WorldWideScience

Sample records for worker honeybees apis

  1. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  2. Proteomic analysis of honeybee worker (Apis mellifera hypopharyngeal gland development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypopharyngeal glands (HG of honeybee workers play an important role in honeybee nutrition and caste differentiation. Previous research mainly focused on age-dependent morphological, physiological, biochemical and genomic characters of the HG. Here proteomics and biochemical network analysis were used to follow protein changes during the HG development. Results A total of 87, 76, 85, 74, 71, and 55 proteins were unambiguously identified on day 1, 3, 6, 12, 15 and 20, respectively. These proteins were major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, cytoskeleton, development regulation, antioxidant, molecule transporter, regulation of transcription/translation, proteins with folding functions. The most interesting is that MRJP's that have been detected in the HG of the newly emerged worker bees. The MRJP's expression is at peak level from 6-12 days, was validated by western blot analysis of MRJP1, 2 and 3. Moreover, 35 key node proteins were found in the biochemical networks of the HG. Conclusions HG secretes RJ at peak level within 6-12 days, but the worker bee can secrete royal jelly (RJ since birth, which is a new finding. Several key node proteins play an important role in the biochemical networks of the developing HG. This provides us some target proteins when genetically manipulating honeybees.

  3. Genetic reincarnation of workers as queens in the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Tan, K; Wang, Z; Oldroyd, B P; Beekman, M

    2015-01-01

    Thelytokous parthenogenesis, or the asexual production of female offspring, is rare in the animal kingdom, but relatively common in social Hymenoptera. However, in honeybees, it is only known to be ubiquitous in one subspecies of Apis mellifera, the Cape honeybee, A. mellifera capensis. Here we report the appearance of queen cells in two colonies of the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana that no longer contained a queen or queen-produced brood to rear queens from. A combination of microsatellite genotyping and the timing of the appearance of these individuals excluded the possibility that they had been laid by the original queen. Based on the genotypes of these individuals, thelytokous production by natal workers is the most parsimonious explanation for their existence. Thus, we present the first example of thelytoky in a honeybee outside A. mellifera. We discuss the evolutionary and ecological consequences of thelytoky in A. cerana, in particular the role thelytoky may play in the recent invasions by populations of this species.

  4. Western honeybee drones and workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) have different olfactory mechanisms than eastern honeybees (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltedji, Dereje; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Gala, Alemayehu; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2012-09-07

    The honeybees Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) are two different western and eastern bee species that evolved in distinct ecologies and developed specific antennal olfactory systems for their survival. Knowledge of how their antennal olfactory systems function in regards to the success of each respective bee species is scarce. We compared the antennal morphology and proteome between respective sexually mature drones and foraging workers of both species using a scanning electron microscope, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Despite the general similarities in antennal morphology of the drone and worker bees between the two species, a total of 106 and 100 proteins altered their expression in the drones' and the workers' antennae, respectively. This suggests that the differences in the olfactory function of each respective bee are supported by the change of their proteome. Of the 106 proteins that altered their expression in the drones, 72 (68%) and 34 (32%) were overexpressed in the drones of Aml and Acc, respectively. The antennae of the Aml drones were built up by the highly expressed proteins that were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, antioxidation, and fatty acid metabolism in contrast to the Acc drones. This is believed to enhance the antennal olfactory functions of the Aml drones as compared to the Acc drones during their mating flight. Likewise, of the 100 proteins with expression changes between the worker bees of the two species, 67% were expressed in higher levels in the antennae of Aml worker contrasting to 33% in the Acc worker. The overall higher expressions of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, and antioxidation in the Aml workers compared with the Acc workers indicate the Aml workers require more antennal proteins for their olfactory

  5. Alternative splicing of a single transcription factor drives selfish reproductive behavior in honeybee workers (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Antje; Stolle, Eckart; Crewe, Robin M; Moritz, Robin F A

    2011-09-13

    In eusocial insects the production of daughters is generally restricted to mated queens, and unmated workers are functionally sterile. The evolution of this worker sterility has been plausibly explained by kin selection theory [Hamilton W (1964) J Theor Biol 7:1-52], and many traits have evolved to prevent conflict over reproduction among the females in an insect colony. In honeybees (Apis mellifera), worker reproduction is regulated by the queen, brood pheromones, and worker policing. However, workers of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, can evade this control and establish themselves as social parasites by activating their ovaries, parthenogenetically producing diploid female offspring (thelytoky) and producing queen-like amounts of queen pheromones. All these traits have been shown to be strongly influenced by a single locus on chromosome 13 [Lattorff HMG, et al. (2007) Biol Lett 3:292-295]. We screened this region for candidate genes and found that alternative splicing of a gene homologous to the gemini transcription factor of Drosophila controls worker sterility. Knocking out the critical exon in a series of RNAi experiments resulted in rapid worker ovary activation-one of the traits characteristic of the social parasites. This genetic switch may be controlled by a short intronic splice enhancer motif of nine nucleotides attached to the alternative splice site. The lack of this motif in parasitic Cape honeybee clones suggests that the removal of nine nucleotides from the altruistic worker genome may be sufficient to turn a honeybee from an altruistic worker into a parasite.

  6. Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Neumann, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The short-sighted selection hypothesis for parasite virulence predicts that winners of within-host competition are poorer at transmission to new hosts. Social parasitism by self-replicating, female-producing workers occurs in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis, and colonies of other honeybee subspecies are susceptible hosts. We found high within-host virulence but low transmission rates in a clone of social parasitic A. m. capensis workers invading the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In contrast, parasitic workers from the endemic range of A. m. capensis showed low within-host virulence but high transmission rates. This suggests a short-sighted selection scenario for the host-parasite co-evolution in the invasive range of the Cape honeybee, probably facilitated by beekeeping-assisted parasite transmission in apiaries.

  7. A comparison of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queen, worker and drone larvae by RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu-Jiang; Jiang, Wu-Jun; Zhou, Mi; Barron, Andrew B; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2017-11-06

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have haplodiploid sex determination: males develop from unfertilized eggs and females develop from fertilized ones. The differences in larval food also determine the development of females. Here we compared the total somatic gene expression profiles of 2-day and 4-day-old drone, queen and worker larvae by RNA-Seq. The results from a co-expression network analysis on all expressed genes showed that 2-day-old drone and worker larvae were closer in gene expression profiles than 2-day-old queen larvae. This indicated that for young larvae (2-day-old) environmental factors such as larval diet have a greater effect on gene expression profiles than ploidy or sex determination. Drones had the most distinct gene expression profiles at the 4-day larval stage, suggesting that haploidy, or sex dramatically affects the gene expression of honeybee larvae. Drone larvae showed fewer differences in gene expression profiles at the 2-day and 4-day time points than the worker and queen larval comparisons (598 against 1190 and 1181), suggesting a different pattern of gene expression regulation during the larval development of haploid males compared to diploid females. This study indicates that early in development the queen caste has the most distinct gene expression profile, perhaps reflecting the very rapid growth and morphological specialization of this caste compared to workers and drones. Later in development the haploid male drones have the most distinct gene expression profile, perhaps reflecting the influence of ploidy or sex determination on gene expression. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effects of abamectin and deltamethrin to the foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica (Hymenoptera: Apidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Musleh Aljedani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin on the lethal time (LT50 and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin. The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT50. But the samples the histology study of midgut collected after 24 h were conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed the effects of insecticides on the current results show that abamectin has an adverse effect on honeybees, there is a clear impact on the lethal time (LT50 was the abamectin faster in the death of honeybee workers compared to deltamethrin. Where have reached to abamectin (LT50 = 21.026 h, deltamethrin (LT50 = 72.011 h. However, abamectin also effects on cytotoxic midgut cells that may cause digestive disorders in the midgut, epithelial tissue is formed during morphological alterations when digestive cells die. The extends into the internal cavity, and at the top, there is epithelial cell striated border that has many holes and curves, abamectin seems to have crushed the layers of muscle. Through the current results can say abamectin most toxicity on honeybees colony health and vitality, especially foragers honeybee workers.

  10. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  11. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-04

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptome differences in the hypopharyngeal gland between Western Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Zi-Long; Tian, Liu-Qing; Qin, Qiu-Hong; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Wei-Yu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2014-08-30

    Apis mellifera and Apis cerana are two sibling species of Apidae. Apis cerana is adept at collecting sporadic nectar in mountain and forest region and exhibits stiffer hardiness and acarid resistance as a result of natural selection, whereas Apis mellifera has the advantage of producing royal jelly. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that affect the development of hypopharyngeal gland (HG) and/or the secretion of royal jelly between these two honeybee species, we performed a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of the HGs of these two species at three developmental stages (newly emerged worker, nurse and forager). Twelve DGE-tag libraries were constructed and sequenced using the total RNA extracted from the HGs of newly emerged workers, nurses, and foragers of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Finally, a total of 1482 genes in Apis mellifera and 1313 in Apis cerana were found to exhibit an expression difference among the three developmental stages. A total of 1417 DEGs were identified between these two species. Of these, 623, 1072, and 462 genes showed an expression difference at the newly emerged worker, nurse, and forager stages, respectively. The nurse stage exhibited the highest number of DEGs between these two species and most of these were found to be up-regulated in Apis mellifera. These results suggest that the higher yield of royal jelly in Apis mellifera may be due to the higher expression level of these DEGs. In this study, we investigated the DEGs between the HGs of two sibling honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana). Our results indicated that the gene expression difference was associated with the difference in the royal jelly yield between these two species. These results provide an important clue for clarifying the mechanisms underlying hypopharyngeal gland development and the production of royal jelly.

  13. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  14. Recognition of mite-infested brood by honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers may involve thermal sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel; Wegener, Jakob; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2018-05-01

    Hygienic behavior, i.e. the removal of diseased or damaged brood by worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), is seen as one of the principal behavioral elements of this species' social immunity. Identification of the stimuli that trigger it would be helpful in searching for biochemical and molecular markers of this important breeding trait. While many studies at the genomic, transcriptomic, and behavioral level have pointed to the implication of chemical cues, we here hypothesized that thermal cues are alternatively/additionally involved. To test this hypothesis, we first measured whether infestation by the mite Varroa destructor (a condition known to induce hygienic behavior) leads to a thermal gradient between affected and unaffected brood. We found that infested brood cells were between 0.03 and 0.19 °C warmer than uninfested controls. Next, we tested whether artificially heating an area of a brood comb would increase the removal of infested or uninfested brood as compared to an unheated control area, and found that this was not the case. Finally, we investigated whether the heating of individual brood cells, as opposed to comb areas, would influence brood removal from cells adjacent to the heated one. This was the case for uninfested, though not for infested cells. We conclude that infestation by V. destructor leads to a heating of brood cells that should be perceivable by bees, and that small-scale temperature gradients can influence brood removal. This makes it appear possible that thermal cues play a role in triggering hygienic behavior of honey bees directed at varroa-infested larvae/pupae, although our results are insufficient to prove such an involvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. RNAi-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function turns honeybee ( Apis mellifera) workers into extremely precocious foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Antonio, David Santos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The switch from within-hive activities to foraging behavior is a major transition in the life cycle of a honeybee ( Apis mellifera) worker. A prominent regulatory role in this switch has long been attributed to juvenile hormone (JH), but recent evidence also points to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin as a major player in behavioral development. In the present study, we injected vitellogenin double-stranded RNA (dsVg) into newly emerged worker bees of Africanized genetic origin and introduced them together with controls into observation hives to record flight behavior. RNA interference-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function shifted the onset of long-duration flights (>10 min) to earlier in life (by 3 4 days) when compared with sham and untreated control bees. In fact, dsVg bees were observed conducting such flights extremely precociously, when only 3 days old. Short-duration flights (<10 min), which bees usually perform for orientation and cleaning, were not affected. Additionally, we found that the JH titer in dsVg bees collected after 7 days was not significantly different from the controls. The finding that depletion of the vitellogenin titer can drive young bees to become extremely precocious foragers could imply that vitellogenin is the primary switch signal. At this young age, downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity apparently had little effect on the JH titer. As this unexpected finding stands in contrast with previous results on the vitellogenin/JH interaction at a later age, when bees normally become foragers, we propose a three-step sequence in the constellation of physiological parameters underlying behavioral development.

  16. Studies on the life cycle and morphometrics of honeybees, Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of the honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii, was studied in mangrove area by monitoring the developmental stages and morphology of the castes. It was observed that the fate of the eggs were predetermined at the onset leading to drones, queens or workers. It was also established that the three different castes ...

  17. Proteome Analysis Unravels Mechanism Underling the Embryogenesis of the Honeybee Drone and Its Divergence with the Worker (Apis mellifera lingustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Fan, Pei; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Li, Jianke

    2015-09-04

    The worker and drone bees each contain a separate diploid and haploid genetic makeup, respectively. Mechanisms regulating the embryogenesis of the drone and its mechanistic difference with the worker are still poorly understood. The proteomes of the two embryos at three time-points throughout development were analyzed by applying mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We identified 2788 and 2840 proteins in the worker and drone embryos, respectively. The age-dependent proteome driving the drone embryogenesis generally follows the worker's. The two embryos however evolve a distinct proteome setting to prime their respective embryogenesis. The strongly expressed proteins and pathways related to transcriptional-translational machinery and morphogenesis at 24 h drone embryo relative to the worker, illustrating the earlier occurrence of morphogenesis in the drone than worker. These morphogenesis differences remain through to the middle-late stage in the two embryos. The two embryos employ distinct antioxidant mechanisms coinciding with the temporal-difference organogenesis. The drone embryo's strongly expressed cytoskeletal proteins signify key roles to match its large body size. The RNAi induced knockdown of the ribosomal protein offers evidence for the functional investigation of gene regulating of honeybee embryogenesis. The data significantly expand novel regulatory mechanisms governing the embryogenesis, which is potentially important for honeybee and other insects.

  18. MicroRNA signatures characterizing caste-independent ovarian activity in queen and worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L M F; Nunes, F M F; Freitas, F C P; Pires, C V; Tanaka, E D; Martins, J R; Piulachs, M-D; Cristino, A S; Pinheiro, D G; Simões, Z L P

    2016-06-01

    Queen and worker honeybees differ profoundly in reproductive capacity. The queen of this complex society, with 200 highly active ovarioles in each ovary, is the fertile caste, whereas the workers have approximately 20 ovarioles as a result of receiving a different diet during larval development. In a regular queenright colony, the workers have inactive ovaries and do not reproduce. However, if the queen is sensed to be absent, some of the workers activate their ovaries, producing viable haploid eggs that develop into males. Here, a deep-sequenced ovary transcriptome library of reproductive workers was used as supporting data to assess the dynamic expression of the regulatory molecules and microRNAs (miRNAs) of reproductive and nonreproductive honeybee females. In this library, most of the differentially expressed miRNAs are related to ovary physiology or oogenesis. When we quantified the dynamic expression of 19 miRNAs in the active and inactive worker ovaries and compared their expression in the ovaries of virgin and mated queens, we noted that some miRNAs (miR-1, miR-31a, miR-13b, miR-125, let-7 RNA, miR-100, miR-276, miR-12, miR-263a, miR-306, miR-317, miR-92a and miR-9a) could be used to identify reproductive and nonreproductive statuses independent of caste. Furthermore, integrative gene networks suggested that some candidate miRNAs function in the process of ovary activation in worker bees. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Hybrid origins of Australian honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman , Nadine C.; Harpur , Brock A.; Lim , Julianne; Rinderer , Thomas E.; Allsopp , Michael H.; Zayed , Amro; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Abstract With increased globalisation and homogenisation, the maintenance of genetic integrity in local populations of agriculturally important species is of increasing concern. The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) provides an interesting perspective as it is both managed and wild, with a large native range and much larger introduced range. We employed a newly created 95 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) test to characterise the genetic ancestry of the Australian c...

  20. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  1. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  2. Determination of a seasonal variation in the food exchanges between worker honeybees (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) by means of a radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douault, Philippe; Roger, Bernard; Pain, Janine

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges have been studied during the whole year between workers of unknown age and 4-days old workers. Variations exist between both groups. The mean percentage of shared food is 27% in the group of honeybees of unknown age and 40% in the group of 4-days old workers with respect to the initial intake of the giver. The effect of the season appears among workers of unknown are particularly [fr

  3. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) pollination on seed set in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of pollination with honeybee (Apis mellifera) on sunflower hybrid seed production under different types of pollination during 2005 and 2006 in Mustafakemalpasa-Bursa, Turkey. Three pollination types (1) in cages with honeybees, (2) hand pollination (in cages) and (3) in ...

  5. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  6. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore...

  7. Study on the food distribution among workers of different races of the honeybee Apis mellifica L. by means of the 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloft, W.J.; Djalal, A.S.; Drescher, Wilhelm

    1976-01-01

    Using the radioactive tracer-technique, the social food distribution among workerbees of different races of the honeybee Apis mellifica L. to workerbees of Apis cerana Fabr. was studied. The experiments were carried out under standardized conditions as age, groupsize, food-supply of the donor-bee, distribution-time and temperature. Significant differences in the time required for social food distributions among workerbees of the different races were demonstrated. The highest number of acceptor-bees during 4 hours belonged to A.m.ligustica. A.m. caucasica reached similar values, A.m. carnica was intermediate, while A.m. mellifica was the slowest distributor. This foodsharing behavior was compared with other differences in the activity of different bee races

  8. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  9. Biophysics of the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Storm, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    The subgenual organ of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg is accelerated, inertia causes the haemolymph (and the subgenual organ) to lag behind the movement of the rest of the leg. The magnitude of this phase lag determines...

  10. The Activity of Carbohydrate-Degrading Enzymes in the Development of Brood and Newly Emerged workers and Drones of the Carniolan Honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica

    OpenAIRE

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both ...

  11. Resolution and sensitivity of the eyes of the Asian honeybees Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanathan, Hema; Warrant, Eric J; Borges, Renee M; Wallén, Rita; Kelber, Almut

    2009-08-01

    Bees of the genus Apis are important foragers of nectar and pollen resources. Although the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been well studied with respect to its sensory abilities, learning behaviour and role as pollinators, much less is known about the other Apis species. We studied the anatomical spatial resolution and absolute sensitivity of the eyes of three sympatric species of Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, Apis florea and Apis dorsata and compared them with the eyes of A. mellifera. Of these four species, the giant honeybee A. dorsata (which forages during moonlit nights) has the lowest spatial resolution and the most sensitive eyes, followed by A. mellifera, A. cerana and the dwarf honeybee, A. florea (which has the smallest acceptance angles and the least sensitive eyes). Moreover, unlike the strictly diurnal A. cerana and A. florea, A. dorsata possess large ocelli, a feature that it shares with all dim-light bees. However, the eyes of the facultatively nocturnal A. dorsata are much less sensitive than those of known obligately nocturnal bees such as Megalopta genalis in Panama and Xylocopa tranquebarica in India. The differences in sensitivity between the eyes of A. dorsata and other strictly diurnal Apis species cannot alone explain why the former is able to fly, orient and forage at half-moon light levels. We assume that additional neuronal adaptations, as has been proposed for A. mellifera, M. genalis and X. tranquebarica, might exist in A. dorsata.

  12. The activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the development of brood and newly emerged workers and drones of the Carniolan honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.

  13. Toward an Understanding of Divergent Compound Eye Development in Drones and Workers of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.): A Correlative Analysis of Morphology and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Antonio, David S; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Eye development in insects is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, but little is known for other holometabolous insects. Combining a morphological with a gene expression analysis, we investigated eye development in the honeybee, putting emphasis on the sex-specific differences in eye size. Optic lobe development starts from an optic lobe anlage in the larval brain, which sequentially gives rise to the lobula, medulla, and lamina. The lamina differentiates in the last larval instar, when it receives optic nerve projections from the developing retina. The expression analysis focused on seven genes important for Drosophila eye development: eyes absent, sine oculis, embryonic lethal abnormal vision, minibrain, small optic lobes, epidermal growth factor receptor, and roughest. All except small optic lobes were more highly expressed in third-instar drone larvae, but then, in the fourth and fifth instar, their expression was sex-specifically modulated, showing shifts in temporal dynamics. The clearest differences were seen for small optic lobes, which is highly expressed in the developing eye of workers, and minibrain and roughest, which showed a strong expression peak coinciding with retina differentiation. A microarray analysis for optic lobe/retina complexes revealed the differential expression of several metabolism-related genes, as well as of two micro-RNAs. While we could not see major morphological differences in the developing eye structures before the pupal stage, the expression differences observed for the seven candidate genes and in the transcriptional microarray profiles indicate that molecular signatures underlying sex-specific optic lobe and retina development become established throughout the larval stages. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping-Li; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Ji-Hu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Xing; Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting

    2010-03-01

    Bifenthrin and deltamethrin have been widely used as pesticides in agriculture and forestry and are becoming an increasing risk to honeybees. The honeybee, Apis mellifera ligustica, is widely recognized as a beneficial insect of agronomic, ecological, and scientific importance. It is important to understand what effects these chemicals have on bees. Effects of two pesticides at sublethal concentrations on fecundity, growth, and development of honeybees were examined with the feeding method for a three-year period (2006-2008). It was shown that both bifenthrin and deltamethrin significantly reduced bee fecundity, decreased the rate at which bees develop to adulthood, and increased their immature periods. The toxicity of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on workers of Apis mellifera ligustica was also assessed, and the results from the present study showed that the median lethal effects of bifenthrin and deltamethrin were 16.7 and 62.8 mg/L, respectively.

  15. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  16. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  17. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  18. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  19. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  20. Drag reduction effects facilitated by microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Chu; Wu, Jia-Ning; Yang, Yun-Qiang; Zhu, Ren-Gao; Yan, Shao-Ze

    2016-01-21

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is a natural well-designed micropump that uses a reciprocating glossa through a temporary tube comprising a pair of galeae and labial palpi for loading nectar. The shapes and sizes of mouthparts differ among castes of honeybees, but the diversities of the functional microstructures inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones remain poorly understood. Through scanning electron microscopy, we found the dimensional difference of uniformly distributed microridges on the inner galeae walls of Apis mellifera ligustica workers and drones. Subsequently, we recorded the feeding process of live honeybees by using a specially designed high-speed camera system. Considering the microridges and kinematics of the glossa, we constructed a hydrodynamic model to calculate the friction coefficient of the mouthpart. In addition, we test the drag reduction through the dimensional variations of the microridges on the inner walls of mouthparts. Theoretical estimations of the friction coefficient with respect to dipping frequency show that inner microridges can reduce friction during the feeding process of honeybees. The effects of drag reduction regulated by specific microridges were then compared. The friction coefficients of the workers and drones were found to be 0.011±0.007 (mean±s.d.) and 0.045±0.010, respectively. These results indicate that the mouthparts of workers are more capable of drag reduction compared with those of drones. The difference was analyzed by comparing the foraging behavior of the workers and drones. Workers are equipped with well-developed hypopharyngeal, and their dipping frequency is higher than that of drones. Our research establishes a critical link between microridge dimensions and drag reduction capability during the nectar feeding of honeybees. Our results reveal that microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones reflect the caste-related life cycles of honeybees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  1. Do honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, regulate humidity in their nest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2006-08-01

    Honeybees are highly efficient at regulating the biophysical parameters of their hive according to colony needs. Thermoregulation has been the most extensively studied aspect of nest homeostasis. In contrast, little is known about how humidity is regulated in beehives, if at all. Although high humidity is necessary for brood development, regulation of this parameter by honeybee workers has not yet been demonstrated. In the past, humidity was measured too crudely for a regulation mechanism to be identified. We reassess this issue, using miniaturised data loggers that allow humidity measurements in natural situations and at several places in the nest. We present evidence that workers influence humidity in the hive. However, there are constraints on potential regulation mechanisms because humidity optima may vary in different locations of the nest. Humidity could also depend on variable external factors, such as water availability, which further impair the regulation. Moreover, there are trade-offs with the regulation of temperature and respiratory gas exchanges that can disrupt the establishment of optimal humidity levels. As a result, we argue that workers can only adjust humidity within sub-optimal limits.

  2. The transcriptomic changes associated with the development of social parasitism in the honeybee Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Denise; Mumoki, Fiona N.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Social insects are characterized by the division of labor. Queens usually dominate reproduction, whereas workers fulfill non-reproductive age-dependent tasks to maintain the colony. Although workers are typically sterile, they can activate their ovaries to produce their own offspring. In the extreme, worker reproduction can turn into social parasitism as in Apis mellifera capensis. These intraspecific parasites occupy a host colony, kill the resident queen, and take over the reproductive monopoly. Because they exhibit a queenlike behavior and are also treated like queens by the fellow workers, they are so-called pseudoqueens. Here, we compare the development of parasitic pseudoqueens and social workers at different time points using fat body transcriptome data. Two complementary analysis methods—a principal component analysis and a time course analysis—led to the identification of a core set of genes involved in the transition from a social worker into a highly fecund parasitic pseudoqueen. Comparing our results on pseudoqueens with gene expression data of honeybee queens revealed many similarities. In addition, there was a set of specific transcriptomic changes in the parasitic pseudoqueens that differed from both, queens and social workers, which may be typical for the development of the social parasitism in A. m. capensis.

  3. Social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (='natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to

  4. Social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (=`natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to the

  5. `Special agents' trigger social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Evelyn; Kastberger, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have therefore evolved a variety of defence strategies. Against predatory wasps, they produce highly coordinated Mexican wavelike cascades termed ‘shimmering’, whereby hundreds of bees flip their abdomens upwards. Although it is well known that shimmering commences at distinct spots on the nest surface, it is still unclear how shimmering is generated. In this study, colonies were exposed to living tethered wasps that were moved in front of the experimental nest. Temporal and spatial patterns of shimmering were investigated in and after the presence of the wasp. The numbers and locations of bees that participated in the shimmering were assessed, and those bees that triggered the waves were identified. The findings reveal that the position of identified trigger cohorts did not reflect the experimental path of the tethered wasp. Instead, the trigger centres were primarily arranged in the close periphery of the mouth zone of the nest, around those parts where the main locomotory activity occurs. This favours the ‘special-agents’ hypothesis that suggest that groups of specialized bees initiate the shimmering.

  6. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-04

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  7. Histochemical Comparison of the Hypopharyngeal Gland in Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 Workers and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntima Suwannapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopharyngeal glands of honeybee are age-dependent structures that change with the size of acini and are correlated with various social behaviors. The histochemical structure of Apis cerana and A. mellifera worker hypopharyngeal glands in four different developmental stages wes stained with ninhydrin Schiff's and periodic acid Schiff's reagents (PAS for localization of proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, and examined with light microscopy. Nurse bees of both honeybee species had significantly larger glands as compared to guards and forgers, but there were no statistically significant differences between these two species after accounting for caste. Gland protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees, and this was correlated with the appearance of enriched protein granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, the hypopharyngeal gland protein concentration of A. mellifera was higher than that of A. cerana even though gland size was not significantly different between species. However, gland size was shown to have decreased progressively in foragers and guards.

  8. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis L Beaurepaire

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  9. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson , Lucy; Dynes , Travis; Berry , Jennifer; Delaplane , Keith; McCormick , Lydia; Brosi , Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  10. Barbs Facilitate the Helical Penetration of Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) Stingers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zhao, Jieliang; Ye, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morpholo...

  11. Varroa destructor mite in Africanized honeybee colonies Apis mellifera L. under royal jelly or honey production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro da Rosa Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the level of invasion of Varroa mite into worker brood cells, the infestation rate on adult worker honeybees, total and effective reproduction rates of the mite in Africanized honeybee colonies under royal jelly or honey production. Invasion and infestation rates were not statistically different between honeybee colonies producing honey or royal jelly and the averages for these parameters were 5.79 and 8.54%, respectively. Colonies producing honey presented a higher (p < 0.05 total and effective reproduction of Varroa than colonies producing royal jelly. There was a negative correlation between levels of invasion and infestation with minimum external temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The variables month and season influenced the development of the mite, but rates were low and within the range normally found in Brazil for Africanized honeybee colonies, which confirm the greater resistance of these honeybees to Varroa destructor than European honeybees.

  12. PROTEINS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM OF THE HONEYBEE, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micas, André Fernando Ditondo; Ferreira, Germano Aguiar; Laure, Helen Julie; Rosa, José Cesar; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2016-09-01

    The integument of insects and other arthropods is composed of an inner basal lamina coated by the epidermis, which secretes the bulk of the outer integument layer, the cuticle. The genome sequencing of several insect species has allowed predicting classes of proteins integrating the cuticle. However, only a small proportion of them, as well as other proteins in the integumentary system, have been validated. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry, we identified 45 different proteins in a total of 112 selected gel spots derived from thoracic integument samples of developing honeybee workers, including 14 cuticular proteins (AmelCPR 3, AmelCPR 12, AmelCPR 16, AmelCPR 27, apidermin 2, apidermin 3, endocuticle structural glycoprotein SgAbd-8-like, LOC100577363, LOC408365, LOC413679, LOC725454, LOC100576916, LOC725838, and peritrophin 3-C analogous). Gene ontology functional analysis revealed that the higher proportions of the identified proteins have molecular functions related to catalytic and structural molecule activities, are involved in metabolic biological processes, and pertain to the protein class of structural or cytoskeletal proteins and hydrolases. It is noteworthy that 26.7% of the identified proteins, including five cuticular proteins, were revealed as protein species resulting from allelic isoforms or derived from posttranslational modifications. Also, 66.7% of the identified cuticular proteins were expressed in more than one developmental phase, thus indicating that they are part of the larval, pupal, and adult cuticle. Our data provide experimental support for predicted honeybee gene products and new information on proteins expressed in the developing integument. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  14. An abbreviated SNP panel for ancestry assignment of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper examines whether an abbreviated panel of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has the same power as a larger and more expensive panel of 95 SNPs to assign ancestry of honeybees (Apis mellifera) to three ancestral lineages. We selected 37 SNPs from the original 95 SNP panel using alle...

  15. Molecular determinants of caste differentiation in the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Zilá LP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In honeybees, differential feeding of female larvae promotes the occurrence of two different phenotypes, a queen and a worker, from identical genotypes, through incremental alterations, which affect general growth, and character state alterations that result in the presence or absence of specific structures. Although previous studies revealed a link between incremental alterations and differential expression of physiometabolic genes, the molecular changes accompanying character state alterations remain unknown. Results By using cDNA microarray analyses of >6,000 Apis mellifera ESTs, we found 240 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between developing queens and workers. Many genes recorded as up-regulated in prospective workers appear to be unique to A. mellifera, suggesting that the workers' developmental pathway involves the participation of novel genes. Workers up-regulate more developmental genes than queens, whereas queens up-regulate a greater proportion of physiometabolic genes, including genes coding for metabolic enzymes and genes whose products are known to regulate the rate of mass-transforming processes and the general growth of the organism (e.g., tor. Many DEGs are likely to be involved in processes favoring the development of caste-biased structures, like brain, legs and ovaries, as well as genes that code for cytoskeleton constituents. Treatment of developing worker larvae with juvenile hormone (JH revealed 52 JH responsive genes, specifically during the critical period of caste development. Using Gibbs sampling and Expectation Maximization algorithms, we discovered eight overrepresented cis-elements from four gene groups. Graph theory and complex networks concepts were adopted to attain powerful graphical representations of the interrelation between cis-elements and genes and objectively quantify the degree of relationship between these entities. Conclusion We suggest that clusters of functionally related

  16. Molecular determinants of caste differentiation in the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchuk, Angel R; Cristino, Alexandre S; Kucharski, Robert; Costa, Luciano F; Simões, Zilá L P; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-06-18

    In honeybees, differential feeding of female larvae promotes the occurrence of two different phenotypes, a queen and a worker, from identical genotypes, through incremental alterations, which affect general growth, and character state alterations that result in the presence or absence of specific structures. Although previous studies revealed a link between incremental alterations and differential expression of physiometabolic genes, the molecular changes accompanying character state alterations remain unknown. By using cDNA microarray analyses of >6,000 Apis mellifera ESTs, we found 240 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between developing queens and workers. Many genes recorded as up-regulated in prospective workers appear to be unique to A. mellifera, suggesting that the workers' developmental pathway involves the participation of novel genes. Workers up-regulate more developmental genes than queens, whereas queens up-regulate a greater proportion of physiometabolic genes, including genes coding for metabolic enzymes and genes whose products are known to regulate the rate of mass-transforming processes and the general growth of the organism (e.g., tor). Many DEGs are likely to be involved in processes favoring the development of caste-biased structures, like brain, legs and ovaries, as well as genes that code for cytoskeleton constituents. Treatment of developing worker larvae with juvenile hormone (JH) revealed 52 JH responsive genes, specifically during the critical period of caste development. Using Gibbs sampling and Expectation Maximization algorithms, we discovered eight overrepresented cis-elements from four gene groups. Graph theory and complex networks concepts were adopted to attain powerful graphical representations of the interrelation between cis-elements and genes and objectively quantify the degree of relationship between these entities. We suggest that clusters of functionally related DEGs are co-regulated during caste development in honeybees

  17. Barbs facilitate the helical penetration of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica stingers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wu

    Full Text Available The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morphological characteristics of the stinger cross-sections were analyzed before and after penetration by microscopy. Our findings suggest that the honeybee stinger undergoes helical and clockwise rotation during penetration. We also found that the helical penetration of the stinger is associated directly with the spiral distribution of the barbs, thereby confirming that stinger penetration involves an advanced microstructure rather than a simple needle-like apparatus. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of honeybee stinger penetration.

  18. Barbs facilitate the helical penetration of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) stingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zhao, Jieliang; Ye, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    The stinger is a very small and efficient device that allows honeybees to perform two main physiological activities: repelling enemies and laying eggs for reproduction. In this study, we explored the specific characteristics of stinger penetration, where we focused on its movements and the effects of it microstructure. The stingers of Italian honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were grouped and fixed onto four types of cubic substrates, before pressing into different substrates. The morphological characteristics of the stinger cross-sections were analyzed before and after penetration by microscopy. Our findings suggest that the honeybee stinger undergoes helical and clockwise rotation during penetration. We also found that the helical penetration of the stinger is associated directly with the spiral distribution of the barbs, thereby confirming that stinger penetration involves an advanced microstructure rather than a simple needle-like apparatus. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of honeybee stinger penetration.

  19. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. pupae head development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Zheng

    Full Text Available The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days, of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days. However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days. Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.

  20. Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along

  1. Stimulating natural supersedure of honeybee queens, Apis mellifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksma, H.P.; Calis, J.N.M.; Boot, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    When a honeybee queen starts to fail, she is often superseded by a young queen that takes over reproduction inside the colony. Natural supersedure in winter leads to an unfertilised young queen and colony loss. To reduce these losses we tried to stimulate supersedure of queens earlier in the season.

  2. The absolute configurations of hydroxy fatty acids from the royal jelly of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodai, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Takafumi; Noda, Naoki

    2011-03-01

    9-Hydroxy-2E-decenoic acid (9-HDA) is a precursor of the queen-produced substance, 9-oxo-2E-decenoic acid (9-ODA), which has various important functions and roles for caste maintenance in honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). 9-HDA in royal jelly is considered to be a metabolite of 9-ODA produced by worker bees, and it is fed back to the queen who then transforms it into 9-ODA. Recently we found that 9-HDA is present in royal jelly as a mixture of optical isomers (R:S, 2:1). The finding leads us to suspect that chiral fatty acids in royal jelly are precursors of semiochemicals. Rather than looking for semiochemicals in the mandibular glands of the queen bee, this study involves the search for precursors of pheromones from large quantities of royal jelly. Seven chiral hydroxy fatty acids, 9,10-dihydroxy-2E-decenoic, 4,10-dihydroxy-2E-decenoic, 4,9-dihydroxy-2E-decenoic, 3-hydroxydecanoic, 3,9-dihydroxydecanoic, 3,11-dihydroxydodecanoic, and 3,10-dihydroxydecanoic acids were isolated. The absolute configurations of these acids were determined using the modified Mosher's method, and it was revealed that, similar to 9-HDA, five acids are present in royal jelly as mixtures of optical isomers.

  3. A variant reference data set for the Africanized honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir M; Harpur, Brock A; Orsi, Ricardo O; Zayed, Amro

    2016-11-08

    The Africanized honeybee (AHB) is a population of Apis mellifera found in the Americas. AHBs originated in 1956 in Rio Clara, Brazil where imported African A. m. scutellata escaped and hybridized with local populations of European A. mellifera. Africanized populations can now be found from Northern Argentina to the Southern United States. AHBs-often referred to as 'Killer Bees'- are a major concern to the beekeeping industry as well as a model for the evolutionary genetics of colony defence. We performed high coverage pooled-resequencing of 360 diploid workers from 30 Brazilian AHB colonies using Illumina Hi-Seq (150 bp PE). This yielded a high density SNP data set with an average read depth at each site of 20.25 reads. With 3,606,720 SNPs and 155,336 SNPs within 11,365 genes, this data set is the largest genomic resource available for AHBs and will enable high-resolution studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and genetics of this successful biological invader, in addition to facilitating the development of SNP-based tools for identifying AHBs.

  4. Detection of neural activity in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a "hot defensive bee ball".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Ugajin

    Full Text Available Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica. Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a "hot defensive bee ball" by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica, on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing.

  5. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  6. Assessment of nutritional resources quality from honeybees (Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several environments were selected, namely a rainforest in. Kisangani ... Keywords: Apis mellifera adansonii, honey, bee bread, quality, nutrition, bee ecology, DRC. INTRODUCTION. Various ...... BKN, Co-Proponent of this work, contributed.

  7. Survey of diseases and parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niweiri, M. A.; El-Sarrag, M. S. A.; Satti, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the honeybee diseases and parasites including questionnaires were carried out in eight bee areas in Sudan during the season 2002/03. About 117 local colonies and 324 packages of imported colonies of Apis mellifera were inspected, in addition to 25 colonies of Apis florea. All areas were found to be free of most bacterial brood diseases and fungal diseases, except the bacterial brood disease (Serratia marcescens) which was merely detected in 2.6% of Khartoum colonies. However, non infective dysentery was the only adult disease found during this study infecting 18.2% of Kordofan colonies. On the other hand, the parasitic mite (Varroa jacobsoni) was reported as first record in Sudan, detected only in Khartoum State infecting about 75% of colonies in apiaries and 27% of wild colonies. Sudanese honeybees were found to be characterized by hygienic behaviour of colonies which resist most pests and diseases, and no chemicals were used for control.(Author)

  8. Germ cell development in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera; Vasa and Nanos expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearden Peter K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of specification of germ-cells in insect embryos has indicated that in many taxa the germ cells form early in development, and their formation is associated with pole plasm, germ plasm or an organelle called the oosome. None of these morphological features associated with germ cell formation have been identified in the Honeybee Apis mellifera. In this study I report the cloning and expression analysis of Honeybee homologues of vasa and nanos, germ cell markers in insects and other animals. Results Apis vasa and nanos RNAs are present in early honeybee embryos, but the RNAs clear rapidly, without any cells expressing these germ cell markers past stage 2. These genes are then only expressed in a line of cells in the abdomen from stage 9 onwards. These cells are the developing germ cells that are moved dorsally by dorsal closure and are placed in the genital ridge. Conclusion This study of the expression of germ cell markers in the honeybee implies that in this species either germ cells are formed by an inductive event, late in embryogenesis, or they are formed early in development in the absence of vasa and nanos expression. This contrasts with germ cell development in other members of the Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

  9. Efeito tóxico de alimentos alternativos para abelhas Apis mellifera Toxic effect of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia de Mello Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a existência de efeito tóxico em alimentos protéicos alternativos fornecidos para abelhas Apis mellifera. Medindo-se o tempo médio de mortalidade e o índice de mortalidade de abelhas confinadas, avaliou-se a existência de efeito tóxico do: (a feno das folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta; (b feno das folhas de leucena (Leucaena leococephala; (c farinha de vagem de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora; (d farinha de vagem de bordão-de-velho (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e farelo de babaçu (Orbygnia martiana e (f sucedâneo do leite para bezerros da marca Purina®. O tempo médio de mortalidade variou de 4,46 a 11,74 e o índice de mortalidade variou de 4,58 a 12,80. Durante o experimento, obsevou-se que as abelhas alimentadas com farinha de bordão-de-velho ficavam envoltas em uma crosta de alimento, morrendo asfixiadas posteriormente. Os resultados demonstraram que a farinha de bordão-de-velho não deve ser fornecida às abelhas. Não foi observado efeito tóxico nos demais alimentos estudados.The objective of this research was to study toxic effects of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera. The average mortality time and the mortality index of cagged honeybees were assessed to evaluate any possible toxic effect of: (a cassava hay (Manihot esculenta; (b leucaena hay (Leucaena leococephala; (c mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora; (d "bordão-de-velho" pod meal (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e babassu bran (Orbygnia martiana and (f succedaneous for calfskin from Purina®. The mortality time average varied from 4.46 to 11.74 and the mortality index varied between 4.58 and 12.80. It was obseved that honeybees fed with "bordão-de-velho" pod meal got involved by stichy layer of food and died asphyxiated. Results showed that the flour of Pithecellobium cf. saman should not be used for feeding honeybees, considering the early mortality of workers fed with this meal. The other food studied

  10. Molecular recognition of floral volatile with two olfactory related proteins in the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Linya; Ni, Cuixia; Shang, Hanwu; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Jianke

    2013-05-01

    The honeybee relies on its sensitive olfaction to perform the foraging activities in the field. In the antennal chemoreception system of honeybee, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory protein (CSPs) are major two protein families capable of binding with some plant volatiles and chemical ligands. However, the chemical binding interaction of plant odors with OBPs and CSPs in the honeybee olfactory system is still not clear yet. Hence, complex fluorescent spectra, ultraviolet absorption spectra, circular dichroism spectra and molecular docking were used to investigate the binding property of AcerASP2 (an OBP of Apis cerana) and AcerASP3 (a CSP of Apis cerana) with β-ionone, one of ordinary floral volatiles in botanical flower. As a result, β-ionone had a strong capability to quench the fluorescence that the two proteins produced, and their interaction was a dynamic process that was mainly driven by a hydrophobic force. AcerASP2 had a larger hydrophobic cavity than that of AcerASP3 and the conformation of AcerASP2 was changed less than AcerASP3 when binding with β-ionone. Our data suggests that OBPs like AcerASP2 might make a large contribution toward assisting the honeybee in sensing and foraging flowers, and A. cerana has evolved a good circadian rhythm to perceive a flower's odor following the fluctuation of temperature in the olfactory system. This significantly extends our knowledge on how to strengthen the honeybees' pollination service via manipulation of target proteins in the olfactory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Parasites and Pathogens of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera and Their Influence on Inter-Colonial Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Pathogens and parasites may facilitate their transmission by manipulating host behavior. Honeybee pathogens and pests need to be transferred from one colony to another if they are to maintain themselves in a host population. Inter-colony transmission occurs typically through honeybee workers not returning to their home colony but entering a foreign colony ("drifting". Pathogens might enhance drifting to enhance transmission to new colonies. We here report on the effects infection by ten honeybee viruses and Nosema spp., and Varroa mite infestation on honeybee drifting. Genotyping of workers collected from colonies allowed us to identify genuine drifted workers as well as source colonies sending out drifters in addition to sink colonies accepting them. We then used network analysis to determine patterns of drifting. Distance between colonies in the apiary was the major factor explaining 79% of drifting. None of the tested viruses or Nosema spp. were associated with the frequency of drifting. Only colony infestation with Varroa was associated with significantly enhanced drifting. More specifically, colonies with high Varroa infestation had a significantly enhanced acceptance of drifters, although they did not send out more drifting workers. Since Varroa-infested colonies show an enhanced attraction of drifting workers, and not only those infected with Varroa and its associated pathogens, infestation by Varroa may also facilitate the uptake of other pests and parasites.

  12. Oriental orchid (Cymbidium floribundum) attracts the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) with a mixture of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and 10-hydroxy- (E)-2-decenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Michio; Izutsu, Kazunari; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Sakamoto, Fumio

    2013-02-01

    The flower of the oriental orchid Cymbidium floribundum is known to attract the Japanese honeybee Apis cerana japonica. This effect is observed not only in workers but also drones and queens; that is, it attracts even swarming and absconding bees. A mixture of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3-HOAA) and 10-hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) was identified as the active principles from the orchid flower, whereas these compounds individually have no such activity. Both compounds are also mandibular gland components of worker honeybees with related compounds. This strongly supports the idea that orchid flowers mimic bee secretions, although the ecological consequences of this relationship remain unknown. Because the flower is used to capture swarms, the present identification may contribute to the development of new techniques in traditional beekeeping for Japanese bees as well as A. cerana in Southeast Asia.

