Hookes, J


    The 19th Annual JP Morgan H and Q Healthcare Conference provided yet another fascinating opportunity to meet with, and hear presentations by, a number of representatives of wellestablished Big Pharma companies, biotech start-up companies and the healthcare service and healthcare '' industries. The conference was hosted by JP Morgan H and Q, part of the newly formed JP Morgan - the wholesale banking group of JP Morgan Chase and Co - which led-managed 13 IPOs in the healthcare industry in 2000. This year, the conference was attended by over 5000 delegates, and in excess of 270 company presentations in six parallel sessions were made to members of the healthcare industries, the media and the investment community.

  20. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia


    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  1. [Transformations of the relationships between medicine and physical activities from the beginning of the 19th C. to the beginning of the 20th C. in France]. (United States)

    Defrance, Jacques; Brier, Pascal; El Boujjoufi, Taieb


    In order to understand the modes of cooperation that are practically working between two groups with uneven social status, physicians and physical educators, since the beginning of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century, we consider the results of researches that have been realized since three decennials. The evolution of those relationships accomplishes itself while the definition of respective roles (physician hygienist, physical educator with sanitary conception) and the reciprocal adjustment of specialities are becoming more precise. The process is tight, and the adaptations of the respective tasks are continuously retranslated in terms of statuary dimensions and protection of respective jurisdictions of both groups in the process of professionalization.

  2. Russian and Foreign Authors of the late 18th – 19th Centuries on the North-West and Central Caucasus (the Historiographical and Historical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov


    Full Text Available This article contains a historiographical survey of the collections of national and foreign authors of the late 18th–19th centuries related the peoples of the North-West and Central Caucasus, as well as events that were taking place in the region. The authors note that the value of works examined in the article varies in terms of historiography. That said, alongside quite scientific works whose authors analyze prior publications starting from antiquity, as well as documentary materials of the 19th century, the major part of the collections is of an exclusively descriptive nature, containing collectively vast and diverse information of mainly an ethnographic nature.

  3. Social Maturation: Work Group Proceedings. (United States)

    Resnick, Michael D.; And Others


    Each of the seven factors that affect adolescent social development is presented together with a description of potentially important research, service, and policy initiatives within each topic area. The factors are self-esteem, peer group, parenting, family, services, enforced dependency, and positive sexual socialization. (CT)

  4. Group Work with Former Cultists. (United States)

    Goldberg, Lorna; Goldberg, William


    Describes the purposes and structure of a therapeutic group for former members of religious cults. Delineates three stages of the "Post Mind Control" syndrome: initial postdeprograming, reemergence, and integration. Suggests interventive techniques appropriate to each of these stages. (Author/RC)

  5. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W Udasmoro


    ...? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  6. Health Transportation Working Group 2016 Annual Report (United States)


    The Health in Transportation Working Group 2016 Annual Report provides an overview of the Working Groups activities and accomplishments in 2016, summarizes other USDOT health-related accomplishments, and documents its progress toward the recommend...


    CERN Document Server


    Status of Earned Value Management (EVM) In his capacity as EVM Project Leader, J. Ferguson, Leader of AS Division, announced that significant progress had been made since his last status report to the Management Board the previous month and that the measures adopted in early January to accelerate completion of the current EVM data collection phase had now been applied to 16 of the 23 groups concerned. As a result, a large fraction of the materials and industrial services resources for the LHC machine had now been incorporated in the system for those groups, while the data for the final seven groups should be collected in the coming weeks in accordance with the ambitious but feasible schedule announced at the Board's January meeting. He was therefore cautiously optimistic that the end-of-March/early April deadline for completing that stage of the EVM preparations would be met. The period from April to June would then see intensive efforts to fine-tune the data and ensure consistent reporting across all the gro...

  8. Group Work and Multicultural Management Education (United States)

    Kelly, Phil


    Globalization changes the composition of the adult classroom, increasing diversity and bringing new associated teaching and learning problems; problems with group work. Educators may have goals to teach transferable multicultural group working skills yet learners find such work more challenging, showing a propensity to form groups containing…

  9. The ascent of Mary Somerville in 19th century society

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Elisabetta


    This biography traces the life and work of Mary Fairfax Somerville, whose extraordinary mathematical talent only came to light through fortuitous circumstances. Barely taught to read and write as a child, all the science she learned and mastered was self taught. In this delightful narrative the author takes up the challenge of discovering how Somerville came to be one of the most outstanding British women scientists and, furthermore, a popular writer. Particular attention is paid to the gender aspects of Somerville's success in what was, to put it mildly, a predominantly male domain.

  10. [Development of the modern biological analogy concept in the 19th century]. (United States)

    Bäumer, A


    At the beginning of the 19th century the term analogy was still synonymous with similarity, as for example in the case of Georges Cuvier. Exact criteria for determining analogy are first found in the work of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Thereupon the English scientists Sharp MacLeay, William Swainson, John Obadiah Westwood and Edwin Strickland distinguished between analogy as correspondence between certain parts of the organism, i. e. only superficial resemblance, and affinity as an essential similarity in some remarkable aspects of form. Relying on these theories Richard Owen developed his theory of analogy ("a part which has the same function as another") and homology ("the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function"). The criteria to distinguish between these two terms had to be modified and specified when the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin. In the work of Thomas Henry Huxley, Ernst Haeckel and Carl Gegenbaur the modern biological term of analogy was developed, but at the same time it lost much of its importance and homology as a criterion for natural affinity became the central objective of further biological research.

  11. [Study on the 19(th) century puerperal fever epidemic: Semmelweis-an often neglected pioneer epidemiologist]. (United States)

    Feng, Q; Tang, J L


    Puerperal fever was a major cause of maternal death in Europe in the 19(th) century. Many efforts were made to investigate the cause of the epidemic but failed. In 1846, Semmelweis, a young obstetrician in Vienna General Hospital, started his historical investigation. His breakthrough was largely due to his doctor friend's accidental injury during autopsy and his consequential death. Semmelweis found the pathological findings in his friend's post mortem examination were very similar to puerperal fever. He postulated his friend's death might be caused by "cadaverous particles" from cadavers and further inferred that puerperal fever might also be caused by the cadaverous particles that doctors brought to the delivering women after autopsy classes. He advocated hand-washing with chlorinated lime solution to wash off those particles, which rapidly reduced the maternal mortality in his department by 80% (from 10.65% to 1.98%). However, what his unprecedented work brought him was only denial, mockery and career setback rather than support, honor and compliments. Under substantial psychological pressure, he had a mental breakdown and died in a psychiatry asylum at the age of 47. He was a pioneer in epidemiological investigations before John Snow and in aseptic techniques before Joseph Lister, but his work is still often neglected.

  12. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces (United States)

    Miyazaki, T.; Inoue, J.


    The 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces (ICMFS 2006) was held on 14-18 August 2006 at the Sendai International Center in Sendai, Japan. The purpose of the Colloquium was to bring together scientists working on magnetic thin films and surfaces and to provide an opportunity for presentation and discussion of recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field. 285 scientists from 17 countries (Japan: 167, overseas: 118) participated in the Colloquium, as well as 6 family members. There were 56 oral and 178 poster presentations. The oral presentations consisted of 3 plenary talks, 23 invited talks and 30 contributed talks. The number of presentations by scientific category are as follows: Spin dependent transport: 43 Magnetic storage/memory: 9 Magnetization reversal and fast dynamics: 15 Spin injection and spin transfer torque: 26 Magnetic thin films and multilayers: 71 High spin polarization materials: 17 Hard and soft magnetic materials: 3 Magneto-optics: 5 Characterization techniques for thin films and surfaces: 7 Exchange coupling: 13 Micro- and nanopatterned magnetic structures: 18 Micromagnetic modelling: 2 One of the characteristics of the present Colloquium is an increase in the number of presentations in the field of spin-electronics, as seen above. This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics includes several important papers in this rapidly developing field. We believe that, in the future, the field of magnetic materials will maintain its popularity and, on top of that, other fields such as spintronics materials, materials related to life sciences and medicine and also materials related to the environment will be investigated further. The ICMFS Conference started in London in 1964, and is now one of the world-wide conferences on magnetism. The Colloquium has been held in Japan four times now: the previous ones being the 5th ICMFS in the Mount Fuji area, the 10th at Yokohama and the 17th at Kyoto, which was

  13. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries (United States)

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna


    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  14. Russian Foreign Clergy in the 19th Century in Western Europe: General Tendencies and Peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogorian Kristina


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to general tendencies and peculiarities of а special group of Russian clergy, located at the embassies in the countries of Western Europe. Formed in the Synodal period, this category of clergy was under a double jurisdiction. It obeyed both spiritual and secular authorities, represented by The Holy Synod and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Therefore, the status of the foreign clergy was infl uenced by many factors: religion, culture, politics, and diplomacy. The specifics of a particular region played important role. International relations of Russia and the country where service was held had influence on the foreign clergy. An Orthodox priest, as well as the diplomatic corps, was the representative of his country abroad; his duties often extended beyond Church life, and sometimes even acquired diplomatic skills. In addition, in all European countries, the position of the embassy priests was much different from the clergy in the country. Special attention in the article is paid to education, official and economic status, and other characteristics of the embassy clergy as a group. The evolution of this category took place during the 19th century. Church building was the main concern of the embassy clergy in the second half of the century, when Orthodox churches were built in different parts of Europe, to acquaint the West with Russian culture and Eastern branches of Christianity.

  15. 19th International School of Biophysics "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M; Bioelectrochemistry III : Charge Separation across Biomembranes


    This book contains aseries of review papers related to the lectures given at the Third Course on Bioelectrochemistry held at Erice in November 1988, in the framework of the International School of Biophysics. The topics covered by this course, "Charge Separation Across Biomembranes, " deal with the electrochemical aspects of some basic phenomena in biological systems, such as transport of ions, ATP synthesis, formation and maintenance of ionic and protonic gradients. In the first part of the course some preliminary lectures introduce the students to the most basic phenomena and technical aspects of membrane bioelectrochemistry. The remaining part of the course is devoted to the description of a selected group of membrane-enzyme systems, capable of promoting, or exploiting, the processes of separation of electrically charged entities (electrons or ions) across the membrane barrier. These systems are systematically discussed both from a structural and functional point of view. The effort of the many dis...

  16. How Much "Group" Is There in Online Group Work? (United States)

    Lowes, Susan


    The ability to work in groups across time and space has become a frequent requirement for the workplace and is increasingly common in higher education, but there is a surprising lack of research on how online groups work. This research applies analytic approaches used in studies of face-to-face classroom "talk" to multiple groups in two…

  17. How to compare the faces of the Earth? Walachia in mid-19th century and nowadays (United States)

    Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt; Timár, Gábor; Imecs, Zoltán


    digital methods, on the other hand presents the faces of the Earth in Walachia -comparing details of the geo-referenced map from 19th century with maps of nowadays. This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2011-3-0125.

  18. D Representation of the 19TH Century Balkan Architecture Using Scaled Museum-Maquette and Photogrammetry Methods (United States)

    Georgiou, E.; Karachaliou, E.; Stylianidis, E.


    Characteristic example of the Balkan architecture of the 19th century, consists the "Tower house" which is found in the region of Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece. Nowadays, the only information about these heritage buildings could be abstracted by the architectural designs on hand and the model - Tower that is being displayed in the Folklore Museum of the Municipality of Kozani, Greece, as a maquette. The current work generates a scaled 3D digital model of the "Tower house", by using photogrammetry techniques applied on the model-maquette that is being displayed in the Museum exhibits.

  19. Highlights from ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2011: the 19th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems: (Chicago, Illinois - November 1 - 4, 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian S.; Ofek, Eyal; Tanin, Egemen


    ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2011 was the 19th gathering of the premier event on spatial information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is also the fourth year that the conference was held under the auspices of ACM's most recent special interest group, SIGSPATIAL. Since its start in 1993, the con...

  20. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rabiega


    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  1. Long run trends in the heights of European men, 19th-20th centuries. (United States)

    Hatton, Timothy J; Bray, Bernice E


    This paper presents 5-yearly data on the height of young adult men in 15 Western European countries for birth cohorts from the middle of the 19th to the end of the 20th century. The results indicate that from the 1870s to the 1970s average height increased by around 11 cm, or more than 1cm per decade. The main finding is that for the northern and middle European groups of countries the gains in height were most rapid in the period 1911-15 to 1951-55, a period that embraced two World Wars and the Great Depression but also witnessed advances in public health and hygiene. For the southern countries growth was fastest in the period 1951-55 to 1976-80. These findings suggest that advances in height were determined not only by income and living standards but also by a variety of other socioeconomic trends. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EDITORIAL: The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) (United States)

    Schnakenberg, Uwe


    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 08), which took place at the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, from 28-30 September, 2008. The workshop is a well recognized and established European event in the field of micro system technology using thin-film technologies for creating micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. The first MME Workshop was held 1989 in Enschede (The Netherlands) and continued 1990 in Berlin (Germany), 1992 in Leuven (Belgium), and then was held annually in Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Pisa (Italy), Copenhagen (Denmark), Barcelona (Spain), Southampton (UK), Ulvik in Hardanger (Norway), Gif-sur-Yvette (France), Uppsala (Sweden), Cork (Ireland), Sinaia (Romania), Delft (The Netherlands), Leuven (Belgium), Göteborg (Sweden), Southampton (UK), and in Guimarães (Portugal). The two day workshop was attended by 180 delegates from 26 countries all over Europe and from Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States of America. A total of 97 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 22 high-quality papers from MME 2008 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing. I am eternally grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to the members of the Programme Committee of MME 2008, Dr Reinoud Wolffenbuttel, Professor José Higino Correia, and Dr Patrick Pons for pre-selection of the papers as well as to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers. My thanks also go to Dr Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process and to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I

  3. Faculty Perceptions of Online Group Work (United States)

    Morgan, Kari; Williams, Karen C.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Wade, Christine E.


    Focus group interviews with university instructors (tenured, tenure-track, and adjunct) were conducted to explore perceptions of online group work. Results indicated that instructors believe that group work is an essential tool for students' future lives and, therefore, a key component of the online classroom. They believe that professional…

  4. Making groups work in the classroom. (United States)

    Henry, Patricia R


    Although often part of course requirements, group work can present problems for students and faculty and is not always a positive learning experience. Lack of member motivation to work in a group situation, generational differences between members, and scheduling problems can impact the learning that takes place during a group project. The author discusses several interventions to ameliorate these problems.

  5. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus


    using literary terminology. Although all the late 19th century Estonian childhood stories share similar techniques (such as the perspective of the first-person or personal narrative, the split of the storyteller into the first-person child and the first-person adult, story elements (such as the first memory of a room flooded by golden sunlight, and recurrent motifs (such as child’s loneliness and close relation to nature, educational strivings, each story is written in a different way. The works written by professional writers are characterised by lively dialogue, individualised descriptions of the scenery, symbols, metaphors and other stylistic devices, whereas the texts written by the so-called ordinary intellectuals are not as rich in imagery and style. It is quite natural that the childhood memories written by professional writers have better withstood the test of time. The present study is the first to have a more comprehensive view of childhood as reflected in autobiographical writing in Estonia in the 19th century and therefore is somewhat fragmented; I attempt to make a list of possible research ideas and offer some methods for analysis that may be productive in the future. The broadening of the research perspective in the temporary, linguistic and spatial sense may offer more scope; a large number of childhood stories have been published in the 20th and the 21st century in Estonia and the comparison of stories telling us about Estonian children’s childhoods with those recounting German or Russian children’s experiences may offer new insights, as these ethnic groups have occupied one and the same geographical space, although there are significant differences. Another topic for research would be the study of autobiographical texts against the background of the authors’ fictional works.

  6. Tutor roles in collaborative group work


    Boylan, Mark; Smith, Peter


    Collaborative assessed group work can create challenges for both students and tutors. Both the benefits and challenges of assessed group work are discussed with particular reference to the context of teacher education. The relevance of action research, the concept of living theory and the ethical nature of tutor practice in relation to group work are considered. The concept of 'role' is used to analyse aspects of tutor practice based on outcomes from an extended process of action research. A ...

  7. Perspectives on Group Work In Distance Learning


    HAUSSTÄTTER, Rune Sarromaa; NORDKVELLE, Yngve Troye


    Current distance education benefits greatly from educational software that makes group work possible for students who are separated in time and space. However, some students prefer distance education because they can work on their own. This paper explores how students react to expectations on behalf of the course provider to do their assignments in collaborative groups. They are seemingly both positively surprised by the challenges that group work offer, and they are less positive to the down...

  8. Group work management in the classroom


    Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Hammar Chiriac, Eva


    This study aims to provide a better understanding of teachers’ managing roles when using group work in the classroom. Building on Granström’s (2007) two concepts of leadership and teachership, a more specific aim is to investigate teachers’ managing roles when using group work and how teachers’ presumptions affect the way in which they manage the pedagogical mode. The results show that teachers’ managing roles influence teachers’ willingness to use group work. Teachers may be unwilling to use...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Sarromaa HAUSSTÄTTER


    Full Text Available Current distance education benefits greatly from educational software that makes group work possible for students who are separated in time and space. However, some students prefer distance education because they can work on their own. This paper explores how students react to expectations on behalf of the course provider to do their assignments in collaborative groups. They are seemingly both positively surprised by the challenges that group work offer, and they are less positive to the downsides of group work. The paper discusses both sides of the experiences and suggests why this might be a paradox to live with.

  10. Group work in the modern language class


    Gailly, Françoise


    Before 1980, group work was a rare feature in the classroom. More recently, it has become recognised as a valuable method of teaching and is now widely used. In Modern Language teaching, group work is so widely accepted that most recent methodology or course books provide plenty of ideas of tasks for groups work. It constitutes an essential part of classroom management. Part One of the project is a review of the relevant literature. I define group work and look at its various characteristics....

  11. [Considerations concerning medical knowledge inherited in Mexico from 19th century: the diabetes mellitus case]. (United States)

    García de Alba-García, Javier Eduardo; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana Leticia; Milke-Najar, María Eugenia; Alonso-Reynoso, Carlos; García de Alba-Verduzco, Javier Eugenio


    In Mexico, as in the entire Western world, during the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century, medical knowledge developed in a remarkable way and the case of diabetes mellitus was not the exception. This situation, which arose on the basis of the antique paradigm, and which in turn was overthrown by the positivism as the emergent paradigm (with its clinical and anatomical, as well as physiopathological and etiopathological viewpoints), was reflected during the 19th the century through its actors and the communications that opened the access of Mexican medicine to the modernity.

  12. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar. (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios


    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  13. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas


    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  14. Engaging and Informing Students through Group Work (United States)

    Williams, Stella


    The aim of this action research was to explore the benefits of group work as a tool for engaging students with introductory material. It was the researcher's expectation that group work, would provide a means of reducing cognitive load (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark, 2006) and encouraging on task behaviour (Wentzel & Watkins, 2002). This would result…

  15. Working group report: Collider and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... The activities of the working group took place under two broad subgroups: Collider Physics subgroup and Flavour Physics subgroup. Reports on some of the projects undertaken are included. Also, some of the leading discussions organized by the working group are summarized.

  16. Group Work Management in the Classroom (United States)

    Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Hammar Chiriac, Eva


    This study aims to provide a better understanding of teachers' managing roles when using group work in the classroom. Building on Granström's 2 concepts of leadership and teachership, a more specific aim is to investigate teachers' managing roles when using group work and how teachers' presumptions affect the way in which they manage the…

  17. Predicting Satisfaction with Group Work Assignments (United States)

    Burdett, Jane; Hastie, Brianne


    Universities are increasingly using group based assessment tasks; however, as with work-place teams, such tasks often elicit mixed feelings from participants. This study investigated factors that may predict student satisfaction with group work at university. Final-year business students completed a questionnaire addressing experiences of group…

  18. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures (United States)

    Gipson, John


    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  19. Collaborative essay testing: group work that counts. (United States)

    Gallagher, Peggy A


    Because much of a nurse's work is accomplished through working in groups, nursing students need an understanding of group process as well as opportunities to problem-solve in groups. Despite an emphasis on group activities as critical for classroom learning, there is a lack of evidence in the nursing literature that describes collaborative essay testing as a teaching strategy. In this class, nursing students worked together in small groups to answer examination questions before submitting a common set of answers. In a follow-up survey, students reported that collaborative testing was a positive experience (e.g., promoting critical thinking, confidence in knowledge, and teamwork). Faculty were excited by the lively dialog heard during the testing in what appeared to be an atmosphere of teamwork. Future efforts could include providing nursing students with direct instruction on group process and more opportunities to work and test collaboratively.

  20. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5–16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III ...

  1. Summary of the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angioni, C.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, Volker


    This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force workshop, held in Culham, UK, during 8-11 September 2014. The workshop was organized under six topics: momentum transport, energetic particles, challenges in modelling transport i...

  2. Proceedings: 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Raquel Gonçalves; Xiping Wang


    The 19th International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium was hosted by the University of Campinas, College of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), and the Brazilian Association of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (ABENDI) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on September 22–25, 2015. This Symposium was a forum for those involved in nondestructive...

  3. Franciszek Neugebauer's Ichnograms as a Pioneering Diagnostic Method in Orthopedics in the 19th Century. (United States)

    Nowakowska-Zamachowska, Monika


    The aim of this paper is to present an original orthopedic diagnostic method from the late 19th century developed by Franciszek Neugebauer, a distinguished Polish physician. His technique of detecting skeletal abnormalities was an excellent coping method in the time before the first diagnostic imaging method - x-ray imaging - had been invented.

  4. Standard of Living Effects Due to Infrastructure Improvements in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter D.; Elhorst, J. Paul; Tassenaar, P. G.

    We use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze the relationship between the biological standard of living and the development of the transport network in 90 municipalities located in the rural provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, the Netherlands, in the historical context of the 19th century.

  5. Natural history in India during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 38; Issue 2. Natural history in India during the 18th and 19th centuries. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 201-224. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  6. Provincializing the Dutch State: South Holland in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randeraad, Nico; Couperus, Stefan; Kaal, Harm; van Trigt, Paul


    In contrast to the image of the Netherlands as a solid state since the early modern period, this article argues that Dutch statehood was the product of a hard-won process that required a good part of the 19th century to reach any sort of administrative consolidation. We look at state building from a

  7. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction (United States)

    Gatti, Lauren


    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  8. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape]. (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  9. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.


    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  10. New additional material of meteor showers during 9th -19th centuries in the Islamic history

    CERN Document Server

    Basurah, Hassan M


    This article presents twelve records of meteor showers in Arabic chronicles covering period from the 9th to the 19th century. The observations were in Egypt, Morocco, Syria and Yemen. These new addition historical records are considered to be important events which indicate a serious current interest in astronomy.

  11. Translation and modernisation: The case of Iran during the 19th ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the social function of translation. It studies how translation contributed to the modernisation of Iran during the 19th century. In doing so, it relies on Niklas Luhmann's theory of society. The theory conceives of modernity as a stage of societal evolution in which the world society is differentiated ...

  12. Report of the Task Force on the Incident of 19th September 2008 at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bajko, M; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Claudet, S; Cruikshank, P; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Fessia, P; Garion, C; Jimenez, JM; Kirby, G; Lebrun, Ph; Le Naour, S; Mess, K-H; Modena, M; Montabonnet, V; Nunes, R; Parma, V; Perin, A; de Rijk, G; Rijllart, A; Rossi, L; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Strubin, P; Tavian, L; Thiesen, H; Tock, J; Todesco, E; Veness, R; Verweij, A; Walckiers, L; Van Weelderen, R; Wolf, R; Fehér, S; Flora, R; Koratzinos, M; Limon, P; Strait, J


    This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the AT department Task Force established to investigate the 19th September 2008 incident which occurred in sector 3-4 of the LHC. It includes a number of annexes where specific analyses are detailed.


    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda


    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  14. [Influence of pharmaceutical law on the formation of the monopoly of pharmacists in Kaunas province in the 19th century]. (United States)

    Gudiene, Vilma; Lignugariene, Asta; Minevicius, Rolandas


    The aim of this work is to estimate the influence of pharmaceutical law on the development of pharmacy in Kaunas province in the 19th century. In czarist Russia of the 19th century (which covered the majority of Lithuania) the trade of medicines was regulated severely. A statute of pharmacy issued in 1836 claimed that whenever giving a permission to establish a new pharmacy, the agreement of the owners of the nearest pharmacies should have been got beforehand. In such a way the law gave an indirect right for pharmacists to influence the establishment of new pharmacies. It also became an obstacle for a natural formation of the network of pharmacies and, thus, stimulated a creation of the monopoly of pharmacists. After the proclamation of the statute, i. e. from 1836 till 1840, only two new pharmacies were opened in Kaunas province, and later, during a thirteen-year period, (1841-1853) not a single pharmacy was founded there. Pharmacists, due to the avoidance of competition and fear to lose the monopoly of the trade of medicines in a region, tried to prevent other people from the establishment of pharmacies. They used to establish pharmacies in neighbouring towns themselves, to create the branches of their pharmacies or the networks of pharmacies of their family. In fact, the unfounded decrees of the government institutions of czarist Russia ampered the formation of a sufficient network of pharmacies and the development of the care of public health in the provinces of czarist Russia.

  15. Translation from the Classical Languages in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hriberšek


    Full Text Available In addition to affecting the Slovene education system, the Austrian denationalising policy in the second half of the 19th century had a direct impact on translation. Most of the already scarce Slovene philologists were appointed to posts outside the Slovene national territory. The conditions only began to improve in the 1860s, with the translation activity taken up by the first students of the newly established philology courses at the University of Vienna (Ladislav Hrovat, Matija Valjavec, etc.. More often than not, however, the translators were not philologists. The first longer classical texts published in Slovene were individual books of the Homeric epics, Xenophon’s Memorabilia, Plato’s dialogues Apology and Crito, Virgil's Georgics, and Sophocles' Ajax (the complete Bible, of course, had been translated much earlier, but it holds a special place in the history of translation. The translations published as books represent the first Slovene book-format editions of the ancient classics, but most appeared in magazines and newspapers . Many translations met with the same fate as a number of contemporary Slovene classical-language textbooks: they remained in manuscript because of insufficient funds (the publishers were unwilling to run the risk of such enterprises, for fear that their investment would not pay, and also because of the national-awakening emphasis on Slovene, which was accompanied by a preference for translating from other modern languages, particularly Slavic ones. A noteworthy example of these unpublished translations is Caesar’s De Bello Gallico as prepared by the Franciscan Ladislav Hrovat. From the beginnings to the present, Slovene translations of the Greek and Latin classics have displayed a marked predominance of poetry, with prose works remaining in the minority.

  16. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century]. (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter


    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  17. [Leadership in nursing working groups. Perceptions]. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Ana; Muñoz-Lobo, M A Jesús; Marzo-Martínez, Azucena; Sánchez-Vicario, Félix


    To identify leadership behavior as perceived by the heads and members of working groups and to analyze leadership styles by comparing the perceived behaviors. Cross sectional study. heads and members of working groups. 82-item questionnaire with 5 possible responses. Variables analyzed: behaviors of the heads, leadership styles, extra effort, effectiveness and satisfaction. In the investigation group, the style most frequently identified by the group's members was the transformational style and that identified by the head was the transactional style. In the protocol group, the leadership style most frequently identified by both the head and members was the transformational style. In the quality group, no type of leadership was clearly identified. In the three groups, the percentages identifying extra effort, effectiveness and satisfaction were very high. Paying attention to the leadership style of the managers of units or groups is important, since this factor is a strong dynamic element in organizations.

  18. Working group report: Quantum chromodynamics sub-group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    group. Coordinator: ASMITA MUKHERJEE7,∗. Working group members: R Basu1, H Dahiya2, L Gamberg3, R Godbole10,. S Gupta4, M C Kumar5, L Magnea6, P Mathews5, N Mathur4, A Mukherjee7,. P J Mulders8, V Ravindran9 and A Tripathi9.

  19. James Edmund Reeves (1829-1896) and the contentious 19th century battle for medical professionalism in the United States. (United States)

    Harris, John M


    During his life, Dr James E Reeves was a national figure in the US. His work included multiple professional publications, civic and professional leadership positions, and the drafting of a landmark law that confirmed the right of states to regulate the medical profession. While much of Reeves' work supported the successful struggle of 19th century regular physicians to gain control of the practice of medicine, he challenged his colleagues when their self-interests conflicted with his perception of the public good. He was frequently lauded for this work by physicians and the public but he also made professional enemies. Perhaps for this reason, his considerable accomplishments were forgotten after his death. His story reminds us of the difficult contradiction that exists within the regulation of medicine, guarding the public's welfare while protecting the interests of medical professionals. It also reminds us that history may temporarily overlook those who fight our difficult battles. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai


    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were…

  1. Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Working Group (United States)

    Helmer, Richard G.


    Earlier this year, the U. S. Nuclear Data Program was reorganized; it now consists of a Coordinating Committee and three working groups. The Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Working Group consists of the persons at several U. S. laboratories and McMaster University who prepare the evaluated experimental structure and decay data that make up the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), which is maintain at the National Nuclear Data Center. This Working Group is responsible for coordinating the work of the evaluators and approving improvements in the ENSDF format and data evaluation methodology. In this period of decreasing manpower, the Working Group helps set priorities for future work. While working to maintain the quality and currency of ENSDF, there is a need to be responsive to research ares of high current interest, such as data for astrophysics and high-spin levels. In support of astrophysics, the status of the decay data for atoms of interest is being determined and modifications of the ENSDF format will allow inclusion of data for the decay of ionized atoms. A compilation of published and unpublished data for high-spin levels is being created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by D. Radford. The ENSDF evaluators may be able to make use of this compilation to improve the currency of ENSDF in this research area. For the case of super-deformed bands, a special publication of these data already exists and it is up-dated annually.

  2. The tympanostomy tube: an ingenious invention of the mid 19th century. (United States)

    Mudry, Albert


    The introduction of the tympanostomy tube in the treatment of otitis media with effusion in the mid 20th century completely revolutionized its therapy. Nevertheless, it was not a new idea. The aim of this research is to elucidate the origin of prosthetic middle ear ventilation in the mid 19th century. A review of primary sources revealed at least seven different models of tympanostomy tube which were manufactured between 1845 and 1875. These included: Frank's gold tube, Lincke's rubber tube, Bonnafont's silver cannula, Politzer's hard rubber drain, Miot's metallic eyelet, Voltolini's gold ring, and Bonnafont's eyelet. Study of these early innovations shows that all of the technical and surgical principles of the tympanostomy tube were known in the mid 19th century. Widespread introduction into otological practice did not occur until the mid 20th century invention of the operating microscope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Historiography of mathematics in the 19th and 20th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Martina; Sørensen, Henrik


    This book addresses the historiography of mathematics as it was practiced during the 19th and 20th centuries by paying special attention to the cultural contexts in which the history of mathematics was written. In the 19th century, the history of mathematics was recorded by a diverse range of people trained in various fields and driven by different motivations and aims. These backgrounds often shaped not only their writing on the history of mathematics, but, in some instances, were also influential in their subsequent reception. During the period from roughly 1880-1940, mathematics modernized in important ways, with regard to its content, its conditions for cultivation, and its identity; and the writing of the history of mathematics played into the last part in particular. Parallel to the modernization of mathematics, the history of mathematics gradually evolved into a field of research with its own journals, societies and academic positions. Reflecting both a new professional identity and changes in its prim...

  4. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century]. (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian


    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  5. Position of woman according to 19th century Montenegrin marital law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša


    Full Text Available Legal position of woman in 19th century Montenegrin marital law is examined in this paper. Provisions on entering into marriage, woman's marital infidelity, legal separation, dissolution of marriage and its legal effects as well as widow's property rights are scrutinized and critically analyzed. The author also indicates to rules of customary law regarding legal status of a married woman. Married woman had restricted legal capacity, as well as restricted property rights and no rights of succession. However, gender inequality common in patriarchal society such as Montenegrin in 19th century is particularly accentuated in case of marital infidelity. Only woman's adultery is punishable and regarded as a serious crime. Beside marital infidelity, lower position of woman is noticeable in all aspects of married life. Hence, legislative attempts to improve woman's legal status are emphasized in the article.

  6. 19th century earthquakes in Mexico: three cases, three comparative studies


    Molina del Villar, A.


    This paper is a comparative study of the three strongest 19th century earthquakes in Mexico and their effects and impact mainly in Mexico City. The research is based on historical sources and previous investigations already published for two of the seismic events (8 March 1800 and 19 June 1858), with newly retrieved and analysed data for the 7 April 1845 earthquake. Primary and secondary sources include reports on damage to city buildings, streets and neighbourhoods and allowed a detailed ana...

  7. Biographical parallelism in Russian satirical journalism of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Alexander Ivanovich


    Full Text Available When creating a satirical image Russian writers of the 19th century involved reception biographical parallelism. Pushkin, Belinsky, Herzen and other masters of the personal journalism in their satires, pamphlets, parodies disclosed traitors, informers, literary speculators. At the same time facts from the biographies of real people, subjected to reproof, were set out on a material of other biographies, often unreal characters. Thereby it was achieved a satirical effect and a way to avoid clashes with censorship.

  8. The Caucasian War of the 19th century:civilizational conflict and its functional specifics


    Pashchenko, Irina; Urushadze, Amiran


    The authors rely on the civilizational approach and the theory of positive-functional conflict to discuss the nature and specific features of the Caucasian War. They supply new arguments to substantiate the civilizational nature of the Caucasian War of the 19th century. With this aim in view, they identify and analyze its functional repercussions: the emergence and development of cultural bilingualism; the transformations in imperial policy; and the appearance of the Caucasian theme in Russia...

  9. Some Phases of University Extension in Late 19th Century America


    小池, 源吾


    This paper aims to examine the beginnings of the university extension movement in America and to place it in its proper setting in the history of university adult education. Inquiring into the way of how English university extension was accepted by American universities in the late 19th Century, the university extension movement in the 1890's was woven from three threads which run lengthwise. The first of them began when Herbert B. Adams appeared at the convention of the American Library ...

  10. Business, Economic Nationalism and Finnish Foreign Trade during the 19th and 20th centuries


    Jensen-Eriksen, Niklas


    In this article we look at a country, Finland, where economic nationalism had a major influence on government policy and on the development of business enterprises from the mid-19th century to the end of the millennium. During this time period, the Finns managed to combine export-oriented economic strategy with exceptionally nationalistic economic policies, even though they could not mould international trade regimes in a way that was beneficial for them.Yet, nationalism also had negative eff...

  11. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Valerievich Pigin


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a classic of the 16th-century north Russian hagiography — The Life of Alexander Oshevensky, which is preserved as a large number of various copies and editions. The 19th-century materials recently found in the Russian archives enabled researchers to raise a question of the late period in the literary history of this Life. Three editions of this piece of writing created in the 1820’s and 1830’s by Tikhvin Monastery’s Archimandrite Hilarion (Kirillov, Alexander Svirsky Monastery’s Archimandrite Barsanuphius (Morev and Archbishop of Olonets Ignatius (Semyonov are in the focus of this paper. The new editions were written with the intention to be published to glorify St. Alexander across Russia, though respective petitions to the Most Holy Synod were not approved. This article detects sources of these editions and shows the pattern of processing of the initial texts. As the text analysis has shown, the 19th-century editions primarily developed the topoi of book learning and relationships between St. Alexander and his family. The Life used to be revised stylistically and compositionally, as well as supplemented with historical information. The published material is of interest for the research in poetics and topics of the Liеves of the Saints and their perception by the church writers of the 19th century.

  13. [From ancient pot collections to the modern medicines. Menier's pot collection-19th century]. (United States)

    Demouy, Isabelle


    At the beginning of the 19th century in 1816, Jean Antoine Brutus Menier founded the "Maison Centrale de Droguerie Menier". It supplied most of the pharmacies in France with drugs of animal, plant and mineral origin for the pharmaceutical preparations recommended at that time. The company provided training for many chemists and pharmacists, and as such, had a collection of pots containing over seven hundred drugs that is currently held at the head office of the Council of the College of Pharmacists in Paris. After having described the pot collection, set it against the 19th century background which experienced a real revolution within this profession, and after retracing its history, a study was then carried out in order to compare the former uses with the modern uses for each of the drugs. Thanks to this detailed, comparative analysis it is now possible to evaluate the relevance of the therapeutic range of drugs in the first half of the 19th century, before the significant rise in chemistry. The Germinal Law changed the pharmacist's profession, and with the birth of chemistry, the art of the pharmacy was revolutionised. However, the drugs, and particularly those of plant origin, have managed to keep a dominant position in today's pharmaceutical domain and in the French or European Pharmacopoeia.

  14. Far-field environment working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearcy, E.C. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Cady, R.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.

  15. The biological standard of living and mortality in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century. (United States)

    Coppola, Michela


    The biological standard of living in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century is analyzed using newly collected data on the height of recruits in the army of the Papal States. The results reveal a decline in height for the cohorts born under French rule (1796-1815). Although this trend was common to many parts of Europe, the estimated magnitude of the decline suggests a worsening of the biological standard of living of the working classes in the Papal States even relative to that of other countries. Despite the differences in the economic systems within the Papal States, no significant geographical variation in height has been found: even the most dynamic and advanced regions experienced a dramatic height decline. Mortality also increased during the period under consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. From facial expressions to bodily gestures: Passions, photography and movement in French 19th-century sciences. (United States)

    Pichel, Beatriz


    This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19 th century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study.

  17. 19th Biannual Symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR)

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Wagner, Claus; Breitsamter, Christian


    This book presents contributions to the 19th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB) and the German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics (DGLR). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. Special emphasis is given to collaborative research projects conducted by German scientists and engineers from universities, research-establishments and industries. By addressing a number of cutting-edge applications, together with the relevant physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field. Though the book’s primary emphasis is on the aerospace context, it also addresses further important applications, e.g. in ground transportation and energy. .

  18. Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eHammar Chiriac


    Full Text Available Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students’ ability to learn is still lacking. Likewise, the question of why some group work is successful and other work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students’ experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students’ positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students’ explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students’ experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function and organization for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students’ learning, as well as impact their

  19. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century. (United States)

    Tamborini, Marco


    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century.

  20. The Genus Heliopsis: Development of Varieties and Their Use in the European Gardens After the Mid 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Uher


    Full Text Available This review summarizes data on the development of varieties in historic gardens of the once very popular Ox-eyes (Heliopsis Pers., Asteraceae: Zinniinae after the mid 19th century, with regard to the development of varietal assortments in the periods corresponding to the most important architectural styles and to their fluctuating popularity. Old varietal assortments, usually derived from large-flowered H. helianthoides var. scabra, now rapidly disappear and the oldest varieties, including the once famous Lemoine’s selections, are virtually inaccessible. Until recently the most propagated Götz’s and Förster’s varieties also disappear and are replaced by modern, relatively small-flowered selections delivered from H. helianthoides var. helianthoides or patent protected variegated varieties. Neither of these groups, however, is applicable to the restoration of historic gardens. Tables show data on the origin of about eighty both still cultivated and vanished varieties.

  1. Learning Climate and Work Group Skills in Care Work (United States)

    Westerberg, Kristina; Hauer, Esther


    Purpose: The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the learning climate and work group skills perceived by managers and their subordinates in the municipal elderly care, prior to a development project. The specific research questions were: Are managers' and their subordinates' perceptions of the learning climate related? and Does the…

  2. Proceedings of the 19th ASPA Congress, Cremona, June 7-10, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest Editor: Giacomo Pirlo


    Full Text Available The 19th Congress of the Animal Science and Production Association (ASPA, is held in the capital of one of the main European regions for animal production: Cremona. Despite its Gallic origin (Carra = rock, the name Cremona means big cream in modern Italian, in a clear allusion to milk. In this Congress, 153 oral presentations and 165 posters are presented, for a total of 318 scientific contributions. The Congress sessions with their relative number of papers are listed as follows: Animal breeding and genetics 87, Nutrition and feeding 57, Dairy production 40, Meat production 46, Animal welfare, Health and behaviour 37, Poultry and rabbit production 28 and Aquaculture 23. I would like to point out that 4 main lectures will be presented in the Animal breeding and genetics and Nutrition and feeding sessions (two in each, and that the Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura (Agricultural Research Council, the Agricultural Ministery research agency, which took charge of organizing the Congress, will award a prize for the best work here presented by young researchers. I would thank, first of all, Prof. Paolo Cescon, President of the Congress, for the contribution of all the CRA in organizing this event. I would also thank all the members of the Scientific Committee, dr. Riccardo Aleandri (President, dr. Fabio Abeni, dr. Fabiola Canavesi, dr. Giacinto Della Casa and dr. Marisanna Speroni, and of the Organizing Committee, dr. Giovanni Lo Piparo (President, dr. Stefania Barzaghi, dr. Maurizio Capelletti, dr. Giorgio Giraffa and dr. Luciano Migliorati. A special thanks to the secretary components, Maria Dissegna and Patrizia Re, assisted by Claudia Federici, Francesca Petrera, Miriam Odoardi, Maddalena Carli, Caterina Sanna, Stefania Marruso, Leonardo Boselli, Milena Rosi and Aldo Dal Prà. A special acknowlegment to Giacomo Pirlo, the real driving force organizing the Congress, a tireless and enthusiastic embroiderer of opportunities in scientific and

  3. Kasimov Tsardom in the Tatar Memory of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Trepavlov


    Full Text Available In August 1834, the mullah of the cathedral mosque in the town of Kasimov addressed to parishioners with a solemn speech on the occasion of majority of the successor of a throne. In this speech he made short digression to the history of Kasimov Tsardom focusing on the listing of its rulers with short characteristic of some of them. At that time, there were no professional studies on the Kasimov Tsardom, while it was almost completely ignored in general works on Russian history (of Karamzin, Polevoy, Tatishchev, Shcherbatov. Some Tatar families kept genealogies-shedzheres, but in the absolute majority, they did not record the ancestors and especially events before the 18th century. An indirect evidence about the life in Kasimov during the 15th–18th centuries contained in the eastern books (for the most part, of an apparent religious and didactic content do not give grounds for the claim that there existed a written fixation of the local history events. Tombstone inscriptions were illustrative but hardly informative evidence of the events of the 16th–17th centuries. They provide minimal information about past rulers. The writing of a Kasimov Tatar chronicler Qadyr Ali-bek of the 1830s obviously was not yet known. Researches of local ethnographers (I. Gagin, I. Krasnov could serve as a source of knowledge of the Tatars interested in history. These studies rarely appeared on the pages of periodicals including the journal “Otechestvennye zapiski” (Domestic Notes. Comparison of these publications with the speech of Abdulwahid Smailev discovers their interrelation or the use of a common source. An analysis of the mullah’s speech shows that the fragmentary information from some Russian sources published at that time and the deaf echoes of the long-standing history in Tatar oral and written tradition of the first half of the 19th century developed, in the end, in a fairly consistent picture. In general, this picture was chronologically correct

  4. Instrumental evidence of an unusually strong West African Monsoon in the 19th century (United States)

    Gallego, David; Ordoñez, Paulina; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gomez, Francisco de Paula


    The precipitation in the Sahel -which is mainly controlled by the dynamics of the West African Monsoon-, has been in the spot of the climate community for the last three decades due to the persistence of the drought period that started in the 1970s. Unfortunately, reliable meteorological series in this area are only available since the beginning of the 20th Century, thus limiting our understanding of the significance of this period from a long term perspective. Currently, our knowledge of what happened in times previous to the 20th Century essentially relies in documentary or proxy sources. In this work, we present the first instrumental evidence of a 50 year-long period characterised by an unusually strong West African monsoon in the19th Century. Following the recent advances in the generation of climatic indices based on data from ship's logbooks, we used historical wind observations to compute a new index (the so-called ASWI) for characterising the strength of the West African Monsoon. The ASWI is based in the persistence of the southwesterly winds in the [29°W-17°W;7°N-13°N] area and it has been possible to compute it since 1790 for July and since 1839 for August and September. We show that the ASWI is a reliable measure of the monsoon's strength and the Sahelian rainfall. Our new series clearly shows the well-known drought period starting in the 1970s. During this dry period, the West African Monsoon was particularly weak and interestingly, we found that since then, the correlations with different climatic patterns such as the Pacific and Atlantic "El Niño" changed significantly in relation to those of the previous century. Remarkably, our results also show that the period 1839-1890 was characterised by an unusually strong and persistent monsoon. Notwithstanding, two of the few dry years within this period were concurrent with large volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. This latter result supports the recently suggested relationship between major

  5. Working group report: Neutrino and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Neutrino and astroparticle physics. Raj Gandhi Kamales Kar S Uma Sankar Abhijit Bandyopadhyay Rahul Basu Pijushpani Bhattacharjee Biswajoy Brahmachari Debrupa Chakraborti M Chaudhury J Chaudhury Sandhya Choubey E J Chun Atri Desmukhya Anindya Datta Gautam Dutta Sukanta Dutta ...

  6. Physics: WHEPP-XI working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physics: WHEPP-XI working group report. Amol Dighe Anjan Giri Rupak Dutta Naveen Gaur Tim Gershon Diptimoy Ghosh Xiao-Gang He George W-S Hou Yong-Yeon Keum Bhavik Kodrani Namit Mahajan Joaquim Matias Barilang Mawlong Basudha Misra Rukmani Mohanta Gagan Mohanty Sudhir Vempati. Volume 76 ...

  7. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group at WHEPPXI. We present the discussions carried out during the workshop on selected topics in the above fields. The problems discussed concerned axions, infrared divergences in inflationary theories, supersonic bubbles in a first-order electroweak ...

  8. Neutrino and astroparticle physics: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The contributions made to the Working Group activities on neutrinos and astrophysics are summarized in this article. The topics discussed were inflationary models in Raman–Sundrum scenarios, ultra high energy cosmic rays and neutrino oscillations in 4 flavour and decaying neutrino models ...

  9. Rethinking Multicultural Group Work as Intercultural Learning (United States)

    Reid, Robin; Garson, Kyra


    This article presents our findings of an exploration of students' perceptions of multicultural group work when specific changes in pedagogy and methods of evaluation were made to include the processes students navigate, instead of merely the end product of their collaboration. Shifting demographics and increasing cultural diversity in higher…

  10. and collider physics: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report summarises [1] the activities of the working group on ' and collider physics'. Presented are the results of investigations relating to various scenarios of su- persymmetry breaking and their collider signatures and the consequences of violation of. К-parity for both collider signals as well as various -meson decay ...

  11. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Heavy ion physics. Coordinator: JAN-E ALAM1. Contributors: K Assamagan2, S Chattopadhyay1, R Gavai3, Sourendu Gupta3,. B Layek4, S Mukherjee3, R Ray3, Pradip K Roy5 and A Srivastava4. 1Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India. 2Brookhaven National ...

  12. Working group report: Astroparticle and neutrino physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The working group on astroparticle and neutrino physics at WHEPP-9 covered a wide range of topics. The main topics were neutrino physics at INO, neutrino astronomy and recent constraints on dark energy coming from cosmological observations of large scale structure and CMB anisotropy.

  13. Working group report: Quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The discussions of QGP WG include matter at high density, lattice QCD, charmonium states in QGP, viscous hydrodynamics and jet quenching, colour factor in heavy ion collisions and RHIC results on photons, dileptons and heavy quark. There were two plenary talks and several working group talks with intense discussions ...

  14. Structuring Cooperative Group Work in Classrooms (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.


    Cooperative, small-group learning is widely recognised as a pedagogical practice that promotes learning and socialisation across a range of curriculum areas from primary school through to high school and college. When children work cooperatively together, they learn to give and receive help, share their ideas and listen to other students'…

  15. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures. (United States)

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D


    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  16. Working group 12: managing geotechnical hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billey, Deb; Rizkalla, Moness


    The twelfth working group of the Banff 2011 conference discussed the practical challenges encountered by pipeline integrity managers and technical staff in the management of geotechnical hazards impacting operating pipelines. The presentations helped to understand the range of geohazards practices and technologies available to the industry and how they are deployed, including those used at slopes and water crossings. A general overview of past work on geotechnical hazards from Banff 2009 was provided. First, the challenges and the integration of geohazards into a pipeline integrity management program were examined. This program is based on two phases, investigating the presence of hazards in a baseline assessment and then implementing training, data management and continued monitoring. Next, the possible root causes were investigated in a panel session consisting of operators and regulators. The working group produced agreements by a cross-section of operators, regulators and vendors to establish a WG to develop standards and best practices.

  17. Complex dynamics in supervised work groups (United States)

    Dal Forno, Arianna; Merlone, Ugo


    In supervised work groups many factors concur to determine productivity. Some of them may be economical and some psychological. According to the literature, the heterogeneity in terms of individual capacity seems to be one of the principal causes for chaotic dynamics in a work group. May sorting groups of people with same capacity for effort be a solution? In the organizational psychology literature an important factor is the engagement in the task, while expectations are central in the economics literature. Therefore, we propose a dynamical model which takes into account both engagement in the task and expectations. An important lesson emerges. The intolerance deriving from the exposure to inequity may not be only caused by differences in individual capacities, but also by these factors combined. Consequently, solutions have to be found in this new direction.

  18. [Mortality in Nuremberg in the 19th century (about 1800 to 1913)]. (United States)

    Vasold, Manfred


    Before the middle of the 19th century urban life was hazardous, life expectancy in big cities was shorter than in the countryside, it was half as high as it is today. Cities used to be called "the graves of mankind"; they were unhygienic, since their inhabitants lived under crowded, unhealthy conditions. In German cities infant mortality was extremely high, one out of three new-born children died within its first year. In most big cities more people died in any given year than were born. In 1806, when the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria, it had 25 000 inhabitants, fewer than around the year 1600. In the following decades Nuremberg grew quickly, up to 50000 in 1846 and 100000 in 1881, 330000 in 1910. Its population was living extremely crowded within the medieval city-walls, up to 58 000 (1885) in the old parts of the city, more than twice as many as in 1806. Mortality was bound to increase, as more and more people moved to Nuremberg. Mortality rose from 25.5 per thousand in the 1820's to 29.4 in the 1850's and 32.8 in the 1860's. This increase of population was mainly due to migration from outside, from the countryside. New industries settled down in Nuremberg and provided new jobs, the new factories produced lots of smoke and dangerous dust. The general living conditions of the workers were poor, people were much smaller than nowadays. During the industrialisation labor was backbreaking, working hours were extremely long, and annual working hours were more than twice as long as today. New and better legislation was written by the Northern German Confederation, founded in 1867. Now the magistrate of Nuremberg recognised that something had to be done. In the following years physicians began to collect information as to morbidity and mortality in various parts of Nuremberg. Very many people still died of infectious diseases, esp. of tubercolosis, typhoid fever, diphtheria, pertussis, scarlet fever and other infectious diseases. There

  19. Evolution of Communal Order of tAleksandr E.he Sarepta Missionary Settlement Throughout the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    [Kuryshev Andrey V.


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the social and economic processes that took place in the Sarepta missionary settlement near Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd, Russia in the 19th century. Those processes eventually led to dramatic changes in the life of Sarepta residents and to the loss of status of missionary settlement. Sarepta was founded in 1765 by the Moravians to fulfill missionary activities among the Kalmyks. Initially the life in Sarepta was based on communal principles. The Sarepta Moravians were organized into groups (choirs according to their sex, age, and marital status. The choirs lived by strict rules and were supervised by superiors. The Sarepta economy was organized in a similar way with the single ruling centre and communal distribution of the production. In the course of the 19th century the Sarepta community was gradually disorganized under the pressure of a number of factors. The key factor consisted in the development of capitalism. Facing a severe competition from manufacturers of the region, Sarepta had to respond to the needs of time and introduce private entrepreneurship which was more effective but incompatible to the communal economic system. Another destructing factor was the inflow of non-Moravian population into Sarepta caused by the deficit of workforce in the settlement. Those newcomers were free from the restrictions imposed upon Sarepta Moravians by the community authorities. Alongside with the strengthening of their economic position they made more and more insistent claims on the Moravian communal property. Rights-of-ownership conflicts between Sarepta inhabitants and the Directorate of the Moravian church in Germany eventually led to exclusion of Sarepta from the system of Moravian settlements in 1892.