  13. MALDI Imaging Analysis of Neuropeptides in Africanized Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Brain: Effect of Aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratavieira, Marcel; Menegasso, Anally Ribeiro da Silva; Esteves, Franciele Grego; Sato, Kenny Umino; Malaspina, Osmar; Palma, Mario Sérgio

    2018-05-18

    The aggressiveness in honeybees seems to be regulated by multiple genes, under the influence of different factors, such as polyethism of workers, environmental factors, and response to alarm pheromones, creating a series of behavioral responses. It is suspected that neuropeptides seem to be involved with the regulation of the aggressive behavior. The role of allatostatin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides in honeybee brain during the aggressive behavior is unknown; thus, worker honeybees were stimulated to attack and to sting leather targets hanged in front of the colonies. The aggressive individuals were collected and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen; the heads were removed, and sliced at sagittal plan. The brain slices were submitted to MALDI-Spectral-Imaging analysis, and the results of the present study reported the processing of the precursors proteins into mature forms of the neuropeptides AmAST A (59-76) (AYTYVSEYKRLPVYNFGL-NH2), AmAST A (69-76) (LPVYNFGL-NH2), AmTRP (88 - 96) (APMGFQGMR-NH2), and AmTRP (254 - 262) (ARMGFHGMR-NH2), which apparently acted in different neuropils of honeybee brain, during the aggressive behavior, possibly playing the neuromodulation of different aspects of this complex behavior. These results were biologically validated performing aggressiveness-related behavioral assays, using young honeybee workers that received 1 ng of AmAST A (69-76) or AmTRP (88 - 96) via hemocele. The young workers that were not expected to be aggressive individuals, presented a complete series of the aggressive behaviors, in presence of the neuropeptides, corroborating the hypothesis that correlates the presence of mature AmASTs A and AmTRPs in honeybee brain with the aggressiveness of this insect.

  14. Conditioning procedure and color discrimination in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurfa, Martin

    We studied the influence of the conditioning procedure on color discrimination by free-flying honeybees. We asked whether absolute and differential conditioning result in different discrimination capabilities for the same pairs of colored targets. In absolute conditioning, bees were rewarded on a single color; in differential conditioning, bees were rewarded on the same color but an alternative, non-rewarding, similar color was also visible. In both conditioning procedures, bees learned their respective task and could also discriminate the training stimulus from a novel stimulus that was perceptually different from the trained one. Discrimination between perceptually closer stimuli was possible after differential conditioning but not after absolute conditioning. Differences in attention inculcated by these training procedures may underlie the different discrimination performances of the bees.

  15. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Karan S; Evans, Elizabeth C; Pizzorno, Marie C

    2009-10-30

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  16. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Elizabeth C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deformed wing virus (DWV is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L. and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. Results In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. Conclusion These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  17. Amtyr1: characterization of a gene from honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain encoding a functional tyramine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenau, W; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A

    2000-03-01

    Biogenic amine receptors are involved in the regulation and modulation of various physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. We have cloned a member of this gene family from the CNS of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. The deduced amino acid sequence is homologous to tyramine receptors cloned from Locusta migratoria and Drosophila melanogaster as well as to an octopamine receptor cloned from Heliothis virescens. Functional properties of the honeybee receptor were studied in stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Tyramine reduced forskolin-induced cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of approximately 130 nM. A similar effect of tyramine was observed in membrane homogenates of honeybee brains. Octopamine also reduced cyclic AMP production in the transfected cell line but was both less potent (EC50 of approximately 3 microM) and less efficacious than tyramine. Receptor-encoding mRNA has a wide-spread distribution in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the honeybee, suggesting that this tyramine receptor is involved in sensory signal processing as well as in higher-order brain functions.

  18. Honeybee (Apis cerana) foraging responses to the toxic honey of Tripterygium hypoglaucum (Celastraceae): changing threshold of nectar acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Guo, Y H; Nicolson, S W; Radloff, S E; Song, Q S; Hepburn, H R

    2007-12-01

    To investigate honeybee foraging responses to toxic nectar, honey was collected from Apis cerana colonies in the Yaoan county of Yunnan Province, China, during June, when flowers of Tripterygium hypoglaucum were the main nectar source available. Pollen analysis confirmed the origin of the honey, and high-performance liquid chromatography showed the prominent component triptolide to be present at a concentration of 0.61 mug/g +/- 0.11 SD. In cage tests that used young adult worker bees, significantly more of those provided with a diet of T. hypoglaucum honey mixed with sugar powder (1:1) died within 6 d (68.3%) compared to control groups provided with normal honey mixed with sugar powder (15.8%). Honeybees were trained to visit feeders that contained honey of T. hypoglaucum (toxic honey) as the test group and honey of Vicia sativa or Elsholtzia ciliata as control groups (all honeys diluted 1:3 with water). Bees preferred the feeders with normal honey to those with toxic honey, as shown by significantly higher visiting frequencies and longer imbibition times. However, when the feeder of normal honey was removed, leaving only honey of T. hypoglaucum, the foraging bees returned to the toxic honey after a few seconds of hesitation, and both visiting frequency and imbibition time increased to values previously recorded for normal honey. Toxic honey thus became acceptable to the bees in the absence of other nectar sources.

  19. RNA-sequence analysis of gene expression from honeybees (Apis mellifera) infected with Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougeroux, André; Petit, Fabien; Anselmo, Anna; Gorni, Chiara; Cucurachi, Marco; Cersini, Antonella; Granato, Anna; Cardeti, Giusy; Formato, Giovanni; Mutinelli, Franco; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Williams, John L.; Botti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N. ceranae infection. N. ceranae infection may cause reduced immune function in the bees by: (i)disturbing the host amino acids metabolism (ii) down-regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides (iii) down-regulation of cuticle coatings and (iv) down-regulation of odorant binding proteins. PMID:28350872

  20. A Comparative Study of Relational Learning Capacity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Stingless Bees (Melipona rufiventris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Conclusions/Significance Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments. PMID:23251542

  1. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauricio Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera. However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  2. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  3. Population structure and morphometric variance of the Apis mellifera scutellata group of honeybees in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Radloff

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee populations of Africa classified as Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier were analysed morphometrically using multivariate statistical techniques. The collection consisted of nearly 15,000 worker honeybees from 825 individual colonies at 193 localities in east Africa, extending from South Africa to Ethiopia. Factor analysis established one primary cluster, designated as A. m. scutellata. Morphocluster formation and inclusivity (correct classification are highly sensitive to sampling distance intervals. Within the A. m. scutellata region are larger bees associated with high altitudes of mountain systems which are traditionally classified as A. m. monticola Smith, but it is evident that these bees do not form a uniform group. Variance characteristics of the morphometric measurements show domains of significantly different local populations. These high variance populations mostly occur at transitional edges of major climatic and vegetational zones, and sometimes with more localised discontinuities in temperature. It is also now evident that those A. m. scutellata introduced nearly fifty years ago into the Neotropics were a particularly homogenous sample, which exhibited all the traits expected in a founder effect or bottleneck population.Populações africanas de abelhas comuns classificadas como Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier foram analisadas morfometricamente usando-se técnicas estatísticas multivariadas. A população consistia de aproximadamente 15.000 abelhas operárias provenientes de 825 colônias individuais de 193 localidades do leste da África, estendendo-se da África do Sul até a Etiópia. A análise de fatores estabeleceu um agrupamento primário designado A. m. scutellata. A formação de agrupamento morfológico e a inclusividade (classificação correta são altamente sensíveis aos intervalos de distância da amostragem. Dentro da região de A. m. scutellata há abelhas maiores associadas às altas altitudes

  4. Shotgun proteomics deciphered age/division of labor-related functional specification of three honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) exocrine glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Hori, Yutaro; Takeuchi, Jun; Kubo, Takeo; Oyama, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) uses various chemical signals produced by the worker exocrine glands to maintain the functioning of its colony. The roles of worker postcerebral glands (PcGs), thoracic glands (TGs), and mandibular glands (MGs) and the functional changes they undergo according to the division of labor from nursing to foraging are not as well studied. To comprehensively characterize the molecular roles of these glands in workers and their changes according to the division of labor of workers, we analyzed the proteomes of PcGs, TGs, and MGs from nurse bees and foragers using shotgun proteomics technology. We identified approximately 2000 proteins from each of the nurse bee or forager glands and highlighted the features of these glands at the molecular level by semiquantitative enrichment analyses of frequently detected, gland-selective, and labor-selective proteins. First, we found the high potential to produce lipids in PcGs and MGs, suggesting their relation to pheromone production. Second, we also found the proton pumps abundant in TGs and propose some transporters possibly related to the saliva production. Finally, our data unveiled candidate enzymes involved in labor-dependent acid production in MGs.

  5. Anaesthetic effects of Adenia gummifera distillates on Apis mellifera (Honeybee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarivhume, T; Dzomba, P; Gwizangwe, I; Zendera, C H; Katsvanga, C A T; Jimu, L; Moyo, M; Chagonda, T

    2008-01-01

    The anaesthetic activities of steam distillates of Adenia gummifera stem on Apis mellifera were evaluated by a diffusion method. Live, direct and fractional (61-80 degrees C fraction) distillates had greater anaesthetic effect while vacuum distillates were mild. The anaesthetic activity significantly increased with concentration up to 6% (v/v), and then it levelled off, while excessive exposure was lethal. The number of bees in a given volume had no significant effect on anaesthetic activity but container volume (F(cal) = 66.4; F(3,8) = 4.07) and bee-distillate distance (F(cal) = 31.0; F(2,6) = 5.14) did, suggesting the rate of diffusion of active component could be the determining factor. The active component is likely to contain amines and the rest halogenated alkane.

  6. Function and distribution of 5-HT2 receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Thamm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera, serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. METHODS: Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA. Recombinant cell lines were established constitutively expressing receptor variants. Pharmacological properties of the receptors were investigated by Ca(2+ imaging experiments. Quantitative PCR was applied to explore the expression patterns of receptor mRNAs. RESULTS: The honeybee 5-HT2 receptor class consists of two subtypes, Am5-HT2α and Am5-HT2β. Each receptor gene also gives rise to alternatively spliced mRNAs that possibly code for truncated receptors. Only activation of the full-length receptors with serotonin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration. The effect was mimicked by the agonists 5-methoxytryptamine and 8-OH-DPAT at low micromolar concentrations. Receptor activities were blocked by established 5-HT receptor antagonists such as clozapine, methiothepin, or mianserin. High transcript numbers were detected in exocrine glands suggesting that 5-HT2 receptors participate in secretory processes in the honeybee. CONCLUSIONS: This study marks the first molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the same insect species. The results presented should facilitate further attempts to unravel central and peripheral effects of serotonin mediated by these receptors.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Carmelina Flavia; Simpson, Jack Bruce; Powell, Daniel; Brooks, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees ( Apis mellifera, Apidae). This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C. The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL-1 against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and

  8. Function and distribution of 5-HT2 receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Markus; Rolke, Daniel; Jordan, Nadine; Balfanz, Sabine; Schiffer, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating and modulating physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the honeybee (Apis mellifera), serotonin has been implicated in division of labor, visual processing, and learning processes. Here, we present the cloning, heterologous expression, and detailed functional and pharmacological characterization of two honeybee 5-HT2 receptors. Honeybee 5-HT2 receptor cDNAs were amplified from brain cDNA. Recombinant cell lines were established constitutively expressing receptor variants. Pharmacological properties of the receptors were investigated by Ca(2+) imaging experiments. Quantitative PCR was applied to explore the expression patterns of receptor mRNAs. The honeybee 5-HT2 receptor class consists of two subtypes, Am5-HT2α and Am5-HT2β. Each receptor gene also gives rise to alternatively spliced mRNAs that possibly code for truncated receptors. Only activation of the full-length receptors with serotonin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The effect was mimicked by the agonists 5-methoxytryptamine and 8-OH-DPAT at low micromolar concentrations. Receptor activities were blocked by established 5-HT receptor antagonists such as clozapine, methiothepin, or mianserin. High transcript numbers were detected in exocrine glands suggesting that 5-HT2 receptors participate in secretory processes in the honeybee. This study marks the first molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the same insect species. The results presented should facilitate further attempts to unravel central and peripheral effects of serotonin mediated by these receptors.

  9. Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov., from honeybee Apis cerana bee bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Huang, Yan; Li, Li; Guo, Jun; Wu, Zhengyun; Deng, Yu; Dai, Lirong; Ma, Shichun

    2018-03-01

    A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus, designated strain Bb 2-3 T , was isolated from bee bread of Apis cerana collected from a hive in Kunming, China. The strain was regular rod-shaped. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 6.5 with 5.0 g l -1 NaCl. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 iso. Respiratory quinones were not detected. Seven glycolipids, three lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected. The peptidoglycan type A4α l-Lys-d-Asp was determined. Strain Bb 2-3 T was closely related to Lactobacillus bombicola DSM 28793 T , Lactobacillus apis LMG 26964 T and Lactobacillus helsingborgensis DSM 26265 T , with 97.8, 97.6 and 97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain Bb 2-3 T was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. The average nucleotide identity between strain Bb 2-3 T and the type strains of closely related species was lower than the 95-96 % threshold value for delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Bb 2-3 T was 37.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain Bb 2-3 T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which we propose the name Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov. The type strain is Bb 2-3 T (=DSM 102188 T =ACCC 19955 T ).

  10. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more...... slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. Furthermore, A. mellifera has fewer genes for innate immunity, detoxification enzymes, cuticle-forming proteins and gustatory receptors, more genes for odorant receptors, and novel...... genes for nectar and pollen utilization, consistent with its ecology and social organization. Compared to Drosophila, genes in early developmental pathways differ in Apis, whereas similarities exist for functions that differ markedly, such as sex determination, brain function and behaviour. Population...

  12. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  13. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  14. Genetic underpinnings of division of labor in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattorff, H Michael G; Moritz, Robin F A

    2013-11-01

    Honeybees have been studied for centuries, starting with Aristotle, who wrote the first book about bee breeding. More than 2000 years later, the honeybee entered the genomic era as the first social insect whose genome was sequenced, leading to significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior. In addition, gene expression studies and knockdown using RNAi have extended the understanding of social interactions. Much of the work has focused on caste determination - the mechanism that results in reproductive division of labor, division of labor within the worker caste, and worker reproduction - an essential process underlying eusociality. Here we review the molecular factors involved in caste determination and the differential regulation of caste-specific genes. Recent findings suggest that division of labor is influenced by a small number of loci showing high levels of pleiotropy, suggesting that changes in a small number of genes lead to large changes in the phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extreme Recombination Frequencies Shape Genome Variation and Evolution in the Honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, Andreas; Glémin, Sylvain; Webster, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental cellular process, with important consequences for evolution and genome integrity. However, we know little about how recombination rates vary across the genomes of most species and the molecular and evolutionary determinants of this variation. The honeybee, Apis mellifera, has extremely high rates of meiotic recombination, although the evolutionary causes and consequences of this are unclear. Here we use patterns of linkage disequilibrium in whole genome resequencing data from 30 diploid honeybees to construct a fine-scale map of rates of crossing over in the genome. We find that, in contrast to vertebrate genomes, the recombination landscape is not strongly punctate. Crossover rates strongly correlate with levels of genetic variation, but not divergence, which indicates a pervasive impact of selection on the genome. Germ-line methylated genes have reduced crossover rate, which could indicate a role of methylation in suppressing recombination. Controlling for the effects of methylation, we do not infer a strong association between gene expression patterns and recombination. The site frequency spectrum is strongly skewed from neutral expectations in honeybees: rare variants are dominated by AT-biased mutations, whereas GC-biased mutations are found at higher frequencies, indicative of a major influence of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), which we infer to generate an allele fixation bias 5 – 50 times the genomic average estimated in humans. We uncover further evidence that this repair bias specifically affects transitions and favours fixation of CpG sites. Recombination, via gBGC, therefore appears to have profound consequences on genome evolution in honeybees and interferes with the process of natural selection. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the forces driving molecular evolution. PMID:25902173

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Formation of Long-Term Reward Memories and Extinction Memories in the Honeybee ("Apis Mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee ("Apis mellifera") has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a…

  17. Four quantitative trait loci associated with low Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) spore load in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qiang; Kryger, Per; Le Conte, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Nosema ceranae has been recently introduced into the honeybee Apis mellifera as a novel microsporidian gut parasite. To locate the genetic region involved in N. ceranae infection tolerance, we fed N. ceranae spores to haploid drones of a F1 hybrid queen produced from a cross between a queen...

  18. Assessment of the Potential of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Biomonitoring of Air Pollution by Cadmium, Lead and Vanadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Kraker, de J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) could be used as a reliable alternative to the standard mechanical devices for monitoring of air quality, in particular with respect to the concentration of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). We

  19. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against the honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis and their topical toxicity to Apis mellifera adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, V; Thongtue, U; Sornmai, N; Songsri, S; Pettis, J S

    2017-11-01

    To explore alternative nonchemical control measures against two honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis, 37 plant species were screened for antimicrobial activity. The activity of selected plant extracts was screened using an in vitro disc diffusion assay and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method. The results showed that 36 plant extracts had some antibacterial activity on P. larvae by disc diffusion assay. Chromolaena odorata showed the greatest antibacterial activity against P. larvae (MIC 16-64 μg ml -1 ). Of the 37 tested plants, only seven species, Amomum krervanh, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum sp., Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Piper sarmentosum and Syzygium aromaticum had inhibitory effects on A. apis (MICs of 32-64 μg ml -1 ). The results demonstrated that promising plant extracts were not toxic to adult bees at the concentrations used in this study. The results demonstrate the potential antimicrobial activity of natural products against honeybee diseases caused by P. larvae and A. apis. Chromolaena odorata in particular showed high bioactivity against P. larvae. Further study is recommended to develop these nonchemical treatments against American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees. This work proposes new natural products for the control of American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Aging and demographic plasticity in response to experimental age structures in honeybees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Linford, Robyn; Gardner, Preston; Coleman, Jennifer; Fine, Kari

    2008-08-01

    Honeybee colonies are highly integrated functional units characterized by a pronounced division of labor. Division of labor among workers is mainly age-based, with younger individuals focusing on in-hive tasks and older workers performing the more hazardous foraging activities. Thus, experimental disruption of the age composition of the worker hive population is expected to have profound consequences for colony function. Adaptive demography theory predicts that the natural hive age composition represents a colony-level adaptation and thus results in optimal hive performance. Alternatively, the hive age composition may be an epiphenomenon, resulting from individual life history optimization. We addressed these predictions by comparing individual worker longevity and brood production in hives that were composed of a single age cohort, two distinct age cohorts, and hives that had a continuous, natural age distribution. Four experimental replicates showed that colonies with a natural age composition did not consistently have a higher life expectancy and/or brood production than the single cohort or double cohort hives. Instead, a complex interplay of age structure, environmental conditions, colony size, brood production, and individual mortality emerged. A general trade-off between worker life expectancy and colony productivity was apparent, and the transition from in-hive tasks to foraging was the most significant predictor of worker lifespan irrespective of the colony age structure. We conclude that the natural age structure of honeybee hives is not a colony-level adaptation. Furthermore, our results show that honeybees exhibit pronounced demographic plasticity in addition to behavioral plasticity to react to demographic disturbances of their societies.

  1. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of long-term reward memories and extinction memories in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a flower's characteristic features with a reward in a way that resembles olfactory appetitive classical conditioning, a learning paradigm that is used to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Due to a plethora of studies on appetitive classical conditioning and phenomena related to it, the honeybee is one of the best characterized invertebrate model organisms from a learning psychological point of view. Moreover, classical conditioning and associated behavioral phenomena are surprisingly similar in honeybees and vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of underlying neuronal processes, including the molecular mechanisms that contribute to them. Here I review current thinking on the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory (LTM) formation in honeybees following classical conditioning and extinction, demonstrating that an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning in honeybees might add to our understanding of associative learning in honeybees and vertebrates. PMID:25225299

  2. Genetics of reproduction and regulation of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert E; Rueppell, Olav; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees form complex societies with a division of labor for reproduction, nutrition, nest construction and maintenance, and defense. How does it evolve? Tasks performed by worker honeybees are distributed in time and space. There is no central control over behavior and there is no central genome on which selection can act and effect adaptive change. For 22 years, we have been addressing these questions by selecting on a single social trait associated with nutrition: the amount of surplus pollen (a source of protein) that is stored in the combs of the nest. Forty-two generations of selection have revealed changes at biological levels extending from the society down to the level of the gene. We show how we constructed this vertical understanding of social evolution using behavioral and anatomical analyses, physiology, genetic mapping, and gene knockdowns. We map out the phenotypic and genetic architectures of food storage and foraging behavior and show how they are linked through broad epistasis and pleiotropy affecting a reproductive regulatory network that influences foraging behavior. This is remarkable because worker honeybees have reduced reproductive organs and are normally sterile; however, the reproductive regulatory network has been co-opted for behavioral division of labor.

  3. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  4. A selective sweep in a Varroa destructor resistant honeybee (Apis mellifera) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattorff, H Michael G; Buchholz, Josephine; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-04-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is one of the most dangerous parasites of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) causing enormous colony losses worldwide. Various chemical treatments for the control of the Varroa mite are currently in use, which, however, lead to residues in bee products and often to resistance in mites. This facilitated the exploration of alternative treatment methods and breeding for mite resistant honeybees has been in focus for breeders in many parts of the world with variable results. Another approach has been applied to a honeybee population on Gotland (Sweden) that was exposed to natural selection and survived Varroa-infestation for more than 10years without treatment. Eventually this population became resistant to the parasite by suppressing the reproduction of the mite. A previous QTL mapping study had identified a region on chromosome 7 with major loci contributing to the mite resistance. Here, a microsatellite scan of the significant candidate QTL regions was used to investigate potential footprints of selection in the original population by comparing the study population on Gotland before (2000) and after selection (2007). Genetic drift had caused an extreme loss of genetic diversity in the 2007 population for all genetic markers tested. In addition to this overall reduction of heterozygosity, two loci on chromosome 7 showed an even stronger and significant reduction in diversity than expected from genetic drift alone. Within the selective sweep eleven genes are annotated, one of them being a putative candidate to interfere with reduced mite reproduction. A glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase (GMCOX18) might be involved in changing volatiles emitted by bee larvae that might be essential to trigger oogenesis in Varroa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoil, M [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gillis, P [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gossuin, Y [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Pankhurst, Q A [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Hautot, D [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-en-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  6. Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

  7. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoil, M.; Gillis, P.; Gossuin, Y.; Pankhurst, Q. A.; Hautot, D.

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  8. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoil, M; Gillis, P; Gossuin, Y; Pankhurst, Q A; Hautot, D

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin

  9. Involvement of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in gating a honeybee's behavioral response to an external stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees (Apis mellifera) we recently demonstrated a particular high abundance of the phosphorylated honeybee CREB homolog (pAmCREB) in the central brain and in a subpopulation of mushroom body neurons. We hypothesize that these high pAmCREB levels are related to learning and memory formation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing brain pAmCREB levels in classically conditioned bees and bees experiencing unpaired presentations of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). We demonstrate that both behavioral protocols display differences in memory formation but do not alter the level of pAmCREB in bee brains directly after training. Nevertheless, we report that bees responding to the CS during unpaired stimulus presentations exhibit higher levels of pAmCREB than nonresponding bees. In addition, Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that is thought to enhance histone acetylation by CREB-binding protein, increases the bees’ CS responsiveness. We conclude that pAmCREB is involved in gating a bee's behavioral response driven by an external stimulus. PMID:27084927

  10. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  11. The proboscis extension reflex to evaluate learning and memory in honeybees ( Apis mellifera): some caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Elisabeth H.; Shutler, Dave; Hillier, Neil Kirk

    2012-09-01

    The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is widely used in a classical conditioning (Pavlovian) context to evaluate learning and memory of a variety of insect species. The literature is particularly prodigious for honeybees ( Apis mellifera) with more than a thousand publications. Imagination appears to be the only limit to the types of challenges to which researchers subject honeybees, including all the sensory modalities and a broad diversity of environmental treatments. Accordingly, some remarkable insights have been achieved using PER. However, there are several challenges to evaluating the PER literature that warrant a careful and thorough review. We assess here variation in methods that makes interpretation of studies, even those researching the same question, tenuous. We suggest that the numerous variables that might influence experimental outcomes from PER be thoroughly detailed by researchers. Moreover, the influence of individual variables on results needs to carefully evaluated, as well as among two or more variables. Our intent is to encourage investigation of the influence of numerous variables on PER results.

  12. Impact of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. density on wild bee foraging behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goras Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are globally regarded as important crop pollinators and are also valued for their honey production. They have been introduced on an almost worldwide scale. During recent years, however, several studies argue their possible competition with unmanaged pollinators. Here we examine the possible effects of honey bees on the foraging behaviour of wild bees on Cistus creticus flowers in Northern Greece. We gradually introduced one, five, and eight honey-bee hives per site, each containing ca. 20,000 workers. The visitation frequency and visit duration of wild bees before and after the beehive introductions were measured by flower observation. While the visitation frequencies of wild bees were unaffected, the average time wild bees spent on C. creticus increased with the introduction of the honey-bee hives. Although competition between honey bees and wild bees is often expected, we did not find any clear evidence for significant effects even in honey-bee densities much higher than the European-wide average of 3.1 colonies/km2.

  13. IgE recognition of chimeric isoforms of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom allergen Api m 10 evaluated by protein array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; De Smet, Lina; Rafei-Shamsabadi, David; Blank, Simon; Spillner, Edzard; Ebo, Didier G; Devreese, Bart; Jakob, Thilo; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-02-01

    Api m 10 has recently been established as novel major allergen that is recognized by more than 60% of honeybee venom (HBV) allergic patients. Previous studies suggest Api m 10 protein heterogeneity which may have implications for diagnosis and immunotherapy of HBV allergy. In the present study, RT-PCR revealed the expression of at least nine additional Api m 10 transcript isoforms by the venom glands. Two distinct mechanisms are responsible for the generation of these isoforms: while the previously known variant 2 is produced by an alternative splicing event, novel identified isoforms are intragenic chimeric transcripts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of chimeric transcripts generated by the honeybee. By a retrospective proteomic analysis we found evidence for the presence of several of these isoforms in the venom proteome. Additionally, we analyzed IgE reactivity to different isoforms by protein array technology using sera from HBV allergic patients, which revealed that IgE recognition of Api m 10 is both isoform- and patient-specific. While it was previously demonstrated that the majority of HBV allergic patients display IgE reactivity to variant 2, our study also shows that some patients lacking IgE antibodies for variant 2 display IgE reactivity to two of the novel identified Api m 10 variants, i.e. variants 3 and 4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain modulation of Dufour's gland ester biosynthesis in vitro in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham; Soroker, Victoria

    2007-05-01

    Caste-specific pheromone biosynthesis is a prerequisite for reproductive skew in the honeybee. Nonetheless, this process is not hardwired but plastic, in that egg-laying workers produce a queen-like pheromone. Studies with Dufour’s gland pheromone revealed that, in vivo, workers’ gland biosynthesis matches the social status of the worker, i.e., sterile workers showed a worker-like pattern whereas fertile workers showed a queen-like pattern (production of the queen-specific esters). However, when incubated in vitro, the gland spontaneously exhibits the queen-like pattern, irrespective of its original worker type, prompting the notion that ester production in workers is under inhibitory control that is queen-dependent. We tested this hypothesis by exposing queen or worker Dufour’s glands in vitro to brain extracts of queens, queenright (sterile) workers and males. Unexpectedly, worker brain extracts activated the queen-like esters biosynthesis in workers’ Dufour’s gland. This stimulation was gender-specific; queen or worker brains demonstrated a stimulatory activity, but male brains did not. Queen gland could not be further stimulated. Bioassays with heated and filtered extracts indicate that the stimulatory brain factor is below 3,000 Da. We suggest that pheromone production in Dufour’s gland is under dual, negative positive control. Under queenright conditions, the inhibitor is released and blocks ester biosynthesis, whereas under queenless conditions, the activator is released, activating ester biosynthesis in the gland. This is consistent with the hypothesis that queenright workers are unequivocally recognized as non-fertile, whereas queenless workers try to become “false queens” as part of the reproductive competition.

  15. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones.

  16. Agonistic interactions between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica and the European wasp (Vespula germanica reveal context-dependent defense strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina Pusceddu

    Full Text Available Predator-prey relationships between sympatric species allow the evolution of defense behaviors, such as honeybee colonies defending their nests against predatory wasps. We investigated the predator-prey relationship between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica and the European wasp (Vespula germanica by evaluating the effectiveness of attack and defense behaviors, which have coevolved in these sympatric species, as well as the actual damage and disturbance caused to the colonies under attack. Attack and defense behaviors were recorded in front of the hive to observe attacks at the hive entrance (68 attacks in 279 h and at ground level on isolated and weakened honeybees close to the hive (465 attacks in 32 h. We found that V. germanica attacked the hive entrance infrequently due to the low success rate of this strategy and instead preferred a specialized attack method targeting adult honeybees at ground level, demonstrating opportunistic scavenger behavior. Individual honeybees usually responded effectively to an attack by recruiting an average of two nestmates, causing the wasp to flee, whereas collective balling behavior was only observed on four occasions. V. germanica does not appear to disrupt the foraging activity of the colonies under attack. We found that agonistic events supported by other nestmates were typically the most intense ones, involving physical combat and prolonged attacks at the entrance to the hive. These observations support the hypothesis that A. mellifera ligustica can adapt its behavior to match the severity of the threat and the context of the attack.

  17. Agonistic interactions between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) reveal context-dependent defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Michelina; Floris, Ignazio; Buffa, Franco; Salaris, Emanuele; Satta, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships between sympatric species allow the evolution of defense behaviors, such as honeybee colonies defending their nests against predatory wasps. We investigated the predator-prey relationship between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) by evaluating the effectiveness of attack and defense behaviors, which have coevolved in these sympatric species, as well as the actual damage and disturbance caused to the colonies under attack. Attack and defense behaviors were recorded in front of the hive to observe attacks at the hive entrance (68 attacks in 279 h) and at ground level on isolated and weakened honeybees close to the hive (465 attacks in 32 h). We found that V. germanica attacked the hive entrance infrequently due to the low success rate of this strategy and instead preferred a specialized attack method targeting adult honeybees at ground level, demonstrating opportunistic scavenger behavior. Individual honeybees usually responded effectively to an attack by recruiting an average of two nestmates, causing the wasp to flee, whereas collective balling behavior was only observed on four occasions. V. germanica does not appear to disrupt the foraging activity of the colonies under attack. We found that agonistic events supported by other nestmates were typically the most intense ones, involving physical combat and prolonged attacks at the entrance to the hive. These observations support the hypothesis that A. mellifera ligustica can adapt its behavior to match the severity of the threat and the context of the attack.

  18. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer César Chiari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  19. Dimorphic ovary differentiation in honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae involves caste-specific expression of homologs of ark and buffy cell death genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua

    Full Text Available The establishment of the number of repeated structural units, the ovarioles, in the ovaries is one of the critical events that shape caste polyphenism in social insects. In early postembryonic development, honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae have a pair of ovaries, each one consisting of almost two hundred ovariole primordia. While practically all these ovarioles continue developing in queen-destined larvae, they undergo massive programmed cell death (PCD in worker-destined larvae. So as to gain insight into the molecular basis of this fundamental process in caste differentiation we used quantitative PCR (qPCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH to investigate the expression of the Amark and Ambuffy genes in the ovaries of the two honeybee castes throughout the fifth larval instar. These are the homologs of ark and buffy Drosophila melanogaster genes, respectively, involved in activating and inhibiting PCD. Caste-specific expression patterns were found during this time-window defining ovariole number. Amark transcript levels were increased when ovariole resorption was intensified in workers, but remained at low levels in queen ovaries. The transcripts were mainly localized at the apical end of all the worker ovarioles, but appeared in only a few queen ovarioles, thus strongly suggesting a function in mediating massive ovariolar cell death in worker larvae. Ambuffy was mainly expressed in the peritoneal sheath cells covering each ovariole. The levels of Ambuffy transcripts increased earlier in the developing ovaries of queens than in workers. Consistent with a protective role against cell death, Ambuffy transcripts were localized in practically all queen ovarioles, but only in few worker ovarioles. The results are indicative of a functional relationship between the expression of evolutionary conserved cell death genes and the morphological events leading to caste-specific ovary differentiation in a social insect.

  20. Six quantitative trait loci influence task thresholds for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Peter R; Spivak, Marla; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2010-04-01

    Honeybee hygienic behaviour provides colonies with protection from many pathogens and is an important model system of the genetics of a complex behaviour. It is a textbook example of complex behaviour under simple genetic control: hygienic behaviour consists of two components--uncapping a diseased brood cell, followed by removal of the contents--each of which are thought to be modulated independently by a few loci of medium to large effect. A worker's genetic propensity to engage in hygienic tasks affects the intensity of the stimulus required before she initiates the behaviour. Genetic diversity within colonies leads to task specialization among workers, with a minority of workers performing the majority of nest-cleaning tasks. We identify three quantitative trait loci that influence the likelihood that workers will engage in hygienic behaviour and account for up to 30% of the phenotypic variability in hygienic behaviour in our population. Furthermore, we identify two loci that influence the likelihood that a worker will perform uncapping behaviour only, and one locus that influences removal behaviour. We report the first candidate genes associated with engaging in hygienic behaviour, including four genes involved in olfaction, learning and social behaviour, and one gene involved in circadian locomotion. These candidates will allow molecular characterization of this distinctive behavioural mode of disease resistance, as well as providing the opportunity for marker-assisted selection for this commercially significant trait.

  1. Conditional withholding of proboscis extension in honeybees (Apis mellifera) during discriminative punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B H; Abramson, C I; Tobin, T R

    1991-12-01

    Proboscis extension conditioning of honeybee workers was used to test the ability of bees to respond to appetitive and aversive stimuli while restrained in a harness that allows subjects to move their antennae and mouthparts (Kuwabara, 1957; Menzel, Erber, & Masuhr, 1974). Subjects were conditioned to discriminate between two odors, one associated with sucrose feeding and the other associated with a 10 V AC shock if they responded to the sucrose unconditioned stimulus (US) in the context of that odor. Most Ss readily learned to respond to the odor followed by sucrose feeding and not to the odor associated with sucrose stimulation plus shock. Furthermore, in the context of the odor associated with shock, significantly more subjects withheld or delayed proboscis extension on stimulation with the sucrose US than they did in the context of the odor associated with feeding. Thus, restrained honeybees can readily learn to avoid shock according to an odor context by withholding proboscis extension to a normally powerful releaser. Analysis of individual learning curves revealed that subjects differed markedly in performance on this task. Some learn the discrimination quickly, whereas others show different kinds of response patterns.

  2. Chemical and cultural control of Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites in honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery S Pettis

    Full Text Available At least two parasitic mites have moved from Asian species of honeybees to infest Apis mellifera. Of these two, Varroa destructor is more widespread globally while Tropilaelaps mercedesae has remained largely in Asia. Tropilaelaps mites are most problematic when A. mellifera is managed outside its native range in contact with Asian species of Apis. In areas where this occurs, beekeepers of A. mellifera treat aggressively for Tropilaelaps and Varroa is either outcompeted or is controlled as a result of the aggressive treatment regime used against Tropilaelaps. Many mite control products used worldwide may in fact control both mites but environmental conditions differ globally and thus a control product that works well in one area may be less or ineffective in other areas. This is especially true of volatile compounds. In the current research we tested several commercial products known to control Varroa and powdered sulfur for efficacy against Tropilaelaps. Additionally, we tested the cultural control method of making a hive division to reduce Tropilaelaps growth in both the parent and offspring colony. Making a split or nucleus colony significantly reduced mite population in both the parent and nucleus colony when compared to un-manipulated control colonies. The formic acid product, Mite-Away Quick Strips®, was the only commercial product that significantly reduced mite population 8 weeks after initiation of treatment without side effects. Sulfur also reduced mite populations but both sulfur and Hopguard® significantly impacted colony growth by reducing adult bee populations. Apivar® (amitraz strips had no effect on mite or adult bee populations under the conditions tested.

  3. Origin of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from the Yucatan peninsula inferred from mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, K E; Oldroyd, B P; Javier, J; Quezada-Euán, G; Rinderer, T E

    2001-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) sampled at sites in Europe, Africa and South America were analysed using a mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker. These samples were used to provide baseline information for a detailed analysis of the process of Africanization of bees from the neotropical Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Radical changes in mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies were found to have occurred in the 13-year period studied. Prior to the arrival of Africanized bees (1986) the original inhabitants of the Yucatan peninsula appear to have been essentially of southeastern European origin with a smaller proportion having northwestern European ancestry. Three years after the migration of Africanized bees into the area (1989), only very low levels of maternal gene flow from Africanized populations into the resident European populations had occurred. By 1998, however, there was a sizeable increase in the proportion of African mitotypes in domestic populations (61%) with feral populations having 87% of mitotypes classified as African derived. The results suggest that the early stages of Africanization did not involve a rapid replacement of European with African mitotypes and that earlier studies probably overestimated the prevalence of African mitotypes.

  4. Evidence for Ventilation through Collective Respiratory Movements in Giant Honeybee (Apis dorsata) Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Waddoup, Dominique; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Asian giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) build single-comb nests in the open, which makes this species particularly susceptible to environmental strains. Long-term infrared (IR) records documented cool nest regions (CNR) at the bee curtain (nCNR = 207, nnests > 20) distinguished by marked negative gradients (ΔTCNR/d 0) displaying the Venturi effect, which evidences funnel properties of CNRs. The air flows inwards through CNRs, which is verified by the negative spatial gradient ΔTCNR/d, by the positive grading of TCNR with Tamb and lastly by fanners which have directed their abdomens towards CNRs. Rare cases of RAT +0.4 cm2/s) displaying "inhalation" and "exhalation" cycling. "Inhalation" could be boosted by bees at the inner curtain layers, which stretch their extremities against the comb enlarging the inner nest lumen and thus causing a pressure fall which drives ambient air inwards through CNR funnels. The relaxing of the formerly "activated" bees could then trigger the "exhalation" process, which brings the bee curtain, passively by gravity, close to the comb again. That way, warm, CO2-enriched nest-borne air is pressed outwards through the leaking mesh of the bee curtain. This ventilation hypothesis is supported by IR imaging and laser vibrometry depicting CNRs in at least four aspects as low-resistance convection funnels for maintaining thermoregulation and restoring fresh air in the nest.

  5. Evidence for Ventilation through Collective Respiratory Movements in Giant Honeybee (Apis dorsata Nests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kastberger

    Full Text Available The Asian giant honeybees (Apis dorsata build single-comb nests in the open, which makes this species particularly susceptible to environmental strains. Long-term infrared (IR records documented cool nest regions (CNR at the bee curtain (nCNR = 207, nnests > 20 distinguished by marked negative gradients (ΔTCNR/d 0 displaying the Venturi effect, which evidences funnel properties of CNRs. The air flows inwards through CNRs, which is verified by the negative spatial gradient ΔTCNR/d, by the positive grading of TCNR with Tamb and lastly by fanners which have directed their abdomens towards CNRs. Rare cases of RAT +0.4 cm2/s displaying "inhalation" and "exhalation" cycling. "Inhalation" could be boosted by bees at the inner curtain layers, which stretch their extremities against the comb enlarging the inner nest lumen and thus causing a pressure fall which drives ambient air inwards through CNR funnels. The relaxing of the formerly "activated" bees could then trigger the "exhalation" process, which brings the bee curtain, passively by gravity, close to the comb again. That way, warm, CO2-enriched nest-borne air is pressed outwards through the leaking mesh of the bee curtain. This ventilation hypothesis is supported by IR imaging and laser vibrometry depicting CNRs in at least four aspects as low-resistance convection funnels for maintaining thermoregulation and restoring fresh air in the nest.

  6. Evidence for Ventilation through Collective Respiratory Movements in Giant Honeybee (Apis dorsata) Nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Waddoup, Dominique; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Asian giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) build single-comb nests in the open, which makes this species particularly susceptible to environmental strains. Long-term infrared (IR) records documented cool nest regions (CNR) at the bee curtain (nCNR = 207, nnests > 20) distinguished by marked negative gradients (ΔTCNR/d 0) displaying the Venturi effect, which evidences funnel properties of CNRs. The air flows inwards through CNRs, which is verified by the negative spatial gradient ΔTCNR/d, by the positive grading of TCNR with Tamb and lastly by fanners which have directed their abdomens towards CNRs. Rare cases of RAT bee curtain (for ΔACNR/Δt > +0.4 cm2/s) displaying “inhalation” and “exhalation” cycling. “Inhalation” could be boosted by bees at the inner curtain layers, which stretch their extremities against the comb enlarging the inner nest lumen and thus causing a pressure fall which drives ambient air inwards through CNR funnels. The relaxing of the formerly “activated” bees could then trigger the “exhalation” process, which brings the bee curtain, passively by gravity, close to the comb again. That way, warm, CO2-enriched nest-borne air is pressed outwards through the leaking mesh of the bee curtain. This ventilation hypothesis is supported by IR imaging and laser vibrometry depicting CNRs in at least four aspects as low-resistance convection funnels for maintaining thermoregulation and restoring fresh air in the nest. PMID:27487188

  7. Ethanol self-administration in free-flying honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in an operant conditioning protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the effect of ethanol (EtOH) on continuous reinforcement schedules in the free-flying honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). As fermented nectars may be encountered naturally in the environment, we designed an experiment combining the tools of laboratory research with minimal disturbance to the natural life of honeybees. Twenty-five honeybees were trained to fly from their colonies to a fully automated operant chamber with head poking as the operant response. Load size, intervisit interval, and interresponse times (IRTs) served as the dependent variables and were monitored over the course of a daily training session consisting of many visits. Experimental bees were tested using an ABA design in which sucrose only was administered during condition A and a 5% EtOH sucrose solution was administered during condition B. Control bees received sucrose solution only. Most bees continued to forage after EtOH introduction. EtOH significantly reduced the load size and the intervisit interval with no significant effect on IRTs. However, a look on individual data shows large individual differences suggesting the existence of different kinds of behavioral phenotypes linked to EtOH consumption and effects. Our results contribute to the study of EtOH consumption as a normal phenomenon in an ecological context and open the door to schedule-controlled drug self-administration studies in honeybees. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. MtDNA COI-COII marker and drone congregation area: an efficient method to establish and monitor honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) conservation centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Bénédicte; Alburaki, Mohamed; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Mougel, Florence; Garnery, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Honeybee subspecies have been affected by human activities in Europe over the past few decades. One such example is the importation of nonlocal subspecies of bees which has had an adverse impact on the geographical repartition and subsequently on the genetic diversity of the black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. To restore the original diversity of this local honeybee subspecies, different conservation centres were set up in Europe. In this study, we established a black honeybee conservation centre Conservatoire de l'Abeille Noire d'Ile de France (CANIF) in the region of Ile-de-France, France. CANIF's honeybee colonies were intensively studied over a 3-year period. This study included a drone congregation area (DCA) located in the conservation centre. MtDNA COI-COII marker was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of CANIF's honeybee populations and the drones found and collected from the DCA. The same marker (mtDNA) was used to estimate the interactions and the haplotype frequency between CANIF's honeybee populations and 10 surrounding honeybee apiaries located outside of the CANIF. Our results indicate that the colonies of the conservation centre and the drones of the DCA show similar stable profiles compared to the surrounding populations with lower level of introgression. The mtDNA marker used on both DCA and colonies of the conservation centre seems to be an efficient approach to monitor and maintain the genetic diversity of the protected honeybee populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fertility and reproductive rate of Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, in native and exotic honeybee, Apis mellifera L., colonies under Saudi Arabia conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehya Alattal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Varroa mite is the most destructive pest to bee colonies worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, preliminary data indicated high infestation levels in the exotic honeybee colonies; such as Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera ligustica, compared to native honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica, which may imply higher tolerance to Varroasis. In this study, fertility and reproductive rate of Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, in capped brood cells of the native honeybee subspecies were investigated and compared with an exotic honeybee subspecies, A. m. carnica. Mite fertility was almost alike (87.5% and 89.4% in the native and craniolan colonies respectively. Similarly, results did not show significant differences in reproduction rate between both subspecies (F = 0.66, Pr > F = 0.42. Number of adult Varroa daughters per fertile mother mite was 2.0 and 2.1 for native and craniolan honeybee subspecies respectively. This may indicate that mechanisms of keeping low infestation rates in the native honeybee colonies are not associated with Varroa reproduction. Therefore, potential factors of keeping lower Varroa infestation rates in native honey bee subspecies should be further investigated.