  20. [Treatment of hysteria in the 19th century--in which way did German psychiatrists view castration?]. (United States)

    Splett, T; Steinberg, H


    Until the late 19 th century treatment of hysteria, this inhomogeneous group of somatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms, hardly differed from the methods of the Greco-Roman epoch. Dietetics, physical applications, and smaller surgical operations made up the standard forms of intervention for this illness which was regarded as belonging to the field of gynecology. Thus, it is not astonishing that oophorectomy (ovariectomy) was included into the therapeutic spectrum for hysteria both in Germany and beyond at the end of the 19 th century. It was above all gynecologist Alfred Hegar (1830 - 1914) who tried to extend the application of this method to nervous illnesses. This therapeutic alternative did not, however, meet with an unanimously positive response among psychiatrists. Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840 - 1902) as a follower of the degeneration theory as well as Paul Flechsig (1847 - 1929) supported it, applying it as the ultima ratio. But since these operations produced no lasting curative impact, functional neurological disorders were regarded more important. From Emil Kraepelin (1856 - 1926) then, psychiatrists began to understand the psychological component of this illness, for which Leipzig neurologist Paul Julius Möbius (1853 - 1907) had made major contributions. Thus, surgical interventions were rejected and conservative methods of treatment were developed further considering psychological aspects. It was Adolf Strümpell (1853 - 1925) who had laid the basis for this postulating a "psychic trauma" as the cause for hysteria as early as in 1884. On the other hand, Möbius had developed a psychotherapeutic concept for the treatment of these disorders long before Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939) came out with his psychocathartic method.

  1. Volcanism/tectonics working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Young, S.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)


    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the impacts of earthquakes, fault rupture, and volcanic eruption on the underground repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The tectonics and seismic history of the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is discussed and geologic analogs to that site are described.

  2. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Va; 98.80.Cq; 64.60.Q-; 95.36.+x; 11.30.Er; 04.65.+e. There were several talks on cosmology and astroparticle physics during WHEPP-XI which raised issues that were subsequently discussed in the working group. The talks were on. Recent developments in dark matter by A Berera, Inflation and CMB by M Bastero-Gil, The.

  3. Working group report: Quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Quark gluon plasma. Coordinators: PRADIP ROY1 and BEDANGADAS MOHANTY2,∗. Contributors: A P Balchandran3, A Bhattacharyya4, A K Chaudhuri2, S Datta5,. S Digal6, F Flueret7, S Gupta5, P Jaikumar6, S H Lee8, N Mathur5, A Mishra9,. A P Mishra10, H Mishra11, B Mohanty2, P Roy1, P S ...

  4. Group Organized Project Work in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten; Jensen, Lars Peter


    Project organized problem based learning is a successful concept for on-campus education at Aalborg University. Recently this "Aalborg concept" has been used in networked distance education as well. This paper describes the experiences from two years of Internet-mediated project work in a new...... Master of Information Technology education. The main conclusions are, that the project work is a strong learning motivator, enhancing peer collaboration, for off-campus students as well. However, the concept cannot be directly transferred to off-campus learning. The main reasons are that the students...... must communicate electronically, and that they are under a fierce time strain, studying part time and typically with a full time job and a family. In this paper, the main problems experienced with group organized project work in distance education are described, and some possible solutions are listed...

  5. The Ghost-Image on Metropolitan Borders—In Terms of Phantom of the Opera and 19th-Century Metropolis Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changnam Lee


    Full Text Available This paper reviews Gaston Leroux’s Phantom of the Opera in the context of the social and cultural changes of the metropolis Paris at the end of the 19th century. The Phantom of the Opera, a success in the literary world and widely proliferated in its musical and film renditions afterward, is considered and interpreted mainly in the literary and artistic tradition. In this paper, however, this work will be considered from an urban sociological perspective, especially from that of Walter Benjamin, who developed the theory of the urban culture, focusing on the dreaming collectives at the end of the 19th century. Leroux’s novel can be regarded as an exemplary social form of the collective dreams of the period expressed in arts, architectures, popular stories and films and other popular arts. Given the premise that the dream images in the novel, so-called kitsch, reflect the fears and desires of the bourgeois middle class that were pathologized in the figure of the ghost, this paper reveals the cultural, social and transnational implications of the Ghost-Image in relation to the rapidly changing borders of the 19th century metropolis.

  6. The networks of prostitution in the Spain of the 19th century. The city of Cartagena in the beginnings of the Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro María EGEA BRUNO


    Full Text Available The regulation of the «old trade» was assumed during the 19th century by the local and provincial authorities. The surveillance on that group spread with particular emphasis during the period of the Restoration. Medical and police control, had become a way to discipline women and to control dangerous classes. The figure of the prostitute was, then, supported by the established power. Cartagena —military port and working nucleus— emerges as a pioneering model in such an intervention, when the profession was regulated in 1874 and it was established the register of prostitutes. The source gives us a whole series of considerations: the development in the family area, structure of the brothels, urban geography of the activity and the Spanish prostitution network connections. Other variables of interest are: marital status and age, while the previous occupation indicates us the majority presence of the popular classes. Anthometric parameters are also included from height to the eyes colour, appearing scars, which indicate violence of genre. The last point includes personal problems, which allows understanding their decisions and their experiences in life. Selling their bodies was the only possible option for many of them to face up misery. Genre and classes agreed in that exploitation.  

  7. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century]. (United States)

    Kim, Seohyung


    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  8. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aversano


    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  9. Extension activities of Kazan Imperial University in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuravleva Evgenia


    Full Text Available Based primarily on archival documents, this article explores the development of additional education in Kazan province, Russia, in the 19th century. Its genesis is found in the varying order of Kazan Imperial University extension activities which take the form of foreign academic and scientific mobility; individual mentoring practice of recognised scholars; masters’ advancement at Pedagogical Institute; creation of the Pedagogical Society in the framework of University Extension Movement. The historiography shows that in the course of its development additional education in Kazan Imperial University largely relied on the international experience and enthusiasm of its teaching staff.



    Vlahakis, George N.; Economou-Amilli, Athina


    Botany in Greece during the 19th Century: A Periphery at the CenterThe science of botany is exemplified as a blueprint of the approach of  scientific knowledge in Greece during the nineteenth century, a period in which the Greek flora is of particular interest to European researchers in the framework of general scientific missions or specific visits. In the time before theGreek Independence (1834) it seems that botanology established itself a pseudoscience and the importan...

  11. Report on the 19th SPACE Conference = 10. mednarodna konferenca SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Gulev


    Full Text Available The 19th international space (European Network for Business Studies and Languages conference that recently took place in Spain provided valuable insight into several areas of interest. Most notably, methods on how to successfully enhance the internationalization of higher learning institutions were shared through mobility and joint degrees programs. Furthermore, the conference provided an academic forum for a highly professional and earnest discourse on pertinent topics of relevance for higher learning institutions, which this year pivoted around intercultural awareness and dialogue. In sum, the space network provides a wealth of academic and administrative advantages that the academic sphere could greatly benefit from.

  12. Financial Development and Sectoral Output Growth in 19th century Germany


    Diekmann, Katharina; Westermann, Frank


    In this paper we re-evaluate the hypothesis that the development of the financial sector was an essential factor behind economic growth in 19th century Germany. We apply a structural VAR framework to a new annual data set from 1870 to 1912 that was initially recorded by Walther Hoffmann (1965). With respect to the literature, the distinguishing characteristic of our analysis is the focus on different sectors in the economy and the interpretation of the findings in the context of a two-sector ...

  13. [History of pediatric anesthesia: from the beginnings to the end of the 19th century]. (United States)

    Sabourdin, N


    The first intuitions and descriptions of anesthesia can be found in the antique civilizations. In the 19th century, the invention of anesthesia took place in Boston, and quickly spread to Europe. In France, regulations and structures were created before the beginning of the 20th century to organize this new profession, for children as well as for adults. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Anorexia nervosa in German medical literature of the 19th century]. (United States)

    Habermas, T; Vandereycken, W; van Deth, R; Meermann, R


    After its first description in 1873, anorexia nervosa seems not to have attracted much attention in countries of German language. Compared to French and English literature, German publications on the subject were rather scarce in the 19th century. This article gives an overview of those writings and an explanation of the lack of interest on the part of the German-speaking physicians. Apparently, to them anorexia nervosa did not appeal as a nosological entity distinct from the popular diagnosis of "nervous dyspepsia".

  15. Risk analysis update of the LHC cryogenic system following the 19th September 2008 incident

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Modlinski, Z; Polinski, J; Tavian, L; Wach, J


    On 19th September 2008, during powering tests of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider, an electrical fault occurred producing an electrical arc and resulting in mechanical and electrical damage, release of helium from the magnet cold mass to the insulation vacuum enclosure and consequently to the tunnel, via the spring-loaded relief discs on the vacuum enclosure. The pressurization of the vacuum space exceeded significantly the allowed design value. Mathematical modeling based on a thermodynamic approach has enabled the revision of the helium discharge system protecting the vacuum enclosure against the over-pressurization in case of a redefined maximum credible incident (MCI) occurrence.

  16. [Private clinics in Nuremberg in the 19th and 20th century]. (United States)

    Vasold, Manfred


    As a consequence of the industrialization German cities grew very rapidly during the 19th century. Nuremberg reached the number of 100 000 in 1881. Although that city had a large Municipality Hospital (since 1845), a number of specialized private hospitals was founded. Julius Cnopf, a doctor from Nuremberg, founded a children's hospital, one of the first children's hospitals in Germany. The Nuremberg Muncipality Hospital had more than 1000 beds before 1914 and many more than 2000 after 1945, for this reason the number of private owned hospitals remained rather small. Nonetheless were these small and highly specialized hospitals quite important for the city population of Nuremberg.

  17. Immigrants from Dubrovnik, Boka Kotorska, and Venetian Albania in Pula (17th-19th century)


    Bertoša, Slaven


    The parish registers of Pula, filed at the State Archives of Pazin, providing the researcher with a comprehensive insight into the process of continual immigration to the area, are a valuable source to a historian investigating the city of Pula and the Istrian region between the 17th and 19th century. At that time, Pula was the most developed South Istrian centre and an important port on the Venetian maritime route to Dalmatia and the Levant. For years immigration had been the only answer to ...

  18. Reports from the Combined Performance Working Groups

    CERN Document Server

    S. Haywood

    The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...

  19. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations. (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard


    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Traffic - Special arrangements for the official ceremony on 19th October

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service


    The official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary will take place on 19th October 2004 in the presence of Member State delegations and observers. Many VIPs are to attend the ceremony, which will be held in the Globe of Science and Innovation and in the adjacent marquee. The arrival and departure of the official delegations and guests will cause some disruption to traffic on and around the Meyrin site: The Route de Meyrin will probably be closed to traffic by the police between 2.00 p.m. and 3.00 p.m. and between 5.00 p.m. and 7.00 p.m. for the arrival and departure of VIPs. Access to the Saint-Genis-Pouilly roundabout will be difficult between 2.00 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., when the new entrance to the Meyrin site will be inaugurated. Use of the following car parks will be prohibited from 16th to 19th October inclusive (Open day and official ceremony; the appropriate road signs will be erected): the car parks located between the two lines on the drawing below (guests will register in a tent set up oppo...

  1. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albini


    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  2. How to create a building typology?: Typological matrix for mapping 19th century synagogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Rudolf


    Full Text Available Based on a research that comprised 500 synagogues, this paper is the first attempt to create a comprehensive building typology of synagogue architecture. This typology is the first that takes into consideration interior arrangement (plan and section, architectural language of the interior, bearing structure, architectural language (decoration of the exterior, exterior mass composition, size and urban context - the relationship of the synagogue building towards the neighboring buildings and towards the urban context in general. This typology has been developed on Ashkenazi synagogues of 19th century Habsburg Empire, but it can be applied to other building types and other territories in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to the onset of modernism in the 1920s and 1930s. The methodology if this research maybe applied particularly well for Orthodox and Protestant churches in Vojvodina, where the state religion has been Catholicism and confessional minorities faced some restrictions. These restrictions and the common architectural context make their religious buildings in typological sense similar.

  3. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasmoro W.


    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  4. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  5. [The evolution of clinical medical books in the 19th century]. (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo


    Fifty clinical medical books written in the late 18th and the 19th centuries were categorized into four alternating types on the basis of the differences in composition and contents. The nosological type in the first period classified diseases into taxa, and dealt symptoms as diseases. The eclectic type in the second period contained both categories of nosological diseases and those of local diseases. The organ system type in the third period focused on the local diseases arranged in a systematic manner. The infection emphasis type put the infectious diseases at the beginning, followed by the local diseases in a systematic manner. The four types of clinical medical books evolved in accordance with the changes in clinical medicine in the 19th century, exemplified by the activities of the Parisian school, including those regarding pathological anatomy, laboratory medicine in the German universities, and discovery of pathogenic bacteria. When Western medicine was introduced in Japan, different stages of medicine, representing the four types, arrived at different times.

  6. Working Group Report: Lattice Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, T.; et al.,


    This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

  7. Executive Committee Working Group: Women in Astronomy (United States)

    Primas, Francesca; Maddison, Sarah; Primas, Francesca; Aerts, Conny; Clayton, Geoffrey; Combes, Françoise; Elmegreen, Debra; Feretti, Luigina; Jog, Chanda; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Lazzaro, Daniela; Liang, Yanchun; Mandrini, Cristina; Mathews, Brenda; Rovira, Marta


    The gender† dimension of science and technology has become one of the most important and debated issues worldwide, impacting society at every level. A variety of international initiatives on the subject have been undertaken, including the continued monitoring of the status of women in science by Unesco Institute for Statistics (UIS) or the annual reports ``Education at a Glance'' by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as field-related working groups and networking in order to collect data in a consistent manner. The majority of the international organizations have made clear statements about their discrimination policies (independently of their main field(s) of action), including the International Council for Science whose regulations are followed by the IAU. Gender equality at large is one of the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which clearly calls for action related to science, technology and gender.

  8. Report of the PCB Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Ontario Waste Management Corporation's (OWMC) Working Group report identifies the quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste that are likely to be treated by OWMC, and assesses any technologies or modifications to the proposed facility design that would be required to accomodate all PCB wastes. A table of the annual quantities of PCBs that are expected to go to OWMC is provided. Rotary kiln incineration is the proposed technolgy for the destruction of PCB wastes. For materials that cannot be fed to the rotary kiln, thermal volatilization and solvent extraction are proposed. The off-gases from the thermal volatilization will be incinerated in the secondary combustion chamber, and the contaminated solvent will be fed to the rotary kiln. 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Charter for Systems Engineer Working Group (United States)

    Suffredini, Michael T.; Grissom, Larry


    This charter establishes the International Space Station Program (ISSP) Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG). The MSS SEWG is established to provide a mechanism for Systems Engineering for the end-to-end MSS function. The MSS end-to-end function includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Remote Servicer (MRS) Base System (MBS), Robotic Work Station (RWS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Video Signal Converters (VSC), and Operations Control Software (OCS), the Mobile Transporter (MT), and by interfaces between and among these elements, and United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) distributed systems, and other International Space Station Elements and Payloads, (including the Power Data Grapple Fixtures (PDGFs), MSS Capture Attach System (MCAS) and the Mobile Transporter Capture Latch (MTCL)). This end-to-end function will be supported by the ISS and MSS ground segment facilities. This charter defines the scope and limits of the program authority and document control that is delegated to the SEWG and it also identifies the panel core membership and specific operating policies.

  10. Epos Working Group 10 Infrastructure for Georesources (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanisław; Kwiatek, Grzegorz


    Working Group 10 "Infrastructure for Georesources" deals primarily with induced seismicity (IS) infrastructure. Established during the EPOS Annual Meeting in Utrecht, November 2011, WG10 aims to integrate the research infrastructure in the area of seismicity induced by human activity: tremors and rockbursts in underground mines, seismicity associated with conventional and unconventional oil and gas production, induced by geothermal energy extraction and by underground reposition and storage of liquids (e.g. water disposal associated with energy extraction) and gases (CO2 sequestration, inter alia) and triggered by filling surface water reservoirs, etc. Until now the research in the area of IS has been organized around induced technologies rather than physical problems, common for these shallow seismic processes. This has hampered the integration of IS research community and the research progress. WG10 intends to work out a first step towards changing the IS research perspective from the present, technology-oriented, to physical problems-oriented without, however, losing touch with technological conditions of IS generation. This will be achieved by the integration of IS Research Infrastructure (ISRI) and the creation of Induced Seismicity Node within EPOS. The ISRI to be integrated has three components: data, software and reports. The IS data consists of seismic data and auxiliary data: geological, displacement, geomechanical, geodetic, etc, and last, but by no means least, technological data. A research in the field of IS cannot do without this last data class. The IS software comprises common software tools for data handling and visualisation, standard and advanced software for research and software based on newly proposed algorithms for tests and development. The IS reports are both peer reviewed and unreviewed as well as an internet forum. In addition to that the IS Node will play a significant role in integrating IS community and accelerating research, it will

  11. [Animal ethics in the 19th century and Swiss animal protection law]. (United States)

    Bloch, I


    The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations. With the Swiss animal protection law, which came into force in 1981, most of the postulates could be realised. It is shown, how animal protection has developed since that time.

  12. 19th century earthquakes in Mexico: three cases, three comparative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Molina del Villar


    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study of the three strongest 19th century earthquakes in Mexico and their effects and impact mainly in Mexico City. The research is based on historical sources and previous investigations already published for two of the seismic events (8 March 1800 and 19 June 1858, with newly retrieved and analysed data for the 7 April 1845 earthquake. Primary and secondary sources include reports on damage to city buildings, streets and neighbourhoods and allowed a detailed analysis of the national and local effects, impacts and responses to each of the three earthquakes, whose comparison allows a better understanding of specific aspects related to the investigation of historical earthquakes in Mexico.

  13. Between dandis and rastacueros. Approaches to Snobbery of the Latin American 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Goldgel


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the precedents and the articulation of snobbery in 19th-century Latin America. Focusing on a number of key figures in the literature of the period, such as the catrín, the paquete, the siútico, the rastaquouère, and the dandy, it emphasizes the tension between snobs who are challenged (like the rastaquouère, who aims in vain to become part of the grand Parisian world and snobs who triumph (like the dandy, who relies on the increasing legitimacy of fashion and the aesthetic sphere in order to show that snobbery consists not only of the exhibition  of one's own symbolic capital in pursuance of social gains but also of the effort to transform the pose into something authentic and imitation into something original.

  14. François Arago a 19th century French humanist and pioneer in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, James


    François Arago, the first to show in 1810 that the surface of the Sun and stars is made of incandescent gas and not solid or liquid, was a prominent physicist of the 19th century. He used his considerable influence to help Fresnel, Ampere and others develop their ideas and make themselves known. This book covers his personal contributions to physics, astronomy, geodesy and oceanography, which are far from negligible, but insufficiently known. Arago was also an important and influential political man who, for example, abolished slavery in the French colonies. One of the last humanists, he had a very broad culture and range of interests. In parallel to his biography, this title also covers the spectacular progresses of science at the time of Arago, especially in France: the birth of physical optics, electromagnetism and thermodynamics. Francois Arago’s life is a fascinating epic tale that reads as a novel.

  15. Prospects for using sonar for underwater archeology on the Yenisei: surveying a 19th century shipwreck (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.


    Current progress in underwater archeology is based on a rich arsenal of high-tech appliances, among which sonar technology plays a key role; it enables scientists not only to detect submerged archeological objects, but to examine them in high definition without having to conduct diving operations or use expensive underwater unmanned vehicles. While the majority of sensational scientific discoveries using sonar have been made in saltwater environments, freshwater ones, rivers in particular, have seen limited activity. The river Yenisei in central Siberia contains an unrecorded number of shipwrecks that await being discovered and studied. In this article we focus on the peculiarities of using sonar for detecting archeological sites on the Yenisei. This article is based on the results of the 2016 expedition, which has determined the location of Thames, a 19th century British steam schooner which was wrecked on the Yenisei.

  16. Epidemiological description of unmitigated cholera epidemics in 19th century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelps, M.; Perner, M. L.; Davidsen, E.

    Background. Cholera epidemics devastated 19th century European cities in multiple outbreaks during 1830-1900. Most Danish cities experienced only a single epidemic in 1853 and detailed data are available. This uniquely allows study of unmitigated epidemic cholera in a fully susceptible population....... These insights can be used for empirical parameterization of mathematical models of cholera transmission. Here we describe the Danish cholera experience and provide a detailed examination of the transmission and impact of cholera outbreaks in three cities including Copenhagen. Methods: We accessed cholera...... surveillance data and contemporary descriptions by physicians of the outbreaks from Danish archives. We also accessed census data and annual mortality time series data available by cause and age, and used statistical modeling to attribute age-specific cholera mortality burden. The intrinsic transmission...

  17. Lockyer's "Astronomy" among Serbs in the second half of the 19th century. (United States)

    Trajkovska, V.; Ninković, S.


    The dynamical development of astronomy in the second half of 19th century has also found its adequate response among Serbs. As a good example may serve, in the opinion of the present authors, the translation of "Astronomy" by N. Lockyer into Serbian (the book was printed in 1880 in Novi Sad). The translator was Djordje Natošević who translated not the English original, but the German translation. The authors find Natošević an interesting personality. A physician by education he devoted the best part of his life to pedagogy and to enhancing the educational level in Serbian primary and secondary schools in Austria-Hungary of those days. He spent some time also in Serbia. It was then that he translated from German the textbook "Astronomy" by Lockyer, popular in those days.

  18. [Our medicinal preparations in the mid-19th century. Part I--Introduction and chemical preparations]. (United States)

    Drábek, Pavel


    The paper deals with the development of the first editions of the Austrian Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoea Austriaca, since its origin in the year 1812. It demonstrates its gradual retardation in the period when nearly all medicinal substances had to be prepared only in pharmacies. The conception was changed as late as 1855 in the Fifth Edition, when it was allowed to buy many medicinal substances from producers or wholesalers. At the same time, requirements for organoleptic properties and chemical purity began to be introduced. The present communication also deals with the chemical drugs used in the mid-19th century and is based on a comparison of the pharmacopoeias of 1836 and 1855. It presents some typical examples, such as alkaloids and metal compounds.

  19. Professional Responsibility and the Welfare System in Spain at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Sanz, Pilar


    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the attitudes of physicians prior to the establishment of a social welfare system in Spain, based on professional sources from 1890-1910. Firstly we revised the Systems of Collectivised Assistance during the Transition from the 19th to the 20th Century; then, the article discusses the corporativist reaction of Physicians to the different Welfare Systems. We observe that the criticism of insurance companies was unanimous. Nonetheless, there was a diversity of opinions regarding mutual societies and the associations of mutual assistance. The professional arguments used against the associations, mutuals and insurance companies were formulated around, in addition to the professional instability of the times, the changes in civil and criminal responsibility of the physician as a result of new legal regulations. We found physicians in favour of establishing a welfare system that was not exclusively public and which, in addition to benefiting the needy, would benefit the interests of the profession as well.

  20. Human genetic variation and yellow fever mortality during 19th century U.S. epidemics. (United States)

    Blake, Lauren E; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A


    We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P yellow fever have been observed across diverse populations, but this study is the first to demonstrate a statistically significant association between ancestry and the outcome of yellow fever (YF). With the global burden of mosquito-borne flaviviral infections, such as YF and dengue, on the rise, identifying and characterizing host factors could prove pivotal in the prevention of epidemics and the development of effective treatments. Copyright © 2014 Blake and Garcia-Blanco.

  1. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.

  2. The Geger Banten of 1888: An Anthropological Perspective of 19th Century Millenarianism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadi Darmadi


    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyse the millenarian response of the Bantenese to the Western colonization from an anthropological perspective. The his­tory of Banten at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century was marked by various indigenous unrest, rebellion, and resistance against the colonial power. In 1888, several religious leaders of Sufi brotherhoods and community leaders in Cilegon, Banten led a revolt against the Dutch colonial government. This uprising was provoked by the Dutch’s trade regulation, a new economic system, and was fuelled by enduring religious sentiments against the Dutch. While most schol­ars frame the event as a religious or social political movement, this study focuses on to what some of the Bantenese Muslims perceived as “unjust” social situations of the colonized world: poverty, inequality, religious restriction, social and political marginalization.

  3. Comparison of 19th Century and Present Concentrations and Depositions of Ozone in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEIDINGER, Tamás


    Full Text Available Ozone, one of the most important trace gases in atmosphere was discovered byChristian Friedrich Schönbein (1799–1886, a chemistry professor at the University of Basel. Themethod developed by him was used from the middle of nineteenth century until the 1920’s inmuch of the world. The measurement method is based essentially on the color-change of anindicator test paper. We obtained records for ozone measured in the Habsburg Empire usingSchönbein’s method for analyze the long term environmental processes. According to recordskept in the Habsburg Empire, ozone was measured at more than twenty sites between 1853–1856.On the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, ozone was measured at Szeged, Buda andSelmecbánya (Schemnitz, Banska Štiavnica among others. Long term datasets are available fromBuda (1871–1898 and Ó-Gyalla (Altdala, Hurbanovo, 1898–1905. Ozone was measured duringboth day- and nighttime. Additionally meteorological variables (like air temperature, relativehumidity, air pressure, wind speed, cloud cover, precipitation were also observed several times aday. The data reported in the yearbooks were collected and evaluated in this study to reconstructthe ozone dataset. Depending on concentrations and deposition velocity over different vegetatedsurfaces the ozone deposition can be estimated. The reliability of estimations and reconstructedozone deposition values are also discussed. Finally ozone datasets from the 19th and 21st centuryand the differences in ozone concentration and deposition between rural and urban areas arecompared. Ozone concentrations and deposition are found to be approximately three times highernow than in the 19th century.

  4. Penal symbolism in Serbia in the first half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miljana


    Full Text Available The author explores a scarce and unusual phenomenon for the 19th century Serbia, of the emphasized nexus between crime and penalty. The author marks that special, symbolical relation of penalty, on the one hand, and sanction on the other, as 'penal symbolism'. This term refers to penalization which reflects the ties between crime and punishment by copying crime in terms of modus or place of execution, or by 'punishing' those body parts which partook in committing a crime. The author classifies the examples of preserved judgments and legislations containing penal symbolism to those referring to modus or place of execution of death penalty, those which are examples of penal symbolism related to other sanctions, and those which are examples of the symbolic talion. The author raises the questions of the origin of this phenomenon, as well as of its justification, and aims at providing answers by reconstructing legal and social framework of Serbia in the first half of the 19th century. With this objective in mind, she discusses the development of Criminal Law and its basic features, as well as the development of judiciary, the systematic institutionalization of the network of criminal courts, and, especially, the composition thereof. In the conclusion, the author rejects the possibility that penal symbolism is a product of legal transplantation or that of the continuity of Serbian medieval law. She asserts that the scarcity of material criminal law sources led to judging by 'justice and fairness', and that those facts created conditions for the primitive sense of justice to find its way into judgments and legislations as penal symbolism.

  5. One of the origins of modernity and naturalism of French literature in the 19th century. (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Na-Mi


    Authors studied how Claude Bernard, the first founder of experimental medicine, contributed significantly to establishment of modernism and influenced European modern culture. Authors first studied his views on modernity, comparing with Descartes and Magendie, and on the similarity between "Experimental medicine" and the European literature in the 19th century. Bernard was not exclusively against vitalism, but the dogmatic misuse of vitalism. His objective thinking could be a useful model for the authors, who considered science to be an origin of modernity in literature of naturalism. Especially, Emile Zola was strongly influenced by Bernard's "An introduction to the study of Experimental medicine" and published "Experimental novel," a manifesto of naturalism. Although Bernard's experimental methodology and determinism deeply influenced modern European culture, the relationship between his Experimental medicine and modernism have not been fully investigated yet. His experimental medicine also needs to be discussed from the ecological viewpoints. His anthropo-centrism was unique since he emphasized any human theory could not surpass the principle of nature. Conventional anthropo-centrism claims that human beings are superior enough to own and govern the nature. And Bernard's the necessary determinism contains the ecological principle that all life forms and inanimate objects are organically related and intertwined to each other, irrespectively of their usefulness for the human beings. Although there were some ethical debates related to his medical experiments on living bodies of animal, his strict principle to perform experiments only after animal or human body died was worth considering as an effort to sustain ecological viewpoints. He was also unique in terms of being realistic and candid about his situation which was limited by the 19th century's scientific and medical development. In conclusion, the significance of convergence of literature and medical science

  6. Childcare in Reggio Emilia: Origins and Changes between the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Raimondo


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to reconstruct the evolution in the type of interventions and childcare models adopted by the institutions charged with caring for orphans in 18th- and 19th-century Reggio Emilia, Italy. Through analysis of the documents – some previously unseen – preserved at the archives of ASP Reggio Emilia Città delle Persone and Polo Archivistico Comunale, it is possible to understand how the city of Reggio Emilia adapted itself to the developing needs of its wards, and social, legislative and especially educational changes, seeking to go beyond the isolatory and custodial spirit that characterised life within orphanages until the end of the 19th century. The history of the local institutions intertwines with that of the national processes and changes which revolutionised the traditional concept of «institute». The monolithic, centuries-old and obsolete «orphanage» gave way to care within the community (1962, founded on the principles of protection, promotion and education of individuals. The stories of these individuals that emerge from the personal records and material analysed enable us to broaden our gaze on the reconstruction of institutional history, starting from a more internal perspective and focusing on the «subjectivity» of those in need of basic care. Such personal histories enable us to not only to understand the peculiarities of the various «cases», but also their living conditions, and the ways in which care, and at the same time education, was provided.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAWSON, S.; ET AL.


    This working group has investigated Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Once Higgs bosons are found their properties have to be determined. The prospects of Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC and a high-energy linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider are discussed in detail within the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension (MSSM). Recent improvements in the theoretical knowledge of the signal and background processes are presented and taken into account. The residual uncertainties are analyzed in detail. Theoretical progress is discussed in particular for the gluon-fusion processes gg {yields} H(+j), Higgs-bremsstrahlung off bottom quarks and the weak vector-boson-fusion (VBF) processes. Following the list of open questions of the last Les Houches workshop in 2001 several background processes have been calculated at next-to-leading order, resulting in a significant reduction of the theoretical uncertainties. Further improvements have been achieved for the Higgs sectors of the MSSM and NMSSM. This report summarizes our work performed before and after the workshop in Les Houches. Part A describes the theoretical developments for signal and background processes. Part B presents recent progress in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron collider. Part C addresses the determination of Higgs boson couplings, part D the measurement of tan {beta} and part E Higgs boson searches in the VBF processes at the LHC. Part F summarizes Higgs searches in supersymmetric Higgs decays, part G photonic Higgs decays in Higgs-strahlung processes at the LHC, while part H concentrates on MSSM Higgs bosons in the intense-coupling regime at the LHC. Part I presents progress in charged Higgs studies and part J the Higgs discovery potential in the NMSSM at the LHC. The last part K describes Higgs coupling measurements at a 1 TeV linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  8. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.


    In many dynamic work situations, no single individual can acquire the varied and often rapidly expanding information needed for success. Individuals must work together to collect, analyze, synthesize and disseminate information throughout the work process. Perhaps one of the most dynamic work con...

  9. T2 working group summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Caspi et al.


    The T2 Working Group has reviewed and discussed the issues and challenges of a wide range of magnet technologies: superconducting magnets using NbTi, Nb{sub 3}Sn and HTS conductor with fields ranging from 2-15 T and permanent magnets up to 4 T. The development time of these technologies varies significantly, but all are considered viable, providing an unprecedented variety of choice that can be determined by a balance of cost and application requirements. One of the most significant advances since Snowmass '96 is the increased development and utilization of Nb{sub 3}Sn. All of the current US magnet programs (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and Texas A and M) have programs using Nb{sub 3}Sn. There are also active programs in HTS development at BNL and LBNL. A DOE/HEP sponsored program to increase the performance and reduce the cost of Nb{sub 3}Sn is in its second year. The program has already made significant advances. The current funding for this program is $500k/year and an increase to $2M has been proposed for FY02.

  10. T2 Working Group Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Dieter R


    The T2 Working Group has reviewed and discussed the issues and challenges of a wide range of magnet technologies: superconducting magnets using NbTi, Nb{sub 3}Sn and HTS conductor with fields ranging from 2-15 T and permanent magnets up to 4 T. The development time of these technologies varies significantly, but all are considered viable, providing an unprecedented variety of choice that can be determined by a balance of cost and application requirements. One of the most significant advances since Snowmass '96 is the increased development and utilization of Nb{sub 3}Sn. All of the current US magnet programs (BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and Texas A&M) have programs using Nb{sub 3}Sn. There are also active programs in HTS development at BNL and LBNL. A DOE/HEP sponsored program to increase the performance and reduce the cost of Nb{sub 3}Sn is in its second year. The program has already made significant advances. The current funding for this program is $500k/year and an increase to $2M has been proposed for FY02.

  11. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  12. Multilevel Modeling for Research in Group Work (United States)

    Selig, James P.; Trott, Arianna; Lemberger, Matthew E.


    Researchers in group counseling often encounter complex data from individual clients who are members of a group. Clients in the same group may be more similar than clients from different groups and this can lead to violations of statistical assumptions. The complexity of the data also means that predictors and outcomes can be measured at both the…

  13. The negotiation of rules and state intervention in irrigation management: The Júcar Canal in the mid-19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Calatayud


    Full Text Available The way the rules for distributing water work in irrigation communities has been the object of numerous studies. Yet, little is known about how the negotiation process that is required to design such rules has developed historically, which is what this article focuses on. Specifically, the case of the Júcar Canal, which was built in the 13th century and went on to become the largest irrigation system in Spain after undergoing an extension in the early 19th century. As a result of said extension, there were many clashes between the old and the new irrigators, the climate of cooperation between users diminished and it became necessary to draw up a new set of regulations. Two crucial factors allowed a new agreement to be reached: the fact that the irrigators were able to redesign the institutions with a high degree of autonomy, and the intervention of representatives of the political authorities of the State who adopted the role of external arbitrators.

  14. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna


    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  15. 19. srednjeevropska konferenca o informatiki in inteligentnih sistemih = 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Faganel


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the 19th Central European Conference on Information and Intelligent Systems, CECIIS 2008, which took place between 24th and 26th September in Varaždin and was organised by the Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin. The central theme of this year’s conference was e-government. During those 3 days, 250 participants could attend presentations of 90 scientific and professional works in 15 sections and 9 invited lectures on the newest trends in the area of information and communication technology management, information technologies, security of information systems, multimedia systems, strategic planning of information systems, education for information society. Two other parallel events were held within the international conference, namely the workshop ‘Activities towards ICT professionalism’ and a round table on the subject ‘Competences of ICT Professionals’. Experts in the field of human resources, leaders of information centres and managers of the leading Croatian companies participated in the latter.

  16. Working with Group-Tasks and Group Cohesiveness (United States)

    Anwar, Khoirul


    This study aimed at exploring the connection between the use of group task and group cohesiveness. This study is very important because the nature of the learner's success is largely determined by the values of cooperation, interaction, and understanding of the learning objectives together. Subjects of this study are 28 students on the course…

  17. Management of group work as a classroom activity


    Hammar Chiriac, Eva; Forslund Frykedal, Karin


    Students appreciate group work as a means of learning and several studies also suggest that students who work togetherin groups have better learning outcomes. Nevertheless, teachers still seem reluctant to use group work as a pedagogicaltool in the classroom.The main focus of this qualitative study is to address group work as a classroom activity from the teachers’ perspectives,and more specifically to ascertain why teachers are reluctant to use group work as a mode of working in education.Da...

  18. Management of Group Work as a Classroom Activity (United States)

    Chiriac, Eva Hammar; Frykedal, Karin Forslund


    Students appreciate group work as a means of learning and several studies also suggest that students who work together in groups have better learning outcomes. Nevertheless, teachers still seem reluctant to use group work as a pedagogical tool in the classroom. The main focus of this qualitative study is to address group work as a classroom…

  19. Working with Cooperative Small Groups. Classroom Tips (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010


    Diversified small groups in the classroom provide a good opportunity for students to share information and ideas with each other. The research on cooperative small groups points out the benefits of these interactions and describes the process as a powerful forum for developing students' critical thinking and higher-order skills: (1) Cooperative…

  20. Collaborative Essay Testing: Group Work That Counts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Peggy A


    .... Despite an emphasis on group activities as critical for classroom learning, there is a lack of evidence in the nursing literature that describes collaborative essay testing as a teaching strategy...

  1. Case Studies Working Group Report Volume 2 (United States)


    groups) will augment the number of ter- rorist incidents featuring military- grade CB warfare agents.71 Moreover, if a terrorist group were to ac- quire...military- grade CBRN threats, the department has been given the heavy burden of be- ing prepared to respond with support to multiple (up to three...profuse rhetoric regarding terrorist WMD threats, but to take only timid , incremental ac- tion to address the identified shortfalls. This behavior

  2. Chemistry in Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Stanko M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is selection and analysis of articles with chemistry content in selected Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century, which were aimed towards general public, in order to get insight into the level and quality of additional chemistry informing of readers. Two journals were selected, that contained entertaining, literature and scientific content ('Sedmica' and 'Vila', and two other, with entertainment and literature nature ('Danica' and 'Matica'. The analyzed journals primarily addressed the general public and played an important role in readers' information and education. Historical method was applied in this research. The above-mentioned journals were analyzed separately, with the short historical survey. Complete editions of these journals were analyzed, and the selection of articles was made according to the textual content or the title itself. The chemistry content presented in these journals is of the great variety. Among other things, interesting comments of the chemical schoolbooks are found, as well as lectures on science.

  3. Representation of the microcosm: the claim for objectivity in 19th century scientific microphotography. (United States)

    Breidbach, Olaf


    Microphotography was one of the earliest applications of photography in science. The first monograph on tissue organization illustrated with microphotographs was published in 1845. In the 1860s, a large number of introductions to scientific microphotography was published by anatomists. They argued that microphotography was a means of documenting the results of microscopic analysis, uncontaminated by subjectivity of the observer. In the early decades of the 19th century, before the general acceptance of cell theory, such a technique was of special importance, so no criteria were available to distinguish between important and superficial characters in the description of tissue microstructures. Microphotography was praised as the method of choice for documenting the scientific observations of microscopic material. Some of the microphotographic practices described in these early manuals, however, did not conform with the idea of a purely mechanical process of documentation. The authors of these manuals saw photography not as a technique which produced artifacts, but as a complete and reliable substitute for the original preparations. Thus, according to these authors, the artificial world of photography was seen as the actual representation of the microworld. Consequently, they tried to understand the microcosm by analyzing photographs instead of the microscopic preparation themselves. Such attitudes discredited the use of microphotography in the sciences. Consequently, the definitive breakthrough of scientific microphotography was delayed until the 1880s and was largely due to the efforts of Robert Koch, who made microphotography a central tool of bacteriology.

  4. [About smallpox and vaccination practices in Minas Gerais (Brazil) in the 19th century]. (United States)

    Silveira, Anny Jackeline Torres; Marques, Rita de Cássia


    This article discusses the impact of smallpox and vaccination practices used against the disease used in the province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, during the Imperial Period (1822-1889). Despite the existence of services responsible for the organization and dissemination of the vaccine in the country since the early 19th century, some administrative and cultural factors, as identified in documents produced by the province's public health authorities at the time, had a negative impact upon the full implementation of both practice and organization of services aimed at the dissemination of smallpox vaccination. Based upon historiographic sources, it is argued that despite the trend towards centralization observed at different governmental spheres during the structuring of the Imperial State, in particular, in the provision of vaccination services, there was a prevailing disharmony between the different agencies responsible for the implementation and management of such services. A further contributor to the difficulties in the service implementation was the resistance of the population to submit to the vaccination, a phenomenon that can be best understood through examination of the social construction of perceptions about diseases and the vaccination method used against the smallpox.

  5. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  6. Chronicle of Datura Toxicity in the 18th and 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jonasson


    Full Text Available Background: Datura stramonium is a poisonous and common flowering plant that is a member of the Solanacae family. Datura poisonings are a rare occurrence in the 21st century, making toxicological information on this plant sparse. Historical information on Datura provides useful information on the clinical symptoms and characteristics of poisonings. This review looks at the state of knowledge on Datura’s chemical properties and clinical characteristics in the 18th and 19th century. Methods: A literature review was conducted, and an online database search identified 197 articles. Ultimately 42 articles met the search criteria and were included for review. Results: Medical literature on Datura focused predominantly on clinical poisonings, medical treatments, and identifying its chemical properties. Clinical poisonings included cases of accidental and intentional poisonings, and provided information on the age of patients, their symptoms, and treatments. Datura was also used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, inflammatory diseases, epileptic seizures, and hallucinations. Chemical experimentation on Datura commonly looked at isolating alkaloids and assaying their concentrations in various plant organs. Conclusion: Historical literature on Datura shows that cases of poisoning were a common occurrence. These historical sources provide useful information on Datura poisoning’s clinical findings, and preliminary uses of Datura in medical treatments. Early chemical exploration of Datura also set the groundwork for future research.

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century. (United States)

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros


    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  8. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori


    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  9. Photographic stellar photometry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John B.


    The development of photographic stellar photometry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is reviewed. Major pioneers in this field were the Pickerings at Harvard, who early on recognized the immense potential of photography as well as some of its inherent problems. Two huge programmes in celestial photography dominated late 19th century astronomy, the CPD and the Carte du Ciel. The problems of obtaining magnitudes from field star images were numerous, including reciprocity failure, unknown wavelength response and variable seeing. Plate calibration techniques and the use of standard stars also created new problems. Some observers preferred extrafocal images, as these gave more reliable results for brighter stars. The ill-fated North Polar Sequence and the associated International System were products of this era. The NPS originated from Harvard about 1907, was adopted by the Astrographic Congress in 1909 and (in greatly expanded form) also by the IAU at its first General Assembly in 1922, but was never able to deliver a completely reliable and transferable system of standard stellar magnitudes for use by all observers.

  10. Claude Bernard was a 19th century proponent of medicine based on evidence. (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo


    The French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-1878) has the unfair reputation of being ferociously opposed to the use of probabilities and statistics in medicine. In the 19th century, he would have been included among those who opposed the emergence of what would eventually become clinical epidemiology. The truth is that Bernard valued the role of medical statistics in clinical medicine but viewed it as potentially misleading in laboratory-based physiology. He posited that clinical medicine had to be guided by probabilistic evidence as long as physiological mechanisms remained unknown. Bernard praised the clinical researches of Pierre Louis aiming to assess the efficacy of bloodletting in the treatment of pneumonitis. The real objects of Bernard's contempt were the physicians who pretended that medicine was an art strictly based on intuition and tact and who pretended that comparative trials and statistics were useless for clinical medicine. Overall, Bernard was a strong and explicit proponent of the importance of scientific evidence in medical knowledge, be it from experiments or from comparative trials.

  11. Beyond the Standard Model: Working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in AMSB, then the emitted lepton is too 'soft' to be tagged. In this case, of course, the chargino has a longer lifetime and one expects to observe short tracks inside the detector. This group plans to look at the following mode: In an e·e- machine consider the pair production e·e- e·. Дe-. Д (via t-channel W¿ exchange). Then e·.

  12. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S


    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t...

  13. Written reports on the effects of mining activities on the natural environment in Idrija in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Car, J.; Dizdarevic, T.


    The environmental conditions in the Idrija Mercury Mine and its broader surroundings were strongly affected in the first half of the 19th century by two disastrous pit fires. The fire could only be extinguished by flooding of the pit. The consequences of such flooding was extensive poisoning with

  14. 19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford, 11.-13. 7. 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslivcová, Eva


    Roč. 53, 2-3 (2016), s. 300-301 ISSN 0018-7003. [19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference. Oxford, 11.07.2016-13.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music ological conference * nineteenth-century music * Antonin Dvorak * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Working Group Report: Dark Energy and CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S.; Honscheid, K.; Abazajian, K.; Carlstrom, J.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Kim, A.; Kirkby, D.; Lee, A.; Padmanabhan, N.; Rhodes, J.; Weinberg, D.


    The American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields initiated a long-term planning exercise over 2012-13, with the goal of developing the community's long term aspirations. The sub-group "Dark Energy and CMB" prepared a series of papers explaining and highlighting the physics that will be studied with large galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background experiments. This paper summarizes the findings of the other papers, all of which have been submitted jointly to the arXiv.

  16. The Restoration of Paintings at the Imperial Hermitage (Saint-Petersburg at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Nikogosyan


    Full Text Available Le début du XIXe siècle fut une période charnière pour l’histoire de la formation des restaurateurs en Russie. F.K. Labensky, conservateur de la Galerie de l’Ermitage de 1797 à 1850, met en place un atelier de restauration avec un personnel permanent, travaillant sur la collection de la peinture impériale. Assistant de Labensky, restaurateur A.F. Mitrokhine, apprend toutes les techniques connues de restauration mécanique - doublage, parquetage et même transposition des peintures, - et les développe. Une école spéciale est créée près de l’atelier de l'Ermitage à 1819, supervisé par Mitrokhine, ou les jeunes diplômés de l'Académie impériale de l'Art se familiarise à la fois avec la restauration mécanique et picturale des peintures. Les apprentis de l'école de Mitrokhine transmettent ensuite ses techniques à la prochaine génération de restaurateurs de l’Ermitage.The beginning of the 19th century was a period of formation of restoration school in Russia. F.K.Labensky, Curator of the Hermitage Picture Gallery from 1797 onwards till 1850, arranged a restoration studio with a permanent staff working on Imperial painting collection.  Labensky’s assistant, a restorer A.F. Mitrokhin learned all known techniques of mechanical restoration – relining, cradling and even transfer of paintings, - and developed them on his own. A special school was established by the Hermitage studio in 1819, supervised by Mitrokhin, were young graduates of Imperial Academy of Art were taught both mechanical and painting restoration. The apprentices of Mitrokhin school passed his techniques to next generation of Hermitage restorers.

  17. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion. (United States)

    Galler, Stefan


    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion.

  18. The Economic Situation of the Kishinev Diocese in the 19th - early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozan Vladimir


    Full Text Available The article dwells, on the basis of archival materials for the first time in the national and foreign historiography, on the economic situation of Kishinev Eparchy within the Russian Orthodox Church in the period from Bessarabia’s accedence to the Russian Empire till early 20th century. An important indicator of the priests’material well-beingis sufficiency of their land estates and emoluments. In this context, the author focused on the size of land holdings of particular clergy parishes and the financial allowance of the clergy. The essay also pays attention to the revenues of particular clergy parishes from occasional services and sale of candles. The study revealed that most of the venues from candle trading could not be used by the members of clergy parishes for their needs, but were transferred to the general beudget of the eparchy. The clergy spent a signifi cant portion of their income on renting and upkeeping of housing. With regard for this circumstance, an attempt was made to determine the extent of suffi ciency of housing for this category of clergy. In the course of research, the author managed to fi nd the information on the number of Bessarabian priests’children in their care at the time the country has joined the Russian Empire, and on their level of education. These data are extremely important for comprehending the private life of the clergy and inancial standing of their families, as such information is found in the documentary materials of early 19th century extremely seldom, regardless of diocesan affi liation of priests.

  19. Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnéa Asplund


    Full Text Available Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar “Akakomugi,” was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The “Akakomugi” allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  20. From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color (United States)

    Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.


    This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

  1. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures (United States)

    Gipson, J.


    I present an overview of the "openDB format" for storing, archiving, and processing VLBI data. In this scheme, most VLBI data is stored in NetCDF files. NetCDF has the advantage that there are interfaces to most common computer languages including Fortran, Fortran-90, C, C++, Perl, etc, and the most common operating systems including Linux, Windows, and Mac. The data files for a particular session are organized by special ASCII "wrapper" files which contain pointers to the data files. This allows great flexibility in the processing and analysis of VLBI data. For example it allows you to easily change subsets of the data used in the analysis such as troposphere modeling, ionospheric calibration, editing, and ambiguity resolution. It also allows for extending the types of data used, e.g., source maps. I present a roadmap to transition to this new format. The new format can already be used by VieVS and by the global mode of solve. There are plans in work for other software packages to be able to use the new format.

  2. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.


    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  3. 77 FR 74203 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  4. 75 FR 51284 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  5. 76 FR 34248 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  6. 75 FR 27814 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ..., coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This notice...-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders...

  7. 75 FR 70947 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  8. 77 FR 10766 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  9. 77 FR 50155 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  10. 77 FR 45370 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  11. 75 FR 10501 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  12. 77 FR 30314 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  13. 75 FR 17158 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  14. 76 FR 23621 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  15. 76 FR 52345 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  16. 76 FR 70751 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (United States)


    ... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords...

  17. Habitat planning, maintenance and management working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Gulf of Mexico (GOM), called {open_quotes}America`s Sea,{close_quotes} is actually a small ocean basin covering over 1.5 million square kilometers. Because of the multiple uses, diversity, and size of the Gulf`s resources, management is shared by a number of governmental agencies including the Minerals Management Service, the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, National Marine Fisheries Service, the US Coast Guard, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the five Gulf states fisheries agencies. All of these entities share a common goal of achieving optimum sustainable yield to maximize geological, biological, social, and economic benefits from these resources. These entities also share a common theme that the successful management of the northern GOM requires maintenance and enhancement of both the quantity and quality of habitats. A closer look at the GOM shows the sediment to be clearly dominated by vast sand and mud plains. These soft bottom habitats are preferred by many groundfish and shrimp species and, thus, have given rise to large commercial fisheries on these stocks. Hard bottom and reef habitats, on the other hand, are limited to approximately 1.6% of the total area of the Gulf, so that, while there are high demands by commercial and recreational fishermen for reef associated species, the availability of habitat for these stocks is limited. The thousands of oil and gas structures placed in the Gulf have added significant amounts of new hard substrate. The rigs-to-reefs concept was a common sense idea with support from environmental user groups and the petroleum industry for preserving a limited but valuable habitat type. As long as maximizing long-term benefits from the Gulf s resources for the greatest number of users remains the goal, then programs such as Rigs-to-Reefs will remain an important tool for fisheries and habitat managers in the Gulf.

  18. Teachers' and Students' Negotiation Moves When Teachers Scaffold Group Work (United States)

    González, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.


    Group work has been a main activity recommended by mathematics education reform. We aim at describing the patterns of interaction between teachers and students during group work. We ask: How do teachers scaffold group work during a problem-based lesson? We use data from a problem-based lesson taught in six geometry class periods by two teachers…

  19. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the Secretary...

  20. Learning rights, participation and toleration in student group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete


    . This article offers a moral perspective on group work by introducing a concept of ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work. The aim of the paper is theoretically to offer a vocabulary concerning ‘learning rights’ of the individual in group work by applying John Dewey’s metaphor ‘the spectator versus...

  1. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a...

  2. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  3. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group...

  4. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research...

  5. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (United States)


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent review panels. The technical work group is a subcommittee of the...

  6. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno


    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  7. Are groups working in the Information Technology class? | Mentz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We discuss teache rs' perce ption of the use of group work in the Information Technology (IT) classroom. We describe the current situation regarding the implementation of group work in IT classrooms in South Africa as well as the challenges that IT teachers face when implementing group work. This information will be used ...

  8. Group work with bereaved individuals: the power of mutual aid. (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn; Gitterman, Alex


    Group work has been underused as an intervention with grieving clients. This is despite the fact that group membership offers bereaved individuals a number of unique advantages. In this article, the use of group work with bereaved individuals is examined, based on current theory and research. The role and skills of the group worker are identified and illustrated through the use of case examples. Challenges associated with working with groups for bereaved individuals also are discussed.

  9. Group Work Practice with Transgendered Male to Female Sex Workers. (United States)

    Klein, Rebecca


    Examines group work with transgendered male-to-female adolescents who engage in sex work. Provides an overview of the role that sex work plays in the lives of some transgendered youth, using case examples, and offers guidance for those utilizing group work approaches with transgendered adolescents. Discusses homelessness and institutionalization,…

  10. Designing and Assessing Productive Group Work in Secondary Schools (United States)

    Vaca, Javier; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas


    A history teacher examines what is successful and not successful in group work in his high school classroom and gives concrete suggestions for improving group practice. Topics discussed include preparing students for group work, supporting collaboration, inviting critical analysis, and assessing both group and individual performance. (Contains 2…

  11. Assistência ao nascimento na Bahia oitocentista Assisted birth in 19th century Bahia

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    Maria Renilda Nery Barreto


    Full Text Available Esse artigo aborda as culturas de assistência ao parto na Bahia oitocentista e trabalha com a hipótese de que, em Salvador, coexistiram duas culturas obstétricas: a dos médicos-parteiros, que faziam uso dos recursos técnicos e cognitivos disponibilizados pela obstetrícia como especialidade médica; e a das tradicionais parteiras, cujo saber era de natureza empírico-sensorial. Apesar de todo o esforço empreendido pelos médicos para angariar a confiança das famílias baianas, as parteiras continuaram hegemônicas na arte de 'aparar' crianças e de tratar das doenças de mulheres. A análise enfoca os segmentos sociais e profissionais que atuaram na assistência ao parto; o papel da Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia na formação e certificação das parteiras; e a utilização dos periódicos como meio de legitimação dos médicos-parteiros; ao tempo em que problematiza a pequena participação das parteiras nesses veículos de comunicação.This paper presents the traditions of assisted childbirth in the Brazilian state of Bahia in the 19th Century and develops the hypothesis that two obstetrical traditions coexisted in the capital, Salvador, namely the doctor-midwives - who used technical resources and knowledge acquired from obstetrics as a medical specialty - and the traditional midwives, whose know-how was purely of an empirical-sensorial nature. Despite all efforts employed by the doctors to win over the confidence of Bahian families, the midwives continued to be predominant in the art of 'delivering' children and treating female illnesses. The analysis focuses on the social and professional segments that were active in assisted birth; the role of the Bahian College of Medicine (Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia in the training and certification of midwives and the use of newspapers as a way to legitimize the doctor-midwives; it also discusses the scant coverage of the midwives in these media.