  10. Pharmacologic inhibition of phospholipase C in the brain attenuates early memory formation in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Suenami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory in insects have been studied intensively, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in early memory formation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe, whose product is involved in calcium signaling, is almost selectively expressed in the mushroom bodies, a brain structure important for learning and memory in the honeybee. Here, we pharmacologically examined the role of phospholipase C (PLC in learning and memory in the honeybee. First, we identified four genes for PLC subtypes in the honeybee genome database. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that, among these four genes, three, including PLCe, were expressed higher in the brain than in sensory organs in worker honeybees, suggesting their main roles in the brain. Edelfosine and neomycin, pan-PLC inhibitors, significantly decreased PLC activities in homogenates of the brain tissues. These drugs injected into the head of foragers significantly attenuated memory acquisition in comparison with the control groups, whereas memory retention was not affected. These findings suggest that PLC in the brain is involved in early memory formation in the honeybee. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a role for PLC in learning and memory in an insect.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection and differentiation of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda

    2014-08-01

    Nosemosis is a contagious disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) manifested by increased winter mortality, poor spring build-up and even the total extinction of infected bee colonies. In this paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplifications (LAMP) were used for the first time to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae, the causative agents of nosemosis. LAMP assays were performed at a constant temperature of 60 °C using two sets of six species-specific primers, recognising eight distinct fragments of 16S rDNA gene and GspSSD polymerase with strand displacement activity. The optimal time for LAMP and its Nosema species sensitivity and specificity were assessed. LAMP only required 30 min for robust identification of the amplicons. Ten-fold serial dilutions of total DNA isolated from bees infected with microsporidia were used to determine the detection limit of N. apis and N. ceranae DNAs by LAMP and standard PCR assays. LAMP appeared to be 10(3) -fold more sensitive than a standard PCR in detecting N. apis and N. ceranae. LAMP methods developed by us are highly Nosema species specific and allow to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative proteomics reveals divergent responses in Apis mellifera worker and drone pupae to parasitization by Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlis, Carla; Carolan, James C; Coffey, Mary; Kavanagh, Kevin

    Varroa destructor is a haemophagous ectoparasite of honeybees and is considered a major causal agent of colony losses in Europe and North America. Although originating in Eastern Asia where it parasitizes Apis cerana, it has shifted hosts to the western honeybee Apis mellifera on which it has a greater deleterious effect on the individual and colony level. To investigate this important host-parasite interaction and to determine whether Varroa causes different effects on different castes we conducted a label free quantitative proteomic analysis of Varroa-parasitized and non-parasitized drone and worker Apis mellifera pupae. 1195 proteins were identified in total, of which 202 and 250 were differentially abundant in parasitized drone and worker pupae, respectively. Both parasitized drone and worker pupae displayed reduced abundance in proteins associated with the cuticle, lipid transport and innate immunity. Proteins involved in metabolic processes were more abundant in both parasitized castes although the response in workers was more pronounced. A number of caste specific responses were observed including differential abundance of numerous cytoskeletal and muscle proteins, which were of higher abundance in parasitized drones in comparison to parasitized workers. Proteins involved in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism were more abundant in parasitized workers as were a large number of ribosomal proteins highlighting either potentially divergent responses to Varroa or a different strategy by the mite when parasitizing the different castes. This data improves our understanding of this interaction and may provide a basis for future studies into improvements to therapy and control of Varroasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae exploram recursos na floresta amazônica? Do Africanized honeybees explore resources in the amazonian forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas africanas (Apis mellifera scutellata foram trazidas para o Brasil na década de 1950 e, por acidente, cruzaram-se com outras subespécies de abelhas melíferas européias introduzidas no século XIX. Isso proporcionou o surgimento de híbridos com características predominantes das abelhas africanas, tais como rusticidade e maior capacidade de enxamear, o que lhes permitiu uma rápida adaptação e expansão por quase todo continente americano. Até hoje existem controvérsias se essas abelhas, denominadas africanizadas, causam algum impacto sobre a fauna de abelhas nativas. Nas Américas, as africanizadas estão restritas a regiões de baixas altitudes e de invernos amenos; no Brasil, ocorrem principalmente em áreas urbanas e formações vegetacionais abertas ou adulteradas, sendo dificilmente vistas ou coletadas no interior de florestas densas como a amazônica. Diante dessa observação, diversas iscas foram disponibilizadas no interior de fragmentos de florestas e de florestas contínuas na Amazônia central, para testar se operárias de abelhas africanizadas seriam capazes de penetrar nos mesmos. Nenhuma operária foi vista visitando as iscas na floresta contínua ou mesmo nos fragmentos de floresta, ocorrendo visitas somente nas áreas desmatadas e capoeiras próximas. Esse resultado, além de indicar a inexistência de competição por recursos com as abelhas nativas no interior da floresta amazônica, também indica que uma apicultura em grande escala na região seria inviável, uma vez que a floresta não é sequer visitada por essas abelhas.The African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata were introduced accidentally to Brazil in 1956 where it subsequently interbred with other subspecies of European honeybee here introduced in the 19th century. This resulted in hybrids with predominantly African honeybee characteristics, such as higher capacity of swarming and survival in inhospitable conditions, allowing them to adapt

  14. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O Jatulan

    Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L. and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic.

  15. A selective sweep in a microsporidian parasite Nosema-tolerant honeybee population, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Q.; Lattorff, H. M. G.; Kryger, P.

    2014-01-01

    Nosema is a microsporidian parasite of the honeybee, which infects the epithelial cells of the gut. In Denmark, honeybee colonies have been selectively bred for the absence of Nosema over decades, resulting in a breeding line that is tolerant toward Nosema infections. As the tolerance toward the ...

  16. Anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial activities of a serine protease inhibitor from honeybee (Apis cerana) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choi, Yong Soo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jia, Jingming; Jin, Byung Rae

    2017-10-01

    Bee venom contains a variety of peptide constituents, including low-molecular-weight protease inhibitors. While the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 containing a trypsin inhibitor-like cysteine-rich domain was identified from honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom, no anti-fibrinolytic or anti-microbial roles for this inhibitor have been elucidated. In this study, we identified an Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) venom serine protease inhibitor (AcVSPI) that was shown to act as a microbial serine protease inhibitor and plasmin inhibitor. AcVSPI was found to consist of a trypsin inhibitor-like domain that displays ten cysteine residues. Interestingly, the AcVSPI peptide sequence exhibited high similarity to the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, which suggests that AcVSPI is an allergen Api m 6-like peptide. Recombinant AcVSPI was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, and it demonstrated inhibitory activity against trypsin, but not chymotrypsin. Additionally, AcVSPI has inhibitory effects against plasmin and microbial serine proteases; however, it does not have any detectable inhibitory effects on thrombin or elastase. Consistent with these inhibitory effects, AcVSPI inhibited the plasmin-mediated degradation of fibrin to fibrin degradation products. AcVSPI also bound to bacterial and fungal surfaces and exhibited anti-microbial activity against fungi as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These findings demonstrate the anti-fibrinolytic and anti-microbial roles of AcVSPI as a serine protease inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Linking Genes and Brain Development of Honeybee Workers: A Whole-Transcriptome Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vleurinck, Christina; Raub, Stephan; Sturgill, David; Oliver, Brian; Beye, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees live in complex societies whose capabilities far exceed those of the sum of their single members. This social synergism is achieved mainly by the worker bees, which form a female caste. The worker bees display diverse collaborative behaviors and engage in different behavioral tasks, which are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS). The development of the worker brain is determined by the female sex and the worker caste determination signal. Here, we report on genes that are ...

  18. Characterization of royal jelly proteins in both Africanized and European honeybees (Apis mellifera) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Osamu; Kunikata, Toshio; Kohno, Keizo; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2004-01-14

    In this study, the proteins contained in royal jelly (RJ) produced by Africanized honeybees and European honeybees (Apis mellifera) haven been analyzed in detail and compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence of each spot has been determined. Most spots were assigned to major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Remarkable differences were found in the heterogeneity of the MRJPs, in particular MRJP3, in terms of molecular weights and isoelectric points between the two species of RJ. Furthermore, during the determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of each spot, for the first time, MRJP4 protein has been identified, the existence of which had been only implied by cloning of its cDNA sequence. The presence of heterogeneous bands of glucose oxidase was also identified. Thus, the results suggest that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides a suitable method for the qualitative analysis of the proteins contained in RJ derived from different honeybee species.

  19. First detection of Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.

  20. Estimates of covariance components for hygienic behavior in Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa-Maia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic parameters considering the genetic effect on hygienic behavior of queen and workers from 40 Africanized honeybees colonies were estimated separately. Maternal origin of queens was controlled whereas the paternal was unknown, and different groups of workers were considered in three seasons, October 2006, April 2007 and August 2007, but with the same queen. Colonies were 21 honey producers and 19 royal jelly producers. After the method of freezing capped brood, hygienic behavior was determined by the ratio between the number of dead capped brood removed at 24, 48 and 72 hours and the total number of capped brood at zero hour. Data was submitted to single and three traits analyses using Bayesian inference. Estimates of direct heritability at 24, 48 and 72 hours (0.10, 0.11 and 0.11 were identical to the motherly ones. Estimates by three trait analysis of direct heritability were 0.28, 0.15, 0.24, and of maternal heritability were 0.23, 0.29, 0.27, at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlations between maternal and genetic effects were 0.12, 0.09 and - 0.08 at, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlation between 24 and 48 hours was 0.49; between 24 and 72 hours, 0.40; and between 48 and 72 hours, 0.47. Moderate genetic correlations with the number of capped brood removed until 48 and 72 hours indicate that after the selection of a few generations, these traits can become an efficient criterion for selection in 24 hours.

  1. Proteomic analysis in the Dufour's gland of Africanized Apis mellifera workers (Hymenoptera: Apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Dores Teixeira

    Full Text Available The colony of eusocial bee Apis mellifera has a reproductive queen and sterile workers performing tasks such as brood care and foraging. Chemical communication plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sociability in bees with many compounds released by the exocrine glands. The Dufour's gland is a non-paired gland associated with the sting apparatus with important functions in the communication between members of the colony, releasing volatile chemicals that influence workers roles and tasks. However, the protein content in this gland is not well studied. This study identified differentially expressed proteins in the Dufour's glands of nurse and forager workers of A. mellifera through 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 131 spots showed different expression between nurse and forager bees, and 28 proteins were identified. The identified proteins were categorized into different functions groups including protein, carbohydrate, energy and lipid metabolisms, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, detoxification, homeostasis, cell communication, constitutive and allergen. This study provides new insights of the protein content in the Dufour's gland contributing to a more complete understanding of the biological functions of this gland in honeybees.

  2. Proteomic analysis in the Dufour's gland of Africanized Apis mellifera workers (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aparecida das Dores; Games, Patricia D; Katz, Benjamin B; Tomich, John M; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The colony of eusocial bee Apis mellifera has a reproductive queen and sterile workers performing tasks such as brood care and foraging. Chemical communication plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sociability in bees with many compounds released by the exocrine glands. The Dufour's gland is a non-paired gland associated with the sting apparatus with important functions in the communication between members of the colony, releasing volatile chemicals that influence workers roles and tasks. However, the protein content in this gland is not well studied. This study identified differentially expressed proteins in the Dufour's glands of nurse and forager workers of A. mellifera through 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 131 spots showed different expression between nurse and forager bees, and 28 proteins were identified. The identified proteins were categorized into different functions groups including protein, carbohydrate, energy and lipid metabolisms, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, detoxification, homeostasis, cell communication, constitutive and allergen. This study provides new insights of the protein content in the Dufour's gland contributing to a more complete understanding of the biological functions of this gland in honeybees.

  3. A virulent strain of deformed wing virus (DWV of honeybees (Apis mellifera prevails after Varroa destructor-mediated, or in vitro, transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V Ryabov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The globally distributed ectoparasite Varroa destructor is a vector for viral pathogens of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera, in particular the Iflavirus Deformed Wing Virus (DWV. In the absence of Varroa low levels DWV occur, generally causing asymptomatic infections. Conversely, Varroa-infested colonies show markedly elevated virus levels, increased overwintering colony losses, with impairment of pupal development and symptomatic workers. To determine whether changes in the virus population were due Varroa amplifying and introducing virulent virus strains and/or suppressing the host immune responses, we exposed Varroa-naïve larvae to oral and Varroa-transmitted DWV. We monitored virus levels and diversity in developing pupae and associated Varroa, the resulting RNAi response and transcriptome changes in the host. Exposed pupae were stratified by Varroa association (presence/absence and virus levels (low/high into three groups. Varroa-free pupae all exhibited low levels of a highly diverse DWV population, with those exposed per os (group NV exhibiting changes in the population composition. Varroa-associated pupae exhibited either low levels of a diverse DWV population (group VL or high levels of a near-clonal virulent variant of DWV (group VH. These groups and unexposed controls (C could be also discriminated by principal component analysis of the transcriptome changes observed, which included several genes involved in development and the immune response. All Varroa tested contained a diverse replicating DWV population implying the virulent variant present in group VH, and predominating in RNA-seq analysis of temporally and geographically separate Varroa-infested colonies, was selected upon transmission from Varroa, a conclusion supported by direct injection of pupae in vitro with mixed virus populations. Identification of a virulent variant of DWV, the role of Varroa in its transmission and the resulting host transcriptome changes furthers

  4. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each for one year (April 2013 through March 2014, and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0.05 than introduced honeybee colonies and produced more (P < 0.05 honey. The local bee colonies were able to hoard three times more (P < 0.05 pollen and built more (P < 0.05 queen cells than introduced bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double (P < 0.05 than that of introduced honeybee colonies. Moreover, local bees had greater (P < 0.05 adult bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year’s adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  5. Effects of age and nutritional state on the expression of gustatory receptors in the honeybee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Simcock

    Full Text Available Gustatory receptors (Grs expressed in insect taste neurons signal the presence of carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, CO2, bitter compounds and oviposition stimulants. The honeybee (Apis mellifera has one of the smallest Gr gene sets (12 Gr genes of any insect whose genome has been sequenced. Honeybees live in eusocial colonies with a division of labour and perform age-dependent behavioural tasks, primarily food collection. Here, we used RT-qPCR to quantify Gr mRNA in honeybees at two ages (newly-emerged and foraging-age adults to examine the relationship between age-related physiology and expression of Gr genes. We measured the Gr mRNAs in the taste organs and also the brain and gut. The mRNA of all Gr genes was detected in all tissues analysed but showed plasticity in relative expression across tissues and in relation to age. Overall, Gr gene expression was higher in the taste organs than in the internal tissues but did not show an overall age-dependent difference. In contrast Gr gene expression in brain was generally higher in foragers, which may indicate greater reliance on internal nutrient sensing. Expression of the candidate sugar receptors AmGr1, AmGr2 and AmGr3 in forager brain was affected by the types of sugars bees fed on. The levels of expression in the brain were greater for AmGr1 but lower for AmGr2 and AmGr3 when bees were fed with glucose and fructose compared with sucrose. Additionally, AmGr3 mRNA was increased in starved bees compared to bees provided ad libitum sucrose. Thus, expression of these Grs in forager brain reflects both the satiety state of the bee (AmGr3 and the type of sugar on which the bee has fed.

  6. Effect of Olfactory Stimulus on the Flight Course of a Honeybee, Apis mellifera, in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Ikeno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, uses olfactory stimulus as important information for orienting to food sources. Several studies on olfactory-induced orientation flight have been conducted in wind tunnels and in the field. From these studies, optical sensing is used as the main information with the addition of olfactory signals and the navigational course followed by these sensory information. However, it is not clear how olfactory information is reflected in the navigation of flight. In this study, we analyzed the detailed properties of flight when oriented to an odor source in a wind tunnel. We recorded flying bees with a video camera to analyze the flight area, speed, angular velocity and trajectory. After bees were trained to be attracted to a feeder, the flight trajectories with or without the olfactory stimulus located upwind of the feeder were compared. The results showed that honeybees flew back and forth in the proximity of the odor source, and the search range corresponded approximately to the odor spread area. It was also shown that the angular velocity was different inside and outside the odor spread area, and trajectories tended to be bent or curved just outside the area.

  7. Am5-HT7: molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first serotonin receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Jana; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2006-09-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in the regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioural processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. These functions are mediated through the binding of serotonin to its receptors, of which 13 subtypes have been characterized in vertebrates. We have isolated a cDNA from the honeybee Apis mellifera (Am5-ht7) sharing high similarity to members of the 5-HT(7) receptor family. Expression of the Am5-HT(7) receptor in HEK293 cells results in an increase in basal cAMP levels, suggesting that Am5-HT(7) is expressed as a constitutively active receptor. Serotonin application to Am5-ht7-transfected cells elevates cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 1.1-1.8 nm). The Am5-HT(7) receptor is also activated by 5-carboxamidotryptamine, whereas methiothepin acts as an inverse agonist. Receptor expression has been investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and western blotting experiments. Receptor mRNA is expressed in the perikarya of various brain neuropils, including intrinsic mushroom body neurons, and in peripheral organs. This study marks the first comprehensive characterization of a serotonin receptor in the honeybee and should facilitate further analysis of the role(s) of the receptor in mediating the various central and peripheral effects of 5-HT.

  8. A clinical trial protocol to treat massive Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera) attack with a new apilic antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre Naime; Boyer, Leslie; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Medolago, Natalia Bronzatto; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Paixão, Ariane Gomes; Poli, João Paulo Vasconcelos; Mendes, Mônica Bannwart; Dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Ferreira, Rui Seabra; Barraviera, Benedito

    2017-01-01

    Envenomation caused by multiple stings from Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera constitutes a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 13,597 accidents (incidence of seven cases per 100,000 inhabitants) with 39 deaths (lethality of 0.25%). The toxins present in the venom, which include melittin and phospholipase A 2 , cause lesions in diverse organs and systems that may be fatal. As there has been no specific treatment to date, management has been symptomatic and supportive only. In order to evaluate the safety and neutralizing capacity of a new apilic antivenom, as well as to confirm its lowest effective dose, a clinical protocol was developed to be applied in a multicenter, non-randomized and open phase I/II clinical trial. Twenty participants with more than five stings, aged more than 18 years, of both sexes, who have not previously received the heterologous serum against bee stings, will be included for 24 months. The proposed dose was based on the antivenom neutralizing capacity and the number of stings. Treatment will be administered only in a hospital environment and the participants will be evaluated for a period up to 30 days after discharge for clinical and laboratory follow-up. This protocol, approved by the Brazilian regulatory agencies for ethics (National Commission for Ethics on Research - CONEP) and sanitation (National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA), is a guideline constituted by specific, adjuvant, symptomatic and complementary treatments, in addition to basic orientations for conducting a clinical trial involving heterologous sera. This is the first clinical trial protocol designed specifically to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of a new antivenom against stings from the Africanized honeybee Apis mellifera . The results will support future studies to confirm a new treatment for massive bee attack that has a large impact on public health in the Americas.

  9. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyana Rachel Palo Mello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH, control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1. EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g. miR-133 and miR-375, as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g. miR-3745 and miR-3761. Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect.

  10. Functional Morphology of the Divided Compound Eye of the Honeybee Drone (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, J.G.; Wunderer, H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Using different approaches, the functional morphology of the compound eye of the honeybee drone was examined. The drone exhibits an extended acute zone in the dorsal part of its eye. The following specializations were found here: enlarged facet diameters; smaller interommatidial angles; red-leaky

  11. Effect of juvenile hormone on short-term olfactory memory in young honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszka, R; Helliwell, P

    2001-11-01

    Reliable retention of olfactory learning following a 1-trial classical conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) is not achieved in honeybees until they are 6-7 days old. Here we show that treatment of newly emerged honeybees with juvenile hormone (JH) has a profound effect on the maturation of short-term olfactory memory. JH-treated individuals display excellent short-term (1 h) memory of associative learning at times as early as 3 days of age and perform consistently better than untreated bees for at least the first week of their lives. By contrast, the retention of long-term (24 h) memory following a 3-trial conditioning of the PER is not significantly improved in JH-treated bees. Our study also shows that experience and (or) chemosensory activation are not essential to improve learning performance in olfactory tasks. The lack of accelerated development of long-term retention of olfactory memories in JH-treated honeybees is discussed in the context of neural circuits suspected to mediate memory formation and retrieval in the honeybee brain. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Molecular, pharmacological, and signaling properties of octopamine receptors from honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Jordan, Nadine; Langenstück, Teresa; Breuer, Johanna; Bergmeier, Vera; Baumann, Arnd

    2014-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are important regulators of cellular signaling processes. Within the large family of rhodopsin-like receptors, those binding to biogenic amines form a discrete subgroup. Activation of biogenic amine receptors leads to transient changes of intracellular Ca²⁺-([Ca²⁺](i)) or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate ([cAMP](i)) concentrations. Both second messengers modulate cellular signaling processes and thereby contribute to long-lasting behavioral effects in an organism. In vivo pharmacology has helped to reveal the functional effects of different biogenic amines in honeybees. The phenolamine octopamine is an important modulator of behavior. Binding of octopamine to its receptors causes elevation of [Ca²⁺](i) or [cAMP](i). To date, only one honeybee octopamine receptor that induces Ca²⁺ signals has been molecularly and pharmacologically characterized. Here, we examined the pharmacological properties of four additional honeybee octopamine receptors. When heterologously expressed, all receptors induced cAMP production after binding to octopamine with EC₅₀(s) in the nanomolar range. Receptor activity was most efficiently blocked by mianserin, a substance with antidepressant activity in vertebrates. The rank order of inhibitory potency for potential receptor antagonists was very similar on all four honeybee receptors with mianserin > cyproheptadine > metoclopramide > chlorpromazine > phentolamine. The subroot of octopamine receptors activating adenylyl cyclases is the largest that has so far been characterized in arthropods, and it should now be possible to unravel the contribution of individual receptors to the physiology and behavior of honeybees. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis for Genetic Variation in Sacbrood Virus of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera Honeybees From Different Regions of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Thu, Ha Thi; Yoo, Mi Sun; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Reddy, Bheemireddy Anjana; Lien, Nguyen Thi Kim; Trang, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Duong, Bui Thi Thuy; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kang, Seung-Won; Quyen, Dong Van

    2017-09-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most common viral infections of honeybees. The entire genome sequence for nine SBV infecting honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, in Vietnam, namely AcSBV-Viet1, AcSBV-Viet2, AcSBV-Viet3, AmSBV-Viet4, AcSBV-Viet5, AmSBV-Viet6, AcSBV-Viet7, AcSBV-Viet8, and AcSBV-Viet9, was determined. These sequences were aligned with seven previously reported complete genome sequences of SBV from other countries, and various genomic regions were compared. The Vietnamese SBVs (VN-SBVs) shared 91-99% identity with each other, and shared 89-94% identity with strains from other countries. The open reading frames (ORFs) of the VN-SBV genomes differed greatly from those of SBVs from other countries, especially in their VP1 sequences. The AmSBV-Viet6 and AcSBV-Viet9 genome encodes 17 more amino acids within this region than the other VN-SBVs. In a phylogenetic analysis, the strains AmSBV-Viet4, AcSBV-Viet2, and AcSBV-Viet3 were clustered in group with AmSBV-UK, AmSBV-Kor21, and AmSBV-Kor19 strains. Whereas, the strains AmSBV-Viet6 and AcSBV-Viet7 clustered separately with the AcSBV strains from Korea and AcSBV-VietSBM2. And the strains AcSBV-Viet8, AcSBV-Viet1, AcSBV-Viet5, and AcSBV-Viet9 clustered with the AcSBV-India, AcSBV-Kor and AcSBV-VietSBM2. In a Simplot graph, the VN-SBVs diverged stronger in their ORF regions than in their 5' or 3' untranslated regions. The VN-SBVs possess genetic characteristics which are more similar to the Asian AcSBV strains than to AmSBV-UK strain. Taken together, our data indicate that host specificity, geographic distance, and viral cross-infections between different bee species may explain the genetic diversity among the VN-SBVs in A. cerana and A. mellifera and other SBV strains. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. FLIGHT RANGE OF AFRICANIZED HONEYBEES, Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae IN AN APPLE GROVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARANHOS B.A.J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honeybees from five colonies were marked with P-32 and taken to an apple grove for a flight behavior study. The method used to determine the flight range was to put out an array of tagged trees in a cross pattern with the colonies arranged in the center point of a 0.8 ha test area. The tagged trees were located 10 meters apart in the 4 rows of 50 meters each, arranged according to the North, South, East, and West directions. Bees were collected while visiting the tagged tree flowers twice a day, during a ten-day period. The number of honeybees marked decreased in relation to the distance from the hives. Analysis of variance showed that a linear regression was highly significant to describe the process. Geographic directions did not affect the activity of the bees.

  15. Lower disease infections in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies headed by polyandrous vs monandrous queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2006-04-01

    We studied the relationship between genetic diversity and disease susceptibility in honeybee colonies living under natural conditions. To do so, we created colonies in which each queen was artificially inseminated with sperm from either one or ten drones. Of the 20 colonies studied, 80% showed at least one brood disease. We found strong differences between the two types of colonies in the infection intensity of chalkbrood and in the total intensity of all brood diseases (chalkbrood, sacbrood, American foulbrood, and European foulbrood) with both variables lower for the colonies with higher genetic diversity. Our findings demonstrate that disease can be an important factor in the ecology of honeybee colonies and they provide strong support for the disease hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry by social insect queens.

  16. Imprecision in waggle dances of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) for nearby food sources : error or adaptation?

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenmüller, Anja; Seeley, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A curious feature of the honeybee's waggle dance is the imprecision in the direction indication for nearby food sources. One hypothesis for the function of this imprecision is that it serves to spread recruits over a certain area and thus is an adaptation to the typical spatial configuration of the bees' food sources, i.e., flowers in sizable patches. We report an experiment that tests this tuned-error hypothesis. We measured the precision of direction indication in waggle dances advertising ...

  17. Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ((approx)2 x 10(sup 6) m(sup 2)), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study

  18. Detection of Methyl Salicylate Transforted by Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Using Solid Phase Microextration (SPME) Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; BARNETT, JAMES L.; BENDER, GARY L.

    2001-12-01

    The ultimate goal of many environmental measurements is to determine the risk posed to humans or ecosystems by various contaminants. Conventional environmental monitoring typically requires extensive sampling grids covering several media including air, water, soil and vegetation. A far more efficient, innovative and inexpensive tactic has been found using honeybees as sampling mechanisms. Members from a single bee colony forage over large areas ({approx}2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2}), making tens of thousands of trips per day, and return to a fixed location where sampling can be conveniently conducted. The bees are in direct contact with the air, water, soil and vegetation where they encounter and collect any contaminants that are present in gaseous, liquid and particulate form. The monitoring of honeybees when they return to the hive provides a rapid method to assess chemical distributions and impacts (1). The primary goal of this technology is to evaluate the efficiency of the transport mechanism (honeybees) to the hive using preconcentrators to collect samples. Once the extent and nature of the contaminant exposure has been characterized, resources can be distributed and environmental monitoring designs efficiently directed to the most appropriate locations. Methyl salicylate, a chemical agent surrogate was used as the target compound in this study.

  19. How to join a wave: decision-making processes in shimmering behavior of Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Kastberger

    Full Text Available Shimmering is a collective defence behaviour in Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata whereby individual bees flip their abdomen upwards, producing Mexican wave-like patterns on the nest surface. Bucket bridging has been used to explain the spread of information in a chain of members including three testable concepts: first, linearity assumes that individual "agent bees" that participate in the wave will be affected preferentially from the side of wave origin. The directed-trigger hypothesis addresses the coincidence of the individual property of trigger direction with the collective property of wave direction. Second, continuity describes the transfer of information without being stopped, delayed or re-routed. The active-neighbours hypothesis assumes coincidence between the direction of the majority of shimmering-active neighbours and the trigger direction of the agents. Third, the graduality hypothesis refers to the interaction between an agent and her active neighbours, assuming a proportional relationship in the strength of abdomen flipping of the agent and her previously active neighbours. Shimmering waves provoked by dummy wasps were recorded with high-resolution video cameras. Individual bees were identified by 3D-image analysis, and their strength of abdominal flipping was assessed by pixel-based luminance changes in sequential frames. For each agent, the directedness of wave propagation was based on wave direction, trigger direction, and the direction of the majority of shimmering-active neighbours. The data supported the bucket bridging hypothesis, but only for a small proportion of agents: linearity was confirmed for 2.5%, continuity for 11.3% and graduality for 0.4% of surface bees (but in 2.6% of those agents with high wave-strength levels. The complimentary part of 90% of surface bees did not conform to bucket bridging. This fuzziness is discussed in terms of self-organisation and evolutionary adaptedness in Giant honeybee colonies to

  20. How to join a wave: decision-making processes in shimmering behavior of Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas; Weiss, Sara E; Maurer, Michael; Kranner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Shimmering is a collective defence behaviour in Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) whereby individual bees flip their abdomen upwards, producing Mexican wave-like patterns on the nest surface. Bucket bridging has been used to explain the spread of information in a chain of members including three testable concepts: first, linearity assumes that individual "agent bees" that participate in the wave will be affected preferentially from the side of wave origin. The directed-trigger hypothesis addresses the coincidence of the individual property of trigger direction with the collective property of wave direction. Second, continuity describes the transfer of information without being stopped, delayed or re-routed. The active-neighbours hypothesis assumes coincidence between the direction of the majority of shimmering-active neighbours and the trigger direction of the agents. Third, the graduality hypothesis refers to the interaction between an agent and her active neighbours, assuming a proportional relationship in the strength of abdomen flipping of the agent and her previously active neighbours. Shimmering waves provoked by dummy wasps were recorded with high-resolution video cameras. Individual bees were identified by 3D-image analysis, and their strength of abdominal flipping was assessed by pixel-based luminance changes in sequential frames. For each agent, the directedness of wave propagation was based on wave direction, trigger direction, and the direction of the majority of shimmering-active neighbours. The data supported the bucket bridging hypothesis, but only for a small proportion of agents: linearity was confirmed for 2.5%, continuity for 11.3% and graduality for 0.4% of surface bees (but in 2.6% of those agents with high wave-strength levels). The complimentary part of 90% of surface bees did not conform to bucket bridging. This fuzziness is discussed in terms of self-organisation and evolutionary adaptedness in Giant honeybee colonies to respond to rapidly

  1. Consumption rate of some proteinic diets affecting hypopharyngeal glands development in honeybee workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad AlKazim; Al-Khaibari, Abeer M.; Omar, Mohamed O.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was carried out under laboratory condition to study the consumption of some proteinic diets and their effect on hypopharyngeal glands (HPG) development during nursing period. The results showed that the bee bread and the pollen loads mixture with sugar (1:1) were more consumed by honeybee workers followed by Nectapol® and Yeast-Gluten mixture. The lowest consumption amount was recorded with traditional substitute. Clear differences were found in HPG development under feeding with different diets. The maximum development degree was observed when fed with bee bread followed by pollen loads and mixture from Yeast, Gluten and sugar (1:1:2). The acinal surface of HPG showed clear difference under feeding with difference diets. The largest area was recorded when honeybee workers fed on bee bread followed by Yeast-Gluten-sugar mixture (diet,4) and pollen loads(diet,2). PMID:23961106

  2. Pyrethroids and Nectar Toxins Have Subtle Effects on the Motor Function, Grooming and Wing Fanning Behaviour of Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Caitlin J; Softley, Samantha; Williamson, Sally M; Stevenson, Philip C; Wright, Geraldine A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i.e., compounds that target sodium channels--influence pollinators at low or sub-lethal doses. Here, we exposed individual adult forager honeybees to several compounds that bind to sodium channels to identify whether these compounds affect motor function. Using an assay previously developed to identify the effect of drugs and toxins on individual bees, we investigated how acute exposure to 10 ng doses (1 ppm) of the pyrethroid insecticides (cyfluthrin, tau-fluvalinate, allethrin and permethrin) and the nectar toxins (aconitine and grayanotoxin I) affected honeybee locomotion, grooming and wing fanning behaviour. Bees exposed to these compounds spent more time upside down and fanning their wings. They also had longer bouts of standing still. Bees exposed to the nectar toxin, aconitine, and the pyrethroid, allethrin, also spent less time grooming their antennae. We also found that the concentration of the nectar toxin, grayanotoxin I (GTX), fed to bees affected the time spent upside down (i.e., failure to perform the righting reflex). Our data show that low doses of pyrethroids and other nectar toxins that target sodium channels mainly influence motor function through their effect on the righting reflex of adult worker honeybees.

  3. Improved Cholinergic Transmission is Detrimental to Behavioural Plasticity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Wu Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unravelling the role of neuromessenger processes in learning and memory has long interested researchers. We investigated the effects of an acetylcholinesterase blocker, Methyl Parathion (MeP, on honeybee learning. We used visual and olfactory tasks to test whether MeP had a detrimental effect on the acquisition of new knowledge when this new knowledge contradicts previously acquired one. Our results indicate that treatment with MeP prior to conditioning was significantly detrimental to the acquisition of incongruous (but not irrelevant or congruous new knowledge due to improved recall. The neurobiological and ecotoxicological consequences of these results are discussed.

  4. Changes in the Gene Expression Profiles of the Hypopharyngeal Gland of Worker Honeybees in Association with Worker Behavior and Hormonal Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ueno

    Full Text Available The hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs of worker honeybees undergo physiological changes along with the age-dependent role change from nursing to foraging: nurse bee HPGs secrete mainly major royal jelly proteins, whereas forager HPGs secrete mainly α-glucosidase III, which converts the sucrose in the nectar into glucose and fructose. We previously identified two other genes, Apis mellifera buffy (Ambuffy and Apis mellifera matrix metalloproteinase 1 (AmMMP1, with enriched expression in nurse bee and forager HPGs, respectively. In the present study, to clarify the molecular mechanisms that coordinate HPG physiology with worker behavior, we first analyzed whether Ambuffy, AmMMP1, mrjp2 (a gene encoding one of major royal jelly protein isoforms, and Hbg3 (a gene encoding α-glucosidase III expression, is associated with worker behavior in 'single-cohort colonies' where workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Expression of these genes correlated with the worker's role, while controlling for age, indicating their regulation associated with the worker's behavior. Associated gene expression suggested the possible involvement of some hormonal factors in its regulation. We therefore examined the relationship between ecdysone- and juvenile hormone (JH-signaling, and the expression profiles of these 'indicator' genes (nurse bee HPG-selective genes: mrjp2 and Ambuffy, and forager HPG-selective genes: Hbg3 and AmMMP1. Expression of both ecdysone-regulated genes (ecdysone receptor, mushroom body large type Kenyon cell specific protein-1, and E74 and JH-regulated genes (Methoprene tolerant and Krüppel homolog 1 was higher in the forager HPGs than in the nurse bee HPGs, suggesting the possible roles of ecdysone- and JH-regulated genes in worker HPGs. Furthermore, 20-hydroxyecdysone-treatment repressed both nurse bee- and forager-selective gene expression, whereas methoprene-treatment enhanced the expression of forager-selective genes and repressed

  5. Linking Genes and Brain Development of Honeybee Workers: A Whole-Transcriptome Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vleurinck

    Full Text Available Honeybees live in complex societies whose capabilities far exceed those of the sum of their single members. This social synergism is achieved mainly by the worker bees, which form a female caste. The worker bees display diverse collaborative behaviors and engage in different behavioral tasks, which are controlled by the central nervous system (CNS. The development of the worker brain is determined by the female sex and the worker caste determination signal. Here, we report on genes that are controlled by sex or by caste during differentiation of the worker's pupal brain. We sequenced and compared transcriptomes from the pupal brains of honeybee workers, queens and drones. We detected 333 genes that are differently expressed and 519 genes that are differentially spliced between the sexes, and 1760 genes that are differentially expressed and 692 genes that are differentially spliced between castes. We further found that 403 genes are differentially regulated by both the sex and caste signals, providing evidence of the integration of both signals through differential gene regulation. In this gene set, we found that the molecular processes of restructuring the cell shape and cell-to-cell signaling are overrepresented. Our approach identified candidate genes that may be involved in brain differentiation that ensures the various social worker behaviors.

  6. Impaired Olfactory Associative Behavior of Honeybee Workers Due to Contamination of Imidacloprid in the Larval Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, En-Cheng; Chang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Wen-Yen; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The residue of imidacloprid in the nectar and pollens of the plants is toxic not only to adult honeybees but also the larvae. Our understanding of the risk of imidacloprid to larvae of the honeybees is still in a very early stage. In this study, the capped-brood, pupation and eclosion rates of the honeybee larvae were recorded after treating them directly in the hive with different dosages of imidacloprid. The brood-capped rates of the larvae decreased significantly when the dosages increased from 24 to 8000 ng/larva. However, there were no significant effects of DMSO or 0.4 ng of imidacloprid per larva on the brood-capped, pupation and eclosion rates. Although the sublethal dosage of imidacloprid had no effect on the eclosion rate, we found that the olfactory associative behavior of the adult bees was impaired if they had been treated with 0.04 ng/larva imidacloprid in the larval stage. These results demonstrate that a sublethal dosage of imidacloprid given to the larvae affects the subsequent associative ability of the adult honeybee workers. Thus, a low dose of imidacloprid may affect the survival condition of the entire colony, even though the larvae survive to adulthood. PMID:23166680

  7. The circuitry of olfactory projection neurons in the brain of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Zwaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes, to the central brain, the mushroom bodies, and the protocerebral lobe. Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons (uPN were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons using confocal microscopy. Analysis of the patterns of axon terminals revealed a domain-like innervation within the mushroom body lip neuropil. Projection neurons of the lateral tract arborized more sparsely within the lips and exhibited fewer synaptic boutons, while medial tract neurons occupied broader regions in the mushroom body calyces and the protocerebral lobe. Our data show that uPNs from the medial and lateral tract innervate both the core and the cortex of the ipsilateral mushroom body lip but differ in their innervation patterns in these regions. In the mushroombody neuropil collar we found evidence for ALT boutons suggesting the collar as a multi modal input site including olfactory input similar to lip and basal ring. In addition, our data support the conclusion drawn in previous studies that reciprocal synapses exist between projection neurons, octopaminergic-, and GABAergic cells in the mushroom body calyces. For the first time, we found evidence for connections between both tracts within the antennal lobe.

  8. Mitochondrial genome of the North African Sahara Honeybee, Apis mellifera sahariensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, Nizar; Adjlane, Noureddine; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida

    2017-01-01

    e present the complete mitochondrial genome of honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera sahariensis (Apidae) belonging to the African lineage. The assembled circular genome has a length of 16,569 bp which comprises 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and AT rich...

  9. The Africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: a study of a massive hybridization event across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kylea E; Rinderer, Thomas E; Franck, Pierre; Quezada-Euán, Javier G; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2002-07-01

    Until recently, African and European subspecies of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) had been geographically separated for around 10,000 years. However, human-assisted introductions have caused the mixing of large populations of African and European subspecies in South and Central America, permitting an unprecedented opportunity to study a large-scale hybridization event using molecular analyses. We obtained reference populations from Europe, Africa, and South America and used these to provide baseline information for a microsatellite and mitochondrial analysis of the process of Africanization of the bees of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The genetic structure of the Yucatecan population has changed dramatically over time. The pre-Africanized Yucatecan population (1985) comprised bees that were most similar to samples from southeastern Europe and northern and western Europe. Three years after the arrival of Africanized bees (1989), substantial paternal gene flow had occurred from feral Africanized drones into the resident European population, but maternal gene flow from the invading Africanized population into the local population was negligible. However by 1998, there was a radical shift with both African nuclear alleles (65%) and African-derived mitochondria (61%) dominating the genomes of domestic colonies. We suggest that although European mitochondria may eventually be driven to extinction in the feral population, stable introgression of European nuclear alleles has occurred.

  10. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Adgaba, Nuru; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Al-Maktary, Anwer A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations ( P  bee colonies were able to hoard three times more ( P  pollen and built more ( P  bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double ( P  bees had greater ( P  bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year's adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  11. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee.

  12. Responses to sugar and sugar receptor gene expression in different social roles of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Laura; Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2018-04-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are well-known for their sophisticated division of labor with each bee performing sequentially a series of social tasks. Colony organization is largely based on age-dependent division of labor. While bees perform several tasks inside the hive such as caring for brood ("nursing"), cleaning or sealing brood cells or producing honey, older bees leave to colony to collect pollen (proteins) and nectar (carbohydrates) as foragers. The most pronounced behavioral transition occurs when nurse bees become foragers. For both social roles, the detection and evaluation of sugars is decisive for optimal task performance. Nurse bees rely on their gustatory senses to prepare brood food, while foragers evaluate a nectar source before starting to collect food from it. To test whether social organization is related to differential sensing of sugars we compared the taste of nurse bees and foragers for different sugars. Searching for molecular correlates for differences in sugar perception, we further quantified expression of gustatory receptor genes in both behavioral groups. Our results demonstrate that nurse bees and foragers perceive and evaluate different sugars differently. Both groups, however, prefer sucrose over fructose. At least part of the taste differences between social roles could be related to a differential expression of taste receptors in the antennae and brain. Our results suggest that differential expression of sugar receptor genes might be involved in regulating division of labor through nutrition-related signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive interneurons related to Johnston's organ in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Rybak, Jürgen; Menzel, Randolf; Itoh, Tsunao

    2009-07-10

    Honeybees detect airborne vibration by means of Johnston's organ (JO), located in the pedicel of each antenna. In this study we identified two types of vibration-sensitive interneurons with arborizations in the primary sensory area of the JO, namely, the dorsal lobe-interneuron 1 (DL-Int-1) and dorsal lobe-interneuron 2 (DL-Int-2) using intracellular recordings combined with intracellular staining. For visualizing overlapping areas between the JO sensory terminals and the branches of these identified interneurons, the three-dimensional images of the individual neurons were registered into the standard atlas of the honeybee brain (Brandt et al. [2005] J Comp Neurol 492:1-19). Both DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 overlapped with the central terminal area of receptor neurons of the JO in the DL. For DL-Int-1 an on-off phasic excitation was elicited by vibrational stimuli applied to the JO when the spontaneous spike frequency was low, whereas tonic inhibition was induced when it was high. Moreover, current injection into a DL-Int-1 led to changes of the response pattern from on-off phasic excitation to tonic inhibition, in response to the vibratory stimulation. Although the vibration usually induced on-off phasic excitation in DL-Int-1, vibration applied immediately after odor stimulation induced tonic inhibition in it. DL-Int-2 responded to vibration stimuli applied to the JO by a tonic burst and were most sensitive to 265 Hz vibration, which is coincident with the strongest frequency of airborne vibrations arising during the waggle dance. These results suggest that DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 are related to coding of the duration of the vibration as sensed by the JO. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L; Ostwald, Madeleine M; Loftus, J Carter; Seeley, Thomas D

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term 'larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

  15. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

  16. Antimicrobial peptide evolution in the Asiatic honey bee Apis cerana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    Full Text Available The Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is an important honeybee species in Asian countries. It is still found in the wild, but is also one of the few bee species that can be domesticated. It has acquired some genetic advantages and significantly different biological characteristics compared with other Apis species. However, it has been less studied, and over the past two decades, has become a threatened species in China. We designed primers for the sequences of the four antimicrobial peptide cDNA gene families (abaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and identified all the antimicrobial peptide cDNA genes in the Asiatic honeybee for the first time. All the sequences were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In all, 29 different defensin cDNA genes coding 7 different defensin peptides, 11 different abaecin cDNA genes coding 2 different abaecin peptides, 13 different apidaecin cDNA genes coding 4 apidaecin peptides and 34 different hymenoptaecin cDNA genes coding 13 different hymenoptaecin peptides were cloned and identified from the Asiatic honeybee adult workers. Detailed comparison of these four antimicrobial peptide gene families with those of the Western honeybee revealed that there are many similarities in the quantity and amino acid components of peptides in the abaecin, defensin and apidaecin families, while many more hymenoptaecin peptides are found in the Asiatic honeybee than those in the Western honeybee (13 versus 1. The results indicated that the Asiatic honeybee adult generated more variable antimicrobial peptides, especially hymenoptaecin peptides than the Western honeybee when stimulated by pathogens or injury. This suggests that, compared to the Western honeybee that has a longer history of domestication, selection on the Asiatic honeybee has favored the generation of more variable antimicrobial peptides as protection against pathogens.

  17. Antimicrobial peptide evolution in the Asiatic honey bee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2009-01-01

    The Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is an important honeybee species in Asian countries. It is still found in the wild, but is also one of the few bee species that can be domesticated. It has acquired some genetic advantages and significantly different biological characteristics compared with other Apis species. However, it has been less studied, and over the past two decades, has become a threatened species in China. We designed primers for the sequences of the four antimicrobial peptide cDNA gene families (abaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin) of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and identified all the antimicrobial peptide cDNA genes in the Asiatic honeybee for the first time. All the sequences were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In all, 29 different defensin cDNA genes coding 7 different defensin peptides, 11 different abaecin cDNA genes coding 2 different abaecin peptides, 13 different apidaecin cDNA genes coding 4 apidaecin peptides and 34 different hymenoptaecin cDNA genes coding 13 different hymenoptaecin peptides were cloned and identified from the Asiatic honeybee adult workers. Detailed comparison of these four antimicrobial peptide gene families with those of the Western honeybee revealed that there are many similarities in the quantity and amino acid components of peptides in the abaecin, defensin and apidaecin families, while many more hymenoptaecin peptides are found in the Asiatic honeybee than those in the Western honeybee (13 versus 1). The results indicated that the Asiatic honeybee adult generated more variable antimicrobial peptides, especially hymenoptaecin peptides than the Western honeybee when stimulated by pathogens or injury. This suggests that, compared to the Western honeybee that has a longer history of domestication, selection on the Asiatic honeybee has favored the generation of more variable antimicrobial peptides as protection against pathogens.