  12. Reconstruction of climate in China during 17th-19th centuries using Chinese chronological records (United States)

    Wang, Pao; Lin, Kuan-Hui; Liao, Yi-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yu; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling; Fan, I.-Chun


    Chinese historical documents are an extremely useful source from which much climate information can be retrieved if treated carefully. This is especially relevant to the reconstruction of climate in East Asia in the last 2000 years as the Chinese has kept official chronicles since 500BC and China also represents a large portion of East Asia's land. In addition, there are also local records in many cities and counties. When available, such documentary sources are often superior to environmental proxy data, especially in the time resolution as they usually provide at least annual resolution and even as high as daily records in some cases. This research will report on our recent advances on using a new REACHS dataset that collects primarily documented meteorological records from thousands of imperial and local chronicles in the Chinese history for more than 2000 years. The meteorological records were digitized and coded in the relational database management system in which accurate time (from yearly to daily), space (from province to city/county) and event (from meteorological to phonological and social) information is carefully reserved for analysis. We then formed digital climate series and performed time series and spatial analysis on them to obtain their temporal and spatial characteristics. Our present research results on the annual and seasonal temperature reconstruction during 17th-19th indicates lower temperature in the 17th century. There were also strangely high occurrence frequency of summer snowfall records in the lower reaches of Yangtze River during the Maunder Minimum. Reconstructed precipitation series fluctuated with strong regional character in the Northeast, Central-east and Southeast China. Spectral analysis shows that precipitation series have significant periodicity of 3-5 and 8-12 years during the period, suggesting strong interannual variability and different regional signatures. Flood happened frequently but long lasting drought was more


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    Berislav Šebečić


    Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases. In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen. It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where

  14. Teaching Standards-Based Group Work Competencies to Social Work Students: An Empirical Examination (United States)

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Vakharia, Sheila P.


    Objectives: Accreditation standards and challenges in group work education require competency-based approaches in teaching social work with groups. The Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups developed Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups, which serve as foundation competencies for professional practice. However, there…

  15. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician (United States)

    Corbin, Brenda G.


    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  16. Working group activities of AGARD propulsion and energetics panel (United States)

    Ucer, A. S.


    One of the major activities of AGARD panels is to form working groups, which assemble experts who work on the particular subject for two or three years. As a result of the work, an advisory report is published, which complies the state-of-the-art knowledge on the chosen specific topic. This paper explains the philosophy and procedures adopted during the formation of working groups of the Propulsion and Energetics Panel. Working groups concerning gas turbine technologies are presented. The selected working groups aim to improve the computational and experimental knowledge that would lead to the design of advanced aero gas turbine engines. Objective, scope, procedure, and important results of each working group will be explained. Working groups that were active during the 1980s and which were presently active are covered.

  17. The interrelationships between student approaches to learning and group work. (United States)

    Beccaria, Lisa; Kek, Megan; Huijser, Henk; Rose, Jayln; Kimmins, Lindy


    As part of the process of nursing students becoming 'work ready' within future health care teams, students need the skills to work collaboratively. In higher education, establishing group work assignments is a teaching method to develop group work skills. Not only is group work an important teaching method to develop effective group work skills but it is also used to activate deep learning. However, to date, there has been a lack of research on the impact of group work on student approaches to learning. This study aimed to examine the interrelationships between students, group work characteristics, and their approaches to learning. A survey design was used, before and after a targeted academic skills development intervention, which had a specific focus on the development of group work skills. The sample involved first year undergraduate nursing students undertaking a Bachelor of Nursing programme at a regional university in Australia. A total of 92 students completed the pre-survey, and 102 students completed the post-survey. Data were collected using quantitative surveys. Metacognitive awareness was found to best predict a deep approach to learning. Young age and experiencing discomfort in group work were two predictors of a surface approach to learning. Findings indicate that nurse educators should develop strategies that support students' metacognitive awareness in relation to group work, and also support those students who feel less comfortable in working with others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance


    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk,, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  19. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries]. (United States)

    Kaba, Mariama


    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society.

  20. Fire, broadax and fever relieve: southeastern Brazil and the boost toward the agrarian frontiers in early 19th century

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    Carlos Alberto Medeiros Lima


    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 19th century, discussions about malaria by some physicians and authorities who had acted in many Atlantic regions showed the idea that deforestation would impact positively on sanitation in Brazil. This was related to a boost - unknown until then - toward the agrarian frontiers at the expense of traditional forests and strongly marked by the rural endemics. It all happened in a time marked by the growth of the Brazilian free population, by the internalization of sugarcane farms - especially in São Paulo - by the coffee expansion, by the increase of agrarian frontier as a survival strategy for poverty, by the suppression of regulations for the settlements on vacant slots in 1822, and by the Atlantic recession in the second quarter of the 19th century. The dissemination of this conception can be evaluated based on data about migration to the agrarian frontier and the impact of malaria among free people.

  1. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  2. Institutions, the cost of capital, and long-run economic growth: evidence from the 19th century capital market


    Alquist, Ron; Cha, Ben


    Late 19th century investors demanded compensation to invest in countries with poor institutional protection of property rights. Using the monthly stock returns of 1,808 firms located in 43 countries but traded in London between 1866 and 1907, we estimate the country-specific cost of capital. We find a negative relationship between institutions that protect property rights and capital costs. Firms located in countries with weak institutions were charged a premium compared to similarly risky fi...

  3. Drawing boundaries : boundary arrangements of the IPCC working groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christel van Eck


    The present research investigates how the IPCC’s Working Groups safeguard their scientific character while communicating with policymakers. Due to the different nature of Working Groups’ assessments, all Working Groups make different boundary arrangements of how science is defined; what is

  4. The emergence of the confessional theology in Russia (18th – first half of the 19th centuries

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    Eugene Lyutko


    Full Text Available This article looks at a text dealing with theology as a text dealing with the reality that stands behind this text. Based on examples of three Russian church hierarchs who tried to systematise theology in the 18th and 19th centuries — Archbishop Feofan (Prokopovich, St. Philaret (Drozdov, St. Innocent (Borisov — the paper reveals and interprets the following issues: gradual penetration of categories of history, administration and church service into the structure of theology; rejection of the socalled natural theology (theologia naturalis, which takes place at the beginning of the 19th century. Proceeding from Foucauld’s methodology, we come to a conclusion about the emergence of confession in the Russian Empire of the fi rst half of the 19th century. This was an integrated and distinct social body, the key category of which was theology. Theology unites the social space of the confession by means of three key narratives: the identity (a complex of historical disciplines, administration (the canon law, or “theologia rectrix”, and pastoral theology, participation practices (liturgics. At the end of the period in question, the category of “Church” emerges within the theological system. On the one hand, this fact refl ects the completion of the process of constructing the confession; on the other hand, it is a sign of the emergence of ecclesiology, the new practice of theological discourse that came to be dominant in the following period.

  5. Changing relationships between authors and publishers: Lithuania Major in the first half of the 19th century

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    Aušra Navickienė


    Full Text Available The changing relationship between authors and publishers was a phenomenon related to the model of modern book publishing business which began to emerge in Lithuania Major, as well as throughout much of Central and Eastern Europe in the early 19th century. The topic of this research is the legal framework established in 1830 as part of Russian censorship laws intended to regulate property rights of authors and publishers, which was also applied in the occupied territory of Lithuania. Different sources and methods were used in this article to answer to the following questions: “How were the rights and obligations of authors and publishers understood in documents regulating publishing activities in Lithuania Major in the first decades of the 19th century (i.e. before 1830?”; “How was this concept legitimized in the first legal enactments regulating copyrights (i.e. after the introduction of regulations?”; “How were these mutually useful relationships reflected in Lithuanian book publishing before the Russian occupational government imposed radical measures to restrict Lithuanian national culture and publishing in 1864?” The main sources of data were the 19th century official and unofficial documents regulating publishing activities (including, most importantly, the censorship laws of the time and archival materials documenting the activities of Lithuanian private publishers and book authors of the time, such as correspondence and documentation on the activities of publishing institutions.

  6. Malaria, Tarai Adivasi and the Landlord State in the 19th century Nepal: A Historical-Ethnographic Analysis

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    Janak Rai


    Full Text Available This paper examines the interplay between malaria, the Tarai Adivasi and the extractive landlord state in the 19th century Nepal by focusing on Dhimal, one indigenous community from the easternmost lowlands. Throughout the 19th century, the Nepali state and its rulers treated the Tarai as a state geography of extraction for land, labor, revenue and political control. The malarial environment of the Tarai, which led to the shortage people (labor force, posed a major challenge to the 19th  century extractive landlord state and the landowning elites to materialize the colonizing project in the Tarai. The shortage of labor added pressure on the malaria resistant Tarai Adivasi to reclaim and cultivate land for the state. The paper highlights the need for ethnographically informed social history of malaria in studying the changing relations between the state and the ?div?si communities in the Tarai DOI: Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 87-112

  7. Power and Group Work in Physical Education: A Foucauldian Perspective (United States)

    Barker, Dean; Quennerstedt, Mikael


    Group work is used in physical education (PE) to encourage student-directed, collaborative learning. Aligned with this aim, group work is expected to shift some power from teacher to students and enable students to make decisions and co-construct meaning on their own. There are, however, very few investigations focusing on power in group work…

  8. The Formation of Effective Work Groups within an FE Classroom (United States)

    Russell, Megan


    Fascinated by the diversity of composition in effective work groups in Further Education (FE) classrooms, I studied group formation and composition in level 3 Biology classes over an academic year. Using information from the class teacher, observers and students, the importance of effective work groups (defining effectiveness in terms of…

  9. Dealing with Slackers in College Classroom Work Groups (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.; Smith, Nicole A.; Eidsness, Mary A.; Bogdan, Leah M.; Zackery, Brooke A.; Thompson, Michelle R.; Schoo, Meghan E.; Johnson, Angela N.


    The purpose of this study was to probe the presence of slackers in college classroom work group, how students react to slackers, and the recommendations students would make for working with slackers in future group projects. Thirty-seven college students participated in one of five focus groups. Results indicate that (a) college students working…

  10. Students' Use of the Interactive Whiteboard during Physics Group Work (United States)

    Mellingsaeter, Magnus Strøm; Bungum, Berit


    This paper presents a case study of how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) may facilitate collective meaning-making processes in group work in engineering education. In the case, first-year students attended group-work sessions as an organised part of a basic physics course at a Norwegian university college. Each student group was equipped with an…


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    Marius Nicusor GRIGORE


    Full Text Available Salt (chalk glands of Plumbaginaceae represent interesting structures involved in the excretion of calcium carbonate outside plants’ organs, especially on leaves surfaces. These chalk-glands, nominated by some authors as ‘Licopoli’ or ‘Mettenius’ organs are also very important from taxonomical point of view. Their structure has been a matter of debate for decades and a historical analysis reveals that there are still some inconsistencies regarding the contributions of earlier botanists in discovering and describing chalk-glands. The present work tries to provide a picture of historical progress recorded in the 19th century related to investigation of these structures, focusing especially on the two important names usually mentioned in relation to them: Mettenius and Licopoli. In this respect, several useful clarifications are made, with emphasis on the role played by the two botanists in the stimulation of research interest for these glands among the generations of botanists to come.

  12. Imperialism, faith, and show: the participation of the Christian Churches at the colonial and international exhibitions of the 19th century

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    Luis Ángel Sánchez Gómez


    Full Text Available Both International and Colonial Exhibitions were the most representative examples of the economic development and the overseas expansion of the most powerful European States during the second half of the 19th century. The objective of this article is to analyze the way Christian Churches, both Catholic and Protestant, approached the organization of these events and to reexamine their channels of participation using the exhibitions that were organized in England, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Germany and Italy as reference. We will take a look at the initial difficulties that were documented, the different ways of interpreting the expositive phenomenon among the Churches and, finally, we will examine the most important international and colonial exhibitions which had an ecclesiastic presence. We found that this participation basically involved a display of the missionary work they carried out as a way to conciliate (partially at least the interest of both the organizing States and the Churches.

  13. "Novaya Uranometriya" Fridrikha Vil'gel'ma Argelandera v nebesnoj kartografii XIX veka %t "The New Uranometry" by F. W. Argelander in the celestial cartography of the 19th century (United States)

    Kuz'min, A. V.

    The 19th century A.D. was an epoch of cardinal changes in the celestial map. Proceeding from an antiquated scheme preserving all the features of the European maps of the 16th century, which were predominantly based on the star catalogue by C. Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.), the 19th century's scientific search resulted in an almost total refusal from all kinds of didactic elements, such as the sky division into constellations or the usage of a letter code for individual stars. Only the equatorial coordinate scale was preserved. To a great extent, it was due to the works of Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799 - 1875) that the tradition of sky mapping revived through the end of the 19th and the whole 20th century and the constellations "returned" back to the sky together with their historic names. His fundmental work Uranometria nova (The New Uranometry), published in 1843, had truly formed a basis for the contemporary constellations' nomenclature and for a new structure of the celestial map, still actual at the present day. The total number of constellations was confined to 88, and their new borders, finally approved by the IAU World Congress in 1922, also came to coincide with the general outlines determined in the afore-cited work.

  14. [Alsatian chemists in Paris in the 19th century: a network, a school?]. (United States)

    Carneiro, A; Pigeard, N


    During the nineteenth century French chemistry was marked by an outstanding number of Alsatian chemists whose scientific contributions cannot be ignored. Especially following the Franco-Prussian War, their regional origin was given a particular importance as a means of affirming their singularity on the French scientific scene. However, some questions may be raised: can we distinguish the Alsatians from other French chemists before 1870? Were they a homogeneous group sharing a common origin? The aim of this article therefore, is, to show that by their theoretical options within chemistry, their personal and professional relationships, as well as by their participation in various common initiatives, they organized themselves both formally and informally within the Parisian scientific community. Amongst these forms of organization the research school of Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817-84) emerges as the nucleus of what we may envisage as a network of Alsatian chemists working in Paris, in the second half of the nineteenth century.

  15. Contemporary criticism on the representation of female travellers of the Ottoman harem in the 19th century: A review

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    Aimillia Mohd. Ramli


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US KO AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} A common problem that needs addressing in the study of narratives concerning the Orient and the Ottoman harem in the 19th century, through an emphasis on gender, is the popular belief amongst certain groups in post-colonial and feminist scholarships that writings by women on these subjects are the alternative to hegemonic imperial discourse. Post-colonial and feminist critics whose research deals with women travel writers to the Middle East and North Africa—Sara Mills, Reina Lewis, Billie Melman, Susan Meyer and Shirley Foster—have all argued that since women were not directly involved in the imperial project, their writings on the Orient and the Ottoman harem should be considered as articulating alternative views in colonial narratives. One of the aims of this paper is to present evidence that suggests that narratives by women, as well as those by men, did not necessarily bear a counter-hegemonic imprint. It argues that in most cases, they display, through the attention to gender and race in relation to the Orient and the Ottoman harem, ambivalences that neither completely support nor subvert the imperialist subject.

  16. Teachers’ leadership and students’ experience of group work.


    Hammar Chiriac, Eva; GRANSTRÖM, Kjell


    Group work is used as a means of learning at all levels of most educational systems.  However, teachers often use group work without considering its “pros and cons.” Such a mode of non-reflected application may sometimes end up in positive experiences and learning, but the likelihood is that the outcome will be the opposite.   The aim of this qualitative study is to address students’ experiences of collaborative group work, that is, when working as a group. What features do students emphasise...

  17. Students' Perceptions of Classroom Group Work as a Function of Group Member Selection (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.


    The purpose of this assessment was to examine whether differences exist between students who self-select their classroom work group members and students who are randomly assigned to their classroom work groups in terms of their use of organizational citizenship behaviors with their work group members; their commitment to, trust in, and relational…

  18. Peer Tutoring and Response Groups. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007


    "Peer Tutoring and Response Groups" aims to improve the language and achievement of English language learners by pairing or grouping students to work on a task. The students may be grouped by age or ability (English-only, bilingual, or limited English proficient) or the groups may be mixed. Both peer tutoring pairs and peer response…

  19. Perceived Communication Skill Needs for Small Work Groups. (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine; Fillion, Bryant

    A study examined communication skills essential for small work groups and whether the quality of small group teaching and research is in decline. The study reviewed small group research done previously by others and the problem of existing pedagogy and research in small group communication which does not provide practical solutions to real life…

  20. [Links between profession and family in the community of Lithuanian pharmacists at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries]. (United States)

    Gudiene, Vilma


    Little research has been carried out in the sphere of the relations between a pharmaceutical career and family in the historiography of pharmacy history. A peculiar influence of family on the choice of the pharmaceutical way of life came into existence in the period of Lithuanian national revival at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. This article aims to reveal the relations between a Lithuanian family and pharmaceutical career, to analyze the influence of political, social, economic factors on these relations. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th the resistance of Lithuanian peasants against Russification, Polonification manifested in their objective to form Lithuanian intelligentsia. Priestly seminaries became the major centre for preparing new Lithuanian intelligentsia. It was prestigious to become a priest. Moreover, this profession guaranteed material wealth. Young people often left the seminary and started their work in pharmacies where they got a shelter and small 5 rubles earning of a pharmacy apprentice. Such runaways from parents settled in the university cities of czarist Russia and had a purpose to become self-dependent (i.e. to get education) without parents' support. The choice of a woman-pharmacist career, however, was greatly influenced by the profession of her husband. Some educated Lithuanian pharmacists encouraged their wives to choose the same specialty as theirs but such occasions were rare. Sometimes it happened so that pharmacists married, but there were only few Lithuanian women-pharmacists or assistants of pharmacists, and in the period of Lithuanian national revival the point of view on ethnically mixed families was negative. This article discusses about the career of women-pharmacists and the influence of family on the choice of a profession, as well as Lithuanian point of view on ethnically mixed families of pharmacists.

  1. Students Life in the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the First Years of Its Existence (Late 19th — Early 20th Ct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Bilyavska


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the various pages of the life of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the first years of its existence — educational, scientific, casual and students participated in the revolutionary-democratic movement of Kyiv late 19th—early 20th centuries. Study of student life Kyiv Polytechnic Institute late 19th and early 20th centuries is a separate page in the history of this institution. In conditions of autocracy, strict control of the Government, of the Ministry of Finance, which was subject to institute systematic interference in its activities of the Kyiv authorities and police, students themselves organized and find different ways to influence the improvement of educational and methodical process, improve their daily lives. Analysis of historical sources provides an answer to the causes of the growth of public and revolutionary activity of a large number of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute that time. General political crisis of the Russian Empire, autocratic way, national and social oppression, lack of political rights and freedoms have caused strong protests from students. One of the main requirements of students was the recognition of the autonomy of higher education institutions, police interference in their activities. Unfair considered sexual, national and class limit admission to the KPI. Object of study was chosen by the author as Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, its work in the late 19th and early 20th century, as the oldest and reputable higher engineering school at that time. Experience of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute is of great importance for the modern transformation of higher education in Ukraine.

  2. [The physician between the ideal and reality: medical profession and popular attitude towards health and medicine in the 19th century]. (United States)

    Zeleznik, Urska


    This paper studies the attitude of the society towards the medical profession, which was torn between high social expectations and ideals and medical practice confronted with real-life obstacles. In the 19th century, the physician's position was still precarious and called for a renegotiation in the community. Physician's work was faced with people's distrust and resistance, superstitions and prejudices, folk medicine and religion. Even such ideal qualities as dignity, conscientiousness, and courage, would quickly be called into question by events such as epidemics. Particularly in 19th century rural areas, the physician's position was far from acknowledged and official medicine had yet to win people's trust. This paper explores the polyvalent attitude of people towards medicine and health. It investigates the discourse used to describe health and medicine in daily press, professional and popular literature, as well as in official medical documents of the time. It shows a long struggle of public health care to gain people's approval. During cholera epidemics, which apart from presenting serious threat to human life were an opportunity for medicine to win people's trust and obedience, the attitude towards health gradually began to change. To some extent this was a result of medical advances, new scientific discoveries, and increasing success in abating the epidemics. At the same time, as the society became more secular, medicine slowly gained people's trust and gradually replaced the healing methods of folk medicine. Health was less and less understood as a result of God's will and mercy, and the attitude towards disease began to evolve from passive resignation to an active battle for health.

  3. Occupational closure in nursing work reconsidered: UK health care support workers and assistant practitioners: A focus group study. (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Nissen, Nina; Lincoln, Carol; Buus, Niels


    In healthcare, occupational groups have adopted tactics to maintain autonomy and control over their areas of work. Witz described a credentialist approach to occupational closure adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the recent advancement of assistant, 'non-qualified' workers by governments and managers forms part of a reconfiguration of traditional professional work. This research used focus groups with three cohorts of healthcare support workers undertaking assistant practitioner training at a London university from 2011 to 13 (6 groups, n = 59). The aim was to examine how these workers positioned themselves as professionals and accounted for professional boundaries. A thematic analysis revealed a complex situation in which participants were divided between articulating an acceptance of a subordinate role within traditional occupational boundaries and a usurpatory stance towards these boundaries. Participants had usually been handpicked by managers and some were ambitious and confident in their abilities. Many aspired to train to be nurses claiming that they will gain recognition that they do not currently get but which they deserve. Their scope of practice is based upon their managers' or supervisors' perception of their individual aptitude rather than on a credentialist claim. They 'usurp' nurses claim to be the healthcare worker with privileged access to patients, saying they have taken over what nursing has considered its core work, while nurses abandon it for largely administrative roles. We conclude that the participants are the not unwilling agents of a managerially led project to reshape the workforce that cuts across existing occupational boundaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report of the Working Group on Publicity and Funding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder


    The report highlights the activities of the working group in raising awareness of the need for geographical names standardization and the work of the Group of Experts, particularly in advancing the digital presence of UNGEGN, through web presence and updated Media Kit and Wikipedia presence...

  5. 78 FR 23329 - Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting Meeting Announcement... attend and participate in an Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting scheduled for Thursday, May 16..., Phone Number, U.S. Citizen (Y/N). RSVPs to Corey Muller are required by COB May 1, 2013. Aircraft Access...

  6. Report of the Working Group on Publicity and Funding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peder


    The report presents the aims and activities of the working group and in its efforts with raising awareness of the need for geographical names standardization and the work of the Group of Experts, through presence on the web and social media and Media Kit. The report also highlights efforts to find...

  7. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa


    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  8. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group. (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  9. Division X, XII / Commission 40, 41 / Working Group Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann, Kenneth; Orchiston, Wayne; Davies, Rod; Gurvits, Leonid; Ishiguro, Masato; Lequeux, James; Swarup, Govind; Wall, Jasper; Wielebinski, Richard; van Woerden, Hugo

    The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA) was formed at the 2003 General Assembly of the IAU as a Joint Working Group of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy), in order to: a) assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and

  10. Integrating Social Justice in Group Work: The Next Decade (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Arredondo, Patricia; Gladding, Samuel T.; Toporek, Rebecca L.


    Group work can be an effective outlet for facilitating client empowerment at individual and systemic levels. This article outlines strategies for increasing attention to social justice issues in group work over the next decade within education, training, supervision, practice, and research. Drawing from historical perspectives, current literature,…

  11. Working group report: Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a summary of the activities of the Physics at the LHC working group in the XIth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-XI) held at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India in January 2010. We discuss the activities of each sub-working group on physics issues at colliders such as ...

  12. Has Group Work Education Lost Its Social Group Work Essence? A Content Analysis of MSW Course Syllabi in Search of Mutual Aid and Group Conflict Content (United States)

    Sweifach, Jay Stephen


    This article presents the results of a content analysis of MSW group work course syllabi in an effort to better understand the extent to which mutual aid and group conflict, two important dimensions of social group work, are included and featured as prominent elements in MSW-level group work instruction.

  13. Graduate Social Work Students' Experiences with Group Work in the Field and the Classroom (United States)

    Goodman, Harriet; Knight, Carolyn; Khudododov, Khudodod


    For decades, group work scholars have described a discrepancy between student preparation for group work practice and opportunities to work with groups in the field practicum and professional practice. Educators in related disciplines such as counseling and psychology have expressed similar concerns. This article reports findings of a study of MSW…

  14. Students' use of the interactive whiteboard during physics group work (United States)

    Strøm Mellingsæter, Magnus; Bungum, Berit


    This paper presents a case study of how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) may facilitate collective meaning-making processes in group work in engineering education. In the case, first-year students attended group-work sessions as an organised part of a basic physics course at a Norwegian university college. Each student group was equipped with an IWB, which the groups used to write down and hand in their solutions to the physics problems. Based on a Vygotskian, dialectical stance, this study investigates how the students used the IWB in the group-work situation. From qualitative analysis of video data, we identified four group-work processes where the IWB played a key role: exploratory, explanatory, clarifying and insertion. The results show that the IWB may facilitate a 'joint workspace', a social realm in which the students' dialogues are situated.

  15. Investigating the Effectiveness of Group Work in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Sofroniou


    Full Text Available Group work permits students to develop a range of critical thinking, analytical and communication skills; effective team work; appreciation and respect for other views, techniques and problem-solving methods, all of which promote active learning and enhance student learning. This paper presents an evaluation of employing the didactic and pedagogical customs of group work in mathematics with the aim of improving student performance as well as exploring students’ perceptions of working in groups. The evaluation of group work was carried out during tutorial time with first year civil engineering students undertaking a mathematics module in their second semester. The aim was to investigate whether group work learning can help students gain a deeper understanding of the module content, develop improved critical and analytical thinking skills and see if this method of pedagogy can produce higher performance levels. The group work sessions were conducted over four weeks whilst studying the topic of integration. Evaluation surveys were collected at the end of the intervention along with an investigation into the examination results from the end of semester examinations. In order to derive plausible and reasonable conclusions, these examination results were compared with an analogous cohort of first year mathematics students, also studying integration in their engineering-based degree. The investigation into the effectiveness of group work showed interesting and encouraging positive outcomes, supported by a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  16. Opinions of Online Nursing Students Related to Working in Groups. (United States)

    Hampton, Debra C; El-Mallakh, Peggy


    The purpose of this study was to examine nursing students' perceptions regarding the usefulness of group work in online nursing programs, to identify challenges with online group work, and to determine which factors contribute to successful completion of online group assignments. An online survey was used to obtain data for this qualitative descriptive study. The sample consisted of 217 nursing students in RN-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master's of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Nursing Practice programs. The majority of online nursing students preferred not to work on assignments in groups due to the challenges but realized the importance and value of doing so. Participants stated that the greatest challenges to effective group work included time management and unequal contributions of individual group members. Strategies that facilitated effective group work included identification of compatible group members, communication, establishment of clear expectations for time lines and organization, and oversight from the course instructors. Faculty need to implement strategies to result in positive learning experiences for online nursing students because working effectively in groups is a critical nursing skill. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(10):611-616.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Group Work with Homeless Mothers: Promoting Resilience Through Mutual Aid. (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn


    In the article, the author discusses how group work can be used to promote strength and resilience in homeless mothers, based on the current theoretical and empirical literature. The advantages of group work for homeless mothers are identified, as well as the skills and tasks associated with effective leadership of such groups. Common themes that surface in these groups are examined, as are challenges. The author's experiences facilitating a group for homeless mothers in a residential shelter are used to illustrate key points. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  18. The Unsung Past: Afro-American Women Writers of 19th Century. (United States)

    Simson, Renate

    Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…

  19. Nitrogen, land and water inputs in changing cattle farming systems. A historical comparison for France, 19th-21st centuries. (United States)

    Chatzimpiros, Petros; Barles, Sabine


    This paper provides an original account of the long-term regional metabolism in relation to the cattle rearing in western France starting by the precise formulation of animal diets at three key dates of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. We established links between the demand in fodder of the meat and dairy sectors and the necessary inputs of nitrogen, water and land as well as the land cover changes occurring on the affected local and remote cattle acreage. The average agricultural productivity for fodder supply is estimated at about 50 kg N/ha in the mid-19th, 54 kg N/ha in the early 20th and 150 kg N/ha at the turning of the 21st century. Jointly for the dairy and meat productions, the potential efficiency in the conversion of the vegetal into animal protein more than doubled over the studied period, passing from less than 9% in the 19th to 20% in the 21st century. The current cattle sector is sustained for about 25% by land situated beyond the regional frontiers and uses water at intensities that approach or exceed the availability of renewable water. The nitrogen pollution is expressed in terms of the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) and, by comparison to the N recovered in products, is used to define the N-Environmental Efficiency of the farming. We discuss the historical succession of the factors that contributed to the growth of the meat and milk production and make a comparison of the impacts and policy between the local and distant resources. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic Development of Sarepta District of the Tsaritsyn County at the Turn of the 19th-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfenov Aleksandr E.


    Full Text Available The article shows the process of the industrial development of Sarepta district (now the southern part of Volgograd at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. By the end of the 19th century the Sarepta district comprised 17 production entities. The majority of them were small workshops that manufactured various household goods and had from 5 to 10 workers. Besides, Sarepta had a larger industrial enterprise – the Mustard Factory of the Glitsch – which was known throughout Russia for the high quality of its produce. Agriculture played a minor role in Sarepta district. The population of Sarepta district amounted to about 1800 people in 1894. It comprised landowners, small industrialists, and their hired workers. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a rapid industrial development of the area. The first stage of the process was the building of the Tsaritsyn- Tikhoretskaya railway line. It connected the Kuban wheat-growing region with central areas of Russia. A 13-kilometres long section of the railway line passed through Sarepta district. Near Sarepta a station, a locomotive depot, and repair workshops were built in 1895-98. In 1901 the railway line and station were supplemented with a large cargo port on the Volga near Sarepta. The creation of the large transport hub sharply raised the economic significance of Sarepta district. Social and demographic characteristics of the area also changed dramatically. Due to the inflow of workers to the station and port, the district population nearly doubled and the ratio of proletariat raised sharply.

  1. The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century. (United States)

    Baten, Joerg; Pelger, Ines; Twrdek, Linda


    This anthropometric study focuses on the histories of three important Latin American countries - Brazil, Peru, and Argentina - during the 19th century, and tests hypotheses concerning their welfare trends. While non-farm Brazil and Lima, Peru, started at relatively low height levels, Brazil made substantial progress in nutritional levels from the 1860s to the 1880s. In contrast, Lima remained at low levels. Argentinean men were tall to begin with, but heights stagnated until 1910. The only exception were farmers and landowners, who benefited from the export boom.

  2. The everyday life and customs of Constantinople Patriarchs in the second half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich


    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the church conflicts between Greeks and Bulgarians in the second half of the 19th century. It is rather interesting to have an overlook of everyday life, customs and material status of the Constantinople Patriarchs of those times during the Church conflict. In his research the author bases on the documents from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire. The schism of 1872 has set on edge the tensed relations in the midst of the highest Greek hierarchy of the Constantinople Church.

  3. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  4. The 19th of July 2016 Multi-Chord Stellar Occultation by Pluto - A European PRO-AM cooperation (United States)

    Beisker, W.; Eberle, A.; Gaehrken, B.; Kattentidt, B.; Murawski, G.; Gazeas, K.; Tzouganatos, L.; Tigani, K.; Gloistein, D.; Hampf, D.; Hampf, D.; Eichler, H.; Hattenbach, J.; Guhl, K.; Dohrmann, M.; Krannich, G.; Lindner, P.; Marchini, A.; Papini, R.; Salvaggio, F.; Ohlert, J.; Kloes, O.; Farago, O.; Farago, A.; Grzedzielsk, P.; Signoret, F.; Moravec, Z.; Tsamis, V.; Wortmann, G.; Walzel, K.; Rothe, W.; Bode, H.-J.; Dangl, G.; Berard, D.; Desmars, J.; Leiva, R.; Meza, E.; Assafin, M.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Braga Ribas, F.; Camargo, J.; Dias de Oliveira, A.; Gomes Junior, A.; Vieira, R. M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.; Sicardy, B.


    The occultation of the 14th mag star UCAC4 345-180315 by Pluto on the evening of the 19th of July, 2016 could be observed from large parts of Europe, middle east and northern Africa as well. A campaign had been organized with for many observers and observatories throughout Europe and other countries. Professional as well as amateur observatories and observers shared in a PRO-AM cooperation to achieve the highest possible degree of coverage. The scientific goal was the ongoing monitoring of Pluto's atmosphere, waiting for a possible shrinking of its pressure due to the increasing distance of Pluto from the sun.

  5. Impact of Group Development Knowledge on Students' Perceived Importance and Confidence of Group Work Skills (United States)

    Coers, Natalie; Williams, Jennifer


    This study explored the impact of emphasis on the group development process on the perceived importance of and confidence in group work skills and students' perception of group work use in the collegiate classroom as developed by Tuckman and Jensen (1977). The purposive sample utilized in this study included 33 undergraduate students enrolled in…

  6. Letting the Drama into Group Work: Using Conflict Constructively in Performing Arts Group Practice (United States)

    Crossley, Tracy


    The article examines conflict avoidance in performing arts group work and issues arising in relation to teaching and learning. In group theory, conflict is addressed largely in terms of its detrimental effects on group work, and its constructive potential is often marginalized. Similarly, undergraduate students usually interpret "effective…

  7. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan. (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S


    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  8. The Power and Promise of Group Work: Consumer Evaluation of Group Work Services in Gauteng, South Africa (United States)

    Rasool, Shahana; Ross, Eleanor


    Purpose: In light of the limited research into consumers' experiences of group work services in South Africa, the study evaluated groups offered by a range of social service agencies in Gauteng to determine whether group interventions were perceived by users as developmental and empowering. Methods: Program evaluation was employed to evaluate 47…

  9. Summary of the BDS and MDI CLIC08 Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Ahmed, I; Ambatu, PK; Angal-Kalinin, D; Barlow, R; Baud, J P; Bolzon, B; Braun, H; Burkhardt, H; Burt, GC; Corsini, R; Dalena, B; Dexter, AC; Dolgashev, V; Elsener, K; Fernandez Hernando, JL; Gaillard, G; Geffroy, N; Jackson, F; Jeremie, A; Jones, RM; McIntosh, P; Moffeit, K; Peltier, F; Resta-López, J; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Seryi, A; Toader, A; Zimmermann, F


    This note summarizes the presentations held within the Beam Delivery System and Machine Detector Interface working group of the CLIC08 workshop. The written contributions have been provided by the presenters on a voluntary basis.

  10. Report from the Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group. (United States)


    This project assists the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) in assessing the potential impacts of the Panama Canal expansion on Texas ports and the landside transportation system. TxDOT formed a Panama Canal Stakeholder Working Group (PCSWG) ...

  11. The Exclusive Group - Expatriates Working against Corporate Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob


    as destructive towards overall corporate aims to internationalise and develop managerial and organisational competencies. Specifically excluding behaviour and cultural boundary creation of the expatriate group hindered the necessary cross-cultural communication and thereby working against corporate strategy...

  12. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . While activities in flavor physics have been mainly focused on -physics, those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. We present summary of working group discussions carried out during the workshop in the ...

  13. Environmental Working Group Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Working Group (EWG) was established in June 1995 under the framework of the U.S.-Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technological...


    Abstract: The Historical Control Data Working Group, under the direction of the Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee, is tasked with the preparation of a document that reviews current scientific practices, regulations and relevant literature in order to provide best practic...

  15. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group (United States)

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  16. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Artuso et al.


    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  17. LHC Communication Infrastructure Recommendations from the working group

    CERN Document Server

    Altaber, Jacques; Burckhart, H J; Cittolin, Sergio; Faugeras, Paul E; Guerrero, L E; Lauckner, R J; Ninin, P; Parker, R; Sicard, Claude Henri


    The LHC Working Group for Communication Infrastructure (CIWG) was established in May 1999 with members from the accelerator sector, the LHC physics experiments, the general communication services, the technical services and other LHC working groups. It has spent a year collecting user requirements and at the same time explored and evaluated possible solutions appropriate to the LHC. A number of technical recommendations were agreed, and areas where more work is required were identified. The working group also put forward proposals for organizational changes needed to allow the design project to continue and to prepare for the installation and commissioning phase of the LHC communication infrastructure. This paper reports on the work done and explains the motivation behind the recommendations.

  18. 1st Report of the Working Group on Standard Development


    Walkenhorst, Michael; Sundrum, Albert


    The initial meeting of the working group on standard development took place at the 1st SAFO-Workshop, September 2003, in Florence. In accordance with the main topic of the Workshop, the discussion was primarily focused on the relationship between socio-economic aspects of the standards and the issue of animal health and food safety in organic farming. The report cover the additional issues discussed in the 1st Working Group meeting in Florence.

  19. Working group report: Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Working group report: Physics at the Large Hadron Collider. Coordinators: D K GHOSH1,∗. , A NYFFELER2 and V RAVINDRAN2. Working group members: N Agarwal3, P Agarwal4, P Bandyopadhyay2,5,. R Basu6, B Bhattacherjee7, S S Biswal7, D Choudhury8, M Dahiya9, S Dutta9,. N Gaur8, K Ghosh10, R M Godbole11 ...

  20. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century. (United States)

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo


    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Dog slaughtering in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries with special consideration of the Munich area]. (United States)

    Geppert, P


    In the 19th century professional dog slaughter and also the public sale of dog flesh arose. These slaughter and the sale was mainly practised by horse butchers. In Germany dogs had been mostly slaughtered in Sachsen, Schlesien, Anhalt and Bayern. From 1905 to 1940 the meat of 235.144 dogs was inspected. But the true number of slaughtered dogs was certainly larger. Yet in the fifties dogs were professionally slaughtered. After 1960 the slaughter dropped. Sporadically dog flesh was used as human food until 1985. The annual number of slaughtered dogs depended on economic factors like wages, prices of meat, availability of meat and dog tax. Dogs had been also slaughtered to produce dog fat for remedy. Slaughter of dogs has been already discussed in the 19th century. After 1930 it was called for abolishing the inspection order for dogs or for the prohibition of dog slaughter. After four bills of the years 1954, 1963 and 1985 the slaughter of dogs to produce human food was finally prohibited in 1986.

  2. The culturo-historical and personal circumstances of some 19th-century missionaries teaching in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. van der Walt


    Full Text Available Broadly speaking, two approaches to missionary education in South Africa can be distinguished: a facts and figures approach featuring mainly the historical facts, statistics and other data concerning this period in education, and a rather more critical approach intended to prove the point that missionary education was instrumental in alienating the blacks from their traditional cultural heritage and in employing black labour in the class-dominated capitalist society of South Africa. A third approach is followed in this article: the period of missionary' education is approached by way of an analysis of the prevailing Zeitgeist in South Africa, Europe and elsewhere early in (he 19th century and of the concomitant philosophical and theological trends al Ute time. The personal motives and circumstances of the missionaries are also scrutinized. By following this approach a fuller and more illuminating view of missionary’ education in the 19th-century is assured, a view which can fruitfully be applied in conjunction with the other two approaches.

  3. The role of fenestration in promoting daylight performance. The mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingy I. El-Darwish


    Full Text Available Mosques have always been sacred places with distinctive sustainable environments. Fenestration in the prayers’ zone whether clerestories, screened windows, dome lighting and other light features have managed to produce significant spiritual human comfort areas. This paper focuses on fenestration of divine mosques and relates them to promoting daylight performance. The research process emphasizes the importance of daylight performance by promoting simulation tools on historical mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century that has witnessed change over time. The paper is a step toward sustainable lighting schemes in prayers’ zones that help to achieve human comfort as well as minimize use of energy. This study aimed at investigating the daylight performance by the use of climate based daylighting metrics which is “Daylight Autonomy” (DA. Daylight Autonomy is evaluated in the year round for the day lighted prayer periods to evaluate the behavior of fenestration of the different selected sample of mosques since the 19th century in Alexandria on a simulation tool in order to check whether it complies with the required illuminate and glare levels. The research findings are an attempt to lead to performative design guidelines introducing a contemporary interpretation for use in enhancing new designs of these holistic buildings.

  4. Cultivating and Benefiting from Member Familiarity in Temporary Work Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Shannon

    cooperative behavior in these groups. Second, I challenge our expectation that a task-oriented over relationship-oriented approach will inevitably dominate work when projects are time-bound and of short duration by describing moments in which these groups chose relationship-oriented activities despite time......In this paper, I investigate an example of short-duration, time-bound project work conducted by high-performing groups in order to surprise our expectations regarding the motivations and potential to cooperate and to cultivate group member familiarity within such temporary organizations. Project...... participants included seven string quartets that worked together in different combinations and without the expectation of future collaboration across groups. I consider what motivated cooperation and relationship-oriented activities as well as the conditions which enabled these activities to emerge despite...

  5. The Eco-Refurbishment of a 19th Century Terraced House: Energy and Cost Performance for Current and Future UK Climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haniyeh Mohammadpourkarbasi; Steve Sharples


    ... met. This paper uses computer modeling to examine the annual operational energy performance, long term energy cost savings and internal thermal conditions for a 19th century terraced house that was eco...

  6. Maurizio Isabella & Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páll Björnsson


    Full Text Available A review of: Maurizio Isabella and Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

  7. Look What We Got! How Inherited Data Drives Decision-Making: UNC-Chapel Hill’s 19th-Century American Sheet Music Collection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renée McBride


    ...? This article describes such an experience at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University Library with its CONTENTdm-based 19th-Century American Sheet Music Collection, addressing...

  8. Landscape designers, doctors, and the making of healthy urban spaces in 19th century America (United States)

    Robert Martensen


    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  9. Group Work and Undergraduate Accounting Students: A Bourdieusian Analysis (United States)

    Teviotdale, Wilma W.; Clancy, David; Fisher, Roy; Hill, Pat


    This study investigated students' views and experiences of group work in a vocationally oriented undergraduate accounting and finance degree course in an English post-1992 university. In this context tutors prepare students for the profession and for the workplace, and the development of team-working skills is a core element in the curriculum.…

  10. Investigating the Effectiveness of Group Work in Mathematics (United States)

    Sofroniou, Anastasia; Poutos, Konstantinos


    Group work permits students to develop a range of critical thinking, analytical and communication skills; effective team work; appreciation and respect for other views, techniques and problem-solving methods, all of which promote active learning and enhance student learning. This paper presents an evaluation of employing the didactic and…

  11. Funções e condições de trabalho de um enfermeiro no Hospital de S. José (meados do século XIX Funciones y condiciones de trabajo de un enfermero en el Hospital de S. José (a mediados del siglo XIX Functions and working conditions of a nurse at the Hospital de S. José (mid-19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lousada Subtil


    Estado (1836-1862, según la metodología de análisis histórica. Se presentan aspectos del ambiente físico y económico del hospital, la posición del grupo de enfermeros respecto a los demás trabajadores, la organización del día a día en las enfermerías y las funciones de los diversos empleados. Existian dos grupos de empleados: los mayores y los menores donde estaban incluidos los enfermeros. El enfermero - figura central en las rutinas y gestión de la enfermería - tenía funciones de supervisión de los auxiliares de enfermería y ”moços”. Los auxiliares eran quienes realizaban los cuidados a los enfermos. Sería útil proseguir este estudio en periodos subsecuentes o realizar un estudio comparativo con el Hospital Termal de Caldas o un hospital bajo la tutela de las Misericordias.Portuguese nurses currently have several tools and ressouces that regulate their professional practice. Nevertheless, the consolidation of the identity process requires efforts to clarify the practices and contexts of the profession in earlier historical periods, namely during the constitutional monarchy. We intend to contribute to clarifying the professional and social status of the nurse stated in the Regulation of Hospital de S. José, of 21st January 1851. We consulted and analysed the Regulation and Colection of State Budgets (1836-1862, using the historical analysis method. We present aspects of the physical and economic environment of the hospital, the position of the nursing staff compared with the other employees, the daily organization in wards and the role of each employee. They were two groups of employees: employees with major functions and employees with minor functions, which included nurses. The nurse - central figure in the management and routines of the ward- had supervisory responsibilities over nursing assistants and ”moços”. Patient care was perfomed by nursing assistants. It would be useful to conduct further research on subsequent periods or carry

  12. The treatment of tuberculosis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century. (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Mares, Donatella; Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano


    The present work is a review of the remedies in use in Ferrara against tuberculosis in the 1800s. The work started from the discovery of accounts describing methods and remedies. These remedies were also in use world wide. Of particular interest is the work by Antonio Campana, a famous professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany in Ferrara, who wrote a pharmacopoeia which had several editions between 1797 and 1841. The Farmacopea Ferrarese was addressed to the apothecaries of Ferrara. Nevertheless, due to its great reputation it had an international distribution. It provided us with an exhaustive view about the medical field in Ferrara in the early 1800s. The remedies adopted in the city in the second half of the century were in line with those present abroad. The work was also supported by the discovery of statistical accounts of the Sant'Anna hospital from 1871. The manuscript written by Alessandro Bennati enabled elucidation of the methods used to treat tuberculosis in the second half of the century. Bennati's work is an historical document completed by the work of the physician Cesare Minerbi.

  13. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  14. Emotions in work groups as moral orientation guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Brinkmann, Svend


    We argue that emotions in groups can best be studied qualitatively and act as moral orientation guides. This article argues first that the normativity of particular practices is at play in any rational empirical investigation of emotions in workgroups and second that moral values must be studied ...... in order to understand emotions in work groups...

  15. WHEPP-X: Report of the working group on cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This is a summary of the activities of the working group on cosmology at. WHEPP-X. The three main problems that were discussed at some length by the group dur- ing the course of the workshop were (i) canceling a 'large' cosmological constant, (ii) non-. Gaussianities in inflationary models and (iii) stability of ...

  16. Learning What Works: Promoting Small-Group Discussions (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; Dao, Jennifer N.; González, Gloriana


    Many teachers have designed lessons for students who will be working in groups to discuss and solve a problem. After investing time in constructing an interesting problem, creating strategically designed groups, and introducing the problem carefully, teachers may be left wondering how to help students collaborate to make sense of mathematical…

  17. Group Work and Outreach Plans for College Counselors (United States)

    Fitch, Trey, Ed.; Marshall, Jennifer L., Ed.


    In this book, group work and college counseling leaders offer step-by-step instruction in the effective use and processing of structured group activities on topics such as test anxiety; stress and anxiety management; ADHD; career development; substance abuse; eating disorders; and the unique concerns faced by GLBT students, first-generation…

  18. Reconstruction of meaning during group work in a teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It involved 107 teacher education students who jointly reflected on practice teaching experiences in a structured group work session. The teaching practice experiences were the vehicle for investigating the ways and the extent in which students were able to reconstruct their understandings in a group discussion.

  19. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.


    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  20. Figurative Potential of Russian Hydronymes in the Poetry of 19th – 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azaliya R. Gizatullina


    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of Dnieper, Don, Volga and Neva hydronyms use as aesthetically significant elements of an artistic text. The urgency of the work is that the development of language and speech aesthetics issues are among the promising trends of linguistic studies. However, the aesthetic resources of most onomastic units, including toponyms, are still poorly studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the figurative possibilities of these hydronyms, functioning in the poetic works of Russian authors. The following methods were used as the main ones in the work: modeling, distributive, semantic-stylistic and quantitative analysis. The material for the study was represented by the poetic works of the 19-20th centuries, extracted from the "National Corpus of the Russian Language". The novelty of the work was made up of selected figurative paradigms, in which the considered hydronyms are used as the subject of comparison. During the performed study five most voluminous figurative paradigms were revealed, in which the position of the right member is replaced by lexical units related to the concepts of "being", "water", "substance", "tissue" and "terrestrial space". The criteria of intentional rapprochement of hydronyms with other subject lexemes were determined in order to develop the imagery of a poetic text. The findings can be used to study the onomastic space of Russian language, as well as for the further development of artistic speech theory.

  1. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter`s mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps.

  2. Louis Figuier translated in Brazil: science popularizers in the last quarter of 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kodama


    Full Text Available This article aims to address aspects of the history of the divulgation of sciences in Brazil in the nineteenth century, through the analysis of the circulation of some translations into Portuguese of the works of French popularizer of science, Louis Figuier. His works, which were translated to different languages, received editions in Brazil and Portugal since late 1860. During this period, a model of popularization of science for non-specialists - working class, women and youth - with emphasis on applied science was gaining terrain. However, this model was also marked by limitations and discontinuities that reflect social issues in the passage to the twentieth century. This paper attempts to highlight the role of translators and editors, understood as mediators of science, whose projects of social reform was primarily focused in popular instruction.

  3. The real and the complex a history of analysis in the 19th century

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy


    This book contains a history of real and complex analysis in the nineteenth century, from the work of Lagrange and Fourier to the origins of set theory and the modern foundations of analysis. It studies the works of many contributors including Gauss, Cauchy, Riemann, and Weierstrass. This book is unique owing to the treatment of real and complex analysis as overlapping, inter-related subjects, in keeping with how they were seen at the time. It is suitable as a course in the history of mathematics for students who have studied an introductory course in analysis, and will enrich any course in undergraduate real or complex analysis.

  4. Unity through Diversity: Value-in-Diversity Beliefs, Work Group Diversity, and Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); S.A. Haslam (Alexander); M.J. Platow (Michael)


    textabstractResearch on work group diversity has more or less neglected the possibility that reactions to diversity may be informed by individuals' beliefs about the value of diversity (vs. homogeneity) for their work group. We studied the role of such diversity beliefs as a moderator of the

  5. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  6. Sexual education of youth in the light of the 19th century paraenetic guidebooks [Wychowanie seksualne młodzieży w świetle XIX-wiecznych poradników parenetycznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz SZUBERT


    Full Text Available century. The analysis of moralistic treaties and parental guidebooks, perceived as important cultural texts, allows investigation of the process of changes taking place in – what is called – the sexual pedagogy. The turn of the 18th and the 19th centuries can be interpreted as a visible increase in the interest in human sexuality at the level of a paraenetic narrative. Thus, a moral discourse is combined with the discourse of hygiene. From the perspective of cultural history, special attention should be paid to the increased popularity of the category of shame understood as a regulator of social bonds (including family bonds. The transformation of intimacy in the culture of the 19th century seems to be important and interesting evidence of the formation of double morality (overt and covert as well as of the functioning of conflicting tendencies for tabooing and, at the same time, speaking about sexual experiences. The fear of social condemnation effectively shaped everyday life. Scandals and social embarrassment were avoided almost as much as a detriment to one’s health or a risk of sudden death. The second half of the 19th century was the time of a rapid increase in the popularity of educational and social guides. Emotions and spontaneous behaviour become inappropriate, and the social life became dominated by mechanisms and self-disciplinary tendencies. Social life was under heavy peer pressure and – by the same token – individual gestures and tendencies were eradicated. The culture of the 19th century is a particularly interesting reservoir of matrimonial and parental models. The education of children and teenagers focuses on teaching one how to play desired social roles: of virtuous misses from good families or, a little less restrictive, of model bachelors, potential ideal husbands and fathers. The theatricalisation of everyday life reached its peak in the 19th century culture. At the same time, it must be

  7. A Child in a Working Class Family in the Kingdom of Poland at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta BOŁDYREW


    Full Text Available From the point of view of studies in humanities and social science (pedagogy, history of education, sociology, ethnology an important issue of discussion is the position and the role of a child in a workingclass family, the conditions of his so and the norms of education at the time of intensive social and economic changes. Financial situation, the structure of a family, emotional ties, cultural message of the environment influenced the methods and aims of bringing up children. The reconstruction of the phenomenon is possible due to the archive sources (for instance, the documents of social organizations which supported poor town families, newspapers, guide books, diaries, statistic data, acts of law (for instance, laws concerning children and young people, ethnologic materials, literature, photographs, and numerous methodological solutions used at that timedata

  8. Paths to Theo-Humanity in the Work of Russian Thinkers of the 19th and 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sládek


    Full Text Available The present study introduces the conception of theo-humanity against the background of the lives of six Russian Christian thinkers (Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky, Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov, Pavel Alexandrovich Florensky, Sergey Nikolayevich Bulgakov, Pavel Nikolayevich Evdokimov, Vladimir Nikolayevich Lossky, whose experience is integrated in a systematic reflection of their relationship to theo-humanity. The text is divided into three main sections discussing the search for paths to theo-humanity upon experiencing a crisis of the soul among the intelligentsia of czarist Russia, theo-humanity as a way of struggling with evil and theosis by synergy of humanity and theo-humanity in the theology of the new generation of Russian theologians, and finally theo-humanity in the neo-Palamitic synthesis of Russian exiles. Cesty k boholidství u ruských myslitelů 19. a 20. století V předložené studii je představeno pojetí boholidství na pozadí osudů šesti ruských křesťanských myslitelů (Fjodor Michailovič Dostojevskij, Vladimír Sergejevič Solovjov, Pavel Alexandrovič Florenskij, Sergej Nikolajevič Bulgakov, Pavel Nikolajevič Evdokimov, Vladimír Nikolajevič Losskij, přičemž jejich zkušenost bude následně vřazena do systematické reflexe nad jejich vztahem k boholidství. Text je rozdělen na tři hlavní kapitoly sledující: hledání cest k boholidství po prožití vnitřní duševní krize u inteligence carského Ruska, boholidství jako cesta boje se zlem a cesta zbožštění synergií mezi lidstvím a boholidstvím v teologii nové generace ruských teologů a konečně boholidství v neoplamitské syntéze ruských emigrantů.