  18. Comparative analysis of two immunohistochemical methods for antigen retrieval in the optical lobe of the honeybee Apis mellifera: Myosin-v assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA KAREN CALÁBRIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared two heating methods currently used for antigen retrieval (AR immunostaining: the microwave oven and the steam cooker. Myosin-V, a molecular motor involved in vesicle transport, was used as a neuronal marker in honeybee Apis mellifera brains fixed in formalin. Overall, the steam cooker showed the most satisfactory AR results. At 100 ºC, tissue morphology was maintained and revealed epitope recovery, while evaporation of the AR solution was markedly reduced; this is important for stabilizing the sodium citrate molarity of the AR buffer and reducing background effects. Standardization of heat-mediated AR of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections results in more reliable immunostaining of the honeybee brain.

  19. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with 32 P on an apple orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhoa, B.A.J.

    1990-06-01

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee's activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 μCi 32 P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author)

  20. Walking patterns induced by learned odors in the honeybee, Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Toshiya; Haupt, S Shuichi; Ikeno, Hidetoshi; Ai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The odor localization strategy induced by odors learned via differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response was investigated in honeybees. In response to reward-associated but not non-reward-associated odors, learners walked longer paths than non-learners and control bees. When orange odor reward association was learned, the path length and the body turn angles were small during odor stimulation and greatly increased after stimulation ceased. In response to orange odor, bees walked locally with alternate left and right turns during odor stimulation to search for the reward-associated odor source. After odor stimulation, bees walked long paths with large turn angles to explore the odor plume. For clove odor, learning-related modulations of locomotion were less pronounced, presumably due to a spontaneous preference for orange in the tested population of bees. This study is the first to describe how an odor-reward association modulates odor-induced walking in bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Optimization of γ-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajabadi, Naser; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Baradaran, Ali; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-04-15

    Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM) in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  2. Optimization of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Tajabadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM. The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  3. APIs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Daniel; Woods, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Programmers used to be the only people excited about APIs, but now a growing number of companies see them as a hot new product channel. This concise guide describes the tremendous business potential of APIs, and demonstrates how you can use them to provide valuable services to clients, partners, or the public via the Internet. You'll learn all the steps necessary for building a cohesive API business strategy from experts in the trenches. Facebook and Twitter APIs continue to be extremely successful, and many other companies find that API demand greatly exceeds website traffic. This book offe

  4. Africanization in the United States: Replacement of Feral European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African Hybrid Swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in 50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European ho...

  5. Toxicity of some insecticides to the haemocytes of giant honeybee, Apis dorsata F. under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Perveen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative studies concerning total and differential haemocyte counts and abnormalities were performed under laboratory conditions for larvae, pupae and adults collected from a wild Apis dorsata colony. Haemolymph samples were observed immediately, thirty and sixty minutes after field recommended concentration exposure of five different insecticides. Total haemocyte counts were significantly higher for larvae and pupae but less for adult bees, however, differential haemocyte counts insignificantly different. Exposure of insecticides showed variable response for tested insecticides with immediate increased change with ethofenprox, diafenthiuron and imidacloprid but decreased for all tested insecticides after sixty minutes. For differential haemocyte counts, plasmatocytes and granulocytes increased with exposure of insecticides. Immune response of haemocytes against insecticides showed different degrees of abnormalities like agglutination, denucleation and cell shape distortion. Such studies may help in possible identification of insect defense mechanisms against their exposure to external hazards for instance insecticide exposure.

  6. RNAi-Mediated Functional Analysis of Bursicon Genes Related to Adult Cuticle Formation and Tanning in the Honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Pereira Costa

    Full Text Available Bursicon is a heterodimeric neurohormone that acts through a G protein-coupled receptor named rickets (rk, thus inducing an increase in cAMP and the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cuticular tanning pathway. In insects, the role of bursicon in the post-ecdysial tanning of the adult cuticle and wing expansion is well characterized. Here we investigated the roles of the genes encoding the bursicon subunits during the adult cuticle development in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. RNAi-mediated knockdown of AmBurs α and AmBurs β bursicon genes prevented the complete formation and tanning (melanization/sclerotization of the adult cuticle. A thinner, much less tanned cuticle was produced, and ecdysis toward adult stage was impaired. Consistent with these results, the knockdown of bursicon transcripts also interfered in the expression of genes encoding its receptor, AmRk, structural cuticular proteins, and enzymes in the melanization/sclerotization pathway, thus evidencing roles for bursicon in adult cuticle formation and tanning. Moreover, the expression of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and AmRk is contingent on the declining ecdysteroid titer that triggers the onset of adult cuticle synthesis and deposition. The search for transcripts of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and candidate targets in RNA-seq libraries prepared with brains and integuments strengthened our data on transcript quantification through RT-qPCR. Together, our results support our premise that bursicon has roles in adult cuticle formation and tanning, and are in agreement with other recent studies pointing for roles during the pharate-adult stage, in addition to the classical post-ecdysial ones.

  7. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  8. Physiology of reproductive worker honey bees (Apis mellifera): insights for the development of the worker caste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Søvik, Eirik; Naeger, Nicholas L; Robinson, Gene E; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive and behavioural specialisations characterise advanced social insect societies. Typically, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows a pronounced reproductive division of labour between worker and queen castes, and a clear division of colony roles among workers. In a queenless condition, however, both of these aspects of social organisation break down. Queenless workers reproduce, forage and maintain their colony operating in a manner similar to communal bees, rather than as an advanced eusocial group. This plasticity in social organisation provides a natural experiment for exploring physiological mechanisms of division of labour. We measured brain biogenic amine (BA) levels and abdominal fat body vitellogenin gene expression levels of workers in queenright and queenless colonies. Age, ovary activation and social environment influenced brain BA levels in honey bees. BA levels were most influenced by ovary activation state in queenless bees. Vitellogenin expression levels were higher in queenless workers than queenright workers, but in both colony environments vitellogenin expression was lower in foragers than non-foragers. We propose this plasticity in the interacting signalling systems that influence both reproductive and behavioural development allows queenless workers to deviate significantly from the typical worker bee reaction norm and develop as reproductively active behavioural generalists.

  9. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) prefer similar colours of higher spectral purity over trained colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Papiorek, Sarah; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Differences in the concentration of pigments as well as their composition and spatial arrangement cause intraspecific variation in the spectral signature of flowers. Known colour preferences and requirements for flower-constant foraging bees predict different responses to colour variability. In experimental settings, we simulated small variations of unicoloured petals and variations in the spatial arrangement of colours within tricoloured petals using artificial flowers and studied their impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Workers were trained to artificial flowers of a given colour and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours: either the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher spectral purity, or the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher dominant wavelength; in all cases the perceptual contrast between the training colour and the additional test colours was similarly small. Bees preferred artificial test flowers which resembled the training colour with the exception that they preferred test colours with higher spectral purity over trained colours. Testing the behaviour of bees at artificial flowers displaying a centripetal or centrifugal arrangement of three equally sized colours with small differences in spectral purity, bees did not prefer any type of artificial flowers, but preferentially choose the most spectrally pure area for the first antenna contact at both types of artificial flowers. Our results indicate that innate preferences for flower colours of high spectral purity in pollinators might exert selective pressure on the evolution of flower colours.

  10. Caps and gaps: a computer model for studies on brood incubation strategies in honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehler, Manuel; Kleinhenz, Marco; Klügl, Franziska; Puppe, Frank; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-08-01

    In addition to heat production on the comb surface, honeybee workers frequently visit open cells (“gaps”) that are scattered throughout the sealed brood area, and enter them to incubate adjacent brood cells. We examined the efficiency of this heating strategy under different environmental conditions and for gap proportions from 0 to 50%. For gap proportions from 4 to 10%, which are common to healthy colonies, we find a significant reduction in the incubation time per brood cell to maintain the correct temperature. The savings make up 18 to 37% of the time, which would be required for this task in completely sealed brood areas without any gaps. For unnatural high proportions of gaps (>20%), which may be the result of inbreeding or indicate a poor condition of the colony, brood nest thermoregulation becomes less efficient, and the incubation time per brood cell has to increase to maintain breeding temperature. Although the presence of gaps is not essential to maintain an optimal brood nest temperature, a small number of gaps make heating more economical by reducing the time and energy that must be spent on this vital task. As the benefit depends on the availability, spatial distribution and usage of gaps by the bees, further studies need to show the extent to which these results apply to real colonies.

  11. Africanization in the United States: replacement of feral European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African hybrid swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Patton, John C; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-08-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998-2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25-37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm.

  12. Analysis of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) wings using ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy: A pilot study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machovič, Vladimír; Lapčák, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Borecká, Lenka; Novotná, M.; Novotná, M.; Javůrková, I.; Langrová, I.; Hájková, Š.; Brožová, A.; Titěra, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2017), s. 22-29 ISSN 1211-3174 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : honeybee wings * ATR-FTIR * Raman spectroscopy * protein * lipid * chitin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  13. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Charreton, Merc?d?s; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Micka?l; Rodet, Guy; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Charnet, Pierre; Collet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along...

  14. Lactobacillus apis sp. nov., from the stomach of honeybees (Apis mellifera), having an in vitro inhibitory effect on the causative agents of American and European foulbrood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Dubná, S.; Sedláček, I.; Švec, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 152-157 ISSN 1466-5026 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0183 Program:EE Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : honeybees Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  15. Comparative study of food transfers in the three castes of the honeybee (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) in which four distal sections of both antennae have been cut off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1978-01-01

    The study of food transfers between the three castes of Apis mellifica ligustica S., in which four distal sections have been cut off, has been carried out by means of a radioactive tracer 198 Au, which cannot be metabolized. The begging behavior of queens with cut off antennae towards 4-day-old worker Bees and workers of unknown age is not changed. So it is with drones and operated worker Bees which beg food of a worker Bee, that is 4 days old and undamaged. On the other hand the begging behavior of drones and workers of unknown age is reduced towards other worker Bees of unknown age that are undamaged. The two-sided amputation of antennal sections of donor worker Bees of both categories does not change their behavior towards undamaged worker Bees [fr

  16. The effect of antagonistic micro-organisms on the brood of honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Dik, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several plant pathogenic fungi enter the plant trough open flowers. Spores of antagonistic micro-organisms present on the flowers can successfully compete with the possible pathogens. Honeybees and bumblebees can be used for transporting these antagonistic micro-organisms from the hive into flowers

  17. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenchao; Tian, Yuanyuan; Han, Mingfeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution,...

  18. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W.; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services. PMID:27827404

  19. Improving honey production in worker bees (Apis mellifera adansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of feeding activity, nursing care and undertaker behaviour were carried out among some colonies of honey bees Apis mellifera adansoni L to know the effect on honey production. Apiaries Numbers 1, 2 and 3 contain three replicates of experimental hives while apiary Number 4 contains control hives. All the ...

  20. Influence of agrochemicals fipronil and imidacloprid on the learning behavior of Apis mellifera L. honeybees - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.18683

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals on crop cultivated areas is a source of contamination for bees and may cause physiological and behavioral disorders and mortality. The LD50 of the pesticides fipronil and imidacloprid was determined and their effect on the learning behavior of Apis mellifera L. honeybee evaluated. LD50 was determined by the ingestion of contaminated food with different concentrations of insecticide concentrations: Fipronil (0, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 µg bee-1 and imidacloprid (0, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 µg bee-1. The method of proboscis extension reflection (PER and learning through citral odor evaluated their responses to food stimulation. LD50 obtained were 0.28 ± 0.11 and 0.10 ± 0.04 µg bee-1 for fipronil and imidacloprid, respectively. The PER test showed no significant difference (p Apis mellifera bees.  

  1. Acute exposure to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid and coumaphos enhances olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Baker, Daniel D; Wright, Geraldine A

    2013-06-01

    The decline of honeybees and other pollinating insects is a current cause for concern. A major factor implicated in their decline is exposure to agricultural chemicals, in particular the neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid. Honeybees are also subjected to additional chemical exposure when beekeepers treat hives with acaricides to combat the mite Varroa destructor. Here, we assess the effects of acute sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos, on honey bee learning and memory. Imidacloprid had little effect on performance in a six-trial olfactory conditioning assay, while coumaphos caused a modest impairment. We report a surprising lack of additive adverse effects when both compounds were administered simultaneously, which instead produced a modest improvement in learning and memory.

  2. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreton, Mercédès; Decourtye, Axel; Henry, Mickaël; Rodet, Guy; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Charnet, Pierre; Collet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along with their ability to kill insects at lethal doses, they can compromise survival at sublethal doses by producing subtle deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the bee's locomotor ability, which is crucial for many tasks within the hive (e.g. cleaning brood cells, feeding larvae…), before and after an acute sublethal exposure to one insecticide belonging to the two insecticide classes, fipronil and thiamethoxam. Additionally, we examined the locomotor ability after exposure to pyrethroids, an older chemical insecticide class still widely used and known to be highly toxic to bees as well. Our study focused on young bees (day 1 after emergence) since (i) few studies are available on locomotion at this stage and (ii) in recent years, pesticides have been reported to accumulate in different hive matrices, where young bees undergo their early development. At sublethal doses (SLD48h, i.e. causing no mortality at 48 h), three pyrethroids, namely cypermethrin (2.5 ng/bee), tetramethrin (70 ng/bee), tau-fluvalinate (33 ng/bee) and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (3.8 ng/bee) caused a locomotor deficit in honeybees. While the SLD48h of fipronil (a phenylpyrazole, 0.5 ng/bee) had no measurable effect on locomotion, we observed high mortality several days after exposure, an effect that was not observed with the other insecticides. Although locomotor deficits observed in the sublethal range of pyrethroids and thiamethoxam would suggest deleterious effects in the field, the case of

  3. A Locomotor Deficit Induced by Sublethal Doses of Pyrethroid and Neonicotinoid Insecticides in the Honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercédès Charreton

    Full Text Available The toxicity of pesticides used in agriculture towards non-targeted organisms and especially pollinators has recently drawn the attention from a broad scientific community. Increased honeybee mortality observed worldwide certainly contributes to this interest. The potential role of several neurotoxic insecticides in triggering or potentiating honeybee mortality was considered, in particular phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids, given that they are widely used and highly toxic for insects. Along with their ability to kill insects at lethal doses, they can compromise survival at sublethal doses by producing subtle deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the bee's locomotor ability, which is crucial for many tasks within the hive (e.g. cleaning brood cells, feeding larvae…, before and after an acute sublethal exposure to one insecticide belonging to the two insecticide classes, fipronil and thiamethoxam. Additionally, we examined the locomotor ability after exposure to pyrethroids, an older chemical insecticide class still widely used and known to be highly toxic to bees as well. Our study focused on young bees (day 1 after emergence since (i few studies are available on locomotion at this stage and (ii in recent years, pesticides have been reported to accumulate in different hive matrices, where young bees undergo their early development. At sublethal doses (SLD48h, i.e. causing no mortality at 48 h, three pyrethroids, namely cypermethrin (2.5 ng/bee, tetramethrin (70 ng/bee, tau-fluvalinate (33 ng/bee and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (3.8 ng/bee caused a locomotor deficit in honeybees. While the SLD48h of fipronil (a phenylpyrazole, 0.5 ng/bee had no measurable effect on locomotion, we observed high mortality several days after exposure, an effect that was not observed with the other insecticides. Although locomotor deficits observed in the sublethal range of pyrethroids and thiamethoxam would suggest deleterious effects in the field

  4. Honeybee glucose oxidase—its expression in honeybee workers and comparative analyses of its content and H2O2-mediated antibacterial activity in natural honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucekova, Marcela; Valachova, Ivana; Kohutova, Lenka; Prochazka, Emanuel; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial properties of honey largely depend on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is generated by glucose oxidase (GOX)-mediated conversion of glucose in diluted honey. However, honeys exhibit considerable variation in their antibacterial activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the mechanism behind the variation in this activity and in the H2O2 content in honeys associated with the role of GOX in this process. Immunoblots and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that gox is solely expressed in the hypopharyngeal glands of worker bees performing various tasks and not in other glands or tissues. Real-time PCR with reference genes selected for worker heads shows that the gox expression progressively increases with ageing of the youngest bees and nurses and reached the highest values in processor bees. Immunoblot analysis of honey samples revealed that GOX is a regular honey component but its content significantly varied among honeys. Neither botanical source nor geographical origin of honeys affected the level of GOX suggesting that some other factors such as honeybee nutrition and/or genetic/epigenetic factors may take part in the observed variation. A strong correlation was found between the content of GOX and the level of generated H2O2 in honeys except honeydew honeys. Total antibacterial activity of most honey samples against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate significantly correlated with the H2O2 content. These results demonstrate that the level of GOX can significantly affect the total antibacterial activity of honey. They also support an idea that breeding of novel honeybee lines expressing higher amounts of GOX could help to increase the antibacterial efficacy of the hypopharyngeal gland secretion that could have positive influence on a resistance of colonies against bacterial pathogens.

  5. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A primary report on honeybee space-flight breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Shi Wei; Ding Guiling; Lv Liping; Liu Zhiguang

    2009-01-01

    The semen of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica) was carried by the recoverable satellite for a spaceflight and was inseminated instrumentally to the virgin queens after returning to the earth. The preliminary results showed that both the vitality of the sperm and the survival rate of SP 1 queen were lower than those of the control. Obvious variations in morphology appeared on the progeny workers of queens in SP 2 and in SP 3 generations, but most of variation were unfavorable. Mutants with desirable characters were not found after the space fight. (authors)

  7. First identification of nanoparticles on thorax, abdomen and wings of the worker bee Apis dorsata Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Atanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles on the body of the honeybee Apis dorsata Fabricius, was investigated for the first time to better understand the bee’s behaviour. These have been observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Our study clearly denotes that the Indian rock honey bee Apis dorsata possess calcium silicate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles on its body surface of 5-50 nm in diameter. In particular, the nanoparticles on the abdomen and thorax of A. dorsata have an average diameter of about 10 nanometers and they are smaller than those found on wings of the same bees which are about 20 nanometers. The nanoparticles found are different of the ones previously observed on honey bees or other insects. The origin and role of these natural nanoparticles on the body of the Indian rock bee need to be to be further investigated; more research in the subject might raise important aspects in relation to the conservation of these unique pollinators.

  8. Differential involvement of glutamate-gated chloride channel splice variants in the olfactory memory processes of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démares, Fabien; Drouard, Florian; Massou, Isabelle; Crattelet, Cindy; Lœuillet, Aurore; Bettiol, Célia; Raymond, Valérie; Armengaud, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) belong to the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily and their expression had been described in several invertebrate nervous systems. In the honeybee, a unique gene amel_glucl encodes two alternatively spliced subunits, Amel_GluCl A and Amel_GluCl B. The expression and differential localization of those variants in the honeybee brain had been previously reported. Here we characterized the involvement of each variant in olfactory learning and memory processes, using specific small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting each variant. Firstly, the efficacy of the two siRNAs to decrease their targets' expression was tested, both at mRNA and protein levels. The two proteins showed a decrease of their respective expression 24h after injection. Secondly, each siRNA was injected into the brain to test whether or not it affected olfactory memory by using a classical paradigm of conditioning the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Amel_GluCl A was found to be involved only in retrieval of 1-nonanol, whereas Amel_GluCl B was involved in the PER response to 2-hexanol used as a conditioned stimulus or as new odorant. Here for the first time, a differential behavioral involvement of two highly similar GluCl subunits has been characterized in an invertebrate species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of a thymol application on olfactory memory and gene expression levels in the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafé, Elsa; Drouard, Florian; Hotier, Lucie; Carayon, Jean-Luc; Marty, Pierre; Treilhou, Michel; Armengaud, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Essential oils are used by beekeepers to control the Varroa mites that infest honeybee colonies. So, bees can be exposed to thymol formulations in the hive. The effects of the monoterpenoid thymol were explored on olfactory memory and gene expression in the brain of the honeybee. In bees previously exposed to thymol (10 or 100 ng/bee), the specificity of the response to the conditioned stimulus (CS) was lost 24 h after learning. Besides, the octopamine receptor OA1 gene Amoa1 showed a significant decrease of expression 3 h after exposure with 10 or 100 ng/bee of thymol. With the same doses, expression of Rdl gene, coding for a GABA receptor subunit, was not significantly modified but the trpl gene was upregulated 1 and 24 h after exposure to thymol. These data indicated that the genes coding for the cellular targets of thymol could be rapidly regulated after exposure to this molecule. Memory and sensory processes should be investigated in bees after chronic exposure in the hive to thymol-based preparations.

  10. Characterization of the 5-HT1A receptor of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and involvement of serotonin in phototactic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Markus; Balfanz, Sabine; Scheiner, Ricarda; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    Serotonin plays a key role in modulating various physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes and deuterostomes. The vast majority of serotonin receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. We report the cloning of a cDNA from the honeybee (Am5-ht1A) sharing high similarity with members of the 5-HT(1) receptor class. Activation of Am5-HT(1A) by serotonin inhibited the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 16.9 nM). Am5-HT(1A) was highly expressed in brain regions known to be involved in visual information processing. Using in vivo pharmacology, we could demonstrate that Am5-HT(1A) receptor ligands had a strong impact on the phototactic behavior of individual bees. The data presented here mark the first comprehensive study-from gene to behavior-of a 5-HT(1A) receptor in the honeybee, paving the way for the eventual elucidation of additional roles of this receptor subtype in the physiology and behavior of this social insect.

  11. Varroa destructor induces changes in the expression of immunity-related genes during the development of Apis mellifera worker and drone broods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaobidna, Ewa A; Żółtowska, Krystyna; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta

    2017-12-20

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor has emerged as the major pest of honeybees. Despite extensive research efforts, the pathogenesis of varroosis has not been fully explained. Earlier studies suggested that V. destructor infestation leads to the suppression of the host's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the immune responses of 14 genes in the Toll signal transduction pathways, including effector genes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in developing Apis mellifera workers and drones infested with V. destructor. Four developmental stages (L5 larvae, prepupae, and 2 pupal stages) and newly emerged imagines were analyzed. In workers, the most significant changes were observed in L5 larvae in the initial stages of infestation. A significant increase in the relative expression of 10 of the 14 analyzed genes, including defensin-1 and defensin-2, was observed in infested bees relative to non-infested individuals. The immune response in drones developed at a slower rate. The expression of genes regulating cytoplasmic signal transduction increased in prepupae, whereas the expression of defensin-1 and defensin-2 effector genes increased in P3 pupae with red eyes. The expression of many immunity-related genes was silenced in successive life stages and in imagines, and it was more profound in workers than in drones. The results indicate that V. destructor significantly influences immune responses regulated by the Toll signal transduction pathway in bees. In infested bees, the observed changes in Toll pathway genes varied between life stages and the sexes.

  12. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  13. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with {sup 32} P on an apple orchard; Estudo do raio de acao e densidade ideal de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) marcadas com {sup 32} P em pomar de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhoa, B A.J.

    1990-06-01

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee`s activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 {mu}Ci {sup 32} P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author).

  14. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. INFLUENCE OF HONEYBEE QUEENS ORIGIN TO THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CARNIOLAN BEES (APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J POKLUKAR

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Total amount of 4.355 records of honeybee colonies production characteristics was estimated on the 251 bee yards in Slovenia from 1993 to 2001. Queens were produced on 29 queen producing yards. The average lsmeans of honey yields increased by 0,41 kg a year. The swarming behaviour and the defensive behaviour of bees increased as well by - 0,091 points, and –0,038 points respectively. According to the last two years records, the honey yields of bee colonies were significantly influenced by the drone gene pool at queen production yards. The swarming behaviour was in contrary more influenced by the queen mothers on queen production yards. The defensive behaviour of bee colonies and the daily varroa mite fall were not significantly influenced by parents.

  16. Transmedulla Neurons in the Sky Compass Network of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Are a Possible Site of Circadian Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Maximilian; Held, Martina; Bender, Julia; Berz, Annuska; Heinloth, Tanja; Hellfritz, Timm; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2015-01-01

    Honeybees are known for their ability to use the sun's azimuth and the sky's polarization pattern for spatial orientation. Sky compass orientation in bees has been extensively studied at the behavioral level but our knowledge about the underlying neuronal systems and mechanisms is very limited. Electrophysiological studies in other insect species suggest that neurons of the sky compass system integrate information about the polarization pattern of the sky, its chromatic gradient, and the azimuth of the sun. In order to obtain a stable directional signal throughout the day, circadian changes between the sky polarization pattern and the solar azimuth must be compensated. Likewise, the system must be modulated in a context specific way to compensate for changes in intensity, polarization and chromatic properties of light caused by clouds, vegetation and landscape. The goal of this study was to identify neurons of the sky compass pathway in the honeybee brain and to find potential sites of circadian and neuromodulatory input into this pathway. To this end we first traced the sky compass pathway from the polarization-sensitive dorsal rim area of the compound eye via the medulla and the anterior optic tubercle to the lateral complex using dye injections. Neurons forming this pathway strongly resembled neurons of the sky compass pathway in other insect species. Next we combined tracer injections with immunocytochemistry against the circadian neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor and the neuromodulators serotonin, and γ-aminobutyric acid. We identified neurons, connecting the dorsal rim area of the medulla to the anterior optic tubercle, as a possible site of neuromodulation and interaction with the circadian system. These neurons have conspicuous spines in close proximity to pigment dispersing factor-, serotonin-, and GABA-immunoreactive neurons. Our data therefore show for the first time a potential interaction site between the sky compass pathway and the circadian

  17. Insight into the substrate specificity change caused by the Y227H mutation of α-glucosidase III from the European honeybee (Apis mellifera through molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratchaya Pramoj Na Ayutthaya

    Full Text Available Honey from the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, is produced by α-glucosidases (HBGases and is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Categorized by their substrate specificities, HBGases have three isoforms: HBGase I, II and III. Previous experimental investigations showed that wild-type HBGase III from Apis mellifera (WT preferred sucrose to maltose as a substrate, while the Y227H mutant (MT preferred maltose to sucrose. This mutant can potentially be used for malt hydrolysis because it can efficiently hydrolyze maltose. In this work, to elucidate important factors contributing to substrate specificity of this enzyme and gain insight into how the Y227H mutation causes substrate specificity change, WT and MT homology models were constructed, and sucrose/maltose was docked into active sites of the WT and MT. AMBER14 was employed to perform three independent molecular dynamics runs for these four complexes. Based on the relative binding free energies calculated by the MM-GBSA method, sucrose is better than maltose for WT binding, while maltose is better than sucrose for MT binding. These rankings support the experimentally observed substrate specificity that WT preferred sucrose to maltose as a substrate, while MT preferred maltose to sucrose, suggesting the importance of binding affinity for substrate specificity. We also found that the Y227H mutation caused changes in the proximities between the atoms necessary for sucrose/maltose hydrolysis that may affect enzyme efficiency in the hydrolysis of sucrose/maltose. Moreover, the per-residue binding free energy decomposition results show that Y227/H227 may be a key residue for preference binding of sucrose/maltose in the WT/MT active site. Our study provides important and novel insight into the binding of sucrose/maltose in the active site of Apis mellifera HBGase III and into how the Y227H mutation leads to the substrate specificity change at the molecular level. This

  18. Eficacia del Oxavar® para el Control del Ácaro Varroa destructor (Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Apidae Efficacy of Oxavar® to control the mite Varroa destructor (Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Marcangeli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del producto Oxavar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en colmenas de abejas Apis mellifera durante la primavera de 2002 y otoño de 2003. El trabajo se llevó a cabo en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se trabajó sobre un total de 20 colmenas tipo Langstroth que se dividieron en dos grupos iguales. El primer grupo recibió 5 ml de Oxavar® (323 g en 5000 ml de agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas. El segundo grupo, el testigo, recibió 5 ml de agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas. Ambos grupos recibieron tres dosis a intervalos de siete días. Semanalmente, se recolectaron los ácaros muertos caídos en pisos especiales que evitaban que las abejas los eliminen. Posteriormente, en los dos grupos se colocaron tiras del producto Apistan® para eliminar los ácaros remanentes en las colonias y poder así calcular la eficacia del tratamiento. El producto Oxavar® presentó una eficacia promedio de 85,5 % ± 2,8 durante la primavera y 86,1% ± 2,6 durante el otoño, no mostrando diferencias significativas entre las estaciones (p> 0,05. En ambos casos se registraron diferencias significativas frente al grupo control (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of Oxavar® to control Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in Apis mellifera (L colonies during the spring 2002 and the autumn 2003. Work was done at “Centro de Extensión Apícola” experimental apiary located in Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Twenty Langstroth hives were used divided in two equal groups. The first group received 5 ml of Oxavar® (323 g in 5000 ml of destiled water per comb covered by honeybees and the second one received 5 ml of destiled water. Both groups received three dosages at seven day periods. Dead mites were collected weekly from special floors in order to avoid

  19. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.. Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP; descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP. Observou-se que a atratividade das substâncias testadas desapareceu minutos após a sua aplicação, utilizando ou não a glicerina, em ambas as variedades. A pulverização dos extratos de falsa melissa, folhas de eucalipto e folhas de laranja apresentaram um aumento no número de abelhas Apis mellifera, na variedade Quintal. Os dados mostraram que a freqüência das abelhas A. mellifera foi maior na variedade Quintal comparada à variedade Fortuna. Isto pode ter ocorrido devido à maior concentração de açúcares do néctar de suas flores. Observou-se que as abelhas A. mellifera preferiram visitar as flores do abacateiro da variedade Quintal, tanto para néctar quanto para coleta de pólen, comparada à variedade Fortuna. Com relação aos frutos, nenhuma das características apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. Entretanto, observou-se que na variedade Quintal os frutos decorrentes dos tratamentos DP e DNP foram mais pesados, mais compridos e com maior espessura da polpa, comparados ao único fruto obtido do tratamento coberto. Os produtos testados em tubos não foram eficientes para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera, em ambas as variedades.The present experiment was carried out to evaluate some methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae to two avocado varieties (Persea americana Mill.. Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, Citrus sp leaf, Eucalyptus sp leaf, the eugenol and linalol

  20. Drone and Worker Brood Microclimates Are Regulated Differentially in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Zachary Y; Sharma, Dhruv B; Xue, Yunbo; Wang, Zhi; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones and workers show differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Because the functions of drones are more related to colony reproduction, and those of workers relate to both survival and reproduction, we hypothesize that the microclimate for worker brood is more precisely regulated than that of drone brood. We assessed temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside honey bee colonies for both drone and worker brood throughout the three-stage development period, using digital HOBO® Data Loggers. The major findings of this study are that 1) both drone and worker castes show the highest temperature for eggs, followed by larvae and then pupae; 2) temperature in drones are maintained at higher precision (smaller variance) in drone eggs and larvae, but at a lower precision in pupae than the corresponding stages of workers; 3) RH regulation showed higher variance in drone than workers across all brood stages; and 4) RH regulation seems largely due to regulation by workers, as the contribution from empty honey combs are much smaller compared to that from adult workers. We conclude that honey bee colonies maintain both temperature and humidity actively; that the microclimate for sealed drone brood is less precisely regulated than worker brood; and that combs with honey contribute very little to the increase of RH in honey bee colonies. These findings increase our understanding of microclimate regulation in honey bees and may have implications for beekeeping practices.

  1. Vultures and honeybees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    in the Ganab area of the Namib-Naukluft. Park, Namibia, we came across an unusual occurrence: When we reached the chick in the nest, we found honeybees Apis mellifera, crowded over and covering the eyes of the young vulture. The Namib-Naukluft Park (NNP),. 49,785 km², is the largest conservation area in Namibia ...

  2. Social regulation of ageing by young workers in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Michael; Dainat, Benjamin; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Organisms' lifespans are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. The lifespan of eusocial insects is determined by features of the division of labor, which itself is influenced by social regulatory mechanisms. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, the presence of brood and of old workers carrying out foraging tasks are important social drivers of ageing, but the influence of young adult workers is unknown, as it has not been experimentally teased apart from that of brood. In this study, we test the role of young workers in the ageing of their nestmates. We measured the impact of different social contexts characterized by the absence of brood and/or young adults on the lifespan of worker nestmates in field colonies. To acquire insight into the physiological processes occurring under these contexts, we analyzed the expression of genes known to affect honey bee ageing. The data showed that young workers significantly reduced the lifespan of nestmate workers, similar to the effect of brood on its own. Differential expression of vitellogenin, major royal jelly protein-1, and methylase transferase, but not methyl farneosate epoxidase genes suggests that young workers and brood influence ageing of adult nestmate workers via different physiological pathways. We identify young workers as an essential part of the social regulation of ageing in honey bee colonies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection of Apis mellifera workers by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor using host cuticular hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piccolo, F; Nazzi, F; Della Vedova, G; Milani, N

    2010-05-01

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most important threat for apiculture in most bee-keeping areas of the world. The mite is carried to the bee brood cell, where it reproduces, by a nurse bee; therefore the selection of the bee stage by the parasite could influence its reproductive success. This study investigates the role of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera) in host-selection by the mite. Preliminary laboratory bioassays confirmed the preference of the varroa mite for nurse bees over pollen foragers. GC-MS analysis of nurse and pollen bees revealed differences in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the two stages; in particular, it appeared that pollen bees have more (Z)-8-heptadecene than nurse bees. Laboratory experiments showed that treatment of nurse bees with 100 ng of the pure compound makes them repellent to the varroa mite. These results suggest that the mite can exploit the differences in the cuticular composition of its host for a refined selection that allows it to reach a brood cell and start reproduction. The biological activity of the alkene encourages further investigations for the development of novel control techniques based on this compound.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... honeybees (Apis cerana) under microsatellite markers. Ting Ji, Ling Yin and ... from Apis mellifera introduced into China since 1896 (Yang, 2005). With the ..... Commercial and Feral Honey Bees in Western Australia. J. Econ.

  5. Características das colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L., coletadas de alojamentos naturais em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo Characteristics of african honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L. in nature, in Jaboticabal - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Nogueira-Couto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento analisou-se as características de 70 enxames de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera Apidae, coletados na natureza, durante 16 anos (1981 a 1996, em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo e arredores. Durante a coleta foram feitas avaliações sobre o enxame quanto à: localização, posição (favos expostos ou em cavidades, presença de rainha, defensividade, áreas de cria e alimento e quantidade de abelhas presentes. Foi observada a posição dos favos em relação à entrada da colônia, classificando-os em perpendicular e paralelo. Observou-se que metade dos enxames (51,4% foi coletada dentro do Câmpus da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal - Unesp, especialmente na área de reflorestamento e no horto. Apenas 18,6% dos enxames coletados estavam expostos ao ar livre, estando preferencialmente em galhos, e 81,4% estavam alojados no interior de cavidades. Foi observado que, nos alojados em cavidades, as abelhas preferiram instalar seus enxames sob telhados (30%, ocos de árvores (20%, dentro de cavidades de cimento (12,9% e buracos no solo (10%. Observou-se que as abelhas não foram consideradas defensivas em 86,2% dos enxames coletados e que preferiram construir seus favos em posição perpendicular (70,4% à entrada da colméia, em relação à posição paralela (29,6%. Em relação à quantidade de indivíduos, cria e alimento, observou-se que 54,7% dos 70 enxames tinham grande quantidade de abelhas, 43,9% tinham área de cria considerada média e 51,7% apresentaram pouco alimento estocado. A rainha foi observada em 56,4% dos enxames coletados.The experiment was conducted to observe characteristics of African honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera Apidae swarms collected in nature, for 16 years (1981 to 1996, in Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo -Brasil. During the collection, location, presence of queen, position of the swarms in the nature (exposed or housed, brood and

  6. Impact of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis on individual worker bees of the two host species (Apis cerana and Apis mellifera) and regulation of host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinpoo, Chainarong; Paxton, Robert J; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Krongdang, Sasiprapa; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting midgut epithelial cells of host adult honey bees, originally Apis mellifera and Apis cerana respectively. Each microsporidia cross-infects the other host and both microsporidia nowadays have a worldwide distribution. In this study, cross-infection experiments using both N. apis and N. ceranae in both A. mellifera and A. cerana were carried out to compare pathogen proliferation and impact on hosts, including host immune response. Infection by N. ceranae led to higher spore loads than by N. apis in both host species, and there was greater proliferation of microsporidia in A. mellifera compared to A. cerana. Both N. apis and N. ceranae were pathogenic in both host Apis species. N. ceranae induced subtly, though not significantly, higher mortality than N. apis in both host species, yet survival of A. cerana was no different to that of A. mellifera in response to N. apis or N. ceranae. Infections of both host species with N. apis and N. ceranae caused significant up-regulation of AMP genes and cellular mediated immune genes but did not greatly alter apoptosis-related gene expression. In this study, A. cerana enlisted a higher immune response and displayed lower loads of N. apis and N. ceranae spores than A. mellifera, suggesting it may be better able to defend itself against microsporidia infection. We caution against over-interpretation of our results, though, because differences between host and parasite species in survival were insignificant and because size differences between microsporidia species and between host Apis species may alternatively explain the differential proliferation of N. ceranae in A. mellifera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus. Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60 contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP, RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate, and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE. Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency.

  8. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Tian, Yuanyuan; Han, Mingfeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera , queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed ( Brassica napus ). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP 60 ) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP 30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency.

  9. Aplicação de análises multivariadas para determinação da casta de abelhas Apis mellifera L. (Africanizadas, obtidas em laboratório Aplication of multivariate analysis for caste determination in Honeybees Apis mellifera L. (Africanized obtained in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Christina da Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de criação de larvas de abelhas Apis mellifera em laboratório tem sido utilizada freqüentemente em estudos de desenvolvimento larval, determinação de castas e, mais recentemente, em testes de patogênese. A quantidade e a qualidade do alimento fornecido às larvas em laboratório podem levar à formação de castas diferentes (rainha, operárias ou intercastas. Neste trabalho, crias de abelhas africanizadas foram desenvolvidas a partir de larvas de 18-24 horas de idade até atingir a fase adulta, utilizando-se durante a alimentação, 4, 15, 25, 50 e 70 µl de dieta por larva, respectivamente, do primeiro ao quinto dia de alimentação. Para determinar se as abelhas adultas obtidas em laboratório eram pertencentes à casta de operárias, de rainhas ou se eram intermediárias (intercastas, foram comparadas com um controle constituído por operárias e rainhas da mesma origem das operárias desenvolvidas no laboratório, utilizando-se o peso e as medidas dos seguintes caracteres: a comprimento da cabeça; b largura da cabeça; c comprimento do olho composto; d largura do olho composto; e comprimento do mesoscuto; f largura do mesoscuto; g comprimento da tíbia; h largura da tíbia. Foram utilizadas a Função Discriminante de Anderson e a técnica de Componentes Principais, de modo a efetuar a discriminação das castas das abelhas adultas obtidas em laboratório em relação àquelas desenvolvidas naturalmente. Entre os caracteres avaliados, os que menos contribuíram para a determinação das castas foram o comprimento do mesoscuto e a largura da cabeça, sendo, portanto, dispensáveis em estudos futuros.Apis mellifera honeybee brood rearing in laboratory conditions has been frequentely used to search for larval development, caste determination, and more recently for tests of pathogenesis. The amount and quality of food received by larvae during the feeding time can produce different castes (queen, worker or intercaste. In the

  10. Aversive conditioning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): a comparison of drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Christopher W; Avalos, Arian; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Austin, Zoe M; Varnon, Christopher A; Dal, Fatima Nur; Giray, Tugrul; Wells, Harrington

    2013-11-01

    Honey bees provide a model system to elucidate the relationship between sociality and complex behaviors within the same species, as females (workers) are highly social and males (drones) are more solitary. We report on aversive learning studies in drone and worker honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica) in escape, punishment and discriminative punishment situations. In all three experiments, a newly developed electric shock avoidance assay was used. The comparisons of expected and observed responses were performed with conventional statistical methods and a systematic randomization modeling approach called object oriented modeling. The escape experiment consisted of two measurements recorded in a master-yoked paradigm: frequency of response and latency to respond following administration of shock. Master individuals could terminate an unavoidable shock triggered by a decrementing 30 s timer by crossing the shuttlebox centerline following shock activation. Across all groups, there was large individual response variation. When assessing group response frequency and latency, master subjects performed better than yoked subjects for both workers and drones. In the punishment experiment, individuals were shocked upon entering the shock portion of a bilaterally wired shuttlebox. The shock portion was spatially static and unsignalled. Only workers effectively avoided the shock. The discriminative punishment experiment repeated the punishment experiment but included a counterbalanced blue and yellow background signal and the side of shock was manipulated. Drones correctly responded less than workers when shock was paired with blue. However, when shock was paired with yellow there was no observable difference between drones and workers.

  11. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-17

    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  12. Protein pattern of the honeybee venoms of Egypt | Zalat | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The venom composition of the Egyptian honeybee Apis mellifera lamarckii, the Carniolan honeybee Apis mellifera carnica and a hybrid with unknown origin were analyzed using electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). All venoms shared six bands with molecular weights of 97.400, 67.400, 49.000, 45.000, 43.000 and 14.000D.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana) under microsatellite markers. T Ji, L Yin, G Chen. Abstract. Using 21 microsatellite markers and PCR method, the polymorphisms of 20 Apis cerana honeybee populations across China was investigated and the genetic structure and diversity of ...

  14. Africanized honeybees are slower learners than their European counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillon, Margaret J.; Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2010-02-01

    Does cognitive ability always correlate with a positive fitness consequence? Previous research in both vertebrates and invertebrates provides mixed results. Here, we compare the learning and memory abilities of Africanized honeybees ( Apis mellifera scutellata hybrid) and European honeybees ( Apis mellifera ligustica). The range of the Africanized honeybee continues to expand, superseding the European honeybee, which led us to hypothesize that they might possess greater cognitive capabilities as revealed by a classical conditioning assay. Surprisingly, we found that fewer Africanized honeybees learn to associate an odor with a reward. Additionally, fewer Africanized honeybees remembered the association a day later. While Africanized honeybees are replacing European honeybees, our results show that they do so despite displaying a relatively poorer performance on an associative learning paradigm.

  15. Hygienic and grooming behaviors in African and European honeybees-New damage categories in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganso, Beatrice T; Fombong, Ayuka T; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Pirk, Christian W W; Stuhl, Charles; Torto, Baldwyn

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic pest of honeybees, and a threat to the survival of the apiculture industry. Several studies have shown that unlike European honeybees, African honeybee populations appear to be minimally affected when attacked by this mite. However, little is known about the underlying drivers contributing to survival of African honeybee populations against the mite. We hypothesized that resistant behavioral defenses are responsible for the survival of African honeybees against the ectoparasite. We tested this hypothesis by comparing grooming and hygienic behaviors in the African savannah honeybee Apis mellifera scutellata in Kenya and A. mellifera hybrids of European origin in Florida, USA against the mite. Grooming behavior was assessed by determining adult mite infestation levels, daily mite fall per colony and percentage mite damage (as an indicator of adult grooming rate), while hygienic behavior was assessed by determining the brood removal rate after freeze killing a section of the brood. Our results identified two additional undescribed damaged mite categories along with the six previously known damage categories associated with the grooming behavior of both honeybee subspecies. Adult mite infestation level was approximately three-fold higher in A. mellifera hybrids of European origin than in A. m. scutellata, however, brood removal rate, adult grooming rate and daily natural mite fall were similar in both honeybee subspecies. Unlike A. mellifera hybrids of European origin, adult grooming rate and brood removal rate did not correlate with mite infestation levels on adult worker honeybee of A. m. scutellata though they were more aggressive towards the mites than their European counterparts. Our results provide valuable insights into the tolerance mechanisms that contribute to the survival of A. m. scutellata against the mite.

  16. Development of improved molecular methods for the detection of deformed wing virus (DWV) in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and mites ( Varroa destructor Oud.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrella, G; Caprio, E; Mazzone, P

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the extraction of total nucleic acid from honeybee and mite, useful either as template for RT-PCR or in nucleic acids hybridization, was developed. Sensitivity of the methods were evaluated up to 10(9) and 10(6) dilution of TNAs extracted from a single honeybee, for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and molecular hybridization respectively. The two diagnostic methods developed could be useful for the study of the molecular biology and the pathology of DWV. For practical applications dot-blot hybridization could be used in order to study the incidence of DWV in honeybees populations. The method is enough sensitive, rapid and less affected by contamination problems compared to RT-PCR and thus it could be applied to the sanitary certification of honeybees and their products.

  17. Changes in the structure and pigmentation of the eyes of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. queens with the "limão" mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Chaud-Netto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrastructural differences between the compound eyes of ch li/ch li and Ch/ch li honeybee queens. Heterozygous "limão" bees had an almost normal ultrastructural organization of the ommatidia, but there were some alterations, including small vacuoles in the crystalline cones and a loss of pigment by primary pigmentary cells. In homozygous bees many ommatidia had very deformed crystalline cones and there were some bipartite rhabdoma. There was a reduction in the amount of pigment in the primary and secondary pigmentary cells and receptor cells (retinulae of mutant eyes. However, the eyes of both heterozygous and homozygous queens had the same type of pigment granules. Certain membrane-limited structures containing pigment granules and electron-dense material appeared to be of lysosomal nature. Since these structures occurred in the retinular cells of mutant eyes, they were considered to be multivesicular bodies responsible for the reduction in rhabdom volume in the presence of light, as a type of adaptation to brightness. The reduction of pigment in the pigmentary and retinular cells and the morphological changes seen in the rhabdom of the ommatidia may originate visual deficiencies, which could explain the behavioral modifications reported for Apis mellifera queens with mutant eye color.Este estudo descreve as diferenças ultra-estruturais entre os olhos compostos de rainhas de abelhas de genótipo ch li/ch li e Ch/ch li. Foram registradas diferenças na organização do omatídeo e na pigmentação geral dos dois tipos de olhos. As abelhas heterozigotas apresentaram organização ultra-estrutural dos omatídeos praticamente normal. Contudo, foram observadas algumas alterações nos cones cristalinos, particularmente a presença de pequenos vacúolos nas células dos cones e perda de pigmento pelas células pigmentares primárias. Nas abelhas homozigotas foram encontrados vários omatídeos com cones cristalinos muito

  18. Hemolymph proteome changes during worker brood development match the biological divergences between western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and eastern honey bees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Ramadan, Haitham; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2014-07-05

    Hemolymph plays key roles in honey bee molecule transport, immune defense, and in monitoring the physiological condition. There is a lack of knowledge regarding how the proteome achieves these biological missions for both the western and eastern honey bees (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana). A time-resolved proteome was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to reveal the mechanistic differences by analysis of hemolymph proteome changes between the worker bees of two bee species during the larval to pupal stages. The brood body weight of Apis mellifera was significantly heavier than that of Apis cerana at each developmental stage. Significantly, different protein expression patterns and metabolic pathways were observed in 74 proteins (166 spots) that were differentially abundant between the two bee species. The function of hemolymph in energy storage, odor communication, and antioxidation is of equal importance for the western and eastern bees, indicated by the enhanced expression of different protein species. However, stronger expression of protein folding, cytoskeletal and developmental proteins, and more highly activated energy producing pathways in western bees suggests that the different bee species have developed unique strategies to match their specific physiology using hemolymph to deliver nutrients and in immune defense. Our disparate findings constitute a proof-of-concept of molecular details that the ecologically shaped different physiological conditions of different bee species match with the hemolymph proteome during the brood stage. This also provides a starting point for future research on the specific hemolymph proteins or pathways related to the differential phenotypes or physiology.

  19. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  20. THE HONEYBEE ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    completed by pupils, followed by questions relating to the anatomy of the honeybee. Chapter Four: The Honeybee at Home. After the swarm1ng, the bu1ld1ng of the nest, the establish- ment of a new community and the mating of the queen and drones, we observe the development of the queen, drone and worker from egg ...

  1. Infections of Nosema ceranae in four different honeybee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Veeranan; Warrit, Natapot; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2010-10-01

    The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is detected in honeybees in Thailand for the first time. This endoparasite has recently been reported to infect most Apis mellifera honeybee colonies in Europe, the US, and parts of Asia, and is suspected to have displaced the endemic endoparasite species, Nosema apis, from the western A. mellifera. We collected and identified species of microsporidia from the European honeybee (A. mellifera), the cavity nesting Asian honeybee (Apis cerana), the dwarf Asian honeybee (Apis florea) and the giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata) from colonies in Northern Thailand. We used multiplex PCR technique with two pairs of primers to differentiate N. ceranae from N. apis. From 80 A. mellifera samples, 62 (77.5%) were positively identified for the presence of the N. ceranae. Amongst 46 feral colonies of Asian honeybees (A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata) examined for Nosema infections, only N. ceranae could be detected. No N. apis was found in our samples. N. ceranae is found to be the only microsporidium infesting honeybees in Thailand. Moreover, we found the frequencies of N. ceranae infection in native bees to be less than that of A. mellifera. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Field-relevant doses of the systemic insecticide fipronil and fungicide pyraclostrobin impair mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands in nurse honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Rodrigo; Justulin, Luis Antonio; Orsi, Ricardo de Oliveira

    2017-11-09

    Global decreases in bee populations emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors affect colony maintenance, especially considering the extreme task specialization observed in honeybee societies. Royal jelly, a protein secretion essential to colony nutrition, is produced by nurse honeybees, and development of bee mandibular glands, which comprise a reservoir surrounded by secretory cells and hypopharyngeal glands that are shaped by acini, is directly associated with production of this secretion. Here, we examined individual and combined effects of the systemic fungicide pyraclostrobin and insecticide fipronil in field-relevant doses (850 and 2.5 ppb, respectively) on mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands in nurse honeybees. Six days of pesticide treatment decreased secretory cell height in mandibular glands. When pyraclostrobin and fipronil were combined, the reservoir volume in mandibular glands also decreased. The total number of acini in hypopharyngeal glands was not affected, but pesticide treatment reduced the number of larger acini while increasing smaller acini. These morphological impairments appeared to reduce royal jelly secretion by nurse honeybees and consequently hampered colony maintenance. Overall, pesticide exposure in doses close to those experienced by bees in the field impaired brood-food glands in nurse honeybees, a change that could negatively influence development, survival, and colony maintenance.

  3. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Daiana A; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; Amdam, Gro V; Gonçalves, Lionel S; Francoy, Tiago M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates.

  4. Effect of Propolis Oral Intake on Physiological Condition of Young Worker Honey Bees, Apis Mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees collect resin from various plant species and transform it into propolis that is incorporated into the nest. The role of resins in the bee health field is poorly understood. The aim was to evaluate the effects of forced consumption of propolis on the physiological condition and short-term survival of Apis mellifera worker bees. It was tested if the number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph, the abdominal fat bodies and the hypopharyngeal glands development were affected by the feeding with propolis extracts in laboratory conditions during the warm and the cold seasons. Propolis added to sugar candy was consumed by workers for fourteen days without affecting the bee survival. The number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph remained constant despite the differential diet during the experiment. However, the development of fat bodies and hypopharyngeal glands was altered by propolis ingestion. The abdominal fat body development in winter bees diminished after fourteen days of propolis consumption, while it increased in summer bees. The hypopharyngeal gland development decreased for the assayed period in workers from both seasons. Our results encourage us to continue exploring this research field and learn how long-term forced ingestion of a plant-derived compound, a non-nutritive substance, can modify physiological bee parameters. A broader understanding of the multiple roles of propolis in the health of the honey bee colonies could be obtained by studying the ways in which it is processed and metabolized and the effect that generates in another physiological responses.

  5. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  6. Honeybee venom proteome profile of queens and winter bees as determined by a mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Debyser, Griet; Devreese, Bart; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-10-30

    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS). Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings.

  7. Honeybee Venom Proteome Profile of Queens and Winter Bees as Determined by a Mass Spectrometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L.; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Debyser, Griet; Devreese, Bart; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2015-01-01

    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS). Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings. PMID:26529016

  8. Role of the Varroa mite in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony loss: A case study for adverse outcome pathway development with a nonchemical stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant honeybee colony losses have been reported across North America and Europe in recent years. A number of factors, both chemical and nonchemical, have been associated with such losses. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) provide a conceptual framework to describe and evalu...

  9. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the developmental processes normally associated with aging. Results Substantial changes in gene expression occurred due to starvation. Diet-induced changes in gene transcription occurring in younger bees were largely a subset of those occurring in older bees, but certain signatures of starvation were only evident 8 day old workers. Of the 18,542 annotated transcripts in the A. mellifera genome, 150 transcripts exhibited differential expression due to poor diet at 3d of age compared with 17,226 transcripts that differed due to poor diet at 8d of age, and poor diet caused more frequent down-regulation of gene expression in younger bees compared to older bees. In addition, the age-related physiological changes that accompanied early adult development differed due to the diet these young adult bees were fed. More frequent down-regulation of gene expression was observed in developing bees fed a poor diet compared to those fed an adequate diet. Functional

  10. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Charles I.; Michaluk, Lynnette M. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States). Depts. of Psychology and Zoology. Lab. Comparative Psychology and Behavioral Biology]. E-mail: charles.abramson@okstate.edu; Wanderley, Paulo A.; Wanderley, Maria J.A.; Silva, Jose C.R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Bananeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura

    2007-11-15

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  11. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, Charles I.; Michaluk, Lynnette M.; Wanderley, Paulo A.; Wanderley, Maria J.A.; Silva, Jose C.R.

    2007-01-01

    It was recently discovered that exposure to small concentrations of the essential oils of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) or pignut [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit] can be used to control aphids. What is not known is whether these oils also influence honeybee behavior. Experiments using both harnessed and free-flying foragers at concentrations used to control aphids showed that bees readily associated the odors with a reward, discriminated between them, and were not repelled. Honeybees, however, would not consume the oils when mixed with sucrose to create an unconditioned stimulus. An experiment in which harnessed bees consumed various concentrations showed that concentrations greater than 50% were detrimental. The experiments reported here provide further evidence supporting the use of conditioning techniques to evaluate the use of essential oils on honey bee behavior. (author)

  12. The virulent, emerging genotype B of Deformed wing virus is closely linked to overwinter honeybee worker loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natsopoulou, Myrsini Eirini; McMahon, Dino P.; Doublet, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Bees are considered to be threatened globally, with severe overwinter losses of the most important commercial pollinator, the Western honeybee, a major concern in the Northern Hemisphere. Emerging infectious diseases have risen to prominence due to their temporal correlation with colony losses...... of elevated overwinter honeybee loss. Its potential emergence in naïve populations of bees may have far-reaching ecological and economic impacts....

  13. Concentrations of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in pollen, nectar and leaves from seed-dressed cotton crops and their potential risk to honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiangong; Ma, Dicheng; Zou, Nan; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Zhengqun; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) have recently been recognized as co-factors in the decline of honeybee colonies because most neonicotinoids are systemic and can transfer into the pollen and nectar of many pollinated crops. In this study, we collected pollen, nectar and leaves from a cotton crop treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam to measure the residue levels of these two NIs at different application doses during the flowering period. Then, the residual data were used to assess the risk posed by the systemic insecticides to honeybees following mandated methods published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and a highly toxic risk to honeybees was highlighted. Imidacloprid was found in both pollen and nectar samples, whereas thiamethoxam was found in 90% of pollen samples and over 60% of nectar samples. Analysis of the pollen and nectar revealed residual amounts of imidacloprid ranging from 1.61 to 64.58 ng g -1 in the pollen and from not detected (ND) to 1.769 ng g -1 in the nectar. By comparison, the thiamethoxam concentrations in pollen and nectar ranged from ND to 14.521 ng g -1 and from ND to 4.285 ng g -1 , respectively. The results of this study provide information on the transfer of two NIs from seed treatment to areas of the plant and provides an understanding of the potential exposure of the bee and other pollinators to systemic insecticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Programmed Cell Death in the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Worker Brain Induced by Imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Ping-Li; Xu, Shu-Fa; Jia, Hui-Ru; Wang, Xing

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are at an unavoidable risk of exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides, which are used worldwide. Compared with the well-studied roles of these pesticides in nontarget site (including midgut, ovary, or salivary glands), little has been reported in the target sites, the brain. In the current study, laboratory-reared adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with sublethal doses of imidacloprid. Neuronal apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL technique for DNA labeling. We observed significantly increased apoptotic markers in dose- and time-dependent manners in brains of bees exposed to imidacloprid. Neuronal activated caspase-3 and mRNA levels of caspase-1, as detected by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively, were significantly increased, suggesting that sublethal doses of imidacloprid may induce the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Additionally, the overlap of apoptosis and autophagy in neurons was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. It further suggests that a relationship exists between neurotoxicity and behavioral changes induced by sublethal doses of imidacloprid, and that there is a need to determine reasonable limits for imidacloprid application in the field to protect pollinators. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2007-01-01

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  16. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Morphology of Antennal Sensilla of the Honeybee Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meray, F.A.; Elbassiouny, A.M.; Sawires, S.G.; Gharieb, O.H.

    2012-01-01

    External morphology of antenna sensilla of irradiated and non-irradiated honey bee workers were studied with scanning electron microscopy and distribution of antenall sensilla were determined. Six types of sensilla could be distinguished on the flagella : trichoid semsilla, campaniformia sensilla, placodea sensilla and ampulacea sensilla. The sensilla acampaniformia are probable tactile mechano sensill. Function for basiconica , placodea and ampulacae sensilla include hygro/ thermo reception and chemo reception. The type of sensilla aplacodea was located at the apical part of 3 rd to 10 th segments of the flagellum. General distribution in irradiated specimens was affected. This effects was induced by doses 100,150 and 200 rad and was found to be the dose dependent.

  18. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rangel

    Full Text Available Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera, with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of "high-quality" queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like and "low-quality" queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like. We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone ("QMP" components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the "queen-specific" developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting

  19. Is the Salivary Gland Associated with Honey Bee Recognition Compounds in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J; Correia-Oliveira, Maria E; Shemilt, Sue; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2018-06-07

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as recognition compounds with the best evidence coming from social insects such as ants and honey bees. The major exocrine gland involved in hydrocarbon storage in ants is the post-pharyngeal gland (PPG) in the head. It is still not clearly understood where CHCs are stored in the honey bee. The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrocarbons and esters found in five major worker honey bee (Apis mellifera) exocrine glands, at three different developmental stages (newly emerged, nurse, and forager) using a high temperature GC analysis. We found the hypopharyngeal gland contained no hydrocarbons nor esters, and the thoracic salivary and mandibular glands only contained trace amounts of n-alkanes. However, the cephalic salivary gland (CSG) contained the greatest number and highest quantity of hydrocarbons relative to the five other glands with many of the hydrocarbons also found in the Dufour's gland, but at much lower levels. We discovered a series of oleic acid wax esters that lay beyond the detection of standard GC columns. As a bee's activities changed, as it ages, the types of compounds detected in the CSG also changed. For example, newly emerged bees have predominately C 19 -C 23 n-alkanes, alkenes and methyl-branched compounds, whereas the nurses' CSG had predominately C 31:1 and C 33:1 alkene isomers, which are replaced by a series of oleic acid wax esters in foragers. These changes in the CSG were mirrored by corresponding changes in the adults' CHCs profile. This indicates that the CSG may have a parallel function to the PPG found in ants acting as a major storage gland of CHCs. As the CSG duct opens into the buccal cavity the hydrocarbons can be worked into the comb wax and could help explain the role of comb wax in nestmate recognition experiments.

  20. Effect of proline as a nutrient on hypopharyngeal glands during development of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proline is known to be an energy source for protein synthesis and appears to have a major role in insect flying metabolism. Insects can detect proline in their food and use it as an energy substrate to start flight and other high energy consuming activities. Honey bee has a feeding preference for nectars with higher concentrations of this amino acid. In this research we present evidence that L-proline can be utilized as a phagostimulant for the honeybee worker (Apis mellifera. We reported the L-proline increase hypopharyngeal glands acini diameter and syrup consumption at the experimental cage. Honeybee workers fed on 1000 ppm treatment prolin consumed 773.9±31.8 ul/bee after 18-days. It is obvious that the honeybee workers consumed 1000 ppm the more than other treatment. The feeding decreased when concentration of L-proline increased to 10000 ppm. The hypopharyngeal glands development increased gradually from honeybee workers emergence and started to decrease after 9 days old. The maximum acini diameter (0.1439±0.001 mm was recorded in the 9th day when newly emerged bees were fed on 1000 ppm proline syrup.

  1. Eficiência polinizadora de Apis mellifera L. e polinização entomófila em pimentão 'Cascadura Ikeda' Pollination efficiency of honeybees and entomophilous pollination in sweet pepper 'Cascadura Ikeda'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Ribeiro Faria Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar a entomofauna visitante das flores de Capsicum annuum L. var. Cascadura Ikeda, e avaliar os efeitos da polinização entomófila, mais especificamente de Apis mellifera L., nesta cultura. O estudo realizou-se em Taubaté (SP, a 21º01'S; 45º29'W; altitude de 570 m entre abril e setembro de 2002. Na ocasião, foram observadas 36 plantas de pimentão, das 6h às 17h (10 minutos/hora, durante quatro dias no período de floração máximo da cultura, sendo coletados os insetos visitantes florais. Doze parcelas receberam os seguintes tratamentos: (1 livremente visitadas por insetos; (2 isoladas em gaiolas de polinização; (3 parcelas em gaiolas de polinização contendo uma colméia de Apis mellifera. Foram observadas 12 espécies de insetos visitando as flores de pimentão, sendo as mais freqüentes espécies de abelhas do gênero Exomalopsis (53,9% das visitas. Os frutos produzidos nos tratamentos (1 e (3 tinham maior massa, diâmetro, espessura de pericarpo e número de sementes do que os produzidos no tratamento (2. Concluiu-se, assim, que a polinização por insetos influenciou na produção de frutos de maior qualidade que os produzidos na ausência destes quando se considera os parâmetros aqui avaliados. Ademais, conclui-se que Apis mellifera foi tão eficiente quanto os demais insetos na polinização deste cultivo.The aim of this research was to identify the insects visiting flowers of sweet pepper and evaluate the effects of entomophilous pollination as a whole and, more especifically, of honeybees as pollinators of this crop. This study was carried out in the municipality of Taubaté, State of São Paulo, Brazil (21º01'S; 45º29'W; altitude: 570 m from April to September, 2002. Insects were collected in thirty-six plants during 10 minutes/hour between 6:00 and 17:00h during days of maximum blooming. Twelve plots were subjected to the following treatments: (1 open-pollinated plots, freely

  2. Control del Ácaro Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae en Colmenas de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la Aplicación de distintos Principios Activos Control of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera Hymenoptera: Apidae by means of different active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Marcangeli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida de cuatro productos utilizados para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman en colmenas de Apis mellifera (L.. Se seleccionaron 25 colmenas dividivas en cinco lotes iguales a las que se les suministró Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® y Folbex®. El último lote representó el control. Los ácaros muertos se recolectaron en pisos especiales que se controlaron semanalmente. Finalizada la experiencia cada lote fue sometido a un cruzamiento con otros productos con el fin de eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder calcular las eficacias. El producto Apistan® fue el más efectivo con un valor promedio de 85,38% seguido por el Bayvarol® (83,83%, Apitol® (71,77% y Folbex® (62,78%. En todos los casos, los valores obtenidos resultaron inferiores a los estipulados por los laboratorios productores. Estos resultados alertan sobre la posible generación de resistencias por parte de las poblaciones del ácaro y la necesidad de buscar nuevos agentes de control eficaces para esta enfermedad.The aim of this work was to evaluate the acaricide efficacy of four commercial products against the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (L.. Twenty five honeybee colonies divided in five equal groups were selected. Groups received Apistan®, Bayvarol®, Apitol® and Folbex®. Final group was the control. Dead mites were collected weekly in special floors. After treatment, each colony received a shock treatment with the other three products to kill remnant mites and to obtain acaricide efficacy. Average values of efficacy were Apistan® 85,38%, Bayvarol® 83,83%, Apitol® 71,77% and Folbex® 62,78%. In all cases these values were lower than those reported by the laboratories that produce them. These results alert about the possible generation of resistant mite populations and justify research directed to search for alternative products for the

  3. No facultative worker policing in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2013-05-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens, workers should mutually inhibit ("police") worker reproduction, but that in colonies with singly mated queens, workers should favor rearing workers' sons instead of queens' sons. In line with these predictions, Mattila et al. (Curr Biol 22:2027-2031, 2012) documented increased ovary development among workers in colonies of honey bees with singly mated queens, suggesting that workers can detect and respond adaptively to queen mating frequency and raising the possibility that they facultative police. In a follow-up experiment, we test and reject the hypothesis that workers in single-patriline colonies prefer worker-derived males and are able to reproduce directly; we show that their eggs are policed as strongly as those of workers in colonies with multiply mated queens. Evidently, workers do not respond facultatively to a kin structure that favors relaxed policing and increased direct reproduction. These workers may instead be responding to a poor queen or preparing for possible queen loss.

  4. Comparative pollen preferences by africanized honeybees Apis mellifera L. of two colonies in Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia F.P. da Luz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the polliniferous floral sources used by Apis mellifera (L. (africanized in an apiary situated in Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais state, and evaluate the pollen prefences among the beehives. Two beehives of Langstroth type with frontal pollen trap collectors were used. The harvest was made from September 2007 to March 2008, with three samples of pollen pellets colected per month per beehive. The subsamples of 2 grams each were prepared according to the European standard melissopalynological method. A total of 56 pollen types were observed, identifying 43 genus and 32 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Mimosaceae (8, Asteraceae (6, Fabaceae (3, Arecaceae (3, Euphorbiaceae (3, Rubiaceae (3, Caesalpiniaceae (2, Moraceae (2 and Myrtaceae (2. The most frequent pollen types (> 45% were Mimosa scabrella, Myrcia and Sorocea. The results demonstrated a similarity regarding the preferences of floral sources during the major part of the time. There was a distinct utilization of floral sources among the pollen types of minor frequency. In spite of the strong antropic influence, the region showed a great polliniferous variety, which was an indicative of the potential for monofloral as well as heterofloral pollen production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi conheceras fontes poliníferas utilizadas por Apis mellifera (L. (africanizadas em um apiário localizado em Pará de Minas, Minas Gerais e avaliar as preferências alimentares entre colméias. Para a pesquisa foram utilizadas duas colméias do tipo Langstroth com coletores de pólen do tipo dianteiro. As coletas foram realizadas de setembro de 2007 a marjo de 2008, perfazendo um total mensal de 3 lotes de amostras de cargas de pólen por colméia. As subamostras de 2g foram preparadas segundo o método melissopalinologico padrão europeu. Foram observados 56 tipos polínicos, reconhecendo-se 43 gêneros e 32 famílias. As fam

  5. Adaptive evolution of a key gene affecting queen and worker traits in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Clement F; Issa, Amer; Bunting, Alexandra C; Zayed, Amro

    2011-12-01

    The vitellogenin egg yolk precursor protein represents a well-studied case of social pleiotropy in the model organism Apis mellifera. Vitellogenin is associated with fecundity in queens and plays a major role in controlling division of labour in workers, thereby affecting both individual and colony-level fitness. We studied the molecular evolution of vitellogenin and seven other genes sequenced in a large population panel of Apis mellifera and several closely related species to investigate the role of social pleiotropy on adaptive protein evolution. We found a significant excess of nonsynonymous fixed differences between A. mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea relative to synonymous sites indicating high rates of adaptive evolution at vitellogenin. Indeed, 88% of amino acid changes were fixed by selection in some portions of the gene. Further, vitellogenin exhibited hallmark signatures of selective sweeps in A. mellifera, including a significant skew in the allele frequency spectrum, extreme levels of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium. Finally, replacement polymorphisms in vitellogenin were significantly enriched in parts of the protein involved in binding lipid, establishing a link between the gene's structure, function and effects on fitness. Our case study provides unequivocal evidence of historical and ongoing bouts of adaptive evolution acting on a key socially pleiotropic gene in the honey bee. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Toxicological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Analyses Demonstrating That Cry1C and Cry2A Are Not Toxic to Larvae of the Honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yun-He; Huang, Zachary Y; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Dai, Ping-Li; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-07-15

    The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is commonly used as a test species for the regulatory risk assessment of insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) plants. In the current study, a dietary exposure assay was developed, validated, and used to assess the potential toxicity of Cry1C and Cry2A proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to A. mellifera larvae; Cry1C and Cry2A are produced by different IRGE crops. The assay, which uses the soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) as a positive control and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a negative control, was used to measure the responses of A. mellifera larvae to high concentrations of Cry1C and Cry2A. Survival was reduced and development was delayed when larvae were fed SBTI (1 mg/g diet) but were unaffected when larvae were fed BSA (400 μg/g), Cry1C (50 μg/g), or Cry2A (400 μg/g). The enzymatic activities of A. mellifera larvae were not altered and their midgut brush border membranes (BBMs) were not damaged after being fed with diets containing BSA, Cry1C, or Cry2A; however, enzymatic activities were increased and BBMs were damaged when diets contained SBTI. The study confirms that Cry1C and Cry2A have no acute toxicity to A. mellifera larvae at concentrations >10 times higher than those detected in pollen from Bt plants.

  7. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Índices de prevalencia del ácaro Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en cuadros de cría nuevos o previamente utilizados por Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae Infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in new and old honeybee brood combs of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, A. Marcangeli

    2007-07-01

    evaluate infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman in new and old honeybee brood combs of creole honeybee (hybrid of Apis mellifera mellifera Linnaeus and Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Work was done at Coronel Vidal city on 20 Langstroth hives during spring months 2005. In each colony an old frame (2 years and a new one were selected and placed in the middle of brood chamber. When both frames were operculated, they were carried to the laboratory for inspection. Each cell was desoperculated and total number of mite adult female was registered. Infestation level was calculated as number of infested cells divided by total number of desoperculated cells. Results showed significant differences between old and new comb infestation levels (13.52% ± 3.35 and 6.18% ± 2.12 respectively; t = 10.62; p = 1.9 E-9; g. l.= 19. Same results were observed in the average number of mites in combs (443.3 ± 70.54 and 217.85 ± 51.76 for old and new combs respectively; t = 23.87; p = 1.24 E-15; g. l.= 19. Mites show a strong preference for old combs directed by attractant alien scents of brood cells. Also, these scents masked the mites and prevent to honeybees to eliminate them by hygienic behaviour.

  9. Measuring hypopharyngeal gland acinus size in honey bee (Apis mellifera) nurse workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nurse worker honey bee hypopharyngeal glands produce the protein fraction of worker and royal jelly fed to developing larvae and queens. These paired glands that are located in the head of the bee are highly sensitive to the quantity and quality of pollen and pollen substitutes that the nurse be...

  10. Assessment of acute sublethal effects of clothianidin on motor function of honeybee workers using video-tracking analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2018-01-01

    Sublethal impacts of pesticides on the locomotor activity might occur to different degrees and could escape visual observation. Therefore, our objective is the utilization of video-tracking to quantify how the acute oral exposure to different doses (0.1-2ng/bee) of the neonicotinoid "clothianidin" influences the locomotor activity of honeybees in a time course experiment. The total distance moved, resting time as well as the duration and frequency of bouts of laying upside down are measured. Our results show that bees exposed to acute sublethal doses of clothianidin exhibit a significant increase in the total distance moved after 30 and 60min of the treatment at the highest dose (2ng/bee). Nevertheless, a reduction of the total distance is observed at this dose 90min post-treatment compared to the distance of the same group after 30min, where the treated bees show an arched abdomen and start to lose their postural control. The treated bees with 1ng clothianidin show a significant increase in total distance moved over the experimental period. Moreover, a reduction in the resting time and increase of the duration and frequency of bouts of laying upside down at these doses are found. Furthermore, significant effects on the tested parameters are observed at the dose (0.5ng/bee) first at 60min post-treatment compared to untreated bees. The lowest dose (0.1ng/bee) has non-significant effects on the motor activity of honeybees compared to untreated bees over the experimental period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of digital gene expression profiling and methyl DNA immunoprecipitation as methods for gene discovery in honeybee (Apis mellifera behavioural genomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guan

    Full Text Available The honey bee has a well-organized system of division of labour among workers. Workers typically progress through a series of discrete behavioural castes as they age, and this has become an important case study for exploring how dynamic changes in gene expression can influence behaviour. Here we applied both digital gene expression analysis and methyl DNA immunoprecipitation analysis to nurse, forager and reverted nurse bees (nurses that have returned to the nursing state after a period spent foraging from the same colony in order to compare the outcomes of these different forms of genomic analysis. A total of 874 and 710 significantly differentially expressed genes were identified in forager/nurse and reverted nurse/forager comparisons respectively. Of these, 229 genes exhibited reversed directions of gene expression differences between the forager/nurse and reverted nurse/forager comparisons. Using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (MeDIP-seq we identified 366 and 442 significantly differentially methylated genes in forager/nurse and reverted nurse/forager comparisons respectively. Of these, 165 genes were identified as differentially methylated in both comparisons. However, very few genes were identified as both differentially expressed and differentially methylated in our comparisons of nurses and foragers. These findings confirm that changes in both gene expression and DNA methylation are involved in the nurse and forager behavioural castes, but the different analytical methods reveal quite distinct sets of candidate genes.

  12. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  13. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2008-02-23

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex task, we find that bees learn a colour stimulus better with their right eye.

  14. Differences in mushroom bodies morphogenesis in workers, queens and drones of Apis mellifera: neuroblasts proliferation and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roat, Thaisa Cristina; da Cruz Landim, Carminda

    2010-06-01

    Apis mellifera is an interesting model to neurobiological studies. It has a relatively small brain that commands the complex learning and memory tasks demanded by the social organization. An A. mellifera colony is made up of a queen, thousands of workers and a varying number of drones. The latter are males, whereas the former are the two female castes. These three phenotypes differ in morphology, physiology and behavior, correlated with their respective functions in the society. Such differences include the morphology and architecture of their brains. To understand the processes generating such polymorphic brains we characterized the cell division and cell death dynamics which underlie the morphogenesis of the mushroom bodies, through several methods suitable for evidence the time and place of occurrence. Cell death was detected in mushroom bodies of last larval instar and mainly in black-eyed pupae. Cell division was observed in mushroom bodies, primarily at the start of metamorphosis, exhibiting temporal differences among workers, queens and males. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Body-Surface Compounds in Buckfast and Caucasian Honey Bee Workers (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachecka Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Body-surface chemical compounds were studied in 1-day-old nest workers and foragers both in Buckfast and Caucasian bees. The workers of these two age-castes were sampled twice in each of two consecutive years. Body-surface lipids were determined by means of gas chromatography, with a GCQ mass spectrometer. Protein concentrations and activities on the body surface were examined in bee cuticle rinsings obtained from worker bees according to the methods of Lowry, of Anson, and of Lee and Lin. Protease and protease inhibitor activities were determined. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Caucasian bees, particularly foragers, had more lipids, but Buckfast bees (two age-castes had more proteins on their body surfaces. A total of 17 alkane types (C17 - C33, 13 alkene types (C21 - C33, 21 esters (C12 - C32, and a phenol (C14 were detected in both races. Alkene C33 was detected only in Caucasian bees. More alkanes, esters, and phenols were found in Caucasian 1-day-old nest workers and foragers than in these age-castes of Buckfast bees. The protein concentration and protease inhibitor activities were lower in Caucasian bees that had higher protease activities. These values corresponded with specific numbers and widths of the electrophoretic bands.

  16. Honeybees tolerate cyanogenic glucosides from clover nectar and flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Green, Amelia Ann; Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover (Trifolium repens) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry...... indicates that plant secondary metabolites found in nectar may protect pollinators from disease or predators. In a laboratory survival study with chronic feeding of secondary metabolites, we show that honeybees can ingest the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and amygdalin at naturally occurring...

  17. Hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis differs between honey bee (Apis mellifera worker castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Marit Hystad

    Full Text Available Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance. Here, we tested if hemocyte mediated phagocytosis differs among the physiologically different honey bee worker castes (nurses, foragers and winter bees, and study possible interactions with vitellogenin and hemocyte recruitment. To this end, we adapted phagocytosis assays, which-together with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry-allow qualitative and quantitative assessment of hemocyte performance. We found that nurses are more efficient in phagocytic uptake than both foragers and winter bees. We detected vitellogenin within the hemocytes, and found that winter bees have the highest numbers of vitellogenin-positive hemocytes. Connections between phagocytosis, hemocyte-vitellogenin and mitosis were worker caste dependent. Our results demonstrate that the phagocytic performance of immune cells differs significantly between honey bee worker castes, and support increased immune competence in nurses as compared to forager bees. Our data, moreover, provides support for roles of vitellogenin in hemocyte activity.

  18. Hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis differs between honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Eva Marit; Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro Vang; Münch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees as other insects rely on the innate immune system for protection against diseases. The innate immune system includes the circulating hemocytes (immune cells) that clear pathogens from hemolymph (blood) by phagocytosis, nodulation or encapsulation. Honey bee hemocyte numbers have been linked to hemolymph levels of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin is a multifunctional protein with immune-supportive functions identified in a range of species, including the honey bee. Hemocyte numbers can increase via mitosis, and this recruitment process can be important for immune system function and maintenance. Here, we tested if hemocyte mediated phagocytosis differs among the physiologically different honey bee worker castes (nurses, foragers and winter bees), and study possible interactions with vitellogenin and hemocyte recruitment. To this end, we adapted phagocytosis assays, which-together with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry-allow qualitative and quantitative assessment of hemocyte performance. We found that nurses are more efficient in phagocytic uptake than both foragers and winter bees. We detected vitellogenin within the hemocytes, and found that winter bees have the highest numbers of vitellogenin-positive hemocytes. Connections between phagocytosis, hemocyte-vitellogenin and mitosis were worker caste dependent. Our results demonstrate that the phagocytic performance of immune cells differs significantly between honey bee worker castes, and support increased immune competence in nurses as compared to forager bees. Our data, moreover, provides support for roles of vitellogenin in hemocyte activity.

  19. Dance type and flight parameters are associated with different mushroom body neural activities in worker honeybee brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketoshi Kiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honeybee foragers can transmit the information concerning the location of food sources to their nestmates using dance communication. We previously used a novel immediate early gene, termed kakusei, to demonstrate that the neural activity of a specific mushroom body (MB neuron subtype is preferentially enhanced in the forager brain. The sensory information related to this MB neuron activity, however, remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we used kakusei to analyze the relationship between MB neuron activity and types of foraging behavior. The number of kakusei-positive MB neurons was higher in the round dancers that had flown a short distance than in the waggle dancers that had flown a long distance. Furthermore, the amount of kakusei transcript in the MBs inversely related to the waggle-phase duration of the waggle dance, which correlates with the flight distance. Using a narrow tunnel whose inside was vertically or axially lined, we manipulated the pattern of visual input, which is received by the foragers during flight, and analysed kakusei expression. The amount of kakusei transcript in the MBs was related to the foraging frequency but not to the tunnel pattern. In contrast, the number of kakusei-positive MB neurons was affected by the tunnel patterns, but not related to foraging frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the MB neuron activity depends on the foraging frequency, whereas the number of active MB neurons is related to the pattern of visual input received during foraging flight. Our results suggest that the foraging frequency and visual experience during foraging are associated with different MB neural activities.

  20. The putative serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 from Apis mellifera venom: recombinant and structural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Ginglinger, H; Ollert, M; Cifuentes, L; Blank, S; Spillner, E

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated reactions to honeybee venom can cause severe anaphylaxis, sometimes with fatal consequences. Detailed knowledge of the allergic potential of all venom components is necessary to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of allergy and to gain a better understanding of the allergological mechanisms of insect venoms. Our objective was to undertake an immunochemical and structural evaluation of the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, a component of honeybee venom. We recombinantly produced Api m 6 as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli and in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.We also assessed specific IgE reactivity of venom-sensitized patients with 2 prokaryotically produced Api m 6 variants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, we built a structural model ofApi m 6 and compared it with other protease inhibitor structures to gain insights into the function of Api m 6. In a population of 31 honeybee venom-allergic patients, 26% showed specific IgE reactivity with prokaryotically produced Api m 6, showing it to be a minor but relevant allergen. Molecular modeling of Api m 6 revealed a typical fold of canonical protease inhibitors, supporting the putative function of this venom allergen. Although Api m 6 has a highly variant surface charge, its epitope distribution appears to be similar to that of related proteins. Api m 6 is a honeybee venom component with IgE-sensitizing potential in a fraction of venom-allergic patients. Recombinant Api m 6 can help elucidate individual component-resolved reactivity profiles and increase our understanding of immune responses to low-molecular-weight allergens

  1. The influence of brood on the pollen consumption of worker bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrassnigg, Norbert; Crailsheim, Karl

    1998-05-01

    (1) In midgut dry weight (tissue plus contents) of worker bees we found a representative parameter for pollen consumption. Midguts of bees of successive ages were analyzed and correlated with various parameters. The relative proportions of sugar, protein and water were either constant or negatively correlated with midgut weight. Only the relative pollen weight (percent of midgut dry weight) increased. (2) To investigate the influence of different levels of brood on pollen consumption of individual bees, midgut dry weights from 2 normally breeding control colonies and 2 brood-reduced experimental colonies were analyzed. In bees from control colonies the pollen consumption increased up to the nursing age (3-10d), remained on an elevated level in middle-aged-bees (10-18d) and decreased relatively sharply towards the foraging ages (>21d). When queens were caged in the experimental colonies, the following decline of brood cells affected the consumption of pollen differently. After 6 days of caging, with a reduction of open brood only, no effect was seen. After 15 days, and even more pronounced after 23 days when no brood was present, the pollen consumption in young and middle-aged (10, 14, 18d) worker bees was significantly reduced, while it was clearly elevated in older bees. We discuss pollen consumption as an adaptation to reduced necessity to nurse brood in young and middle-aged bees, and to enhance life span in older animals.

  2. Analysis of the waggle dance motion of honeybees for the design of a biomimetic honeybee robot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Landgraf

    Full Text Available The honeybee dance "language" is one of the most popular examples of information transfer in the animal world. Today, more than 60 years after its discovery it still remains unknown how follower bees decode the information contained in the dance. In order to build a robotic honeybee that allows a deeper investigation of the communication process we have recorded hundreds of videos of waggle dances. In this paper we analyze the statistics of visually captured high-precision dance trajectories of European honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica. The trajectories were produced using a novel automatic tracking system and represent the most detailed honeybee dance motion information available. Although honeybee dances seem very variable, some properties turned out to be invariant. We use these properties as a minimal set of parameters that enables us to model the honeybee dance motion. We provide a detailed statistical description of various dance properties that have not been characterized before and discuss the role of particular dance components in the commmunication process.

  3. Effects of Pesticide Treatments on Nutrient Levels in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley K. Feazel-Orr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee colony loss continues to be an issue and no factor has been singled out as to the cause. In this study, we sought to determine whether two beekeeper-applied pesticide products, tau-fluvalinate and Fumagilin-B®, and one agrochemical, chlorothalonil, impact the nutrient levels in honey bee workers in a natural colony environment. Treatments were performed in-hive and at three different periods (fall, spring, and summer over the course of one year. Bees were sampled both at pre-treatment and two and four weeks post-treatment, weighed, and their protein and carbohydrate levels were determined using BCA and anthrone based biochemical assays, respectively. We report that, based on the pesticide concentrations tested, no significant negative impact of the pesticide products was observed on wet weight, protein levels, or carbohydrate levels of bees from treated colonies compared with bees from untreated control colonies.

  4. Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2008-08-01

    Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

  5. In-depth proteomics characterization of embryogenesis of the honey bee worker (Apis mellifera ligustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Lu, Xiaoshan; Ramadan, Haitham; Li, Jianke

    2014-09-01

    Identifying proteome changes of honey bee embryogenesis is of prime importance for unraveling the molecular mechanisms that they underlie. However, many proteomic changes during the embryonic period are not well characterized. We analyzed the proteomic alterations over the complete time course of honey bee worker embryogenesis at 24, 48, and 72 h of age, using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, label-free quantitation, and bioinformatics. Of the 1460 proteins identified the embryo of all three ages, the core proteome (proteins shared by the embryos of all three ages, accounting for 40%) was mainly involved in protein synthesis, metabolic energy, development, and molecular transporter, which indicates their centrality in driving embryogenesis. However, embryos at different developmental stages have their own specific proteome and pathway signatures to coordinate and modulate developmental events. The young embryos (proteins related to nutrition storage and nucleic acid metabolism may correlate with the cell proliferation occurring at this stage. The middle aged embryos (24-48 h) enhanced expression of proteins associated with cell cycle control, transporters, antioxidant activity, and the cytoskeleton suggest their roles to support rudimentary organogenesis. Among these proteins, the biological pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, β-alanine metabolism, and protein export are intensively activated in the embryos of middle age. The old embryos (48-72 h) elevated expression of proteins implicated in fatty acid metabolism and morphogenesis indicate their functionality for the formation and development of organs and dorsal closure, in which the biological pathways of fatty acid metabolism and RNA transport are highly activated. These findings add novel understanding to the molecular details of honey bee embryogenesis, in which the programmed activation of the proteome matches with the physiological transition observed during embryogenesis. The identified biological

  6. In-depth Proteomics Characterization of Embryogenesis of the Honey Bee Worker (Apis mellifera ligustica) *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Han, Bin; Lu, Xiaoshan; Ramadan, Haitham; Li, Jianke

    2014-01-01

    Identifying proteome changes of honey bee embryogenesis is of prime importance for unraveling the molecular mechanisms that they underlie. However, many proteomic changes during the embryonic period are not well characterized. We analyzed the proteomic alterations over the complete time course of honey bee worker embryogenesis at 24, 48, and 72 h of age, using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, label-free quantitation, and bioinformatics. Of the 1460 proteins identified the embryo of all three ages, the core proteome (proteins shared by the embryos of all three ages, accounting for 40%) was mainly involved in protein synthesis, metabolic energy, development, and molecular transporter, which indicates their centrality in driving embryogenesis. However, embryos at different developmental stages have their own specific proteome and pathway signatures to coordinate and modulate developmental events. The young embryos (proteins related to nutrition storage and nucleic acid metabolism may correlate with the cell proliferation occurring at this stage. The middle aged embryos (24–48 h) enhanced expression of proteins associated with cell cycle control, transporters, antioxidant activity, and the cytoskeleton suggest their roles to support rudimentary organogenesis. Among these proteins, the biological pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, β-alanine metabolism, and protein export are intensively activated in the embryos of middle age. The old embryos (48–72 h) elevated expression of proteins implicated in fatty acid metabolism and morphogenesis indicate their functionality for the formation and development of organs and dorsal closure, in which the biological pathways of fatty acid metabolism and RNA transport are highly activated. These findings add novel understanding to the molecular details of honey bee embryogenesis, in which the programmed activation of the proteome matches with the physiological transition observed during embryogenesis. The identified

  7. Behavioural and neurophysiological study of olfactory perception and learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe eSandoz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The honeybee Apis mellifera has been a central insect model in the study of olfactory perception and learning for more than a century, starting with pioneer work by Karl von Frisch. Research on olfaction in honeybees has greatly benefited from the advent of a range of behavioural and neurophysiological paradigms in the Lab. Here I review major findings about how the honeybee brain detects, processes, and learns odours, based on behavioural, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological approaches. I first address the behavioural study of olfactory learning, from experiments on free-flying workers visiting artificial flowers to laboratory-based conditioning protocols on restrained individuals. I explain how the study of olfactory learning has allowed understanding the discrimination and generalization ability of the honeybee olfactory system, its capacity to grant special properties to olfactory mixtures as well as to retain individual component information. Next, based on the impressive amount of anatomical and immunochemical studies of the bee brain, I detail our knowledge of olfactory pathways. I then show how functional recordings of odour-evoked activity in the brain allow following the transformation of the olfactory message from the periphery until higher-order central structures. Data from extra- and intracellular electrophysiological approaches as well as from the most recent optical imaging developments are described. Lastly, I discuss results addressing how odour representation changes as a result of experience. This impressive ensemble of behavioural, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological data available in the bee make it an attractive model for future research aiming to understand olfactory perception and learning in an integrative fashion.

  8. The remarkable conservation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) dates the CRH system to a common ancestor of insects and vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) is a key factor in the regulation of CRH signaling; it modulates the bioactivity and bioavailability of CRH and its related peptides. The conservation of CRH-BP throughout vertebrates was only recently demonstrated. Here we report the presence of CRH-BP in the honeybee

  9. DNA methylation affects the lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers - Evidence for a regulatory module that involves vitellogenin expression but is independent of juvenile hormone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina R; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers. Pharmacological genome demethylation by RG108 treatment caused an increase in worker lifespan. Next, we showed that the genomic DNA methylation status indirectly affects vitellogenin gene expression both in vitro and in vivo in young workers, and that this occurs independent of caloric restriction or JH levels, suggesting that a non-canonical circuitry may be acting in parallel with the JH/Vg module to regulate the adult life cycle of honey bee workers. Our data provide evidence that epigenetic factors play a role in regulatory networks associated with complex life history traits of a social insect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphofunctional Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Honeybee Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrione, Mara; Timberlake, Benjamin F.; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Antolini, Renzo; Haase, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Repeated or prolonged exposure to an odorant without any positive or negative reinforcement produces experience-dependent plasticity, which results in habituation and latent inhibition. In the honeybee ("Apis mellifera"), it has been demonstrated that, even if the absolute neural representation of an odor in the primary olfactory center,…

  11. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wenseleers, Tom; Dawson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition in the natural...