  9. The Influence of Delsarte’s Work in the United States: Late 19th Century and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lee Chalfa Ruyter


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of François Delsarte on bodily motion, theater, and elocution in the United States from the late nineteenth century. It presents his main ideas and how they were developed and transformed in the country since 1870, becoming, in their last phase, which began in the 1880s, a theory that was applied to all aspects of life, independent from its European form. The contributions of Steele Mackaye, Genevieve Stebbins, Henrietta Hovey and others are mentioned.

  10. Diabetes in Africa: the new pandemic. Report on the 19th World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes in Africa is predicted to increase by 80% in 2025 and impact younger working age patients. We increasingly live in an obesogenic society that drives the global pandemic of Type 2 diabetes. The powerful commercial, socio-economic and political factors shaping this society encourage individual ...

  11. The Jewish contribution to medicine Part Ill. The 19th and 20th ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Landsteiner, who discovered blood grouping, and Waksman, who evoloved streptomycin. Other eminent workers, such as the Flexner brothers in medical education and research, Libman, who pioneered blood culture in the USA, and Salk and Sabin with the poliomyelitis vaccine were prominent in the major contribution ...

  12. IAU Astronomy for Equity and Inclusion Working Group (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; García, B.; WG3 of Commission C1 Division C of the IAU


    In this talk we present the aims, goals and activities that have been started by the working group on Astronomy for Equity and Inclusion. This working group is part of Commission 1 ''Astronomy Education and Development'' of Division C ''Education, Outreach and Heritage'' of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The working group was born with the aim of developing new strategies and resources to promote the access to Astronomy, both at the profesional and outreach levels, for persons with special needs or for those who could be excluded because of race or sexual orientation (among other reasons). It is composed of astronomers affiliated with the IAU and other volunteers who work in astronomy, education and special needs, as well as partner organizations like the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD), Astronomers without Borders (AWB), the Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) or Universe Awareness (UNAWE). To reach those goals we have started different initiatives which are outlined at the working group’s website, like a repository of resources or the creation of a document about good practices, and the establishment of a tight collaboration with the Working Group about Accessibility of the American Astronomical Society, which was formed recently too.

  13. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Benn


    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  14. Breaking Cycles of Violence. A Work Group of the International Work Group on Death, Dying and Bereavement (IWG) (United States)

    Death Studies, 2005


    Violence begets violence and it is important to understand how cycles of violence are perpetuated if we are to find solutions to the global problems they present. A multi-disciplinary group of The International Work Group on Death, Dying and Bereavement has developed a model of the cyclical events that perpetuate violence at all levels including…

  15. Enlightenment and School History in 19th Century Greece: the Case of Gerostathis by Leon Melas (1862-1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Athanasiades


    Full Text Available Students in present-day Greek schools are taught History as a biography of the Greek nation from the Mycenaean times to the present. Over the course of three millennia, the Greek nation has experienced three periods of cultural flourishing and political autonomy: (i the period of Antiquity (from the times of legendary King Agamemnon to those of Alexander the Great, (ii the Byzantine period (from Justinian’s ascension in the 6th century to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and (iii the modern era (from the War of Independence in 1821 to the present day. However, in this article we argue that in the 19th century the history taught in Greek schools differed substantially from the tripartite schema described above. In support of our thesis, we examine the most popular school textbook of the 19th century, O Gerostathis, by Leon Melas. In the Gerostathis, the history of the Greek nation is identified with that of Classical Greece (i.e. from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC, which is held up as an exemplary era worthy of emulation. In contrast, the rise of Macedon under Philip II signals the cultural decline of the Greeks and the loss of their political autonomy, which was not regained for two millennia, until the 1821 national revolution. In that period, the Greek nation ceased not to exist, but survived as a subjugate of the Macedonians, the Romans, and finally the Ottomans. The Byzantine, on the other hand, is described as an unremarkable period of decadence that is only worth mentioning in relation to its final period, that of the Palaeologus dynasty, which bestowed upon the Greeks a legacy of resistance against the Ottomans. We argue that the above reading of the Greek past owed much to the Enlightenment, which as an intellectual movement still exerted a powerful influence (albeit to a gradually diminishing degree on Greek intellectuals up to the latter third of the 19th century.

  16. Neural activity reveals perceptual grouping in working memory. (United States)

    Rabbitt, Laura R; Roberts, Daniel M; McDonald, Craig G; Peterson, Matthew S


    There is extensive evidence that the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a scalp recorded event-related brain potential, provides a reliable index of the number of objects held in visual working memory. Here we present evidence that the CDA not only indexes visual object working memory, but also the number of locations held in spatial working memory. In addition, we demonstrate that the CDA can be predictably modulated by the type of encoding strategy employed. When individual locations were held in working memory, the pattern of CDA modulation mimicked previous findings for visual object working memory. Specifically, CDA amplitude increased monotonically until working memory capacity was reached. However, when participants were instructed to group individual locations to form a constellation, the CDA was prolonged and reached an asymptote at two locations. This result provides neural evidence for the formation of a unitary representation of multiple spatial locations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Group Work Education in Social Work: A Review of the Literature Reveals Possible Solutions (United States)

    LaRocque, Sarah E.


    This article examines the growing concerns in the literature that traditional group work education in social work is not providing the foundational knowledge, skills, evidence-based practice, professional uses of self, and adherence to practice standards necessary for effective group practice. An exploration of the best available evidence on group…

  18. Social Work Students' Experiences with Group Work in the Field Practicum (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn


    The study reported on in this article assessed MSW and BSW students' opportunities to practice group work in their field practicum. More than one third of participants had no such opportunity during their yearlong internship, despite their program's requirement that group work opportunities be available. Among the students who did have experience…

  19. Atomic Pioneers Book 2 From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn


    This book gives a brief account of the lives and work of 26 men and women who contributed to the great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science from the 1800s to the mid-1900s. The 26 are: William Prout, Michael Faraday, Eilhardt Mitscherlich, Joseph Henry, Thomas Graham, Stanislao Cannizzaro, James Clerk Maxwell, Dmitri I. Mendeleev, Joseph Norman Lockyer, John William Strutt, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, Antione Henri Becquerel, Hendrik A. Lorentz, J.J. Thomson, Max Planck, Svante A. Arrhenius, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, Pieter Zeeman, Theodore W. Richards, C.T.R. Wilson, Ernest Rutherford, Francis W. Aston, Frederick Soddy, Lise Meitner, and Otto Hahn.

  20. Work discussion groups in clinical supervision in mental health nursing. (United States)

    Ho, Danny

    This study aims to explore the value and meaning of a psychodynamic work discussion for mental health nurses, and its potential as an approach in staff clinical supervision. Data were generated by using a focus group with a purposive sample of six mental health nurses, and analysed by the 'collapsing of data' from labels to form categories and formulate themes. The findings suggest that staff emotion generated from clinical work is dealt with in many personal ways though rarely in clinical supervision. Although the idea of a work discussion group is not readily known among the focus group, staff appear to be open to its potential to provide a helpful emotional perspective. Education in the form of an introduction and exposure to some basic psychodynamic ideas could provide the first step towards unlocking its potential. Sharing personal experiences of an emotional nature within a safe, secure environment seems significant in this education process.

  1. Creating Places of Public Memory through the Naming of School Buildings. A Case Study of Urban School Spaces in Bologna in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella D’Ascenzo


    Full Text Available This contribution sets out to analyse the official names of Italian schools in the 19th and 20th centuries, considering these schools as places of civil, political and scholastic memory. Studying national legislation and based on historical research into specific schools in Italy, the work focuses on the naming of the school buildings found today in the city of Bologna (Italy during the period from Unification until the Second World War. Examining as-yet unexplored archive sources, the study investigates the motivations underlying the school names, the contexts in which they were debated and decided, the inauguration ceremonies and the relative official speeches given by the authorities, the stones laid or busts displayed in or outside the schools and the complex scenography set up for the local people offering a «pedagogic» and yet political discourse, as an authentic educational heritage of «public memory» and political pedagogy for the generations of the time and those to come. This study also shows some interesting surprises concerning famous and less well-known figures and personalities pointed out in the local school memory but legible on many levels of historical and educational interpretation. This work has confirmed that officially named of Italian school buildings are authentic places of memory assigned from birth to play a civil and public function for national education and cultural memory, as well as the literacy of the new generations.

  2. Forming a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group - An Overview and Discussion (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.


    A proposal to form a Turbomachinery Seals Working Group is discussed. Survey responses regarding the purpose, membership, and meeting frequency are presented as well as the areas of expertise and experience of the respondents. The types of seals used, designed, or sold, current work, and technical challenges of turbomachinery seals, their materials, analysis, geometry, manufacturing, maintenance, testing, and incorporation into engine systems are also presented.

  3. Transformational leadership, work satisfaction and group performance: Mediation analysis


    Procházka Jakub; Vaculík Martin; Smutný Petr


    This study investigated whether followers’ work satisfaction mediates the relationship between a transformational leadership style and group performance. An evaluation of 32 CEOs by 500 subordinates took place after three months of intensive cooperation within a managerial simulation game. All of the respondents were college students. The followers assessed their work satisfaction using three questions from the Job Diagnostic Survey. Each CEO was evaluated by an average of 15 followers in ter...

  4. UTM Data Working Group Demonstration 1: Final Report (United States)

    Rios, Joseph L.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Smith, Irene S.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo


    This document summarizes activities defining and executing the first demonstration of the NASA-FAA Research Transition Team (RTT) Data Exchange and Information Architecture (DEIA) working group (DWG). The demonstration focused on testing the interactions between two key components in the future UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System through a collaborative and distributed simulation of key scenarios. The summary incorporates written feedback from each of the participants in the demonstration. In addition to reporting the activities, this report also provides some insight into future steps of this working group.

  5. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams: A Reflection. (United States)

    Kozlowski, Steve W J


    Teamwork has been at the core of human accomplishment across the millennia, and it was a focus of social psychological inquiry on small group behavior for nearly half a century. However, as organizations world-wide reorganized work around teams over the past two decades, the nature of teamwork and factors influencing it became a central focus of research in organizational psychology and management. In this article, I reflect on the impetus, strategy, key features, and scientific contribution of "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams," by Kozlowski and Ilgen, a review monograph published in Psychological Science in the Public Interest in 2006.

  6. Socialized charismatic leadership, values congruence, and deviance in work groups. (United States)

    Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K


    The authors conducted a field study to investigate the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and deviance in work groups. Because socialized charismatic leaders are thought to play an ethical leadership role, the authors hypothesized that the socialized charismatic leadership style would be associated with reduced deviance in the leader's work group. This prediction was supported for both the interpersonal and the organizational dimensions of deviance. Next, the authors examined the mediating role of values congruence. The results were partially supportive of the values congruence mediating hypothesis. Implications for future research and for management are discussed. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming (United States)

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.


    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  8. The Scandinavian Advantage: A Comparative Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth in four European Countries during the 19th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Catalina

    As a result of the health transition, there have been sustained gains in the average length of life (Vallin and Meslé 2009), starting as far as more than 150 years ago in some human populations. For instance, the maximum recorded levels of life expectancy at birth illustrate a linear increase since...... 1840 (Oeppen and Vaupel 2002). During the 19th century, some few countries occupied the top 1 and 2 positions in terms of life expectancy at birth (Fig. 1). In some of these countries, such as Norway and Sweden, the average length of life was longer compared to most other European populations, despite...... lower levels of living standards and a later introduction of improvements in medicine and sanitation. This study aims to illustrate the evolution of life expectancy at birth in four different countries (England and Wales 1841-1905, France 1816-1905, Norway 1846-1905, and Sweden 1800-1905) and in the 2nd...

  9. The Investigation in Terms of Design Component of Ottoman Women Entari in 19th Century and Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.

  10. Some categories of epitaphs in Moldova and neighboring countries in the 17th - early 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Felea


    Full Text Available Epitaph is an important source for the study of attitudes towards life and death. In our opinion, the epitaphs from Moldova and neighboring countries of the 17th - early 19th centuries can be classified according to many criteria: 1 literary form; 2 volume of information; 3 epitaphs, which are based on a deep family affection, including those prepared by a person for himself; 4 subject of narration; 5 gender of the deceased; 6 age of the deceased; 7 social status of the deceased, etc. In this article, we present several types of epitaphs, which are characteristic for the Romanian territory, Russia, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In terms of the expression of grief in the collective mentality, epitaphs are similar regardless of the country. The heartache of parents, spouses, and relatives is expressed in the inscriptions on tombstones through a dialogue with parents, monologue, dialogue with the grave, and appeal to God.

  11. [Diphtheria in Geneva at the end of the 19th century: the emergence of bacteriology and the use of serotherapy]. (United States)

    Kaba, Mariama


    At the end of the 19th century, diphtheria was one of the infectious diseases striking children the most. With the development of laboratory medicine, appearing at this time throughout Europe, came the identification of the diphtherial bacillus, which not only causes a local infection, but also produces a poison attacking the whole organism. The discovery of this microbe will be an important vector for bacteriological research, leading to the elaboration of the antidiphtherial serum, considered the first specific and effective therapeutic product in the new experimental medicine. Through the study of diphtheria in the canton of Geneva, we examine the causes and consequences of the application of laboratory techniques and concepts in the sphere of clinical medicine.

  12. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century]. (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian


    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent.

  13. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries. (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos


    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  14. Group Work Tests for Context-Rich Problems (United States)

    Meyer, Chris


    The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion phase, when students are given a "number-free" version of the problem. This phase allows students to digest the story-like problem, explore solution ideas, and alleviate some test anxiety. After 10-15 minutes of discussion, students inform the instructor of their readiness for the individual part of the test. What follows next is a pedagogical phase change from lively group discussion to quiet individual work. The group work test is a natural continuation of the group work in our daily physics classes and helps reinforce the importance of collaboration. This method has met with success at York Mills Collegiate Institute, in Toronto, Ontario, where it has been used consistently for unit tests and the final exam of the grade 12 university preparation physics course.

  15. Polynesia and polygenism: the scientific use of travel literature in the early 19th century. (United States)

    Carhart, Michael C


    Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was one of 18th-century Europe's most important readers of global travel literature, and he has been credited as a founder of the disciplines of ethnology and anthropology. This article examines a part of his final work, "Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen" [Inquiries on the differences of human natures], published posthumously in the 1810s. Here Meiners developed an elaborate argument, based on empirical evidence, that the different races of men emerged indigenously at different times and in different places in natural history. Specifically this article shows how a sedentary scholar who never left Europe constructed a narrative of human origins and migrations on the basis of (1) French theory from the 1750s (Charles de Brosses and Simon Pelloutier) and (2) data gathered by explorers as reported in travel literature (J.R. Forster, Pérouse, Cook, Marsden).

  16. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn


    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  17. "I Hate Group Work!": Addressing Students' Concerns About Small-Group Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Allan, PhD


    Full Text Available This article identifies the strategies used by architecture professors and their undergraduate students to mitigate common issues that students raise about group work. Based on participant-observation, interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of instructional materials and student work, this IRB-approved ethnographic case study complicates the separation of collaborative, cooperative, and problem-based learning into distinct pedagogical models. Rather than viewing students’ concerns as a form of resistance that can be avoided with the right approach to small-group learning, this article explores how the hybrid model operating in design studio pedagogy confronts the problems inherent in any form of group work.

  18. Waste forms, packages, and seals working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, N. [Center Antonio, TX (United States); McNeil, M.B. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of radioactive waste forms and packaging. Also included is a description of the use of natural analogs in waste packaging, container materials and waste forms.

  19. The non-therapeutic clinical work with groups


    Gabriele Profita; Giuseppe Ruvolo


    This paper presents some reflections on the EATGA workshop carried out in 2008. The authors highlight some aspects of the relationship between the group work and the historical and social environment in which it took place. In particular, it is reported the appearance of sacredness induced by the place where the seminar took place and who was a major influence in intentions and moods.Keywords: Transcultural group; Cultural themes; EATGA

  20. Introduction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group (United States)

    Newman, Henry


    In this paper we presented the planned direction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group. This group consists of concerned system developers and users who have organized to synthesize recommendations for standard UNIX performance management subsystem interfaces and architectures. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide a core set of performance management functions and these functions can be used to build tools by hardware system developers, vertical application software developers, and performance application software developers.

  1. Dos propuestas constitucionales en el Caribe del siglo XIX Two Constitutional Proposals in the 19th Century's Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Arpini


    Full Text Available En el complejo escenario socio-político del Caribe del siglo XIX tuvieron lugar experiencias históricas de lucha por la independencia y la conquista de la libertad. Centramos la atención en dos episodios que se plasmaron en sendas propuestas de organización nacional: uno, en los albores del siglo XIX -la Constitución de 1801, redactada por disposición de Toussaint Louverture para Saint Domingue, siendo todavía colonia Francesa-; y otro, al promediar la centuria -plasmada en el texto elaborado por Eugenio María de Hostos "El programa de los independientes" de 1876, que contiene las bases de una futura organización nacional de Puerto Rico-. Nuestra lectura está orientada por el interrogante acerca de las formas de afirmación de la subjetividad que surgen de los textos y de las prácticas que ellos habilitan.In the complex sociopolitical scenario of the 19th Century's Caribbean several historical experiences of fights for independence and freedom took place. We focus our attention on two episodes, each one conveying a proposal for national organization: one in the early 19th Century -the 1801Constitution for Saint Domingue, still e French colony, written according to Toussaint Louverture's regulation-; and the other around the mid century -expressed in Eugenio María Hostos's "El programa de los independientes" from 1876, which conveys the basis for a future national organization of Puerto Rico. Our approach is determined by the question about the ways of subjectivity reinforcement in the texts and the practices rising from them.

  2. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England. (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L


    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cultural patterns of trauma among 19th-century-born males in cadaver collections. (United States)

    De La Cova, Carlina


    Comprehending violence among bioarchaeological and historical groups is a topic of recent interest among biological anthropologists. This research examines trauma among African American and Euro-American males of low socioeconomic status born between 1825 and 1877. A total of 651 male skeletons from the Cobb, Terry, and Hamann-Todd anatomical collections were macroscopically evaluated for skeletal trauma, based on the presence of fractures and weapon-related wounds, and statistically analyzed according to ancestry, birth (Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction), combined ancestry - birth, and collection cohorts. Results indicated that African Americans and Euro-Americans expressed ethnic differences in regard to interpersonal violence. To interpret these disparities, documentary data were used to reconstruct the socioeconomic and cultural environment of these individuals. This research emphasizes the importance of evaluating skeletal data within the context of class, culture, and environment so that behavioral patterns observed in the skeleton can be better understood.

  4. The Scandinavian Connection: The Roots of Darwinian Archaeology in 19th-Century Scandinavian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Riede


    Full Text Available ‘Evolution’ is without doubt one of archaeology’s favourite, most used and perhaps most overused words. However, ‘evolution’ comes in many guises and it is only really in the last ten years that an explicitly Darwinian approach to the archaeological record has begun to emerge. Today, the number of papers using Darwinian Theory grows almost exponentially, reflecting perhaps the current popularity of applying Darwinian Theory to human behaviour, including culture, in more general terms (Aunger 2000; Barrett et al. 2002; Laland andamp; Brown 2002; Mesoudi et al. 2004; Ziman 2000. The field has developed its own technical jargon (Hart andamp; Terrell 2002 and enjoys increasing public funding. Here is not the place to list, let alone discuss the entire corpus of works (but see and Instead this brief papers attempts to address some historical aspects of Darwinian thinking in archaeology. Although there is considerable diversity within this Darwinian or Evolutionary Archaeology (EA, this paper will focus primarily on its two most vocal American proponents: Michael J. O’Brien and Richard Lee Lyman. In a long series of publications they have not only put forward a “radically empiricist” (Shennan 2002a: 255, yet eminently workable Darwinian approach to artefact analysis, but they have also traced the intellectual ancestry of EA back to a number of key figures in early 20th century Americanist archaeology (Lyman et al. 1997b; Lyman andamp; O’Brien 1997, 1999, 2000a, 2001, 2003, 2004; Lyman et al. 1997a, 1997b; Lyman et al. 1998; O’Brien et al. 2005. Despite the impressive amount of scholarship that has gone into these works and the exemplary publication strategy, which has been instrumental in promoting this particular approach, their version of the history of archaeology can be criticised as the writing of “partial histories” (Murray 2002a: 234. As

  5. Blandowski misses out: ichthyological etiquette in 19th-century Australia. (United States)

    Humphries, Paul


    Wilhelm Blandowski, a Prussian émigré, arrived in Australia in 1849 with hopes of exploring and documenting the natural history of this still relatively scientifically nai;ve colony. After several years travelling, surveying and mining gold, he became the first government zoologist at the infant National Museum of Victoria and was a key player in the burgeoning scientific establishment. Chosen to lead a collecting expedition to the junction of the Murray and Darling Rivers in 1856, Blandowski and his faithful companion Gerard Krefft brought back a wealth of new material, including many species of undescribed freshwater fishes. Unfortunately, Blandowski's attempts to 'honour' members of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria backfired and a scandal ensued. A disillusioned Blandowski left Australia just ten years after his arrival. A reanalysis of his descriptions of the fish and comparison with a contemporary work suggests that Blandowski deserves recognition as one of pioneers in the natural history of Australian freshwater fish. The loss of taxonomic authority for eight fish species by this energetic, imaginative, but stubborn scientist, left the way open for future workers to make their mark, whereas Blandowski's name and achievements remain obscure.

  6. Organizational issues in the first graded schools of Lisbon (second half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manique da Silva


    Full Text Available This study is focused on the graded schools of Lisbon (Casa Pia and municipal schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The aim was to understand how the dysfunctions of the graded school model were being «corrected». Indeed, it was inconceivable for the model to be contested (as the research shows, – it simply had to work better. The greatest organizational difficulty in such schools resulted from the teacher’s task of looking after students with different cognitive levels and needs. During the 1880s, this classroom heterogeneity resulted in several classroom management problems in the institutional context of the Lisbon Casa Pia, even though the graded school model had proved its effectiveness there in the 1860s. Among other measures introduced to counter such problems, the school board was set up with the idea of overcoming organizational difficulties by involving teachers in the decision-making process. However, the extremely strict criteria that needed to be met to pass onto a higher grade hampered the flux of students in the municipal schools of Lisbon, making grade retention an ordinary procedure – particularly in the first grades. The school boards proposed several solutions to this problem, among which curriculum segmentation.

  7. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)


    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  8. Fish and fishery historical data since the 19th century in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean (United States)

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Libralato, Simone; Arneri, Enrico; Giovanardi, Otello; Solidoro, Cosimo; Raicevich, Saša


    Historic data on biodiversity provide the context for present observations and allow studying long-term changes in marine populations. Here we present multiple datasets on fish and fisheries of the Adriatic Sea covering the last two centuries encompassing from qualitative observations to standardised scientific monitoring. The datasets consist of three groups: (1) early naturalists' descriptions of fish fauna, including information (e.g., presence, perceived abundance, size) on 255 fish species for the period 1818-1936 (2) historical landings from major Northern Adriatic fish markets (Venice, Trieste, Rijeka) for the period 1902-1968, Italian official landings for the Northern and Central Adriatic (1953-2012) and landings from the Lagoon of Venice (1945-2001) (3) trawl-survey data from seven surveys spanning the period 1948-1991 and including Catch per Unit of Effort data (kgh‑1 and/or nh‑1) for 956 hauls performed at 301 stations. The integration of these datasets has already demonstrated to be useful to analyse historical marine community changes over time, and its availability through open-source data portal will facilitate analyses in the framework of marine historical ecology.

  9. The city in motions : circulations, commercial exchanges and materiality of the city : a systemic approach of the factors of Parisian fabric evolution between the 15th century and the 19th century


    Hermenault, Léa


    In this work, we sought to understand effects of circulations on the Parisian urban fabric between the 15th and the first third of the 19th century, and, in particular, we sought to understand how it is evolving according to the interactions that develop at different scales between the materiality of the city and potentialities of exchange. The mapping of several corpus of planimetric and written data allow us to build our own geohistoric data, while theirs integration in a GIS bas made compa...

  10. Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) - Lightning Task Group : report on aircraft lightning strike data (United States)


    In 1995, in response to the lightning community's desire to revise the zoning criteria on aircraft, the Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) decided that lightning attachments to aircraft causing damage should be studied and co...

  11. WWW-based environments for collaborative group work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty


    Since 1994, we have been involved in the design and use of a series of WWW-based environments to support collaborative group work for students in a technical university in The Netherlands. These environments, and the course re-design that accompanies each new environment, began in April 1994 and

  12. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting (United States)


    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice..., 2013 Vol. 78 No. 206. This new meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  13. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting (United States)


    ... Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD contractors...