  12. CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in honeybee and pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pen, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Creating animal models by using genome modification has gotten significantly more accessible thanks to the CRISPR-Cas9 technique. In this study, we aimed to the implement the CRISPR-Cas9 methodology in the European honeybee (Apis mellifera) and pig (Sus scrofa) for generation of animal models. We...... want to use these animal models to study the development of honeybees and the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a pig model of human disease. In order to simplify the production of these animal models, we test the use of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) in combination with CRISPR...... mechanisms of honeybee development using genome modification will aid in uncovering these complex genetic regulatory systems. In honeybees, we have attempted to induce genome modification in the cinnabar gene through microinjection and feeding of CRISPR-Cas9 components to larvae. Additionally, we tested...

  13. Honeybee males use highly concentrated nectar as fuel for mating flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; Nakamura, Jun; Sasaki, Ken; Harano, Ken-Ichi

    Honeybees use nectar held in the crop as their main source of energy for flight but the mass of the crop nectar load may be a cost burden. This study investigated whether males of the honeybee Apis mellifera adjust their nectar fuel load and concentration to enhance the success of mating flights. When the crop content was compared between males staying in the hive and those departing, the latter group had the larger volume (median, 5.0μl; range, 0.0-17.8μl) and higher concentration (median, 71.6%; range, 49.0%-77.6%), indicating that departing males load concentrated nectar as fuel before mating flights. Moreover, the crop nectar concentration was significantly higher in departing males than in departing workers. These results suggest that concentrated nectar is advantageous to males because it provides more sugar for energy at lower mass and secures longer or more effective mating flights for higher chance of reproductive success. No significant effect of age was detected in crop volume, and concentration and amount of dissolved sugars in the crop content. In addition, laboratory experiments showed that males had only about 5μl of nectar in the crop soon after feeding, irrespective of fed volume (5-15μl), suggesting they do not hold much nectar in the crop but send it rapidly to the midgut, unlike workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Temperature on the Biotic Potential of Honeybee Microsporidia▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu; García-Palencia, Pilar; Marín, Pilar; Botías, Cristina; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Barrios, Laura; Higes, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    The biological cycle of Nosema spp. in honeybees depends on temperature. When expressed as total spore counts per day after infection, the biotic potentials of Nosema apis and N. ceranae at 33°C were similar, but a higher proportion of immature stages of N. ceranae than of N. apis were seen. At 25 and 37°C, the biotic potential of N. ceranae was higher than that of N. apis. The better adaptation of N. ceranae to complete its endogenous cycle at different temperatures clearly supports the observation of the different epidemiological patterns. PMID:19233948

  15. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness. As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens.

  16. Точка кристаллизации тканей тела медоносных пчел Apis mellifera mellifera L. и Apis mellifera carnica

    OpenAIRE

    Мурылёв, Александр; Петухов, Александр

    2011-01-01

    The year cycle of crystallization point of different departments of a body of honeybee is shown in dynamics. Distinction of crystallization point of tissues of honeybee in Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis mellifera carnica is noted. The given indicator will allow to explain the mechanism of adaptation of bees at physiological level to adverse winter conditions and acclimatization on the north of the range.

  17. Honeybees (Apis mellifera exhibit flexible visual search strategies for vertical targets presented at various heights [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/51p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Morawetz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When honeybees are presented with a colour discrimination task, they tend to choose swiftly and accurately when objects are presented in the ventral part of their frontal visual field. In contrast, poor performance is observed when objects appear in the dorsal part. Here we investigate if this asymmetry is caused by fixed search patterns or if bees can increase their detection ability of objects in search scenarios when targets appear frequently or exclusively in the dorsal area of the visual field. We trained individual honeybees to choose an orange rewarded target among blue distractors. Target and distractors were presented in the ventral visual field, the dorsal field or both. Bees presented with targets in the ventral visual field consistently had the highest search efficiency, with rapid decisions, high accuracy and direct flight paths. In contrast, search performance for dorsally located targets was inaccurate and slow at the beginning of the experimental phase, but bees increased their search performance significantly after a few foraging bouts: they found the target faster, made fewer errors and flew in a straight line towards the target. However, bees needed thrice as long to improve the search for a dorsally located target when the target’s position changed randomly between the ventral and the dorsal visual field. We propose that honeybees form expectations of the location of the target’s appearance and adapt their search strategy accordingly. A variety of possible mechanisms underlying this behavioural adaptation, for example spatial attention, are discussed.

  18. Natural foods and feeding habits of the African honey bee Apis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 28 plant species visited by the honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii Latrielle were observed and collected from September 2006-January 2008 in Zaria, Nigeria using secateur and plant presses to cut and preserve the specimens. A digital camera was used to photograph the honeybees on plants. The plants were ...

  19. Effect of honeybee stinger and its microstructured barbs on insertion and pull force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jintian; Song, Zhenhua; Wang, Jiarui; Chen, Keyun; Li, Jiyu; Xu, Shujia; Ren, Lei; Chen, Zhipeng; Jin, Dianwen; Jiang, Lelun

    2017-04-01

    Worker honeybee is well-known for its stinger with microscopic backward-facing barbs for self-defense. The natural geometry of the stinger enables painless penetration and adhesion in the human skin to deliver poison. In this study, Apis cerana worker honeybee stinger and acupuncture microneedle (as a barbless stinger) were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The insertion and pull process of honeybee stinger into rabbit skin was performed by a self-developed mechanical loading equipment in comparison with acupuncture needle. In order to better understand the insertion and pull mechanisms of the stinger and its barbs in human multilayer skin, a nonlinear finite element method (FEM) was conducted. Experimental results showed that the average pull-out force of the stinger was 113.50mN and the average penetration force was only 5.75mN. The average penetration force of the stinger was about one order of magnitude smaller than that of an acupuncture microneedle while the average pull-out force was about 70 times larger than that of an acupuncture microneedle. FEM results showed that the stress concentrations were around the stinger tip and its barbs during the insertion process. The barbs were jammed in and torn the skin during the pull process. The insertion force of the stinger was greatly minimized due to its ultrasharp stinger tip and barbs while the pull force was seriously enhanced due to the mechanical interlocking of the barbs in the skin. These excellent properties are mainly a result of optimal geometry evolved by nature. Such finding may provide an inspiration for the further design of improved tissue adhesives and micro-needles for painless transdermal drug delivery and bio-signal recording. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural Larval Diet Differently Influences the Pattern of Developmental Changes in DNA 5-Methylcytosine Levels in Apis mellifera Queens as Compared with Workers and Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, A; Olszewski, K; Bajda, M; Demetraki-Paleolog, J

    2015-08-01

    The principal mechanism of gene activation/silencing is DNA 5-methylcytosine methylation. This study was aimed at determining global DNA methylation levels in larvae, prepupae, pupae, and 1-day-old adults of Apis mellifera queens, workers and drones. The Imprint Methylated DNA Quantification Kit MDQ1 was used. Percentages of DNA 5-methylcytosine were low and relatively similar in the larvae of all the castes until 4th day of larval development (3-5%). However, they were higher in the drone and worker larvae than in the queen larvae. Generally, the developmental patterns of changes in the DNA methylation levels were different in the queens in comparison with the drones and workers. While methylation increased in the queens, it decreased in the drones and workers. Methylated DNA methylcytosine percentages and weights in the queen prepupae (15%, 9.18 ng) and pupae (21%, 10.74 ng) were, respectively, three and four times higher than in the worker/drone brood of the same age (2.5-4%, 0.03-0.07 ng). Only in the queens, after a substantial increase, did DNA methylation decrease almost twice between the pupal stage and queen emergence (from 21% and 10.74 ng to 12% and 6.78 ng). This finding seems very interesting, particularly for experimental gerontology.

  1. Sex and caste-specific variation in compound eye morphology of five honeybee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Streinzer

    Full Text Available Ranging from dwarfs to giants, the species of honeybees show remarkable differences in body size that have placed evolutionary constrains on the size of sensory organs and the brain. Colonies comprise three adult phenotypes, drones and two female castes, the reproductive queen and sterile workers. The phenotypes differ with respect to tasks and thus selection pressures which additionally constrain the shape of sensory systems. In a first step to explore the variability and interaction between species size-limitations and sex and caste-specific selection pressures in sensory and neural structures in honeybees, we compared eye size, ommatidia number and distribution of facet lens diameters in drones, queens and workers of five species (Apis andreniformis, A. florea, A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. cerana. In these species, male and female eyes show a consistent sex-specific organization with respect to eye size and regional specialization of facet diameters. Drones possess distinctly enlarged eyes with large dorsal facets. Aside from these general patterns, we found signs of unique adaptations in eyes of A. florea and A. dorsata drones. In both species, drone eyes are disproportionately enlarged. In A. dorsata the increased eye size results from enlarged facets, a likely adaptation to crepuscular mating flights. In contrast, the relative enlargement of A. florea drone eyes results from an increase in ommatidia number, suggesting strong selection for high spatial resolution. Comparison of eye morphology and published mating flight times indicates a correlation between overall light sensitivity and species-specific mating flight times. The correlation suggests an important role of ambient light intensities in the regulation of species-specific mating flight times and the evolution of the visual system. Our study further deepens insights into visual adaptations within the genus Apis and opens up future perspectives for research to better understand the

  2. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32... semen. (a) Honeybees from any country may be imported into the U.S. by the Department of Agriculture for.... (b) Honeybee semen may be imported into the U.S. only from countries determined by the Secretary of...

  3. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallberg, Andreas; Pirk, Christian W; Allsopp, Mike H; Webster, Matthew T

    2016-06-01

    In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers) by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis), worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis.

  4. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wallberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis, worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis.

  5. Hox gene expression leads to differential hind leg development between honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Moda, Livia Maria; Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Beyond the physiological and behavioural, differences in appendage morphology between the workers and queens of Apis mellifera are pre-eminent. The hind legs of workers, which are highly specialized pollinators, deserve special attention. The hind tibia of worker has an expanded bristle-free region used for carrying pollen and propolis, the corbicula. In queens this structure is absent. Although the morphological differences are well characterized, the genetic inputs driving the development of this alternative morphology remain unknown. Leg phenotype determination takes place between the fourth and fifth larval instar and herein we show that the morphogenesis is completed at brown-eyed pupa. Using results from the hybridization of whole genome-based oligonucleotide arrays with RNA samples from hind leg imaginal discs of pre-pupal honeybees of both castes we present a list of 200 differentially expressed genes. Notably, there are castes preferentially expressed cuticular protein genes and members of the P450 family. We also provide results of qPCR analyses determining the developmental transcription profiles of eight selected genes, including abdominal-A, distal-less and ultrabithorax (Ubx), whose roles in leg development have been previously demonstrated in other insect models. Ubx expression in workers hind leg is approximately 25 times higher than in queens. Finally, immunohistochemistry assays show that Ubx localization during hind leg development resembles the bristles localization in the tibia/basitarsus of the adult legs in both castes. Our data strongly indicate that the development of the hind legs diphenism characteristic of this corbiculate species is driven by a set of caste-preferentially expressed genes, such as those encoding cuticular protein genes, P450 and Hox proteins, in response to the naturally different diets offered to honeybees during the larval period.

  6. Temporal pattern of africanization in a feral honeybee population from Texas inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Coulson, Robert N.; Patton, John C.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2004-01-01

    The invasion of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Americas provides a window of opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of subspecies of bees that evolved in allopatry in ecologically distinctive habitats of the Old World. We report here the results of an 11-year mitochondrial DNA survey of a feral honeybee population from southern United States (Texas). The mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies changed radically during the 11-year study peri...

  7. Control del parásito Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en colmenas de la abeja Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae mediante la aplicación de la técnica de entrampado Control of the parasite Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae applying brood trap combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Damiani

    2006-07-01

    technique as possible control method of mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. Work was done at Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires using Langstroth hives of the local hybrid of Apis mellifera (Linneaus. In each colony, the queen was confined in one brood comb to control queen oviposition. After capped, these combs were taken to the laboratory to uncapp each cell and to examinate the total number of trapped parasites. This technique was applied varying the number of brood tramp combs (1-3 for worker and drone brood cells. Also, the impact of this technique on normal development of the colonies were evaluated by means of its honey production. Results showed that this technique is only effective when three drone brood tramp combs were applied, reaching a total efficacy of 84%. When worker brood combs were used, total efficacy was significant lower (14%. Honey production was significant lower in test colonies compared to control ones. Brood tramp combs technique represent a good alternative method to be combined with other control methods, decreasing the presence of chemical sustances and residues in honey and the possible resistant mite populations.

  8. Evaluation of the defensive behavior of two honeybee ecotypes using a laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Andere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee defensive behavior is a useful selection criterion, especially in areas with Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. In all genetic improvement programs the selected characters must be measured with precision, and because of this we evaluated a metabolic method for testing honeybee defensive behavior in the laboratory for its usefulness in distinguishing between honeybee ecotypes and selecting honeybees based on their level of defensive responses. Ten honeybee colonies were used, five having been produced by feral queens from a subtropical region supposedly colonized by Africanized honeybees and five by queens from a temperate region apparently colonized by European honeybees. We evaluate honeybee defensive behavior using a metabolic test based on oxygen consumption after stimulation with an alarm pheromone, measuring the time to the first response, time to maximum oxygen consumption, duration of activity, oxygen consumption at first response, maximum oxygen consumption and total oxygen consumption, colonies being ranked according to the values obtained for each variable. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were detected between ecotypes for each variable but for all variables the highest rankings were obtained for colonies of subtropical origin, which had faster and more intense responses. All variables were highly associated (p < 0.05. Total oxygen consumption was the best indicator of metabolic activity for defensive behavior because it combined oxygen consumption and the length of the response. This laboratory method may be useful for evaluating the defensive behavior of honey bees in genetic programs designed to select less defensive bees.

  9. Novel diagnostic tools for Asian (Apis cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honey authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sónia; Grazina, Liliana; Mafra, Isabel; Costa, Joana; Pinto, M Alice; Duc, Hanh Pham; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Amaral, Joana S

    2018-03-01

    Honey can be produced by different species of honeybees, with two being of economic importance due to their use in apiculture, namely Apis mellifera (known as European honeybee) and Apis cerana (known as Asian honeybee). Due to the decline of the wild populations of the Asian honeybee, this honey generally attains much higher market value, being prone to adulteration. This work aims at proposing new tools, based on the use of molecular markers, for the entomological authentication of honey. To this end, new species-specific primers were designed targeting the tRNA leu -cox2 intergenic region and allowing the detection of A. cerana DNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, a novel real-time PCR method with high resolution melting analysis was developed to target the 16S rRNA gene of both bee species, allowing their discrimination in different clusters. The proposed methodologies were further applied with success in the authentication of Asian and European honey samples by the identification of honeybee DNA, demonstrating the usefulness of these simple and cost-effective new approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antennal tactile learning in the honeybee: effect of nicotinic antagonists on memory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacher, M; Lagarrigue, A; Gauthier, M

    2005-01-01

    Restrained worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are able to learn to associate antennal-scanning of a metal plate with a sucrose reinforcement delivered to the mouthparts. Learning occurs reliably in a single association of the two sensory stimuli. The involvement of nicotinic pathways in memory formation and retrieval processes was tested by injecting, into the whole brain through the median ocellus, either mecamylamine (0.6 microg per bee) or alpha-bungarotoxin (2.4 ng per bee). Saline served as a control. Mecamylamine injected 10 min before the retrieval test impairs the retention level tested 3 h and 24 h after single- or multi-trial learning. Retrieval tests performed at various times after the injection show that the blocking effect of mecamylamine lasts about 1 h. The drug has no effect on the reconsolidation or extinction processes. Mecamylamine injected 10 min before conditioning impairs single-trial learning but has no effect on five-trial learning and on the consolidation process. By contrast, alpha-bungarotoxin only impairs the formation of long-term memory (24 h) induced by the five-trial learning and has no effect on medium-term memory (3 h), on single-trial learning or on the retrieval process. Hence, owing to previous data, at least two kinds of nicotinic receptors seem to be involved in honeybee memory, an alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive and an alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive receptor. Our results extend to antennal mechanosensory conditioning the role of the cholinergic system that we had previously described for olfactory conditioning in the honeybee. Moreover, we describe here in this insect a pharmacological dissociation between alpha-bungarotoxin sensitive long-term memory and alpha-bungarotoxin insensitive medium-term memory, the last one being affected by mecamylamine.

  11. Visual discrimination transfer and modulation by biogenic amines in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amanda Rodrigues; Salles, Nayara; Borges, Marco; Mota, Theo

    2018-05-10

    For more than a century, visual learning and memory have been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals cannot be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of this, different attempts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performance remains considerably poorer than that for free-flying animals. Here, we investigated the ability of honeybees to use visual information acquired during classical conditioning in a new operant context. We performed differential visual conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) followed by visual orientation tests in a Y-maze. Classical conditioning and Y-maze retention tests were performed using the same pair of perceptually isoluminant chromatic stimuli, to avoid the influence of phototaxis during free-flying orientation. Visual discrimination transfer was clearly observed, with pre-trained honeybees significantly orienting their flights towards the former positive conditioned stimulus (CS+), thus showing that visual memories acquired by honeybees are resistant to context changes between conditioning and the retention test. We combined this visual discrimination approach with selective pharmacological injections to evaluate the effect of dopamine and octopamine in appetitive visual learning. Both octopaminergic and dopaminergic antagonists impaired visual discrimination performance, suggesting that both these biogenic amines modulate appetitive visual learning in honeybees. Our study brings new insight into cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms underlying visual learning in honeybees. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Short-Term Exposure to Lambda-Cyhalothrin Negatively Affects the Survival and Memory-Related Characteristics of Worker Bees Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Hua; He, Xu-Jiang; Wang, Zi-Long; Barron, Andrew B; Zhang, Bo; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang; Wu, Xiao-Bo

    2018-07-01

    Pesticides are considered one of the major contemporary stressors of honey bee health. In this study, the effects of short-term exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin on lifespan, learning, and memory-related characteristics of Apis mellifera were systematically examined. Short-term exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin in worker bees reduced lifespan, affected learning and memory performance, reduced the homing ability, and influenced the expression levels of two learning and memory-related genes of A. mellifera. This research identifies the nature of the sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on bees and the level of exposure that can be harmful to bee health. This new information will assist in establishing guidelines for the safe use of lambda-cyhalothrin in the field.

  13. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  14. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  15. Nosema spp. infections cause no energetic stress in tolerant honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurze, Christoph; Mayack, Christopher; Hirche, Frank

    2016-01-01

    closely related and highly host dependent intracellular gut pathogens, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, on the energetic state in Nosema tolerant and sensitive honeybees facing the infection. We quantified the three major haemolymph carbohydrates fructose, glucose, and trehalose using high......-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a measure for host energetic state. Trehalose levels in the haemolymph were negatively associated with N. apis infection intensity and with N. ceranae infection regardless of the infection intensity in sensitive honeybees. Nevertheless, there was no such association...

  16. Efecto de la cantidad de cría de abeja Apis mellifera (Apidae sobre la eficacia del Oxavar® para el control del ácaro Varroa destructor (Varroidae Effect of Apis mellifera (Apidae honeybee brood amount on Oxavar® acaricide efficacy against the mite Varroa destructor (Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcangeli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar® en el control del ácaro ectoparásito Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. El trabajo fue realizado en el apiario experimental del Centro de Extensión Apícola ubicado en Coronel Vidal, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se seleccionaron diez colmenas tipo Langstroth que fueron divididas en dos grupos: a cinco colmenas con tres cuadros cubiertos completamente de cría en desarrollo y b cinco colmenas con seis cuadros cubiertos por cría. Ambos grupos recibieron cinco ml of Oxavar® (Apilab, Argentina; 64,6 g/l de ácido oxálico en agua destilada por cuadro cubierto por abejas adultas en tres dosis a intervalos de siete días. Semanalmente, se colectaron los ácaros muertos de los pisos especiales provistos a las colmenas de estudio con el objeto de evitar su remoción por parte de las abejas. Una vez concluido el tratamiento, en cada colmena se introdujeron dos tiras plásticas de Apistan® (Roteh, Argentina para eliminar los ácaros remanentes y poder así calcular la eficacia acaricida del Oxavar®. Los resultados mostraron que la eficacia del Oxavar® en el primer grupo (85,6% ± 1,4 resultó significativamente superior a la registrada en el segundo grupo (75,7 ± 1,7. Estas diferencias fueron testeadas a partir del número total de ácaros eliminados por el Oxavar® y Apistan® en ambos grupos de colmenas (pThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of honeybee brood on acaricide efficacy of Oxavar® to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman. Work was done at Centro de Extensión Apícola experimental apiary located at Coronel Vidal, province of Buenos Aires. Ten Langstroth hives were selected and divided in two groups: a hives containing three honeybee combs full of brood and b hives containing six honeybee brood combs. Both groups received five ml of Oxavar® (Laboratorio Apilab, Argentina; 64.6 g/l oxalic acid in destilled water

  17. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  18. A robotic system for researching social integration in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Griparić

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals. With the aim of deepening the knowledge in this field, we have designed a multi-robot system capable of interacting with honeybees within an experimental arena. The final product, stationary autonomous robot units, designed by specificaly considering the physical, sensorimotor and behavioral characteristics of the honeybees (lat. Apis mallifera, are equipped with sensing, actuating, computation, and communication capabilities that enable the measurement of relevant environmental states, such as honeybee presence, and adequate response to the measurements by generating heat, vibration and airflow. The coordination among robots in the developed system is established using distributed controllers. The cooperation between the two different types of collective systems is realized by means of a consensus algorithm, enabling the honeybees and the robots to achieve a common objective. Presented results, obtained within ASSISIbf project, show successful cooperation indicating its potential for future applications.

  19. A robotic system for researching social integration in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griparić, Karlo; Haus, Tomislav; Miklić, Damjan; Polić, Marsela; Bogdan, Stjepan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals. With the aim of deepening the knowledge in this field, we have designed a multi-robot system capable of interacting with honeybees within an experimental arena. The final product, stationary autonomous robot units, designed by specificaly considering the physical, sensorimotor and behavioral characteristics of the honeybees (lat. Apis mallifera), are equipped with sensing, actuating, computation, and communication capabilities that enable the measurement of relevant environmental states, such as honeybee presence, and adequate response to the measurements by generating heat, vibration and airflow. The coordination among robots in the developed system is established using distributed controllers. The cooperation between the two different types of collective systems is realized by means of a consensus algorithm, enabling the honeybees and the robots to achieve a common objective. Presented results, obtained within ASSISIbf project, show successful cooperation indicating its potential for future applications.

  20. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates. We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that

  1. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Phoney, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  3. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  4. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  5. Hypopharyngeal Gland Activity in Task-Specific Workers Under Brood and Broodless Conditions in Apis Cerana Indica (Fab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Seydur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypopharyngeal gland (HPG is the principal organ of protein synthesis in honey bees. It is involved in larval rearing. We examined the fresh head weight, HPG acini diameter, and HPG protein content in worker bees engaged in different tasks and under brood and broodless conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the HPG acini diameter of worker bees was related to their task. The highest HPG volume was found in nurse bees, and the volume regressed when the task changed from guarding to foraging. The fresh head weight was positively correlated with HPG acini diameter. Although, there was no positive correlation between HPG acini diameter and protein concentration, the glandular protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees and declined in guard and forager bees. Histochemistry revealed similar results. Despite displaying significantly larger glands, guard bee protein secretion was similar to that of the foragers. Brooding had a significant effect on HPG activity. Only worker bees from the colony with an intact brood showed elevated rates of protein synthesis; thus, it is possible that a signal was emitted by the brood, which stimulated protein synthesis in the HPG. However, the size of the HPG was similar in both brood and broodless conditions.

  6. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; Steen, van der Sjef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management.

  8. Modelling collective foraging by means of individual behaviour rules in honey-bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Han de; Biesmeijer, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    An individual-oriented model is constructed which simulates the collective foraging behaviour of a colony of honey-bees, Apis mellifera. Each bee follows the same set of behavioural rules. Each rule consists of a set of conditions followed by the behavioural act to be performed if the

  9. Modelling collective foraging by means of individual behaviour rules in honey-bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H; Biesmeijer, JC

    1998-01-01

    An individual-oriented model is constructed which simulates the collective foraging behaviour of a colony of honey-bees, Apis mellifera. Each bee follows the same set of behavioural rules. Each rule consists of a set of conditions followed by the behavioural act to be performed if the conditions are

  10. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  11. Genotypic Influence on Aversive Conditioning in Honeybees, Using a Novel Thermal Reinforcement Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junca, Pierre; Carcaud, Julie; Moulin, Sibyle; Garnery, Lionel; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER), bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS) with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US). This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee’s body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive. PMID:24828422

  12. Honeybee Foraging, Nectar Secretion, and Honey Potential of Wild Jujube Trees, Ziziphus nummularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, A S

    2015-06-01

    Ziziphus trees are of economic importance due to their aggregated value (source of fruits and timber) and are the most important melliferous plants in the Arabian Peninsula. Interaction between honeybees and Ziziphus nummularia was investigated by assessing foraging, flower phenology, nectar secretion, and honey potential. It is demonstrate that both the native Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner and the exotic Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann foraged on Z. nummularia flowers. Bee foraging for nectar and pollen was low (2 ± 0.7 workers/200 flowers/3 min) during early morning and increased to a peak in the afternoon (100 ± 15 workers/200 flowers/3 min). Remarkable foraging activity was recorded during high temperature (35°C) and low humidity (20%) conditions. Foraging for nectar collection was more distinct than that for pollen. The flowering of Z. nummularia was gradual, and was characterized by some flowers that opened and secreted nectar early before sunrise, whereas other flowers remained opened until sunrise. The flowers lasted 2 days, with 83% of nectar secreted in the first day. The peak of nectar secretion was recorded at noon under hot and dry conditions. The lowest amount of nectar was secreted during sunrise under mild temperature (24°C) and humidity (31%) conditions. Under optimum conditions, it is assumed that the average sugar mass was 0.321 ± 0.03 mg TSS/flower, while the total sugar mass was 27.65 ± 11 g/tree. The average honey production potential of tested Z. nummularia was approximately 2.998 kg/tree and 749.475 kg/ha in the main flowering season.

  13. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. PMID:28381619

  14. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Robin FA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera, which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees.

  15. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Evidence of trapline foraging in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Alexis; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-08-15

    Central-place foragers exploiting floral resources often use multi-destination routes (traplines) to maximise their foraging efficiency. Recent studies on bumblebees have showed how solitary foragers can learn traplines, minimising travel costs between multiple replenishing feeding locations. Here we demonstrate a similar routing strategy in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), a major pollinator known to recruit nestmates to discovered food resources. Individual honeybees trained to collect sucrose solution from four artificial flowers arranged within 10 m of the hive location developed repeatable visitation sequences both in the laboratory and in the field. A 10-fold increase of between-flower distances considerably intensified this routing behaviour, with bees establishing more stable and more efficient routes at larger spatial scales. In these advanced social insects, trapline foraging may complement cooperative foraging for exploiting food resources near the hive (where dance recruitment is not used) or when resources are not large enough to sustain multiple foragers at once. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Immunosuppression in Honeybee Queens by the Neonicotinoids Thiacloprid and Clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Annely; Grikscheit, Katharina; Siede, Reinhold; Grosse, Robert; Meixner, Marina Doris; Büchler, Ralph

    2017-07-05

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of honeybees, since reproduction and colony growth rely solely on the queen. Queen failure is considered a relevant cause of colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides can severely affect the immunocompetence of queens of western honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). In young queens exposed to thiacloprid (200 µg/l or 2000 µg/l) or clothianidin (10 µg/l or 50 µg/l), the total hemocyte number and the proportion of active, differentiated hemocytes was significantly reduced. Moreover, functional aspects of the immune defence namely the wound healing/melanisation response, as well as the antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph were impaired. Our results demonstrate that neonicotinoid insecticides can negatively affect the immunocompetence of queens, possibly leading to an impaired disease resistance capacity.

  18. Conserving genetic diversity in the honeybee: comments on Harpur et al. (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rúa, Pilar; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Muñoz, Irene; Serrano, José; Moritz, Robin F A; Kraus, F Bernhard

    2013-06-01

    The article by Harpur et al. (2012) 'Management increases genetic diversity of honey bees via admixture' concludes that '…honey bees do not suffer from reduced genetic diversity caused by management and, consequently, that reduced genetic diversity is probably not contributing to declines of managed Apis mellifera populations'. In the light of current honeybee and beekeeping declines and their consequences for honeybee conservation and the pollination services they provide, we would like to express our concern about the conclusions drawn from the results of Harpur et al. (2012). While many honeybee management practices do not imply admixture, we are convinced that the large-scale genetic homogenization of admixed populations could drive the loss of valuable local adaptations. We also point out that the authors did not account for the extensive gene flow that occurs between managed and wild/feral honeybee populations and raise concerns about the data set used. Finally, we caution against underestimating the importance of genetic diversity for honeybee colonies and highlight the importance of promoting the use of endemic honeybee subspecies in apiculture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Functional characterization of transmembrane adenylyl cyclases from the honeybee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Wachten, Sebastian; Jordan, Nadine; Erber, Joachim; Mujagic, Samir; Baumann, Arnd

    2012-06-01

    The second messenger cAMP has a pivotal role in animals' physiology and behavior. Intracellular concentrations of cAMP are balanced by cAMP-synthesizing adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cAMP-cleaving phosphodiesterases. Knowledge about ACs in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is rather limited and only an ortholog of the vertebrate AC3 isoform has been functionally characterized, so far. Employing bioinformatics and functional expression we characterized two additional honeybee genes encoding membrane-bound (tm)ACs. The proteins were designated AmAC2t and AmAC8. Unlike the common structure of tmACs, AmAC2t lacks the first transmembrane domain. Despite this unusual topography, AmAC2t-activity could be stimulated by norepinephrine and NKH477 with EC(50s) of 0.07 μM and 3 μM. Both ligands stimulated AmAC8 with EC(50s) of 0.24 μM and 3.1 μM. In brain cryosections, intensive staining of mushroom bodies was observed with specific antibodies against AmAC8, an expression pattern highly reminiscent of the Drosophila rutabaga AC. In a current release of the honeybee genome database we identified three additional tmAC- and one soluble AC-encoding gene. These results suggest that (1) the AC-gene family in honeybees is comparably large as in other species, and (2) based on the restricted expression of AmAC8 in mushroom bodies, this enzyme might serve important functions in honeybee behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  1. Aspects of the use of honeybees and bumblebees as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms in plant diseas control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langerak, C.J.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Dik, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) are used for pollination in agriculture and horticulture. The morphological and behavioural characteristics of bees make them good pollinators. Thanks to this, bees may also be used as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms for

  2. Exposure to Sublethal Doses of Fipronil and Thiacloprid Highly Increases Mortality of Honeybees Previously Infected by Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; Diogon, Marie; Aufauvre, Julie; Fontbonne, Régis; Viguès, Bernard; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Texier, Catherine; Biron, David G.; Blot, Nicolas; El Alaoui, Hicham; Belzunces, Luc P.; Delbac, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is undergoing a worldwide decline whose origin is still in debate. Studies performed for twenty years suggest that this decline may involve both infectious diseases and exposure to pesticides. Joint action of pathogens and chemicals are known to threaten several organisms but the combined effects of these stressors were poorly investigated in honeybees. Our study was designed to explore the effect of Nosema ceranae infection on honeybee sensitivity to sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and thiacloprid. Methodology/Finding Five days after their emergence, honeybees were divided in 6 experimental groups: (i) uninfected controls, (ii) infected with N. ceranae, (iii) uninfected and exposed to fipronil, (iv) uninfected and exposed to thiacloprid, (v) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days post-infection (p.i.) to fipronil, and (vi) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days p.i. to thiacloprid. Honeybee mortality and insecticide consumption were analyzed daily and the intestinal spore content was evaluated 20 days after infection. A significant increase in honeybee mortality was observed when N. ceranae-infected honeybees were exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Surprisingly, exposures to fipronil and thiacloprid had opposite effects on microsporidian spore production. Analysis of the honeybee detoxification system 10 days p.i. showed that N. ceranae infection induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity in midgut and fat body but not in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. Conclusions/Significance After exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil or thiacloprid a higher mortality was observed in N. ceranae-infected honeybees than in uninfected ones. The synergistic effect of N. ceranae and insecticide on honeybee mortality, however, did not appear strongly linked to a decrease of the insect detoxification system. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of the increasing

  3. The Influence of Gustatory and Olfactory Experiences on Responsiveness to Reward in the Honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Martínez, Andrés S.; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Corti Bielsa, Gonzalo; Farina, Walter M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit an extraordinarily tuned division of labor that depends on age polyethism. This adjustment is generally associated with the fact that individuals of different ages display different response thresholds to given stimuli, which determine specific behaviors. For instance, the sucrose-response threshold (SRT) which largely depends on genetic factors may also be affected by the nectar sugar content. However, it remains unknown whether SRTs in workers of different ages and tasks can differ depending on gustatory and olfactory experiences. Methodology Groups of worker bees reared either in an artificial environment or else in a queen-right colony, were exposed to different reward conditions at different adult ages. Gustatory response scores (GRSs) and odor-memory retrieval were measured in bees that were previously exposed to changes in food characteristics. Principal Findings Results show that the gustatory responses of pre-foraging-aged bees are affected by changes in sucrose solution concentration and also to the presence of an odor provided it is presented as scented sucrose solution. In contrast no differences in worker responses were observed when presented with odor only in the rearing environment. Fast modulation of GRSs was observed in older bees (12–16 days of age) which are commonly involved in food processing tasks within the hive, while slower modulation times were observed in younger bees (commonly nurse bees, 6–9 days of age). This suggests that older food-processing bees have a higher plasticity when responding to fluctuations in resource information than younger hive bees. Adjustments in the number of trophallaxis events were also found when scented food circulated inside the nest, and this was positively correlated with the differences in timing observed in gustatory responsiveness and memory retention for hive bees of different age classes. Conclusions This work demonstrates the accessibility of

  4. Produção de geléia real por abelhas Apis mellifera italianas, africanizadas e descendentes de seus cruzamentos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1254 Royal jelly production by Italian and Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, descendants of their crossing - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1254

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Nogueira Couto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou comparar a produção de geléia real de abelhas descendentes de rainhas italianas irmãs, inseminadas com zangões africanizados (T1, ou com zangões italianos (T2, e de rainhas africanizadas irmãs, fecundadas no vôo (T3, comparando-a com fatores ambientais. As operárias híbridas (T1 aceitaram mais larvas transferidas (45,41 %, embora a diferença não tenha sido significativa, e depositaram maior (P This work aimed at comparing royal jelly production among descendants of Italian queen sisters inseminated by Africanized drones (T1, Italian drones (T2 and Africanized queen sisters in natural mating (T3. The workers cross-bred (T1 accepted more transferred larvae (45.41% but there was no significant difference. They deposited more (P < 0.05 royal jelly in each cup (243.5 mg than Italians (T2 – 31.36% and 214.7 mg and Africanized workers (T3 – 33.63% and 209.3 mg, respectively. The result showed a best production in each colony which suggests heterosis. These parameters showed positive relation with pollen and workers quantities and with environmental temperature. The best production occurred in February and March, period of absence of flower in orange and eucalyptus culture in this region

  5. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining d...

  6. Impact of bifenthrin on honeybees and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De; Zhong, He

    2010-06-01

    The impact of bifenthrin on honeybees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was evaluated in both laboratory and semifield assays. Ten serial dilutions of bifenthrin and an acetone control using the bottle bioassay protocol were used in the laboratory to determine killing time after 15-, 30-, and 60-min honeybee exposure. Both dose and exposure time significantly affected honeybee mortality (df = 6, F = 10.9, P Bifenthrin was applied at 9.7 ml/liter, 19.5 ml/liter, and 29.5 ml/liter of water to common landscape vegetation, Melampodium paludosum Melanie (show star) and Duranta erecta L. (golden dewdrop); a water control was also used. Bee mortality was significantly higher (P < 0.05, df = 2, F = 20.8) at 29.5 ml/liter compared to the mortality at 19.5-ml/liter and 9.7-ml/liter application rates after 24-h exposure to the treated vegetation. Mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to treated vegetation was significantly (P < 0.05, df = 10, F = 114) different by week and by application rate.

  7. Synthesis of (E)-9-Oxo-2-decenoic acid (the queen substance of honeybee) from methyl 3-formylpropionate; 3-horumiruporopion san mechiru wo mochiita (E)-9-okiso-2-desen san (Mitsubachi joo busshitsu) no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukasa, H. [Toyotama Koryo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    The queen substance, (E)-9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (1) is a pheromone secreted by queen honeybee (Apis mellifera) and inhibits reproductive ability of worker bees. Several synthesese have been reported. It was synthesized starting from methyl-3-formylpropionate this time. Methyl 7,7-ethylenedioxy-4-oxooctanoate was prepared by radical addition reaction from (2) and 2-methyl-2-vinyl-1,3-dioxolane and reduced to an ethyelenedioxy carboxylic acid with hydrazine and KOH. This compound was converted to an alcohol by reduction with sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminum hydride, followed by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate to an acetal aldehyde, which was condensed with malonic acid and (1) was obtained after the hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Component resolution reveals additional major allergens in patients with honeybee venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julian; Blank, Simon; Müller, Sabine; Bantleon, Frank; Frick, Marcel; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Lidholm, Jonas; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    Detection of IgE to recombinant Hymenoptera venom allergens has been suggested to improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy. However, the frequency of sensitization to the only available recombinant honeybee venom (HBV) allergen, rApi m 1, in patients with HBV allergy is limited, suggesting that additional HBV allergens might be of relevance. We performed an analysis of sensitization profiles of patients with HBV allergy to a panel of HBV allergens. Diagnosis of HBV allergy (n = 144) was based on history, skin test results, and allergen-specific IgE levels to HBV. IgE reactivity to 6 HBV allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) was analyzed by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to rApi m 1, rApi m 2, rApi m 3, nApi m 4, rApi m 5, and rApi m 10 was detected in 72.2%, 47.9%, 50.0%, 22.9%, 58.3%, and 61.8% of the patients with HBV allergy, respectively. Positive results to at least 1 HBV allergen were detected in 94.4%. IgE reactivity to Api m 3, Api m 10, or both was detected in 68.0% and represented the only HBV allergen-specific IgE in 5% of the patients. Limited inhibition of IgE binding by therapeutic HBV and limited induction of Api m 3- and Api m 10-specific IgG4 in patients obtaining immunotherapy supports recent reports on the underrepresentation of these allergens in therapeutic HBV preparations. Analysis of a panel of CCD-free HBV allergens improved diagnostic sensitivity compared with use of rApi m 1 alone, identified additional major allergens, and revealed sensitizations to allergens that have been reported to be absent or underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of an API migration for two XML APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Bartholomei; K. Czarnecki; R. Lämmel (Ralf); T. van der Storm (Tijs); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); D. Gasevic; J. Gray

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractAPI migration refers to adapting an application such that its dependence on a given API (the source API) is eliminated in favor of depending on an alternative API (the target API) with the source and target APIs serving the same domain. One may attempt to automate API migration by code

  10. THE HONEYBEE ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a teacher aid progra11111e on the honeybee, which is considered ... environment, and to create job opportunities. • generate a ... skill in architectural design and home building ... three interlinking, yet separate, units: 1.

  11. A fifth major genetic group among honeybees revealed in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel

    2013-12-06

    Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.

  12. Effect of entomopathogens on Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Potrich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of commercially used entomopathogens on Africanized Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae. Four bioassays were performed: 1 pulverized entomopathogens on A. mellifera; 2 entomopathogens sprayed on a smooth surface; 3 entomopathogens sprayed on soy leaves; and 4 entomopathogens mixed with candy paste (sugar syrup. Five treatments were prepared: sterile distilled water (control, distilled water sterilized with Tween® 80 (0.01%, and the commercial entomopathogens Metarhizium anisopliae E9 (1.0 × 109 conidia mL−1, Beauveria bassiana PL63 (1.0 × 108 conidia mL−1 and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (3.0 × 108 spores mL−1. Each treatment consisted of five repetitions, with 20 workers per repetition, which were stored in a plastic box and, later, in a biological oxygen demand (B.O.D. incubator (27 ± 2 °C, RH of 60% ± 10%, 12-h photophase. The mortality of the workers was evaluated from 1 h to 240 h, and the data were analyzed using Bayesian inference. The workers killed by the ingestion of candy paste contaminated with the pathogens (products were randomly separated and selected for the removal of the midgut. Each midgut was fixed in Bouin's solution and prepared for histology. B. bassiana was verified to reduce the survival of A. mellifera workers in all bioassays. Moreover, M. anisopliae reduced the survival of A. mellifera workers directly sprayed, on a smooth surface and mixed with candy. B. thuringiensis reduced A. mellifera survival on a smooth surface and mixed with candy paste. However, its effects were lower than that observed by B. bassiana. The treatments with the biological products did not induce morphometric alterations in the midgut of A. mellifera. Keywords: Bayesian statistics, Entomopathogenic fungi, Entomopathogenic bacteria, Honeybee, Selectivity

  13. Experimental evidence that honeybees depress wild insect densities in a flowering crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sandra A M; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo; Smith, Henrik G

    2016-11-30

    While addition of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) improves pollination of many entomophilous crops, it is unknown if it simultaneously suppresses the densities of wild insects through competition. To investigate this, we added 624 honeybee hives to 23 fields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) over 2 years and made sure that the areas around 21 other fields were free from honeybee hives. We demonstrate that honeybee addition depresses the densities of wild insects (bumblebees, solitary bees, hoverflies, marchflies, other flies, and other flying and flower-visiting insects) even in a massive flower resource such as oilseed rape. The effect was independent of the complexity of the surrounding landscape, but increased with the size of the crop field, which suggests that the effect was caused by spatial displacement of wild insects. Our results have potential implications both for the pollination of crops (if displacement of wild pollinators offsets benefits achieved by adding honeybees) and for conservation of wild insects (if displacement results in negative fitness consequences). © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Comparative psychophysics of bumblebee and honeybee colour discrimination and object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adrian G; Spaethe, Johannes; Prack, Sabina

    2008-07-01

    Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) discrimination of targets with broadband reflectance spectra was tested using simultaneous viewing conditions, enabling an accurate determination of the perceptual limit of colour discrimination excluding confounds from memory coding (experiment 1). The level of colour discrimination in bumblebees, and honeybees (Apis mellifera) (based upon previous observations), exceeds predictions of models considering receptor noise in the honeybee. Bumblebee and honeybee photoreceptors are similar in spectral shape and spacing, but bumblebees exhibit significantly poorer colour discrimination in behavioural tests, suggesting possible differences in spatial or temporal signal processing. Detection of stimuli in a Y-maze was evaluated for bumblebees (experiment 2) and honeybees (experiment 3). Honeybees detected stimuli containing both green-receptor-contrast and colour contrast at a visual angle of approximately 5 degrees , whilst stimuli that contained only colour contrast were only detected at a visual angle of 15 degrees . Bumblebees were able to detect these stimuli at a visual angle of 2.3 degrees and 2.7 degrees , respectively. A comparison of the experiments suggests a tradeoff between colour discrimination and colour detection in these two species, limited by the need to pool colour signals to overcome receptor noise. We discuss the colour processing differences and possible adaptations to specific ecological habitats.

  15. Interpatch foraging in honeybees-rational decision making at secondary hubs based upon time and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najera, Daniel A; McCullough, Erin L; Jander, Rudolf

    2012-11-01

    For honeybees, Apis mellifera, the hive has been well known to function as a primary decision-making hub, a place from which foragers decide among various directions, distances, and times of day to forage efficiently. Whether foraging honeybees can make similarly complex navigational decisions from locations away from the hive is unknown. To examine whether or not such secondary decision-making hubs exist, we trained bees to forage at four different locations. Specifically, we trained honeybees to first forage to a distal site "CT" 100 m away from the hive; if food was present, they fed and then chose to go home. If food was not present, the honeybees were trained to forage to three auxiliary sites, each at a different time of the day: A in the morning, B at noon, and C in the afternoon. The foragers learned to check site CT for food first and then efficiently depart to the correct location based upon the time of day if there was no food at site CT. Thus, the honeybees were able to cognitively map motivation, time, and five different locations (Hive, CT, A, B, and C) in two spatial dimensions; these are the contents of the cognitive map used by the honeybees here. While at site CT, we verified that the honeybees could choose between 4 different directions (to A, B, C, and the Hive) and thus label it as a secondary decision-making hub. The observed decision making uncovered here is inferred to constitute genuine logical operations, involving a branched structure, based upon the premises of motivational state, and spatiotemporal knowledge.

  16. Strain diversity and host specificity in a specialized gut symbiont of honeybees and bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elijah; Ratnayeke, Nalin; Moran, Nancy A

    2016-09-01

    Host-restricted lineages of gut bacteria often include many closely related strains, but this fine-scale diversity is rarely investigated. The specialized gut symbiont Snodgrassella alvi has codiversified with honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus) for millions of years. Snodgrassella alvi strains are nearly identical for 16S rRNA gene sequences but have distinct gene repertoires potentially affecting host biology and community interactions. We examined S. alvi strain diversity within and between hosts using deep sequencing both of a single-copy coding gene (minD) and of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. We sampled workers from domestic and feral A. mellifera colonies and wild-caught Bombus representing 14 species. Conventional analyses of community profiles, based on the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, failed to expose most strain variation. In contrast, the minD analysis revealed extensive strain variation within and between host species and individuals. Snodgrassella alvi strain diversity is significantly higher in A. mellifera than in Bombus, supporting the hypothesis that colony founding by swarms of workers enables retention of more diversity than colony founding by a single queen. Most Bombus individuals (72%) are dominated by a single S. alvi strain, whereas most A. mellifera (86%) possess multiple strains. No S. alvi strains are shared between A. mellifera and Bombus, indicating some host specificity. Among Bombus-restricted strains, some are restricted to a single host species or subgenus, while others occur in multiple subgenera. Findings demonstrate that strains diversify both within and between host species and can be highly specific or relatively generalized in their host associations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Varroa destructor mite mortality rate according to the amount of worker broods in africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies = Taxa de mortalidade do ácaro Varroa destructor de acordo com a quantidade de crias em colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Moretto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Varroa destructor mite has caused the death of hundreds of thousands of Apis mellifera colonies in several countries worldwide. However, the effects determined by the Varroa mite change according to the A. mellifera subspecies. In Africanized bee colonies from South and Central America, the parasite causes little damage, as the infestation levels are relatively stable and low, thus treatments against the pest are not required. Among several factors, the grooming behavior of Africanized worker bees plays an important role in the maintenance of the low infestation levels. This study determined the daily rate of live and dead mites found at the bottom of the hive in five Africanized honey bee colonies. During fifteen days of observations, a significant increase was verified in the number of live and dead mites at the bottom of the hive as the amount of worker broods from each honey bee colony decreased. This suggests a more intense grooming activity as the Varroa concentration in the adult honey bee population increases.O ácaro Varroa destructor tem causado a mortalidade de centenas de milhares de colônias de abelhas Apis mellifera em várias partes do mundo. Os efeitos determinados pelo ácaro Varroa variam com a subespécie de Apis mellifera. Nas Américas do Sul e Central, o parasita causa poucos danos às colônias de abelhas africanizadas, a taxa de infestação é estável e baixa, não sendo necessário o tratamento químico contra a praga. Entre vários fatores que são responsáveis pela tolerância das abelhas africanizadas a esse parasita, o comportamento de grooming executado pelas operárias deve exercer importante papel na manutenção dos baixos níveis deinfestação. Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as taxas diárias de ácaros vivos e mortos encontrados no fundo das colméias de cinco colônias de abelhas africanizadas. Durante 15 dias de observações, foi verificado significativo aumento de ácaros no fundo da colméia

  18. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Huo-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus(SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana(AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera(AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318A. mellifera colonies and 64A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38A. mellifera colonies and 37A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated fromA. mellifera were clustered with theA. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae ofA. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV inA. mellifera Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infectA. melliferacolonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities ofA. cerana and A. melliferato sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of mKast suggest its late pupal and adult-specific functions in the honeybee brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiro Yamane

    Full Text Available In insect brains, the mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center comprise intrinsic neurons, termed Kenyon cells (KCs. We previously showed that the honeybee (Apis mellifera L. MBs comprise four types of KCs, in addition to the previously known three types of KCs: class I large-type KCs (lKCs, class I small-type KCs (sKCs and class II KCs, novel class I 'middle-type' KCs (mKCs, which are characterized by the preferential expression of a gene, termed mKast. Although mKast was originally discovered during the search for genes whose expression is enriched in the optic lobes (OLs in the worker brain, subsequent analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in an mKC-preferential manner in the MBs. To gain more insights into the function of mKast in the honeybee brain, we here performed expression analysis of mKast and immunohistochemistry of the mKast protein. Prominent mKast expression was first detected in the brain after the P7 pupal stage. In addition, mKast was expressed almost selectively in the brain, suggesting its late pupal and adult specific functions in the brain. Immunohistochemistry revealed that mKast-like immunoreactivity is detected in several regions in the worker brain: inside and around the MB calyces, at the outer edges of the OL lobula, at the outer surface of and posterior to the antennal lobes (ALs, along the dorsal midline of the anterior brain and at the outer surface of the subesophageal ganglions (SOG. mKast-like immunoreactivities in the MBs, OLs, ALs and SOG were due to the corresponding neurons, while mKast-like immunoreactivities beneath/between the MB calyces were assumed to most likely correspond to the lateral/medial neurosecretory cells.

  20. Study of the seasonal variation in the exchanges of food labelled with 198Au from a worker bee to a queen (Apis mellifica ligustica S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges from a worker giver to a queen receiver were quantified throughout the year. 4 days old workers distribute great amounts of food to queens, about 74% in average, but variations are low. On the other hand workers of unknown age distribute amounts that are less high and varying in terms of the season. A parallelism exists between percentage variations of food shared by workers of unknown age and the seasonal cycle of the 9-oxodec-2-enoic acid content of queens [fr

  1. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  2. Healthcare Finder API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All of the data used on the Finder.HealthCare.gov web application is available through this API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API. 1....

  3. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Moda

    Full Text Available The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3 through fifth (L5 larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F, two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S. Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot, which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1 and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot. Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and

  4. Nutritionally driven differential gene expression leads to heterochronic brain development in honeybee castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Lívia Maria; Vieira, Joseana; Guimarães Freire, Anna Cláudia; Bonatti, Vanessa; Bomtorin, Ana Durvalina; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The differential feeding regimes experienced by the queen and worker larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera shape a complex endocrine response cascade that ultimately gives rise to differences in brain morphologies. Brain development analyzed at the morphological level from the third (L3) through fifth (L5) larval instars revealed an asynchrony between queens and workers. In the feeding phase of the last larval instar (L5F), two well-formed structures, pedunculi and calyces, are identifiable in the mushroom bodies of queens, both of which are not present in workers until a later phase (spinning phase, L5S). Genome-wide expression analyses and normalized transcript expression experiments monitoring specific genes revealed that this differential brain development starts earlier, during L3. Analyzing brains from L3 through L5S1 larvae, we identified 21 genes with caste-specific transcription patterns (e.g., APC-4, GlcAT-P, fax, kr-h1 and shot), which encode proteins that are potentially involved in the development of brain tissues through controlling the cell proliferation rate (APC4, kr-h1) and fasciculation (GlcAT-P, fax, and shot). Shot, whose expression is known to be required for axon extension and cell proliferation, was found to be transcribed at significantly higher levels in L4 queens compared with worker larvae. Moreover, the protein encoded by this gene was immunolocalized to the cytoplasm of cells near the antennal lobe neuropiles and proximal to the Kenyon cells in the brains of L4 queens. In conclusion, during the larval period, the brains of queens are larger and develop more rapidly than workers' brains, which represents a developmental heterochrony reflecting the effect of the differential feeding regime of the two castes on nervous system development. Furthermore, this differential development is characterized by caste-specific transcriptional profiles of a set of genes, thus pointing to a link between differential nutrition and differential

  5. Efeitos da aplicação tópica de hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovários de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae Effect of topic application of juvenile hormone on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fernando Antonialli-Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência do hormônio juvenil sobre o desenvolvimento do ovário de larvas de operárias de Apis mellifera foi analisada levando em conta a determinação trófica das castas, segundo a qual a alimentação larval é controlada pelas operárias de maneira a promover uma diferenciação de castas controlada pela produção e disponibilidade desse hormônio. A hipótese testada é que a ação do hormônio juvenil seja capaz de proteger ou prevenir a degeneração nos ovários das larvas de operárias. Foi feita aplicação tópica de 1 ml de hormônio dissolvido em hexano na concentração de 1 mg/ml do segundo até o quinto dia de vida larval, e a morfologia dos ovários avaliada nos dias subseqüentes à aplicação até ao sexto dia de vida larval. Como controles foram utilizadas larvas nas quais se aplicou 1 ml de hexano e larvas que não receberam nenhum tratamento. Constatou-se que o efeito do hormônio juvenil varia conforme a idade larval em que é aplicado e que este efeito foi maior quando a aplicação foi feita no terceiro dia de vida larval.The influence of juvenile hormone (JH on the ovarian development of worker larvae of Apis mellifera was analyzed, taking into account the trophic determination of the castes. The workers control the larval feeding in order to promote caste differentiation, which is regulated by the production and availability of this hormone. The hypothesis tested was that the action of juvenile hormone is capable of protecting or preventing the degeneration of the ovaries in worker larvae. A preparation of 1 ml of juvenile hormone dissolved in hexane at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was applied topically to 2- to 5-day-old larvae. The morphology of the ovaries was evaluated on the days following the application, until the larvae were 6 days old. The controls consisted of larvae to which 1 ml of hexane was applied, and larvae that received no treatment. The effect of juvenile hormone varied according to the age

  6. Unión de los antibióticos tilosina, tilmicosina y oxitetraciclina a proteínas presentes en abejas, larvas y productos de la colmena de Apis mellifera L Binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to proteins from honeybees, larvae and beehive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Reynaldi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas melíferas son afectadas por gran cantidad de enfermedades infecciosas principalmente producidas por bacterias, hongos, virus y parásitos eucariotas. Dentro de las ocasionadas por procariotas, la loque americana es una enfermedad extremadamente grave que afecta a larvas y pupas de abejas; su agente causal es la bacteria esporulada Paenibacillus larvae. La administración de antibióticos es la principal alternativa para el control de esta enfermedad en colmenares con altos niveles de infección. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar, mediante un método biológico, la unión de los antibióticos tilosina, tilmicosina y oxitetraciclina a las proteínas presentes en abejas adultas, larvas menores de 72 horas, larvas mayores de 72 horas, jalea de obreras, miel y polen, con la finalidad de diseñar un modelo de ruta cinética de los antibióticos. Los límites de sensibilidad de la técnica de valoración de estos antibióticos fueron 0,05 μg/ml para tilosina y tilmicosina, y 0,01 μg/ml para oxitetraciclina. Los coeficientes de correlación fueron superiores a 0,90 y los coeficientes de variación intra e inter-ensayo inferiores al 5%. Tanto tilosina como oxitetraciclina presentaron un porcentaje de unión a proteínas de un 15% en promedio en tejidos y subproductos de la colmena, lo cual resultó inferior a lo observado con tilmicosina (29% en promedio. En conclusión, por sus características químicas, su actividad antimicrobiana y su baja tasa de unión a las abejas, larvas y subproductos de la colmena, la tilosina presenta propiedades farmacocinéticas que podrían representar una ventaja terapéutica para el tratamiento de la loque americana en colmenas.American Foulbrood (AFB caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the most serious disease of bacterial origin affecting larvae and pupae of honeybees. Antibiotics are used in many countries for the control of AFB in high incidence areas, but their

  7. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  8. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  9. Honeybee odometry and scent guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T; Hemmi, JM; Zeil, J

    2006-01-01

    We report on a striking asymmetry in search behaviour observed in honeybees trained to forage alternately at one of two feeder sites in a narrow tunnel. Bees were trained by periodically switching the position of a sucrose reward between relatively short and long distances in the tunnel. Search

  10. A comparison of the reproductive ability of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata:Varroidae) in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Rafael A; Zamora, Luis G; Van Veen, Johan W; Quesada, Mariela V

    2007-01-01

    Colony infestation by the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor is one of the most serious problems for beekeeping worldwide. In order to reproduce varroa females, enter worker or drone brood shortly before the cell is sealed. To test the hypothesis that, due to the preference of mites to invade drone brood to reproduce, a high proportion of the mite reproduction should occur in drone cells, a comparative study of mite reproductive rate in worker and drone brood of Africanized honey bees (AHB) was done for 370 mites. After determining the number, developmental stage and sex of the offspring in worker cells, the foundress female mite was immediately transferred into an uninfested drone cell. Mite fertility in single infested worker and drone brood cells was 76.5 and 79.3%, respectively. There was no difference between the groups (X(2)= 0.78, P = 0.37). However, one of the most significant differences in mite reproduction was the higher percentage of mites producing viable offspring (cells that contain one live adult male and at least one adult female mite) in drone cells (38.1%) compared to worker cells (13.8%) (X(2)= 55.4, P drone cells (X(2)= 69, P drone brood.

  11. Antioxidant activity and irritation property of venoms from Apis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwongin, Suvimol; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Chaiyana, Wantida

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay were used to determine the antioxidant activity, whereas, hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay was used to determine the irritation property of each bee venom extracts. Melittin was the major constituent in all bee venom extracts. The melittin content in A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. florea, and A. cerena were 95.8 ± 3.2%, 76.5 ± 1.9%, 66.3 ± 8.6%, and 56.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. Bee venom extract from A. dorsata possessed the highest antioxidant activity with the inhibition of 41.1 ± 2.2% against DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 10.21 ± 0.74 mM Trolox/mg and equivalent concentration (EC 1 ) of 0.35 ± 0.02 mM FeSO 4 /mg. Bee venom extract from A. mellifera exhibited the highest irritation, followed by A. cerena, A. dorsata, and A. florea, respectively. Melittin was the compound responsible for the irritation property of bee venom extracts since it could induce severe irritation (irritation score was 13.7 ± 0.5, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml). The extract from A. dorsata which possessed the highest antioxidant activity showed no irritation up to the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. Therefore, bee venom extract from A. dorsata at the concentration not more than 0.1 mg/ml would be suggested for using

  12. Memory formation in reversal learning of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravit Hadar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In reversal learning animals are first trained with a differential learning protocol, where they learn to respond to a reinforced odor (CS+ and not to respond to a nonreinforced odor (CS-. Once they respond correctly to this rule, the contingencies of the conditioned stimuli are reversed, and animals learn to adjust their response to the new rule. This study investigated the effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor (emetine on the memory formed after reversal learning in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Two groups of bees were studied: summer bees and winter bees, each yielded different results. Blocking protein synthesis in summer bees inhibits consolidation of the excitatory learning following reversal learning whereas it blocked the consolidation of the inhibitory learning in winter bees. These findings suggest that excitatory and inhibitory learning may involve different molecular processes in bees, which are seasonally dependent.

  13. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES REGARDING THE GENETIC AND MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HONEYBEES (A. MELLIFERA L. FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA CAUIA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The international investigations regarding the honeybees’ diversity carried out until now have revealed a certain degree of genetic pollution in different countries from Europe, because of the import of more productive honeybees’ races or of some interracial honeybees’ hybrids. This fact might have a negative impact on the success adaptability of honeybees at the ecosystem. Although, the Romanian honeybees (Apis mellifera carpathica are well adapted to the local conditions and express a good resistance to diseases, the introgression (genetic pollution of different honeybees’ races could be an imminent event. So that, starting from 2007, by a cooperation between the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest and the Institute of Genetics of the University of Bucharest, we have initiated different investigations in order to obtain a more accurate state of the Romanian honeybees’ diversity. We have performed specific molecular analyses, using mtDNA (the COI-COII test extracted from 32 different honeybees samples collected from several regions from Romania. For a better and detailed characterization of the collected honeybee’s samples we have also carried out some morphometric measurements of their wings. Our data have shown that the Romanian population of honeybees is almost homogenous from the genetic and the morphometric points of views. These types of investigations represent a premiere for Romania.

  14. Inside Honeybee Hives: Impact of Natural Propolis on the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2017-02-06

    Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera , globally. Propolis intake of 10 field colonies was manipulated by either reducing or adding freshly collected propolis. Mite infestations, titers of deformed wing virus (DWV) and sacbrood virus (SBV), resin intake, as well as colony strength were recorded monthly from July to September 2013. We additionally examined the effect of raw propolis volatiles on mite survival in laboratory assays. Our results showed no significant effects of adding or removing propolis on mite survival and infestation levels. However, in relation to V. destructor , DWV titers increased significantly less in colonies with added propolis than in propolis-removed colonies, whereas SBV titers were similar. Colonies with added propolis were also significantly stronger than propolis-removed colonies. These findings indicate that propolis may interfere with the dynamics of V. destructor -transmitted viruses, thereby further emphasizing the importance of propolis for honeybee health.

  15. Inside Honeybee Hives: Impact of Natural Propolis on the Ectoparasitic Mite Varroa destructor and Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando; Leonhardt, Sara D.

    2017-01-01

    Social immunity is a key factor for honeybee health, including behavioral defense strategies such as the collective use of antimicrobial plant resins (propolis). While laboratory data repeatedly show significant propolis effects, field data are scarce, especially at the colony level. Here, we investigated whether propolis, as naturally deposited in the nests, can protect honeybees against ectoparasitic mites Varroa destructor and associated viruses, which are currently considered the most serious biological threat to European honeybee subspecies, Apis mellifera, globally. Propolis intake of 10 field colonies was manipulated by either reducing or adding freshly collected propolis. Mite infestations, titers of deformed wing virus (DWV) and sacbrood virus (SBV), resin intake, as well as colony strength were recorded monthly from July to September 2013. We additionally examined the effect of raw propolis volatiles on mite survival in laboratory assays. Our results showed no significant effects of adding or removing propolis on mite survival and infestation levels. However, in relation to V. destructor, DWV titers increased significantly less in colonies with added propolis than in propolis-removed colonies, whereas SBV titers were similar. Colonies with added propolis were also significantly stronger than propolis-removed colonies. These findings indicate that propolis may interfere with the dynamics of V. destructor-transmitted viruses, thereby further emphasizing the importance of propolis for honeybee health. PMID:28178181

  16. Temporal pattern of africanization in a feral honeybee population from Texas inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Coulson, Robert N; Patton, John C; Johnston, J Spencer

    2004-05-01

    The invasion of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Americas provides a window of opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of subspecies of bees that evolved in allopatry in ecologically distinctive habitats of the Old World. We report here the results of an 11-year mitochondrial DNA survey of a feral honeybee population from southern United States (Texas). The mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies changed radically during the 11-year study period. Prior to immigration of Africanized honeybees, the resident population was essentially of eastern and western European maternal ancestry. Three years after detection of the first Africanized swarm there was a mitotype turnover in the population from predominantly eastern European to predominantly A. m. scutellata (ancestor of Africanized honeybees). This remarkable change in the mitotype composition coincided with arrival of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which was likely responsible for severe losses experienced by colonies of European ancestry. From 1997 onward the population stabilized with most colonies of A. m. scutellata maternal origin.

  17. Context odor presentation during sleep enhances memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaka, Hanna; Bartels, Ruth; Gora, Jacob; Franck, Vivien; Culo, Ana; Götsch, Moritz; Menzel, Randolf

    2015-11-02

    Sleep plays an important role in stabilizing new memory traces after learning [1-3]. Here we investigate whether sleep's role in memory processing is similar in evolutionarily distant species and demonstrate that a context trigger during deep-sleep phases improves memory in invertebrates, as it does in humans. We show that in honeybees (Apis mellifera), exposure to an odor during deep sleep that has been present during learning improves memory performance the following day. Presentation of the context odor during wake phases or novel odors during sleep does not enhance memory. In humans, memory consolidation can be triggered by presentation of a context odor during slow-wave sleep that had been present during learning [3-5]. Our results reveal that deep-sleep phases in honeybees have the potential to prompt memory consolidation, just as they do in humans. This study provides strong evidence for a conserved role of sleep-and how it affects memory processes-from insects to mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combating Varroa destructor in Honeybee Colonies Using Flumethrin or Fluvalinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gregorc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mite mortality in two apiaries, one with 32 and the other with 15 honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica colonies, was recorded prior to and after flumethrin or fluvalinate treatments and after a control, oxalic-acid application. During the 42- and 51-day pre-treatment periods, the average daily natural mite drop was 0.04 (± 0.04 and 2.82 (± 2.19, respectively, which represents 1.09% (± 1.06 and 3.84% (± 3.04 of the total number of mites found during the experiment. The flumethrin or fluvalinate applications resulted in an average mite mortality at the two apiaries of 214.46 (± 260.02 and 4,098.64 (± 2,508.31. The treatments resulted in a 19.11% (± 14.62 and a 39.28% (± 10.47 reduction in the number of mites in slightly infested colonies and 94.30% (± 4.26 and 96.24% (± 3.14 in highly infested colonies. The difference in treatment efficacy between both apiaries was significant (P < 0.001 and indicates that fluvalinate and flumethrin are highly efficacious in dealing with highly infested honeybee colonies with sealed brood. The importance of effective mite control in colonies with a high level of natural mite mortality is discussed in this study.

  19. Novel Middle-Type Kenyon Cells in the Honeybee Brain Revealed by Area-Preferential Gene Expression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Kumi; Ikeda, Tsubomi; Nagai, Mirai; Hori, Sayaka; Umatani, Chie; Tadano, Hiroto; Ugajin, Atsushi; Nakaoka, Takayoshi; Paul, Rajib Kumar; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Shirai, Kenichi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kubo, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    The mushroom bodies (a higher center) of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) brain were considered to comprise three types of intrinsic neurons, including large- and small-type Kenyon cells that have distinct gene expression profiles. Although previous neural activity mapping using the immediate early gene kakusei suggested that small-type Kenyon cells are mainly active in forager brains, the precise Kenyon cell types that are active in the forager brain remain to be elucidated. We searched for n...

  20. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensing the intruder: a quantitative threshold for recognition cues perception in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Federico; Bruschini, Claudia; Cipollini, Maria; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita

    2014-02-01

    The ability to discriminate among nestmates and non-nestmate is essential to defend social insect colonies from intruders. Over the years, nestmate recognition has been extensively studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera; nevertheless, the quantitative perceptual aspects at the basis of the recognition system represent an unexplored subject in this species. To test the existence of a cuticular hydrocarbons' quantitative perception threshold for nestmate recognition cues, we conducted behavioural assays by presenting different amounts of a foreign forager's chemical profile to honeybees at the entrance of their colonies. We found an increase in the explorative and aggressive responses as the amount of cues increased based on a threshold mechanism, highlighting the importance of the quantitative perceptual features for the recognition processes in A. mellifera.

  2. Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene....... Bees heterozygous at Sex Determination Locus are females, whereas bees homozygous or hemizygous are males. Little is known, however, about the regulation that links sex determination to sexual differentiation. To investigate the control of sexual development in honeybees, we analyzed the functions...... and the regulatory interactions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. We show that heterozygous csd is only required to induce the female pathway, while the feminizer (fem) gene maintains this decision throughout development. By RNAi induced knockdown we show that the fem gene is essential for entire...

  3. Spider Movement, UV Reflectance and Size, but Not Spider Crypsis, Affect the Response of Honeybees to Australian Crab Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L.; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the crypsis hypothesis, the ability of female crab spiders to change body colour and match the colour of flowers has been selected because flower visitors are less likely to detect spiders that match the colour of the flowers used as hunting platform. However, recent findings suggest that spider crypsis plays a minor role in predator detection and some studies even showed that pollinators can become attracted to flowers harbouring Australian crab spider when the UV contrast between spider and flower increases. Here we studied the response of Apis mellifera honeybees to the presence of white or yellow Thomisus spectabilis Australian crab spiders sitting on Bidens alba inflorescences and also the response of honeybees to crab spiders that we made easily detectable painting blue their forelimbs or abdomen. To account for the visual systems of crab spider's prey, we measured the reflectance properties of the spiders and inflorescences used for the experiments. We found that honeybees did not respond to the degree of matching between spiders and inflorescences (either chromatic or achromatic contrast): they responded similarly to white and yellow spiders, to control and painted spiders. However spider UV reflection, spider size and spider movement determined honeybee behaviour: the probability that honeybees landed on spider-harbouring inflorescences was greatest when the spiders were large and had high UV reflectance or when spiders were small and reflected little UV, and honeybees were more likely to reject inflorescences if spiders moved as the bee approached the inflorescence. Our study suggests that only the large, but not the small Australian crab spiders deceive their preys by reflecting UV light, and highlights the importance of other cues that elicited an anti-predator response in honeybees. PMID:21359183

  4. Spider movement, UV reflectance and size, but not spider crypsis, affect the response of honeybees to Australian crab spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2011-02-16

    According to the crypsis hypothesis, the ability of female crab spiders to change body colour and match the colour of flowers has been selected because flower visitors are less likely to detect spiders that match the colour of the flowers used as hunting platform. However, recent findings suggest that spider crypsis plays a minor role in predator detection and some studies even showed that pollinators can become attracted to flowers harbouring Australian crab spider when the UV contrast between spider and flower increases. Here we studied the response of Apis mellifera honeybees to the presence of white or yellow Thomisus spectabilis Australian crab spiders sitting on Bidens alba inflorescences and also the response of honeybees to crab spiders that we made easily detectable painting blue their forelimbs or abdomen. To account for the visual systems of crab spider's prey, we measured the reflectance properties of the spiders and inflorescences used for the experiments. We found that honeybees did not respond to the degree of matching between spiders and inflorescences (either chromatic or achromatic contrast): they responded similarly to white and yellow spiders, to control and painted spiders. However spider UV reflection, spider size and spider movement determined honeybee behaviour: the probability that honeybees landed on spider-harbouring inflorescences was greatest when the spiders were large and had high UV reflectance or when spiders were small and reflected little UV, and honeybees were more likely to reject inflorescences if spiders moved as the bee approached the inflorescence. Our study suggests that only the large, but not the small Australian crab spiders deceive their preys by reflecting UV light, and highlights the importance of other cues that elicited an anti-predator response in honeybees.

  5. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini), this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA). From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees’ hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways. PMID:26500430

  6. Insights into the dynamics of hind leg development in honey bee (Apis mellifera L. queen and worker larvae - A morphology/differential gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gonçalves Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is a hallmark of the caste systems of social insects, expressed in their life history and morphological traits. These are best studied in bees. In their co-evolution with angiosperm plants, the females of corbiculate bees have acquired a specialized structure on their hind legs for collecting pollen. In the highly eusocial bees (Apini and Meliponini, this structure is however only present in workers and absent in queens. By means of histological sections and cell proliferation analysis we followed the developmental dynamics of the hind legs of queens and workers in the fourth and fifth larval instars. In parallel, we generated subtractive cDNA libraries for hind leg discs of queen and worker larvae by means of a Representational Difference Analysis (RDA. From the total of 135 unique sequences we selected 19 for RT-qPCR analysis, where six of these were confirmed as differing significantly in their expression between the two castes in the larval spinning stage. The development of complex structures such as the bees’ hind legs, requires diverse patterning mechanisms and signaling modules, as indicated by the set of differentially expressed genes related with cell adhesion and signaling pathways.

  7. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesovnik, Tanja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Zorc, Minja; Čitar, Manuela; Božič, Janko; Glavan, Gordana; Narat, Mojca

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were downregulated.

  8. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Tesovnik

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD. One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were

  9. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Jamal Haddad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  10. Le stress chez l’abeille domestique (Apis mellifera) : analyse des modifications physiologiques et comportementales

    OpenAIRE

    Bordier , Célia

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera), which play an important role in natural and agronomic ecosystems, are exposed to a growing number of environmental pressures(new parasites, pesticides, climatechangeand poor nutrition). In this context, deciphering the mechanisms underlying stress responses and their costs becomes crucial to better understand theim pact of these pressures. Stress usually represents a challenge to the homeostasis of a norganism. In response, a cascade of physiological and behavioura...

  11. Comparative virulence and competition between Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Meghan O; van Tran, Toan; Huang, Wei-Fong; Solter, Leellen F; Tarpy, David R; Lawrence, Frank; Huang, Zachary Y

    2015-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are infected by two species of microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosemaceranae. Epidemiological evidence indicates that N. ceranae may be replacing N. apis globally in A. mellifera populations, suggesting a potential competitive advantage of N. ceranae. Mixed infections of the two species occur, and little is known about the interactions among the host and the two pathogens that have allowed N. ceranae to become dominant in most geographical areas. We demonstrated that mixed Nosema species infections negatively affected honey bee survival (median survival=15-17days) more than single species infections (median survival=21days and 20days for N. apis and N. ceranae, respectively), with median survival of control bees of 27days. We found similar rates of infection (percentage of bees with active infections after inoculation) for both species in mixed infections, with N. apis having a slightly higher rate (91% compared to 86% for N. ceranae). We observed slightly higher spore counts in bees infected with N. ceranae than in bees infected with N. apis in single microsporidia infections, especially at the midpoint of infection (day 10). Bees with mixed infections of both species had higher spore counts than bees with single infections, but spore counts in mixed infections were highly variable. We did not see a competitive advantage for N. ceranae in mixed infections; N. apis spore counts were either higher or counts were similar for both species and more N. apis spores were produced in 62% of bees inoculated with equal dosages of the two microsporidian species. N. ceranae does not, therefore, appear to have a strong within-host advantage for either infectivity or spore growth, suggesting that direct competition in these worker bee mid-guts is not responsible for its apparent replacement of N. apis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Honeybee health in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi , Matías; Antúnez , Karina; Invernizzi , Ciro; Aldea , Patricia; Vargas , Marisol; Negri , Pedro; Brasesco , Constanza; De Jong , David; Message , Dejair; Teixeira , Erica Weinstein; Principal , Judith; Barrios , Carlos; Ruffinengo , Sergio; Da Silva , Rafael Rodríguez; Eguaras , Martín

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractHoneybees are essential components to modern agriculture and economy. However, a continuous increase in cases of colony losses and colony depopulation are being reported worldwide. This critical situation has put the fragile equilibrium between bees and plants on the edge. As a consequence, several scientists have begun to focus their lines of research on this issue. Most researchers agree that there is no single explanation for the observed colony losses. Inst...

  13. Development of molecular tools for honeybee virus research: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing knowledge of the association of honeybee viruses with other honeybee parasites, primarily the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, and their implication in the mass mortality of honeybee colonies, has resulted in increasing awareness and interest in honeybee viruses. In addition the identification, monitoring and ...

  14. Work or sleep? : honeybee foragers opportunistically nap during the day when forage is not available

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Barrett; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Shifts in work schedules test humans’ capacity to be flexible in the timing of both work and sleep. Honeybee, Apis mellifera, foragers also shift their work schedules, but how flexible they are in the timing of sleep as they shift the timing of work is unknown, despite the importance of colony-level plasticity in the face of a changing environment. We hypothesized that sleep schedules of foragers are not fixed and instead vary depending on the time when food is available. We trained bees to v...

  15. Morphologic analysis and phenotypic variations observed in the acid glands of Apis mellifera L. (1758 africanized worker bees (HYM.: Apidae in the region of Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Bueno de Moraes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In Apis mellifera,the acid gland can present atypical branching. It is composed of secretor cells that surround a canal leading into a non-muscular reservoir. We proposed to evaluate the morphology of the gland in worker bees of genetically distinct colonies, in terms of the presence and size of branching, the length of the main duct of the reservoir up to the branching point, and the total length of the gland. It was observed that the presence of branching varied from 30% to 76% with X = 59% ± 11.5%, and its length varied from 0.13mm ± 0.24mm to 1.03mm ± 1.54mm with X = 0.53mm ± 0.27mm; the variation in size of the main duct was from 5.97mm ± 1.61mm to 20.95mm ± 6.66mm with X = 12.3mm ± 5.7mm; the distance from the reservoir to the branching point was from 5.52mm ± 1.84mm to 19.53mm ± 6.42mm with X = 11.42mm ± 5.31mm, and the total length of the gland varied from 6.22mm ± 1.60mm and 21.98mm ± 7.40mm with X = 12.86mm ± 5.88mm. A large phenotypic variation was evident. The samples presented branching in at least 30% of the individuals, this characteristic being considered primitive. However, glands without branching suggest an evolution in that direction for this type of bee in the region. Concerning the genetic characteristics of the gland, in 31% of the colonies the workers presented small poison glands, genotype recessive homozygotes gm1gm1 and gm2gm2; in 69%, the workers presented large glands in heterozygote Gm2gm1 and dominant homozygotes Gm1Gm1 and Gm2Gm2. These results indicate a concentration of bees with large acid glands in the region, favoring a selection process for the production of poison.

  16. Mitochondrial capacity, oxidative damage and hypoxia gene expression are associated with age-related division of labor in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Mário S; Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Craveiro, Giovana; Souza, Anderson de O; Alberici, Luciane C; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    During adult life, honey bee workers undergo a succession of behavioral states. Nurse bees perform tasks inside the nest, and when they are about 2-3 weeks old they initiate foraging. This switch is associated with alterations in diet, and with the levels of juvenile hormone and vitellogenin circulating in hemolymph. It is not clear whether this behavioral maturation involves major changes at the cellular level, such as mitochondrial activity and the redox environment in the head, thorax and abdomen. Using high-resolution respirometry, biochemical assays and RT-qPCR, we evaluated the association of these parameters with this behavioral change. We found that tissues from the head and abdomen of nurses have a higher oxidative phosphorylation capacity than those of foragers, while for the thorax we found the opposite situation. As higher mitochondrial activity tends to generate more H 2 O 2 , and H 2 O 2 is known to stabilize HIF-1α, this would be expected to stimulate hypoxia signaling. The positive correlation that we observed between mitochondrial activity and hif-1α gene expression in abdomen and head tissue of nurses would be in line with this hypothesis. Higher expression of antioxidant enzyme genes was observed in foragers, which could explain their low levels of protein carbonylation. No alterations were seen in nitric oxide (NO) levels, suggesting that NO signaling is unlikely to be involved in behavioral maturation. We conclude that the behavioral change seen in honey bee workers is reflected in differential mitochondrial activities and redox parameters, and we consider that this can provide insights into the underlying aging process. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The Dutch xAPI Experience: xAPI Recipes

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Alan; Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    We present the collected experiences since 2012 of the Dutch Special Interest Group (SIG) for Learning Analytics in the application of the xAPI standard and best practices around the application of xAPI in various contexts. We present three projects that apply xAPI in very different ways and publish a consistent set of xAPI recipes.

  18. Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels, Calmodulin, Adenylyl Cyclase, and Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Are Required for Late, but Not Early, Long-Term Memory Formation in the Honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Lormant, Flore; Mizunami, Makoto; Giurfa, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Memory is a dynamic process that allows encoding, storage, and retrieval of information acquired through individual experience. In the honeybee "Apis mellifera," olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) has shown that besides short-term memory (STM) and mid-term memory (MTM), two phases of long-term memory (LTM)…

  19. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  20. The organization of honeybee ocelli: Regional specializations and rhabdom arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribi, Willi; Warrant, Eric; Zeil, Jochen

    2011-11-01

    We have re-investigated the organization of ocelli in honeybee workers and drones. Ocellar lenses are divided into a dorsal and a ventral part by a cusp-shaped indentation. The retina is also divided, with a ventral retina looking skywards and a dorsal retina looking at the horizon. The focal plane of lenses lies behind the retina in lateral ocelli, but within the dorsal retina in the median ocellus of both workers and drones. Ventral retinula cells are ca. 25μm long with dense screening pigments. Dorsal retinula cells are ca. 60μm long with sparse pigmentation mainly restricted to their proximal parts. Pairs of retinula cells form flat, non-twisting rhabdom sheets with elongated, straight, rectangular cross-sections, on average 8.7μm long and 1μm wide. Honeybee ocellar rhabdoms have shorter and straighter cross-sections than those recently described in the night-active bee Megalopta genalis. Across the retina, rhabdoms form a fan-shaped pattern of orientations. In each ocellus, ventral and dorsal retinula cell axons project into two separate neuropils, converging on few large neurons in the dorsal, and on many small neurons in the ventral neuropil. The divided nature of the ocelli, together with the particular construction and arrangement of rhabdoms, suggest that ocelli are not only involved in attitude control, but might also provide skylight polarization compass information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Foragers of sympatric Asian honey bee species intercept competitor signals by avoiding benzyl acetate from Apis cerana alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Cheng, Yanan; Qu, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Jianjun; Bell, Heather; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James

    2017-07-27

    While foraging, animals can form inter- and intraspecific social signalling networks to avoid similar predators. We report here that foragers of different native Asian honey bee species can detect and use a specialized alarm pheromone component, benzyl acetate (BA), to avoid danger. We analysed the volatile alarm pheromone produced by attacked workers of the most abundant native Asian honey bee, Apis cerana and tested the responses of other bee species to these alarm signals. As compared to nest guards, A. cerana foragers produced 3.38 fold higher levels of BA. In foragers, BA and (E)-dec-2-en-1-yl acetate (DA) generated the strongest antennal electrophysiological responses. BA was also the only compound that alerted flying foragers and inhibited A. cerana foraging. BA thereby decreased A. cerana foraging for risky sites. Interestingly, although BA occurs only in trace amounts and is nearly absent in sympatric honeybee species (respectively only 0.07% and 0.44% as much in A. dorsata and A. florea), these floral generalists detected and avoided BA as strongly as they did to their own alarm pheromone on natural inflorescences. These results demonstrate that competing pollinators can take advantage of alarm signal information provided by other species.

  2. Antennal proteome comparison of sexually mature drone and forager honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2011-07-01

    Honeybees have evolved an intricate system of chemical communication to regulate their complex social interactions. Specific proteins involved in odorant detection most likely supported this chemical communication. Odorant reception takes place mainly in the antennae within hairlike structures called olfactory sensilla. Antennal proteomes of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees (an age group of bees assigned to perform field tasks) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics. Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in which 67% were highly upregulated in the drones' antennae whereas only 33% upregulated in the worker bees' antennae. The antennae of the worker bees strongly expressed carbohydrate and energy metabolism and molecular transporters signifying a strong demand for metabolic energy and odorant binding proteins for their foraging activities and other olfactory responses, while proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, and protein folding were strongly upregulated in the drones' antennae as an indication of the importance for the detection and degradation of sex pheromones during queen identification for mating. On the basis of both groups of altered antenna proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and molecular transporters comprised more than 80% of the functional enrichment analysis and 45% of the constructed biological interaction networks (BIN), respectively. This suggests these two protein families play crucial roles in the antennal olfactory function of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees. Several key node proteins in the BIN were validated at the transcript level. This first global proteomic comparative analysis of antennae reveals sex-biased protein expression in both bees, indicating that odorant response mechanisms are sex-specific because of natural selection for different olfactory

  3. Potential costs of bacterial infection on storage protein gene expression and reproduction in queenless Apis mellifera worker bees on distinct dietary regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2012-09-01

    Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  5. Assessing pollinators’ use of floral resource subsidies in agri-environment schemes: An illustration using Phacelia tanacetifolia and honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Sprague

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Honeybees (Apis mellifera L. are frequently used in agriculture for pollination services because of their abundance, generalist floral preferences, ease of management and hive transport. However, their populations are declining in many countries. Agri-Environment Schemes (AES are being implemented in agricultural systems to combat the decline in populations of pollinators and other insects. Despite AES being increasingly embedded in policy and budgets, scientific assessments of many of these schemes still are lacking, and only a few studies have examined the extent to which insect pollinators use the floral enhancements that are part of AES and on which floral components they feed (i.e., pollen and/or nectar. Methods In the present work, we used a combination of observations on honeybee foraging for nectar/pollen from the Californian annual plant Phacelia tanacetifolia in the field, collection of pollen pellets from hives, and pollen identification, to assess the value of adding phacelia to an agro-ecosystem to benefit honeybees. Results It was found that phacelia pollen was almost never taken by honeybees. The work here demonstrates that honeybees may not use the floral enhancements added to a landscape as expected and points to the need for more careful assessments of what resources are used by honeybees in AES and understanding the role, if any, which AES play in enhancing pollinator fitness. Discussion We recommend using the methodology in this paper to explore the efficacy of AES before particular flowering species are adopted more widely to give a more complete illustration of the actual efficacy of AES.

  6. Uncovering the immune responses of Apis mellifera ligustica larval gut to Ascosphaera apis infection utilizing transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dafu; Guo, Rui; Xu, Xijian; Xiong, Cuiling; Liang, Qin; Zheng, Yanzhen; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Zhaonan; Huang, Zhijian; Kumar, Dhiraj; Xi, Weijun; Zou, Xuan; Liu, Min

    2017-07-20

    Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A. apis-treated Apis mellifera (4-, 5- and 6-day-old) compared with un-treated larval guts. Moreover, the expression patterns of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were examined via trend analysis, and subsequently, gene ontology analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted for DEGs involved in up- and down-regulated profiles. Immunity-related pathways were selected for further analysis, and our results demonstrated that a total of 13 and 50 DEGs were annotated in the humoral immune-related and cellular immune-related pathways, respectively. Additionally, we observed that many DEGs up-regulated in treated guts were part of cellular immune pathways, such as the lysosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, and insect hormone biosynthesis pathways and were induced by A. apis invasion. However, more down-regulated DEGs were restrained. Surprisingly, a majority of DEGs within the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway were up-regulated in treated guts, while all but two genes involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway were down-regulated, which suggested that most genes involved in humoral immune-related pathways were activated in response to the invasive fungal pathogen. This study's findings provide valuable information regarding the investigation of the molecular mechanism of immunity defenses of A. m. ligustica larval guts to infection with A. apis. Furthermore, these studies lay the groundwork for

  7. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 μg/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1 × 10(4) μg/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants.

  8. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  9. Effects of erectable glossal hairs on a honeybee's nectar-drinking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze

    2014-06-01

    With the use of a scanning electron microscope, we observe specific microstructures of the mouthpart of the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica), especially the distribution and dimensions of hairs on its glossa. Considering the erection of glossal hairs for trapping nectar modifies the viscous dipping model in analyzing the drinking strategy of a honeybee. Theoretical estimations of volume intake rates with respect to sucrose solutions of different concentrations agree with experimental data, which indicates that erectable hairs can significantly increase the ability of a bee to acquire nectar efficiently. The comparison with experimental results also indicates that a honeybee may continuously augment its pumping power, rather than keep it constant, to drink nectar with sharply increasing viscosity. Under the modified assumption of increasing working power, we introduce the rate at which working power increases with viscosity and discuss the nature-preferred nectar concentration of 35% by theoretically calculating optimal concentration maximizing energetic intake rates under varying increasing rates. Finally, the ability of the mouthparts of the honeybee to transfer viscous nectar may inspire a concept for transporting microfluidics with a wide range of viscosities.

  10. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  11. EXPRESSION OF A BEE-VENOM PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM APIS CERANA CERANA IN E,.qCHERICHIA COLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rongShen; Jia-anCheng; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The venomous phospholipase A2 (AcPLA2) coding reading region of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana), which is composed of 405 bp encoding a mature glycosylated peptide with 134 amino residues was transformed into the expression vector pETblue-1. Then the recombinant vector was introduced into Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) plac I for expression. Analysis result of SDS-PAGE showed that the expression products had a protein band of about 15 kD. Detection of western blot using ant-European honeybee (Apis mellifera) phospholipase A2 (AmPLA2) polyclonal serum as the first antibody showed that the expression products appeared a special blot same as the native AmPLA2.The result demonstrated that the AcPLA2 peptide had been expressed in E. coli and the AcPLA2 has the similar antigenicity as the AmPLA2.

  12. On the honeybee resistance to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Lecomte, J.

    1960-01-01

    The honeybee, when irradiated by gamma radiations from a cobalt-60 source can stand a 18000 r dose without any apparent harm. Noticeable harm is observed for 90000 r. while immediate death of 100% of the individuals is obtained with a 200000 r dose. The physiological condition of the honeybee plays an important role in its resistance to gamma radiation. Reprint of a paper published in Annales de l'abeille, IV, 1959, p. 285-290 [fr

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF THREE ASIAN NATIVE HONEY BEES (APIS CERANA, A. DORSATA, A. FLOREA) IN NORTHERN VIETNAM AND THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. NIEM; L. Q. TRUNG

    1999-01-01

    Three species of Asian native honey bees (Apis cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata) from northern Vietnam and Thailand were morphologically analyzed fo r investigations on their geographic variations and relations. In Vietnam, samples were collected from feral and managed colonies. In Thailand, the collections were from feral colonies or from field bees on flowers. Morphological analysis was carried out, using measurements common to honeybee taxonomy. Measured characters were done under ster...