  14. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting (United States)


    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products...

  15. Working group report: Low energy and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B physics, perturbative quantum chromodynamics. PACS No. 13.25.Hw. 1. Introduction. The activities of the 'low energy and flavour physics' working group at WHEPP-8 were almost exclusively in the area of B physics. Given that data from the B- factories are currently challenging the predictions of theoretical models as well ...

  16. Automated Image Analysis Corrosion Working Group Update: February 1, 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, James G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are slides for the automated image analysis corrosion working group update. The overall goals were: automate the detection and quantification of features in images (faster, more accurate), how to do this (obtain data, analyze data), focus on Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LCM) data (laser intensity, laser height/depth, optical RGB, optical plus laser RGB).

  17. International Work Group Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cummings, J.L.; Dubois, B; Molinuevo, J.L.; Scheltens, P.


    Alzheimer-type biomarker changes are identifiable in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic predementia phases of Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD dementia. The International Work Group (IWG) guidelines for diagnosis identify a unified spectrum of 3 phases. The classic clinical feature that indicates AD

  18. B Physics: WHEPP-XI working group report

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 729–739. B Physics: WHEPP-XI working group report. AMOL DIGHE1,∗. , ANJAN GIRI2, RUPAK DUTTA3, NAVEEN GAUR4,. TIM GERSHON5, DIPTIMOY GHOSH1, XIAO-GANG HE6, ... Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle [7a] has perhaps been the most important measurement .... s–φBs parameter space.

  19. Improving Group Work Practices in Teaching Life Sciences: Trialogical Learning (United States)

    Tammeorg, Priit; Mykkänen, Anna; Rantamäki, Tomi; Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni


    Trialogical learning, a collaborative and iterative knowledge creation process using real-life artefacts or problems, familiarizes students with working life environments and aims to teach skills required in the professional world. We target one of the major limitation factors for optimal trialogical learning in university settings, inefficient group work. We propose a course design combining effective group working practices with trialogical learning principles in life sciences. We assess the usability of our design in (a) a case study on crop science education and (b) a questionnaire for university teachers in life science fields. Our approach was considered useful and supportive of the learning process by all the participants in the case study: the students, the stakeholders and the facilitator. Correspondingly, a group of university teachers expressed that the trialogical approach and the involvement of stakeholders could promote efficient learning. In our case in life sciences, we identified the key issues in facilitating effective group work to be the design of meaningful tasks and the allowance of sufficient time to take action based on formative feedback. Even though trialogical courses can be time consuming, the experience of applying knowledge in real-life cases justifies using the approach, particularly for students just about to enter their professional careers.

  20. Online Group Work Design: Processes, Complexities, and Intricacies (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert; Hong, Yi-Chun


    This paper describes the challenges of designing and implementing online group work. We are responsible for a seven-and-a-half week's online literacy and bi-literacy graduate course in a Bilingual/English as a Second Language (BLE/ESL) Master of Arts program. One of the tasks includes online literacy circle exchanges where students are encouraged…

  1. Working group summary: Neutrinos and beyond Standard Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Members: Rathin Adhikari, C S Aulakh, K S Babu, Debashish Borah, Biswajoy Brahmachari,. Mamta Dahiya, Sukh Dev, H Zeen Devi, Sukanta Dutta, Deeptimoy ... Santosh K Singh, S Uma Sankar, Rishikesh Vaidya, Sudhir Vempati and Surender Verma. Abstract. This is the report of the working group on neutrinos and ...

  2. Group Work in a Technology-Rich Environment (United States)

    Penner, Nikolai; Schulze, Mathias


    This paper addresses several components of successful language-learning methodologies--group work, task-based instruction, and wireless computer technologies--and examines how the interplay of these three was perceived by students in a second-year university foreign-language course. The technology component of our learning design plays a central…

  3. Big Data: Laying the Groundwork. ECAR Working Group Paper (United States)

    Almes, Guy T.; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Lance, Timothy; Lynch, Clifford A.; Monaco, Gregory E.; Mundrane, Michael R.; Zottola, Ralph J.


    This paper is part of series of the EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Campus Cyberinfrastructure (ECAR-CCI) Working Group. The topic of big data continues to receive a great deal of publicity because of its promise for opening new avenues of scholarly discovery and commercial opportunity. The ability to sift rapidly through massive amounts…

  4. Exploring a World of Paradoxes: An Investigation of Group Work. (United States)

    Slimani-Rolls, Assia


    Presents a classroom investigation conducted in the framework of Exploratory Practice (EP) and illustrates EP's potential for developing a research culture in a university institution. Illustrates how investigation into group work arose from interest in developing a culture of inquiry and concludes with a note of caution concerning the pace of…

  5. The OMERACT Ultrasound Working Group 10 Years On

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyn, George A; Naredo, Esperanza; Iagnocco, Annamaria


    Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) now thrives as an established imaging modality for the investigation and management of chronic inflammatory arthritis. We summarize here results of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) US working group (WG) projects of the last 2 years. These results were...

  6. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.


    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  7. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.


    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  8. Group Development Phases as Working through Six Fundamental Human Problems. (United States)

    Burnand, Gordon


    Following Bennis and Shepard's work, groups are thought to become preoccupied with problems of gaining reassurance about six basic human tasks in turn. One can show that these problems, called focal problems, have two forms, inclusive and narrowed, and that progressing through the problems requires three subphases. (Author/ABL)

  9. Working group report: High energy and collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Rishikesh Vaidya20. 1Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005, India ... The projects undertaken in the working group I on high energy and collider physics can be classified into (i) Higgs ...... lous couplings for realistic polarization and integrated luminosity at a design LC energy of √s = 500 GeV.

  10. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper. (United States)

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

  11. Tennessee Valley and Eastern Kentucky Wind Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katie Stokes


    In December 2009, the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy (SACE), through a partnership with the Appalachian Regional Commission, EKPC, Kentucky's Department for Energy Development and Independence, SACE, Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation, and TVA, and through a contract with the Department of Energy, established the Tennessee Valley and Eastern Kentucky Wind Working Group (TVEKWWG). TVEKWWG consists of a strong network of people and organizations. Working together, they provide information to various organizations and stakeholders regarding the responsible development of wind power in the state. Members include representatives from utility interests, state and federal agencies, economic development organizations, non-government organizations, local decision makers, educational institutions, and wind industry representatives. The working group is facilitated by the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy. TVEKWWG supports the Department of Energy by helping educate and inform key stakeholders about wind energy in the state of Tennessee.

  12. GGOS working group on ground networks and communications (United States)

    Pearlman, M.; Altamimi, Z.; Beck, N.; Forsberg, R.; Gurtner, W.; Kenyon, S.; Behrend, D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Ma, C.; Noll, C. E.; hide


    Activities of this Working Group include the investigation of the status quo and the development of a plan for full network integration to support improvements in terrestrial reference frame establishment and maintenance, Earth orientation and gravity field monitoring, precision orbit determination, and other geodetic and gravimetric applications required for the long-term observation of global change. This integration process includes the development of a network of fundamental stations with as many co-located techniques as possible, with precisely determined intersystem vectors. This network would exploit the strengths of each technique and minimize the weaknesses where possible. This paper discusses the organization of the working group, the work done to date, and future tasks.

  13. Engineering students' experiences from physics group work in learning labs (United States)

    Strøm Mellingsæter, Magnus


    Background: This paper presents a case study from a physics course at a Norwegian university college, investigating key aspects of a group-work project, so-called learning labs, from the participating students' perspective. Purpose: In order to develop these learning labs further, the students' perspective is important. Which aspects are essential for how the students experience the learning labs, and how do these aspects relate to the emergence of occurrences termed joint workspace, i.e. the maintenance of content-related dialogues within the group? Programme description: First year mechanical engineering students attended the learning labs as a compulsory part of the physics course. The student groups were instructed to solve physics problems using the interactive whiteboard and then submit their work as whiteboard files. Sample: One group of five male students was followed during their work in these learning labs through one term. Design and methods: Data were collected as video recordings and fieldwork observation. In this paper, a focus group interview with the students was the main source of analysis. The interpretations of the interview data were compared with the video material and the fieldwork observations. Results: The results show that the students' overall experience with the learning labs was positive. They did, however, point to internal aspects of conflicting common and personal goals, which led to a group-work dynamics that seemed to inhibit elaborate discussions and collaboration. The students also pointed to external aspects, such as a close temporal proximity between lectures and exercises, which also seemed to inhibit occurrences termed joint workspace. Conclusions: In order to increase the likelihood of a joint workspace throughout the term in the learning labs, careful considerations have to be made with regard to timing between lectures and exercises, but also with regard to raising the students' awareness about shared and personal goals.

  14. "I Hate Group Work!": Addressing Students' Concerns about Small-Group Learning (United States)

    Allan, Elizabeth G.


    This article identifies the strategies used by architecture professors and their undergraduate students to mitigate common issues that students raise about group work. Based on participant-observation, interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of instructional materials and student work, this IRB-approved ethnographic case study…

  15. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy


    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Klochko


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of determination of the development of high schools for girls in Sumy region in the second half of 19th – beginning of 20th centuries. It has been defined that rapid development of industry, social and cultural reforming in the region led to the necessity of increased number of educated citizens, including women. The dynamic process of the foundation of female high schools has been elicited: during 1870–1914 there were 13 schools of this type. The equipment of state schools was insufficient. But due to the community and sponsors main needs of these establishments were provided. It has been found out that the main aim of educational and studying process at high schools girls of the region was to bring up the qualities of a housewife, mother, wife, what confirm conservative status of female's high school education. However, the certificate of a tutor or mentor gave the opportunity to work at pedagogical sphere. It was a progressive phenomenon at that period, which expands women's opportunity for self-realization in modern social life.

  17. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair. (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António


    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Discussing ethnohistory: The Blin between periphery and international politics in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolbert G.C. Smidt


    massivement au catholicisme. Les Blins du /Hal/hal se convertirent à l’Islam, afin de parer aux raids futurs des vassaux du Soudan Égyptien. Cet article vise a montrer que la stratégie principale des Blins a été de participer activement à la nouvelle présence des pouvoirs dominants, que ce soit sur le plan politique ou religieux, et que cette adaptation leur a permis de préserver leur système très sophistiqué d’autonomie interne, fondé sur une confédération non centralisée, un réseau reliant entre eux les différents chefs Blins.Borderlands, which are often experiencing challenges of different kind, can be regarded as a "laboratory" for new political or cultural projects or solutions. The country of the Blin ethnic group in northern-central Eritrea was such a land, especially between the 1840’s to 1880’s. Originally living in peaceful isolation, autonomously organizing their political live with a minimum of external intervention, this changed with the arrival of expanding Egypt in the adjacent Sudanese region of Taka in 1840. In the 1850’s, international brokers of religion – Catholic missionaries – and of academic exploration – Orientalists – appeared in the region, immediately followed by agents of imperialism – the British and French vice consuls of the port of Massawa. Simultanously reuniting Ethiopia sought to regain lost influence in the borderregions, including the Hamasen province, with the Blin of Bogos as their historic vassals. The Egyptian expansion resulted in the regular appearance of violent raids against the Blin, which gave a chance to the consuls and missionaries – with the few academics involved as their collaborators – to intervene, declare the Blin as protected by them and free the enslaved Blin men and women. Orientalists, the mission and consuls appeared to the Blin as agents of one idea: the inclusion of the Blin into the sphere of European influence. The Blin actively responded to the new challenges from all

  19. Exercices de grammaire et travail de groupe (Grammar Exercises and Group Work) (United States)

    Eluerd, Roland


    A discussion of pedagogical models and modes of communication as these apply to the adaptation of grammar exercises to group work. The model used is the small homogeneous group. Various types of exercises are suggested and the relevance of this procedure to communication is discussed. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  20. Ethnic Migration in North-West Ingermanland: The Influence of Economic Development on Local Differences in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Kalinitchev


    Full Text Available Ingermanland became a destination point for migrants of many nationalities and had an inner circulation of the domestic population in the 19th century. Migratory routes, as well as the outflow and inflow volumes in the region differed for each ethnic group. A micro-historical approach enables one to assess the various reasons for the mobility of the homogeneous domestic population. There was a specific migration of orphans to Lutheran Finnish communities. Indeed the main reason for this migration was due to economic factors. A structural change of employment in the case of the closure of factories resulted in the outward movement of the population, alongside the allure of higher wages in localities with an industrial and trade infrastructure. The expansion of St. Petersburgs city border led to complex migratory processes as a result of the rapid economic development of the capital region. Ingermanland became an important part of the international market exchange that created opportunities for migrants and businesses of residents affected by the changes, who increasingly gave up agricultural production and sought other ways of earning a livelihood.

  1. Analysis of 19th century ceramic fragments excavated from Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil) using FT-IR, Raman, XRF and SEM. (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P; Coelho, Filipe A; Felix, Valter S; Pereira, Marcelo O; de Souza, Marcos André Torres; Anjos, Marcelino J


    This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500°C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO 2 . Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples. The results of the PCA showed that the samples excavated in one of the slave quarters (senzalas) group with those excavated at the farmhouse, where the landowner lived, which indicates a paternalistic attitude towards captives, including the sharing of ceramic materials of everyday use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scientific working group on gunshot residue (SWGGSR): a progress report (United States)

    Trimpe, Michael A.


    The Scientific Working Group on Gunshot Residue (SWGGSR) was founded in 2007. Twenty-four experienced and well-recognized scientists throughout the world are working toward internationally accepted guidelines in the analysis of gunshot residue. With this goal in mind the group has set up specific committees to cogitate and develop recommendations in key areas of gunshot residue analysis. The SWGGSR meets annually and is in constant contact throughout the year via email. In 2007 SWGGSR assumed responsibility for updating ASTM E-1588 the Standard Guide for Gunshot Residue Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy/ Energy Dispersive Xray Spectrometry. In 2010 a revised E-1588 was published. The SWGGSR is currently working on a more comprehensive guide that will be published through NIJ (National Institute of Justice) and available for free to everyone in the world. In addition, we have attended meetings hosted by the federal government's SoFs (Subcommittee on Forensic Science) IWG (Interagency Working Groups) to insure our input on the future of forensic science in the Untied States.

  3. Teacher education students’ struggles with group work in service learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Petersen


    Full Text Available This article reports on students’ experiences of learning to work together in a childhood teacher education programme at a university in South Africa. We were interested in how students from diverse backgrounds, with little shared understanding of a model or framework for collaborative working, would find their footing and learn how to operationalise care, accountability and reflexivity through engaging in group work as part of their service learning activities. A cross section of student data, from first year to third year, was analysed using qualitative methods of data analysis. The main findings were that the incremental integration of service learning, with fixed student groupings over three years, was a catalyst for the gradual formation of professional student learning communities. The student struggles with group relationships helped them address their cultural, linguistic and gendered assumptions about each other. Lastly, we found that relatively fixed nature of the student groupings over a three year period encouraged deep reflection about ideas of care, community and social responsibility.

  4. Report of the Working Group on Recruitment Processes (WGRP)




    Contributor: Richard D. M. Nash The Working Group concentrated on the last Term of Reference and worked toward produc-ing a clear set of guidelines and objectives for the future. The meeting was the day after the International Larval Fish Conference (sponsored by the American Fisheries Society), this year in Barcelona. Both regular members of the WGRP and invites who had attended the confer-ence attended the meeting. The ToR was addressed with three presentations (R. D. M. Nash, IMR, Norwa...

  5. Report of the Working Group on Recruitment Processes (WGRP)




    The Working Group concentrated on the last Term of Reference and worked toward produc-ing a clear set of guidelines and objectives for the future. The meeting was the day after the International Larval Fish Conference (sponsored by the American Fisheries Society), this year in Barcelona. Both regular members of the WGRP and invites who had attended the confer-ence attended the meeting. The ToR was addressed with three presentations (R. D. M. Nash, IMR, Norway on the biological context in whic...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.


    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  7. The PDF4LHC Working Group Interim Report

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, Sergey; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Blumlein, Johannes; Botje, Michiel; Butterworth, Jon; Cerutti, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Del Debbio, Luigi; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Glazov, Alexander; Guffanti, Alberto; Gwenlan, Claire; Huston, Joey; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Lai, Hung-Liang; Latorre, Jose I.; McNulty, Ronan; Nadolsky, Pavel; Olaf Moch, Sven; Pumplin, Jon; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Stirling, W.J.; Stump, Daniel; Thorne, Robert S.; Ubiali, Maria; Vicini, Alessandro; Watt, Graeme; Yuan, C.-P.


    This document is intended as a study of benchmark cross sections at the LHC (at 7 TeV) at NLO using modern parton distribution functions currently available from the 6 PDF fitting groups that have participated in this exercise. It also contains a succinct user guide to the computation of PDFs, uncertainties and correlations using available PDF sets. A companion note, also submitted to the archive, provides an interim summary of the current recommendations of the PDF4LHC working group for the use of parton distribution functions and of PDF uncertainties at the LHC, for cross section and cross section uncertainty calculations.

  8. Executive committee report: geotechnical instrumentation working group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D.G.; Rogue, F.; Beloff, W.R.; Binnall, E.; Gregory, E.C.


    Responding to the widespread need for the geotechnical community to discuss instrumentation for nuclear waste repositories, a meeting was held December 2 and 3, 1981, in Denver, Colorado. This report gives the group's consensus recommendations to aid in making decisions for development of instrumentation for future repository work. The main conclusions of the working group meeting were as follows: (1) monitoring of geotechnical parameters in nuclear waste repositories will be necessary to meet licensing requirements; (2) currently available instruments are underdeveloped for this monitoring; (3) research and development to provide adequate instrumentation will need to be performed under federal sponsorship by national laboratories, universities, contractors, and consultants; and (4) a NASA-type reliability program is needed to meet the quality assurance, durability, calibration, and time schedule demands of geotechnical instrumentation development. This will require significant financial commitments from the federal sector.

  9. E-Beam Driven Accelerators: Working Group Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.; Ng, J.S.T.; /SLAC


    The working group has identified the parameters of an afterburner based on the design of a future linear collider. The new design brings the center of mass energy of the collider from 1 to 2 TeV. The afterburner is located in the final focus section of the collider, operates at a gradient of {approx}4 GeV/m, and is only about 125 m long. Very important issues remain to be addressed, and include the physics and design of the positron side of the afterburner, as well as of the final focus system. Present plasma wakefield accelerator experiments have reached a level of maturity and of relevance to the afterburner, that make it timely to involve the high energy physics and accelerator community in the afterburner design process. The main result of this working group is the first integration of the designs of a future linear collider and an afterburner.

  10. HEP-FCE Working Group on Libraries and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Borgland, Anders; Kirby, Michael; Patton, Simon; Potekhin, Maxim; Viren, Brett; Yanny, Brian


    This is a report from the Libraries and Tools Working Group of the High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence. It presents the vision of the working group for how the HEP software community may organize and be supported in order to more efficiently share and develop common software libraries and tools across the world's diverse set of HEP experiments. It gives prioritized recommendations for achieving this goal and provides a survey of a select number of areas in the current HEP software library and tools landscape. The survey identifies aspects which support this goal and areas with opportunities for improvements. The survey covers event processing software frameworks, software development, data management, workflow and workload management, geometry information management and conditions databases.

  11. Perceived discontinuities and continuities in transdisciplinary scientific working groups. (United States)

    Crowston, Kevin; Specht, Alison; Hoover, Carol; Chudoba, Katherine M; Watson-Manheim, Mary Beth


    We examine the DataONE (Data Observation Network for Earth) project, a transdisciplinary organization tasked with creating a cyberinfrastructure platform to ensure preservation of and access to environmental science and biological science data. Its objective was a difficult one to achieve, requiring innovative solutions. The DataONE project used a working group structure to organize its members. We use organizational discontinuity theory as our lens to understand the factors associated with success in such projects. Based on quantitative and qualitative data collected from DataONE members, we offer recommendations for the use of working groups in transdisciplinary synthesis. Recommendations include welcome diverse opinions and world views, establish shared communication practices, schedule periodic synchronous face-to-face meetings, and ensure the active participation of bridge builders or knowledge brokers such as librarians who know how to ask questions about disciplines not their own. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. IYA2009USA: Cultural Astronomy and Storytelling Working Group (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita; IYA2009


    Cultural astronomy focuses on human's relationship with the sky using the disciplinary tools of anthropology, archeology, folklore, history, and folklore - not all at the same time. The USA is one of the few nations that include cultural astronomy and storytelling under its International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) activities. The working group focuses on indigenous sky knowledge; celestial stories, activities to explore the links between astronomy and culture; and on astronomers: their achievements and their academic culture. This presentation is an overview of the IYA2009USA Cultural Astronomy and Storytelling working group. Included will be our website, our goals, our projects, our outreach and dissemination strategies, and how we uniquely contribute to IYA2009.

  13. Establishment and modification of the border along the segment of southern Bessarabia throughout the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoreana Muţac


    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 19th century the Russian Empire managed to seize the territory of the eastern part of Moldova, located between the rivers of Dniester, Prut, and Danube and the Black Sea, which has since been called Bessarabia. The inclusion of only this territory of the Romanian principalities in the Russian Empire was not the initial plan of the Russian authorities, but it was the last opportunity, in the run-up to the French offensive, at least with some result, to end the war of 1806-1812 with the Sublime Porte, a state that was considered much weaker than Russia. Although the unbending position of the Ottoman Porte in the negotiations between two parties to the armed conflict didn’t allow the Russian Empire to take possession of the two Romanian principalities, Moldova and Wallachia, which had been requested from the very beginning of the confrontation, the war ended with a cession of the Moldavian territory of the left side of the Prut in favor of the Russian Empire. At the same time, Russia for the first time in history gained access to the Danube, or more precisely to the lower reaches of this river, which had a great economic potential of international importance. Thus, the portion of this river, beginning from the point where Prut joins Danube and up to the confluence of the Chilia branch into the Black Sea, became a part of the Russian border along the Bessarabian segment. During the 19th century, this part of the border was subject to a number of changes. In 1829, after the end of the next Russian-Turkish war the border was established along the Sfantu Gheorghe stream (the southern branch. Thus, all the Danube branches were under the control of Russia, which created, both directly and indirectly, many obstacles to the free and safe navigation of foreign commercial vessels in the lower reaches of the river. This fact was the cause of concern and discontent of Western European states that took advantage of the right moment

  14. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T


    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  15. Food Parenting Measurement Issues: Working Group Consensus Report


    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Frankel, Leslie A.; Beltran, Alicia; Hodges, Eric; Hoerr, Sharon; Lumeng, Julie; Tovar, Alison; Kremers, Stef


    Childhood obesity is a growing problem. As more researchers become involved in the study of parenting influences on childhood obesity, there appears to be a lack of agreement regarding the most important parenting constructs of interest, definitions of those constructs, and measurement of those constructs in a consistent manner across studies. This article aims to summarize findings from a working group that convened specifically to discuss measurement issues related to parental influences on...

  16. Summary: Working Group on QCD and Strong Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmond L. Berger et al.


    In this summary of the considerations of the QCD working group at Snowmass 2001, the roles of quantum chromodynamics in the Standard Model and in the search for new physics are reviewed, with empahsis on frontier areas in the field. We discuss the importance of, and prospects for, precision QCD in perturbative and lattice calculations. We describe new ideas in the analysis of parton distribution functions and jet structure, and review progress in small-x and in polarization experiments.

  17. Summary of “Future of DIS” Working Group Session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont M.; Guzey, V.; Polini, A.


    Despite the closure of the HERA accelerator in the past few years, much physics still remains to be understood, from the quark and gluon content of the nucleon/nucleus across all x to the still unknown spin structure of the proton. The 'Future of DIS' working group was dedicated to discussions on these and many other subjects. This paper represents a brief overview of the discussions. For further details, please refer to individual contributions.

  18. The Design of Self-Managing Work Groups (United States)


    0 .0 :j~ H H 6 work activities that ha’ e been carried oul, Under such circumsta~zces, a person feels an internal motivacional "kick" when he or she...similar theory of Herzberg ( Herzberg , Mausne’ & Snyderman, 1959; Herzberg , 1966), job characteristics theory is framed to apply exclusively to jobs that...effects of T-group training on business game results. Journal of Psychology, 1971, 77, 271-272. Herzberg , F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B. The

  19. European and Asian Countries through the Eyes of Foreigners (in 19th — beginning of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Ushakov


    Full Text Available The article is based on the study of a various publications and archive materials that were left in the 19th — beginning of 20th century by representatives of several generations of Russians going out of Russia for a long periods of time to Europe an and Asian contrives, or by Europeans who had been visiting and exploring the Russian Empire. Such materials come in sight of the article’s authors in the process of random selection. These materials varied in form, size and content; they were created in different conditions and for different purposes. They were written by people of different professional, social background, interests, character and life experience. Despite these factors the authors managed to study features of formation and development of the Russia’s image in social thinking of Western Europe on the basis of publications of authors from France and Netherland. Examples of Italian lands descriptions were used for consideration of Russian observers’ approaches to interpretation of the life of Europeans. And the perception of the Asian countries’ life (China and Japan and of their inhabitants that had formed by the beginning of the 19th century was described in the notes and memories of Russians — the participants of the Russian — Japan war. Such different sources served as well as some common and very inportant functions, and the authors of this article identified then. First of all, it was an informational-educational mission. Such functions as goal setting and recording were also important, when authors of the materials identified the most important events, processes and recorded them. The critical approach and function of criticism were also incidental to the authors of many sources. Again, the materials presented in the article showed other provisions of the problem “us vs. them” (“us vs. otters” that is currently being considered in the modern science, and which in general lead to generation of both the

  20. Improving tsunami resiliency: California's Tsunami Policy Working Group (United States)

    Real, Charles R.; Johnson, Laurie; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Kontar, Y.A.; Santiago-Fandiño, V.; Takahashi, T.


    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group to facilitate development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The Tsunami Policy Working Group brings together government and industry specialists from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering. The group is acting on findings from two parallel efforts: The USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario project, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from an M 9.1 earthquake in the Aleutian Islands Subduction Zone striking California’s coastline, and the State’s Tsunami Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. The unique dual-track approach provides a comprehensive assessment of vulnerability and risk within which the policy group can identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation and risk reduction, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments, and provide advice that will assist development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard risk communication products to improve community resiliency.