  14. Diet quantity influence phenotypic dimorphism during honey bee (Apis mellifera) caste determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen and worker honey bees are genetically analogous, but morphologically and physiologically different. Nutritional differences in larval diets regulate caste determination. Our recent work indicates diet quantity has a strong influence on caste in honeybees, and that queen induction can occur in ...

  15. Resilience of honeybee colonies via common stomach: A model of self-regulation of foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmickl

    Full Text Available We propose a new regulation mechanism based on the idea of the "common stomach" to explain several aspects of the resilience and homeostatic regulation of honeybee colonies. This mechanism exploits shared pools of substances (pollen, nectar, workers, brood that modulate recruitment, abandonment and allocation patterns at the colony-level and enable bees to perform several survival strategies to cope with difficult circumstances: Lack of proteins leads to reduced feeding of young brood, to early capping of old brood and to regaining of already spent proteins through brood cannibalism. We modeled this system by linear interaction terms and mass-action law. To test the predictive power of the model of this regulatory mechanism we compared our model predictions to experimental data of several studies. These comparisons show that the proposed regulation mechanism can explain a variety of colony level behaviors. Detailed analysis of the model revealed that these mechanisms could explain the resilience, stability and self-regulation observed in honeybee colonies. We found that manipulation of material flow and applying sudden perturbations to colony stocks are quickly compensated by a resulting counter-acting shift in task selection. Selective analysis of feedback loops allowed us to discriminate the importance of different feedback loops in self-regulation of honeybee colonies. We stress that a network of simple proximate mechanisms can explain significant colony-level abilities that can also be seen as ultimate reasoning of the evolutionary trajectory of honeybees.

  16. Cognitive Aspects of Comb-Building in the Honeybee?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gallo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The wax-made comb of the honeybee is a masterpiece of animal architecture. The highly regular, double-sided hexagonal structure is a near-optimal solution to storing food and housing larvae, economizing on building materials and space. Elaborate though they may seem, such animal constructions are often viewed as the result of ‘just instinct,’ governed by inflexible, pre-programmed, innate behavior routines. An inspection of the literature on honeybee comb construction, however, reveals a different picture. Workers have to learn, at least in part, certain elements of the technique, and there is considerable flexibility in terms of how the shape of the comb and its gradual manufacture is tailored to the circumstances, especially the available space. Moreover, we explore the 2-century old and now largely forgotten work by François Huber, where glass screens were placed between an expanding comb construction and the intended target wall. Bees took corrective action before reaching the glass obstacle, and altered the ongoing construction so as to reach the nearest wooden wall. Though further experiments will be necessary, these results suggest a form of spatial planning skills. We discuss these findings in the context of what is now known about insect cognition, and ask if it is possible that the production of hexagonal wax combs is the result of behavioral heuristics where a complex structure emerges as the result of simple behavioral rules applied by each individual, or whether prospective cognition might be involved.

  17. Temporal and preparation effects in the magnetic nanoparticles of Apis mellifera body parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambarelli, L.L.; Pinho, M.A.; Abracado, L.G.; Esquivel, D.M.S. [Coordenacao de Fisica Aplicada, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Wajnberg, E. [Coordenacao de Fisica Aplicada, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: elianew@cbpf.br

    2008-07-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the Apis mellifera abdomens are well accepted as involved in their magnetoreception mechanism. The effects of sample preparation on the time evolution of magnetic particles in the honeybee body parts (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen) were investigated by Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) at room temperature (RT), for about 100 days. Three preparations were tested: (a) washed with water (WT); (b) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) for 24 h and washed with cacodylate buffer (C); (c) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% for 24 h and washed with glutaraldehyde 2.5% in cacodylate buffer (GLC). The four body parts of young and adult worker presented magnetic nanoparticles. The Mn{sup 2+} lines are observed except for the antennae spectra. The high field (HF) and low field (LF) components previously observed in the spectra of social insects, are confirmed in these spectra. The HF line is present in all spectra while the LF is easily observed in the spectra of the young bee and it appears as a baseline shift in spectra of some adult parts. The HF intensity of the abdomen is commonly one order of magnitude larger than any other body parts. This is the first systematic study on the conservation of magnetic material in all body parts of bees. The results show that the time evolution of the spectra depends on the body part, conserving solution and bee age. Further measurements are necessary to understand these effects and extend it to other social insects.

  18. Temporal and preparation effects in the magnetic nanoparticles of Apis mellifera body parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambarelli, L.L.; Pinho, M.A.; Abracado, L.G.; Esquivel, D.M.S.; Wajnberg, E.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the Apis mellifera abdomens are well accepted as involved in their magnetoreception mechanism. The effects of sample preparation on the time evolution of magnetic particles in the honeybee body parts (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen) were investigated by Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) at room temperature (RT), for about 100 days. Three preparations were tested: (a) washed with water (WT); (b) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) for 24 h and washed with cacodylate buffer (C); (c) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% for 24 h and washed with glutaraldehyde 2.5% in cacodylate buffer (GLC). The four body parts of young and adult worker presented magnetic nanoparticles. The Mn 2+ lines are observed except for the antennae spectra. The high field (HF) and low field (LF) components previously observed in the spectra of social insects, are confirmed in these spectra. The HF line is present in all spectra while the LF is easily observed in the spectra of the young bee and it appears as a baseline shift in spectra of some adult parts. The HF intensity of the abdomen is commonly one order of magnitude larger than any other body parts. This is the first systematic study on the conservation of magnetic material in all body parts of bees. The results show that the time evolution of the spectra depends on the body part, conserving solution and bee age. Further measurements are necessary to understand these effects and extend it to other social insects

  19. Temporal and preparation effects in the magnetic nanoparticles of Apis mellifera body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambarelli, L. L.; Pinho, M. A.; Abraçado, L. G.; Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the Apis mellifera abdomens are well accepted as involved in their magnetoreception mechanism. The effects of sample preparation on the time evolution of magnetic particles in the honeybee body parts (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen) were investigated by Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) at room temperature (RT), for about 100 days. Three preparations were tested: (a) washed with water (WT); (b) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) for 24 h and washed with cacodylate buffer (C); (c) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% for 24 h and washed with glutaraldehyde 2.5% in cacodylate buffer (GLC). The four body parts of young and adult worker presented magnetic nanoparticles. The Mn 2+ lines are observed except for the antennae spectra. The high field (HF) and low field (LF) components previously observed in the spectra of social insects, are confirmed in these spectra. The HF line is present in all spectra while the LF is easily observed in the spectra of the young bee and it appears as a baseline shift in spectra of some adult parts. The HF intensity of the abdomen is commonly one order of magnitude larger than any other body parts. This is the first systematic study on the conservation of magnetic material in all body parts of bees. The results show that the time evolution of the spectra depends on the body part, conserving solution and bee age. Further measurements are necessary to understand these effects and extend it to other social insects.

  20. Mars Atmospheric Aggregation System API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The {MAAS} API is an open source REST API built to help make it easier and more efficient to build interactive applications that want to utilize the wealth of...

  1. Data.gov CKAN API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data.gov catalog is powered by CKAN, a powerful open source data platform that includes a robust API. Please be aware that data.gov and the data.gov CKAN API...

  2. Proteomics Improves the New Understanding of Honeybee Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Zewdu Ararso; Altaye, Solomon Zewdu; Wubie, Abebe Jemberie; Li, Jianke

    2018-04-11

    The honeybee is one of the most valuable insect pollinators, playing a key role in pollinating wild vegetation and agricultural crops, with significant contribution to the world's food production. Although honeybees have long been studied as model for social evolution, honeybee biology at the molecular level remained poorly understood until the year 2006. With the availability of the honeybee genome sequence and technological advancements in protein separation, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, aspects of honeybee biology such as developmental biology, physiology, behavior, neurobiology, and immunology have been explored to new depths at molecular and biochemical levels. This Review comprehensively summarizes the recent progress in honeybee biology using proteomics to study developmental physiology, task transition, and physiological changes in some of the organs, tissues, and cells based on achievements from the authors' laboratory in this field. The research advances of honeybee proteomics provide new insights for understanding of honeybee biology and future research directions.

  3. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  4. Vitellogenins Are New High Molecular Weight Components and Allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6) of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; McIntyre, Mareike; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Sara; Bantleon, Frank I.; Spillner, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. Methods/Principal Findings Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Conclusion With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively. PMID:23626765

  5. Automatic behaviour analysis system for honeybees using computer vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Hansen, Mikkel Kragh; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    We present a fully automatic online video system, which is able to detect the behaviour of honeybees at the beehive entrance. Our monitoring system focuses on observing the honeybees as naturally as possible (i.e. without disturbing the honeybees). It is based on the Raspberry Pi that is a low...

  6. Focal and temporal release of glutamate in the mushroom bodies improves olfactory memory in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Fernando; Bundrock, Gesine; Müller, Uli

    2005-12-14

    In contrast to vertebrates, the role of the neurotransmitter glutamate in learning and memory in insects has hardly been investigated. The reason is that a pharmacological characterization of insect glutamate receptors is still missing; furthermore, it is difficult to locally restrict pharmacological interventions. In this study, we overcome these problems by using locally and temporally defined photo-uncaging of glutamate to study its role in olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Uncaging glutamate in the mushroom bodies immediately after a weak training protocol induced a higher memory rate 2 d after training, mimicking the effect of a strong training protocol. Glutamate release before training does not facilitate memory formation, suggesting that glutamate mediates processes triggered by training and required for memory formation. Uncaging glutamate in the antennal lobes shows no effect on memory formation. These results provide the first direct evidence for a temporally and locally restricted function of glutamate in memory formation in honeybees and insects.

  7. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sáez

    Full Text Available Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus. We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  8. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  9. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    1998-07-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  10. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  11. Radioprotection: mechanism and radioprotective agents including honeybee venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanda, E.A.; Tavares, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1949, a great deal of research has been carried on the radioprotective action of chemical substances. These substances have shown to reduce mortality when administered to animals prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. This fact is of considerable importance since it permits reduction of radiation-induced damage and provides prophylactic treatment for the damaging effects produced by radiotherapy. The following radioprotection mechanisms were proposed: free radical scavenger, repair by hydrogen donation to target molecules formation of mixed disulfides, delay of cellular division and induction of hypoxia in the tissues. Radioprotective agents have been divided into four major groups: the thiol compounds, other sulfur compounds, pharmacological agents (anesthetic drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, etc.) and other radioprotective agents (WR-1065, WR-2721, vitamins C and E, glutathione, etc.). Several studies revealed the radioprotective action of Apis mellifera honeybee venom as well as that of its components mellitin and histamine. Radioprotective activity of bee venom involves mainly the stimulation of the hematopoietic system. In addition, release of histamine and reduction in oxygen tension also contribute to the radioprotective action of bee venom. (author)

  12. Pathogen detection and gut bacteria identification in Apis cerana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    other lactic acid bacteria, were isolated from larvae and adult workers, but gave conflicting preliminary identities based on their biochemistry-morphology versus sequence analysis of a partial fragment (1.4 kb) of their 16S rRNA. Key words: Apis cerana indica, bee pathogens, gut bacteria, multiplex polymerase chain ...

  13. First Identification of Nosema Ceranae (Microsporidia Infecting Apis Mellifera in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porrini Leonardo P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae is a pathogen of Apis mellifera, which seems to have jumped from its original host Asiatic honey bee Apis ceranae. Nosemosis which affects the honey bee Apis mellifera is caused by two parasitic fungi described as etiologic agents of the disease. Nosema apis was the only microsporidian infection identified in A. mellifera until N. ceranae in Taiwan and Europe. Nosema spp. positive samples of adult worker bees from the Venezuelean state of Lara were determined through light microscopy of spores. Samples were then tested to determine Nosema species (N.apis/N.ceranae using previously reported PCR primers for the 16S rRNA gene. A multiplex PCR assay was used to differentiate both N. apis and N. ceranae species. Only N. ceranae was found in the analyzed samples and the percentage of infected foragers fluctuated between 18% and 60%.

  14. Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kegan; Liu, Minghui; Fu, Zheng; Zhou, Zhen; Kong, Yan; Liang, Hongwei; Lin, Zheguang; Luo, Jun; Zheng, Huoqing; Wan, Ping; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Chen, Jiong; Hu, Fuliang; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Ren, Jie; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-01

    The major environmental determinants of honeybee caste development come from larval nutrients: royal jelly stimulates the differentiation of larvae into queens, whereas beebread leads to worker bee fate. However, these determinants are not fully characterized. Here we report that plant RNAs, particularly miRNAs, which are more enriched in beebread than in royal jelly, delay development and decrease body and ovary size in honeybees, thereby preventing larval differentiation into queens and inducing development into worker bees. Mechanistic studies reveal that amTOR, a stimulatory gene in caste differentiation, is the direct target of miR162a. Interestingly, the same effect also exists in non-social Drosophila. When such plant RNAs and miRNAs are fed to Drosophila larvae, they cause extended developmental times and reductions in body weight and length, ovary size and fecundity. This study identifies an uncharacterized function of plant miRNAs that fine-tunes honeybee caste development, offering hints for understanding cross-kingdom interaction and co-evolution.

  15. The API petroassist network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boortz, M.J.; Jardim, G.M.; Horn, S.A.; Disbennett, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Past spill responses, such as those in the Exxon Valdez and American Trader incidents, demonstrated the value of companies volunteering their in-house experts and local knowledge to help other companies in spill response. The American Petroleum Institute (API) formed the PetroAssist Network to provide a means for oil companies to readily gain access to the expertise and communications equipment of other oil companies when needed for spill responses. An API work group developed the PetroAssist Network legal agreement and management and activation procedures. To minimize red tape and reduce the burden on members, existing systems were used whenever possible. The network became operational on January 1, 1992, with more than 40 members

  16. Infestação do ácaro Varroa destructor em colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera L. no Semiárido potiguar, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephano Bismark Lopes Cavalcante Moreira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os índices de infestação pelo ácaro Varroa. destructor em colônias de abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera de apiários dos municípios de Encanto e de Marcelino Vieira, estado do Rio Grande do Norte. A pesquisa foi conduzida no período de setembro a dezembro de 2014, sendo coletadas em média de 100 a 200 abelhas adultas (nutrizes retiradas dos quadros centrais do ninho com crias de cada colmeia, aprisionadas em recipientes contendo 100 mL de álcool a 70% e encaminhadas para laboratório do Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN, para a contagem das abelhas e dos ácaros. Os resultados apresentaram ocorrência do ácaro V. destructor em todos apiários e em todas colmeias analisados, obtendo uma infestação média de 7,24% em Encanto e de 5,25% em Marcelino Vieira, níveis de infestação baixos (<15%, portanto, não acarretando risco às colônias.Varroa destructor mite infestation in colonies of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. in the potiguar Semi-arid region, Northeastern BrazilAbstract: The goal of the present work was to analyze the rates of infestation by Varroa. destructor mite in Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera colonies from apiaries in Encanto and Marcelino Vieira cities, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The research was conducted during the period from September to December 2014. In average 100 to 200 adult bees (nursing honey bee workers were collected from the brood chamber over center frames of with brood of each hive surveyed, trapped in containers containing 100 mL of 70% alcohol and sent to the laboratory of the Federal Institute of Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN for the counting of bees and mites. The results showed an occurrence of the Varroa destructor mite in all apiaries and in all hives analyzed, obtaining an average infestation of 7.24% in Encanto city and 5.25% in Marcelino Vieira city, low infestation levels (<15%, without risk to the colonies.

  17. Associated particle imaging (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab

  18. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  19. Side-Specific Reward Memories in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariana; Menzel, Randolf; De Marco, Rodrigo J.

    2009-01-01

    We report a hitherto unknown form of side-specific learning in honeybees. We trained bees individually by coupling gustatory and mechanical stimulation of each antenna with either increasing or decreasing volumes of sucrose solution offered to the animal's proboscis along successive learning trials. Next, we examined their proboscis extension…

  20. Neuroscience: Intelligence in the Honeybee Mushroom Body

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Sophie; Abbott, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence, in most people’s conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.

  1. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  2. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxim, L [Institut des Sciences de la Communication, CNRS UPS 3088, 27 Rue Damesme, 75013 Paris (France); Van der Sluijs, J P, E-mail: laura.maxim@iscc.cnrs.f, E-mail: J.P.vanderSluijs@uu.n [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  3. CaMKII knockdown affects both early and late phases of olfactory long-term memory in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Christina; Kübert, Natalie; Muenz, Thomas S; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Honeybees are able to solve complex learning tasks and memorize learned information for long time periods. The molecular mechanisms mediating long-term memory (LTM) in the honeybee Apis mellifera are, to a large part, still unknown. We approached this question by investigating the potential function of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme known as a 'molecular memory switch' in vertebrates. CaMKII is able to switch to a calcium-independent constitutively active state, providing a mechanism for a molecular memory and has further been shown to play an essential role in structural synaptic plasticity. Using a combination of knockdown by RNA interference and pharmacological manipulation, we disrupted the function of CaMKII during olfactory learning and memory formation. We found that learning, memory acquisition and mid-term memory were not affected, but all manipulations consistently resulted in an impaired LTM. Both early LTM (24 h after learning) and late LTM (72 h after learning) were significantly disrupted, indicating the necessity of CaMKII in two successive stages of LTM formation in the honeybee. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Expert explanations of honeybee losses in areas of extensive agriculture in France: Gaucho compared with other supposed causal factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, L; Van der Sluijs, J P

    2010-01-01

    Debates on causality are at the core of controversies as regards environmental changes. The present paper presents a new method for analyzing controversies on causality in a context of social debate and the results of its empirical testing. The case study used is the controversy as regards the role played by the insecticide Gaucho, compared with other supposed causal factors, in the substantial honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) losses reported to have occurred in France between 1994 and 2004. The method makes use of expert elicitation of the perceived strength of evidence regarding each of Bradford Hill's causality criteria, as regards the link between each of eight possible causal factors identified in attempts to explain each of five signs observed in honeybee colonies. These judgments are elicited from stakeholders and experts involved in the debate, i.e., representatives of Bayer Cropscience, of the Ministry of Agriculture, of the French Food Safety Authority, of beekeepers and of public scientists. We show that the intense controversy observed in confused and passionate public discourses is much less salient when the various arguments are structured using causation criteria. The contradictions between the different expert views have a triple origin: (1) the lack of shared definition and quantification of the signs observed in colonies; (2) the lack of specialist knowledge on honeybees; and (3) the strategic discursive practices associated with the lack of trust between experts representing stakeholders having diverging stakes in the case.

  5. Whole-genome resequencing of honeybee drones to detect genomic selection in a population managed for royal jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, David; Marti-Marimon, Maria; Basso, Benjamin; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Labarthe, Emmanuelle; Bouchez, Olivier; Le Conte, Yves; Vignal, Alain

    2016-06-03

    Four main evolutionary lineages of A. mellifera have been described including eastern Europe (C) and western and northern Europe (M). Many apiculturists prefer bees from the C lineage due to their docility and high productivity. In France, the routine importation of bees from the C lineage has resulted in the widespread admixture of bees from the M lineage. The haplodiploid nature of the honeybee Apis mellifera, and its small genome size, permits affordable and extensive genomics studies. As a pilot study of a larger project to characterise French honeybee populations, we sequenced 60 drones sampled from two commercial populations managed for the production of honey and royal jelly. Results indicate a C lineage origin, whilst mitochondrial analysis suggests two drones originated from the O lineage. Analysis of heterozygous SNPs identified potential copy number variants near to genes encoding odorant binding proteins and several cytochrome P450 genes. Signatures of selection were detected using the hapFLK haplotype-based method, revealing several regions under putative selection for royal jelly production. The framework developed during this study will be applied to a broader sampling regime, allowing the genetic diversity of French honeybees to be characterised in detail.

  6. Web API Fragility : How Robust is Your Web API Client

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-to-application interaction. A large number of mobile applications makes use of web APIs to integrate services into apps. Each Web API’s evolution pace is determined by their respective developer and mobile application developers

  7. Modelling Gene Flow between Fields of White Clover with Honeybees as Pollen Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løjtnant, Christina; Boelt, Birte; Clausen, Sabine Karin

    2012-01-01

    The portion-dilution model is a parametric restatement of the conventional view of animal pollination; it predicts the level of pollinator-mediated gene dispersal. In this study, the model was applied to white clover (Trifolium repens) and its most frequent pollinator, the honeybee (Apis mellifera......). One of the three parameters in the portion-dilution model is the mean number of flowers a pollinator visits in one foraging bout. An alternative method to estimate this parameter was developed that was not depending on pollinator hive-seeking behaviour. The new estimation method, based on nectar......% with an estimated 95% percentile of 70%. The results show that the European Union threshold limit of 0.9% GM admixture for food and feed will likely be exceeded at times and especially organic farmers that do not accept GM admixture and often have clover and clover–grass fields might face challenges with admixture...

  8. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  9. Open Astronomy Catalogs API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillochon, James; Cowperthwaite, Philip S.

    2018-05-01

    We announce the public release of the application program interface (API) for the Open Astronomy Catalogs (OACs), the OACAPI. The OACs serve near-complete collections of supernova, tidal disruption, kilonova, and fast stars data (including photometry, spectra, radio, and X-ray observations) via a user-friendly web interface that displays the data interactively and offers full data downloads. The OACAPI, by contrast, enables users to specifically download particular pieces of the OAC dataset via a flexible programmatic syntax, either via URL GET requests, or via a module within the astroquery Python package.

  10. Simultaneous morphological and functional imaging of the honeybee's brain by two-photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to its rather simply structured but highly performing brain, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is an important model for neurobiological studies. Therefore there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities adapted to this species. Herein we give a detailed report on the development and performance of a platform for in vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honeybee's brain, focusing on its primary olfactory centres, the antennal lobes (ALs). The experimental setup consists of a two-photon microscope combined with a synchronized odour stimulus generator. Our imaging platform allows to simultaneously obtain both morphological measurements of the ALs functional units, the glomeruli, and in vivo calcium recording of their neural activity. We were able to record the characteristic glomerular response maps to odour stimuli applied to the bee's antennae. Our approach offers several advantages over the commonly used conventional fluorescence microscopy. Two-photon microscopy provides substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions, while minimizing photo damage. Calcium recordings show a more than fourfold improvement in the functional signal with respect to the techniques available up to now. Finally, the extended penetration depth, thanks to the infrared excitation, allows the functional imaging of profound glomeruli which have not been optically accessible up to now.

  11. Decision-making in honeybee swarms based on quality and distance information of candidate nest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Termsaithong, Teerasit; Sae-Tang, Anuwat; Duangphakdee, Orawan

    2015-01-07

    In the nest-site selection process of honeybee swarms, an individual bee performs a waggle dance to communicate information about direction, quality, and distance of a discovered site to other bees at the swarm. Initially, different groups of bees dance to represent different potential sites, but eventually the swarm usually reaches an agreement for only one site. Here, we model the nest-site selection process in honeybee swarms of Apis mellifera and show how the swarms make adaptive decisions based on a trade-off between the quality and distance to candidate nest sites. We use bifurcation analysis and stochastic simulations to reveal that the swarm's site distance preference is moderate>near>far when the swarms choose between low quality sites. However, the distance preference becomes near>moderate>far when the swarms choose between high quality sites. Our simulations also indicate that swarms with large population size prefer nearer sites and, in addition, are more adaptive at making decisions based on available information compared to swarms with smaller population size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Blue colour preference in honeybees distracts visual attention for learning closed shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Linde; Svoboda, Alexander; Spaethe, Johannes; Dyer, Adrian G

    2013-10-01

    Spatial vision is an important cue for how honeybees (Apis mellifera) find flowers, and previous work has suggested that spatial learning in free-flying bees is exclusively mediated by achromatic input to the green photoreceptor channel. However, some data suggested that bees may be able to use alternative channels for shape processing, and recent work shows conditioning type and training length can significantly influence bee learning and cue use. We thus tested the honeybees' ability to discriminate between two closed shapes considering either absolute or differential conditioning, and using eight stimuli differing in their spectral characteristics. Consistent with previous work, green contrast enabled reliable shape learning for both types of conditioning, but surprisingly, we found that bees trained with appetitive-aversive differential conditioning could additionally use colour and/or UV contrast to enable shape discrimination. Interestingly, we found that a high blue contrast initially interferes with bee shape learning, probably due to the bees innate preference for blue colours, but with increasing experience bees can learn a variety of spectral and/or colour cues to facilitate spatial learning. Thus, the relationship between bee pollinators and the spatial and spectral cues that they use to find rewarding flowers appears to be a more rich visual environment than previously thought.

  13. Genome-wide scans between two honeybee populations reveal putative signatures of human-mediated selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, M; Wragg, D; Henriques, D; Vignal, A; Neuditschko, M

    2017-12-01

    Human-mediated selection has left signatures in the genomes of many domesticated animals, including the European dark honeybee, Apis mellifera mellifera, which has been selected by apiculturists for centuries. Using whole-genome sequence information, we investigated selection signatures in spatially separated honeybee subpopulations (Switzerland, n = 39 and France, n = 17). Three different test statistics were calculated in windows of 2 kb (fixation index, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and cross-population composite likelihood ratio) and combined into a recently developed composite selection score. Applying a stringent false discovery rate of 0.01, we identified six significant selective sweeps distributed across five chromosomes covering eight genes. These genes are associated with multiple molecular and biological functions, including regulation of transcription, receptor binding and signal transduction. Of particular interest is a selection signature on chromosome 1, which corresponds to the WNT4 gene, the family of which is conserved across the animal kingdom with a variety of functions. In Drosophila melanogaster, WNT4 alleles have been associated with differential wing, cross vein and abdominal phenotypes. Defining phenotypic characteristics of different Apis mellifera ssp., which are typically used as selection criteria, include colour and wing venation pattern. This signal is therefore likely to be a good candidate for human mediated-selection arising from different applied breeding practices in the two managed populations. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Cross-modal interaction between visual and olfactory learning in Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wang, Zi-Long; Yan, Wei-Yu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The power of the small honeybee brain carrying out behavioral and cognitive tasks has been shown repeatedly to be highly impressive. The present study investigates, for the first time, the cross-modal interaction between visual and olfactory learning in Apis cerana. To explore the role and molecular mechanisms of cross-modal learning in A. cerana, the honeybees were trained and tested in a modified Y-maze with seven visual and five olfactory stimulus, where a robust visual threshold for black/white grating (period of 2.8°-3.8°) and relatively olfactory threshold (concentration of 50-25%) was obtained. Meanwhile, the expression levels of five genes (AcCREB, Acdop1, Acdop2, Acdop3, Actyr1) related to learning and memory were analyzed under different training conditions by real-time RT-PCR. The experimental results indicate that A. cerana could exhibit cross-modal interactions between visual and olfactory learning by reducing the threshold level of the conditioning stimuli, and that these genes may play important roles in the learning process of honeybees.

  15. Resisting majesty: Apis cerana, has lower antennal sensitivity and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone than Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xinyu; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James

    2017-03-01

    In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers. Using electroantennograms, we found species-specific sensitivity differences for a blend of the major QMP compounds and three individual compounds (9-HDA, 10-HDAA, and 10-HDA). As predicted, Am was more sensitive than Ac in all cases (1.3- to 2.7- fold higher responses). There were also species differences in worker retinue attraction to three compounds (9-HDA, HOB, and 10-HDA). In all significantly different cases, Am workers were 4.5- to 6.2-fold more strongly attracted than Ac workers were. Thus, Ac workers responded less strongly to QMP than Ac workers, and 9-HDA and 10-HDA consistently elicited stronger antennal and retinue formation responses.

  16. TUMBUHAN YANG DIKUNJUNGI LEBAH PEKERJA Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae DI SUMATERA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmi Jasmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research about plant visited by Apis forager was conducted at altitude < 500 m and 600-1400 m of West Sumatra from December 2009-July 2010. The plant visited by forager was collected at radius 500 m from nests in fruits cropping, coffea and cinnamom plantation and forest edge. Honeybee from genus Apisvisit on plant consisted of four species, those are A. andreniformis, A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. koschevnikovi. Plant visited by forager Apis consisted of 61 species belong to 26 families. The number of 36 plant species found at lowland and highland, 20 species only at lowland and five species at highland. Most of plant species visited by Apis forager are Asteraceae and Leguminoceae. About 29 plant species visited by Apis were agriculture crop and 32 species of non agriculture. Apis andreniformis visited 29 plant species, A. cerana 56 species, A. dorsata 57 species and A. koschevnikovi one plant species. Cucumis sativus was visited by four bee species, Galiansoga farviflora was visited only by A. cerana. Five plant species (Rorippa indica, Cinnamomum burmanii, Nasturrium indicum, Rorippa indica and Eryngium foetidum were visited by only A. dorsata. Other three plants species (Mangifera indica, Cytrus aurantifoliaand Oryza sativa were visited by A. cerana and A. andreniformis, 31 plant species were visited by A. cerana and A. dorsata, 21 species were visited by A. andreniformis, A. cerana and A. dorsata. Keywords: lebah madu, Apis forager, food source plant, visit

  17. Intro to the Zotero API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  18. Bluetooth API Implementation into Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a popular method of communication between devices. Many smartphones today have the capability to communicate using Bluetooth. Android developers sometimes need to use Bluetooth in their projects. Android OS provides a powerful API for Bluetooth that allows to simplify scanning the environment for devices, pairing and connecting, data transfer between devices and more. However, utilizing the Bluetooth API can be difficult for first-time users. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the key points of implementing Bluetooth API in the Android application.

  19. Api m 10, a genuine A. mellifera venom allergen, is clinically relevant but underrepresented in therapeutic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, S; Seismann, H; Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Cifuentes, L; Braren, I; Grunwald, T; Darsow, U; Ring, J; Bredehorst, R; Ollert, M; Spillner, E

    2011-10-01

    Generalized systemic reactions to stinging hymenoptera venom constitute a potentially fatal condition in venom-allergic individuals. Hence, the identification and characterization of all allergens is imperative for improvement of diagnosis and design of effective immunotherapeutic approaches. Our aim was the immunochemical characterization of the carbohydrate-rich protein Api m 10, an Apis mellifera venom component and putative allergen, with focus on the relevance of glycosylation. Furthermore, the presence of Api m 10 in honeybee venom (HBV) and licensed venom immunotherapy preparations was addressed. Api m 10 was produced as soluble, aglycosylated protein in Escherichia coli and as differentially glycosylated protein providing a varying degree of fucosylation in insect cells. IgE reactivity and basophil activation of allergic patients were analyzed. For detection of Api m 10 in different venom preparations, a monoclonal human IgE antibody was generated. Both, the aglycosylated and the glycosylated variant of Api m 10 devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD), exhibited IgE reactivity with approximately 50% of HBV-sensitized patients. A corresponding reactivity could be documented for the activation of basophils. Although the detection of the native protein in crude HBV suggested content comparable to other relevant allergens, three therapeutical HBV extracts lacked detectable amounts of this component. Api m 10 is a genuine allergen of A. mellifera venom with IgE sensitizing potential in a significant fraction of allergic patients independent of CCD reactivity. Thus, Api m 10 could become a key element for component-resolved diagnostic tests and improved immunotherapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Widespread dispersal of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Julia; Besana, Andrea M; Genersch, Elke; Gisder, Sebastian; Nanetti, Antonio; Tam, Dinh Quyet; Chinh, Tong Xuan; Puerta, Francisco; Ruz, José Maria; Kryger, Per; Message, Dejair; Hatjina, Fani; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar; Paxton, Robert J

    2007-09-01

    The economically most important honey bee species, Apis mellifera, was formerly considered to be parasitized by one microsporidian, Nosema apis. Recently, [Higes, M., Martín, R., Meana, A., 2006. Nosema ceranae, a new microsporidian parasite in honeybees in Europe, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 92, 93-95] and [Huang, W.-F., Jiang, J.-H., Chen, Y.-W., Wang, C.-H., 2007. A Nosema ceranae isolate from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Apidologie 38, 30-37] used 16S (SSU) rRNA gene sequences to demonstrate the presence of Nosema ceranae in A. mellifera from Spain and Taiwan, respectively. We developed a rapid method to differentiate between N. apis and N. ceranae based on PCR-RFLPs of partial SSU rRNA. The reliability of the method was confirmed by sequencing 29 isolates from across the world (N =9 isolates gave N. apis RFLPs and sequences, N =20 isolates gave N. ceranae RFLPs and sequences; 100% correct classification). We then employed the method to analyze N =115 isolates from across the world. Our data, combined with N =36 additional published sequences demonstrate that (i) N. ceranae most likely jumped host to A. mellifera, probably within the last decade, (ii) that host colonies and individuals may be co-infected by both microsporidia species, and that (iii) N. ceranae is now a parasite of A. mellifera across most of the world. The rapid, long-distance dispersal of N. ceranae is likely due to transport of infected honey bees by commercial or hobbyist beekeepers. We discuss the implications of this emergent pathogen for worldwide beekeeping.

  1. Reproductive ability and level of infestation of the Varroa destructor mite in Apis mellifera apiaries in Blumenau, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.20366

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Estevão Carneiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor mite causes mortality of Apis mellifera bees throughout the world. Its greatest damage to these colonies has been reported in European countries and North America. The impact of the mite is related to the climate and the bee race on each region in which the plague has been established. Varroa causes little damage to the colonies of africanized honeybees in Brazil and the levels of infestation are relatively small and stable. The reproductive ability of Varroa females was evaluated in pupae of workers of 17-18 days of age, obtained from eight beehives of africanized bees for twelve months. The average number of offspring (deutonymphs, protonymphs and eggs each Varroa produced was 3.18 ± 0.19. The average total number of deutonymph and protonymph was, respectively, 1.57 ± 0.15 and 1.61 ± 0.14. The levels of infestation demonstrated that the plague continue reaching low levels, the average was 4.11 ± 3.42.

  2. RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christof W.; Tautz, Jürgen; Grünewald, Bernd; Fuchs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID) method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15–6 ng/bee) and clothianidin (0.05–2 ng/bee) under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin) and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid) during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further information on

  3. RFID tracking of sublethal effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof W Schneider

    Full Text Available The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15-6 ng/bee and clothianidin (0.05-2 ng/bee under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further

  4. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  5. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera, which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50, as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relationship between the maximum OA dose used in Uruguay (3.1 g OA per hive and the toxicological parameters of honeybees from SWZU. The current dose of 3.1 g OA per hive corresponds to 132.8 OA per honeybee since determined NOEL is 400 OA per honeybee; our results indicate that the current dose could be increased to 9.3 g OA per hive. The results also highlight some differences between the LD50 value in SWZU honeybees (548.95 OA per honeybee and some published LD50 values for other honeybee subspecies.Este trabajo estudió la toxicidad aguda por contacto del ácido oxálico (AO sobre una subespecie poli-híbrida de abejas (Apis mellifera, la cual es el biotipo dominante en la zona sudoeste de Uruguay (SWZU, la región más importante para la producción de miel en este país. Este estudio determinó la dosis letal 50 (DL50, así como el nivel de efecto no observado (NOEL, el nivel de efecto mínimo observado (LOEL, y el número total de individuos por colmena. El propósito fue evaluar la relación entre la dosis máxima de AO usada en Uruguay (3.1 g AO por colmena y los parámetros toxicológicos de las abejas de la SWZU. Los resultados mostraron que es posible elevar la dosis actual de AO por colmena a 9.3 g, ya que la dosis actual de 3.1 g de AO corresponde a 132.8 AO por abeja, y el NOEL determinado es 400 AO por abeja. Los resultados también destacaron algunas diferencias entre la DL50 de las abejas del SWZU (548.95 AO por abeja y algunos valores de DL50 publicados

  6. A review of African honeybees, behaviour and potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African honeybees have a higher tendency to swarm, abscond and migrate than their counterparts in Europe and elsewhere, thus making it more difficult to maintain African honeybee colonies over years. They are also labeled as overly defensive, with a high propensity to sting, making their management a challenge.

  7. Honeybee forage, bee visitation counts and the properties of honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the survey was to document honeybee forage plants and asses honeybee visitation counts on different forage plants and properties of honey from selected agro-ecological zones of Uganda. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, a survey of the apiaries and beekeepers was done by selecting fifteen bee ...

  8. KETERSEDIAAN TEPUNGSARI DALAM MENOPANG PERKEMBANGAN ANAKAN LEBAH MADU Apis mellifera DI AREAL RANDU (Ceiba pentandra DAN KARET (Hevea brasilliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Minarti

    2012-04-01

    ABSTRACT This research aims to learn about the potency of honeybee Apis mellifera based on the intensity of working in gathering pollen, skill to gather pollen into the nest and form a brood during the pasturing in the silk-cotton tree (Ceiba pentandra plant and rubber tree (Hevea brasilliensis plant area. The subjects that are used are 7 (seven colonies of honeybee Apis mellifera with the queen at the age of 3 months, that each of them supports by 9 active frames. The observation does during the silk-cotton flower and rubber flower season during 4 months totally. During the research, the whole of colonies do not get the supplement food in everything form, so that they rely on natural food from the main plant source even the other plant around the pasturing area. Parameter that is observed includes: the amount of the pollen porter worker, the capacious of pollen nest and the capacious of brood. Data that is taken from the result of the research is analysed by T test non-form a pair to distinguish the entire variable that is measured. To know the closeness level of the connection between the amount of the pollen porter worker bee toward the capacious of pollen nest and the capacious of brood, it is used a simple regression analysis (Sudjana, 1994. The result of the analysis shows that the top activity of the pollen  worker bee in the kapuk tree area occurred at 07.00 – 07.30 (97,64 ± 19,96 bees, while in the rubber tree area occurred at 09.00 – 09.30 (267,12 ± 113,76 bees, the capacious of pollen bunch in the rubber tree area (64,7152  ±  28,1153 cm² noticeable smaller than the kapuk  tree area (275,1080  ±  91,95 cm², while the capacious of brood each of them is  1527.78 ± 575,57 cm² and  1765.79± 384,84 cm2.   Keywords : Honey bee, tepungsari, brrod, kapuk tree (Ceiba pentandra and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis

  9. Gene expression profiles and neural activities of Kenyon cell subtypes in the honeybee brain: identification of novel ?middle-type? Kenyon cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Kumi; Suenami, Shota; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    In the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), it has long been thought that the mushroom bodies, a higher-order center in the insect brain, comprise three distinct subtypes of intrinsic neurons called Kenyon cells. In class-I large-type Kenyon cells and class-I small-type Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the edges and in the inner core of the mushroom body calyces, respectively. In class-II Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the outer surface of the mushroom body calyces. The gene expr...

  10. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em citros para Apis mellifera Toxicity of pesticides used in citrus crop to Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Machado Baptista

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de inseticidas/acaricidas utilizados em cultura de citros para operárias africanizadas de Apis mellifera Linnaeus. A exposição das abelhas aos compostos foi realizada usando-se técnicas de pulverização, contaminação da dieta e contato em superfícies tratadas (folhas de citros e placas de Petri, empregando-se as doses máximas recomendadas para a cultura. Os bioensaios foram realizados em laboratório a 25±2°C, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, sendo os dados de mortalidade submetidos à análise estatística, e as médias comparadas por contraste, obtendo-se grupos de efeitos semelhantes. Independente do modo de exposição, o acefato foi extremamente tóxico, matando mais de 90,0% das abelhas 24h após a aplicação. Os produtos espirodiclofeno e piriproxifem, quando aplicados diretamente sobre as abelhas, causaram níveis de mortalidade de 11,0 e 15,0%, respectivamente; os compostos buprofezina, enxofre e tetradifona apresentaram níveis de mortalidade ainda menores, com média de 5,0% entre eles. Para os ensaios de contaminação de superfície (folhas de citros e placas de Petri e contaminação de alimento, foram obtidos dois grupos de toxicidade, um grupo somente com acefato e outro, com buprofezina, enxofre, espirodiclofeno, piriproxifem, tetradifona e água. A mortalidade média para esse segundo grupo, após 96h do início da exposição, foi de 31,0; 8,3 e 15,7%, respectivamente, para cada método de contaminação.The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of several acaricides/insecticides used in Brazilian citrus crop to africanized workers of Apis mellifera Linnaeus. The exposition of honey bees to the chemicals was performed by direct spraying, contamination of food, and contact in treated surface (citrus leaves and Petri dishes, using recommended rates of application. The assays were carried out at 25±2°C, RH 70±10%, 12h of photophase and the data was

  11. In vitro evaluation of the effects of some plant essential oils on Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of Chalkbrood disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javed Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is one of the major fungal pathogens of honey bee broods and the causative agent of Chalkbrood disease. The factors responsible for the pathogenesis of Chalkbrood disease are still not fully understood, and the increasing resistance of A. apis to commonly used antifungal agents necessitates a search for new agents to control this disease. The in vitro antifungal activities of 27 plant essential oils against two isolates of A. apis (Aksu-4 and Aksu-9 were evaluated. Out of the 27 plant essential oils tested, 21 were found to be effective in killing both isolates of A. apis. Based on their minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC values, the effective oils were grouped into three categories: highly effective, moderately effective and minimally effective. Mountain pepper oil, Kala Bhangra oil, spearmint oil, babuna oil, betel leaf oil, carrot seed oil, cumin seed oil and clove bud oil were highly effective, with MBC values between 50.0 μg/mL and 600.0 μg/mL. Mountain pepper was the most effective essential oil, with an MBC value of 50.0 μg/mL. Citral and caryophyllene containing oils were the most effective with MIC 50 ppm. The essential oils tested exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against both strains of A. apis, and they may contain compounds that could play an important role in the treatment or prevention of Chalkbrood disease of honeybee.

  12. "Up" or "down" that makes the difference. How giant honeybees (Apis dorsata see the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Koeniger

    Full Text Available A. dorsata builds its large exposed comb high in trees or under ledges of high rocks. The "open" nest of A. dorsata, shielded (only! by multiple layers of bees, is highly vulnerable to any kind of direct contact or close range attacks from predators. Therefore, guard bees of the outer layer of A. dorsata's nest monitor the vicinity for possible hazards and an effective risk assessment is required. Guard bees, however, are frequently exposed to different objects like leaves, twigs and other tree litter passing the nest from above and falling to the ground. Thus, downward movement of objects past the nest might be used by A. dorsata to classify these visual stimuli near the nest as "harmless". To test the effect of movement direction on defensive responses, we used circular black discs that were moved down or up in front of colonies and recorded the number of guard bees flying towards the disc. The size of the disc (diameter from 8 cm to 50 cm had an effect on the number of guard bees responding, the bigger the plate the more bees started from the nest. The direction of a disc's movement had a dramatic effect on the attraction. We found a significantly higher number of attacks, when discs were moved upwards compared to downward movements (GLMM (estimate ± s.e. 1.872 ± 0.149, P < 0.001. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the vertical direction of movement of an object can be important for releasing defensive behaviour. Upward movement of dark objects near the colony might be an innate releaser of attack flights. At the same time, downward movement is perceived as a "harmless" stimulus.

  13. Effects of Colony Creation Method and Beekeeper Education on Honeybee ("Apis mellifera") Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, J. Reed; Eborn, Benjamin; Jones, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The two-part study reported here analyzed the effects of beekeeper education and colony creation methods on colony mortality. The first study examined the difference in hive mortality between hives managed by beekeepers who had received formal training in beekeeping with beekeepers who had not. The second study examined the effect on hive…

  14. Short- and Long-Term Memories Formed upon Backward Conditioning in Honeybees ("Apis Mellifera")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Plath, Jenny Aino; Lorang, Steven; Morgenstern, Laura; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    In classical conditioning, the temporal sequence of stimulus presentations is critical for the association between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). In forward conditioning, the CS precedes the US and is learned as a predictor for the US. Thus it acquires properties to elicit a behavioral response, defined as…

  15. Protection of honeybee Apis mellifera by its endogenous and exogenous lactic flora against bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Janashia

    2016-09-01

    Three exogenous bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were tested against the same pathogens and against 25 endogenous bacterial isolates representing 11 different LAB species. The screening showed that all the tested exogenous bacteriocin-producing strains inhibited the tested P. larvae strains. The endogenous LAB strains exhibited varied sensitivity profiles when treated with bacteriocin-producing strains. This raises similar challenges to those observed in antibiotic applications leading to dysbacteriosis, even though the efficacy of these bacteriocins against P. larvae in an in vitro system is evident.

  16. Contribution of honeybee drones of different age to colonial thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In addition to honeybee workers, drones also contribute to colonial thermoregulation. We show the drones' contribution to thermoregulation at 5 different experimental temperatures ranging from 15-34 °C. The frequency and the degree of endothermy depended on the drones' local ambient temperature and age. Location on brood or non-brood areas had no influence. The frequency of endothermic drones and the intensity of endothermy increased with decreasing temperature. 30% of drones of 8 days and older heated their thorax by more than 1 °C above the abdomen. The youngest drones (0-2 days) did not exceed this level of endothermy. Though young drones were less often engaged in active heat production, their contribution to brood warming was not insignificant because their abundance on the brood nest was 3.5 times higher than that of the oldest drones (≥13 days). Results suggest that the stimulus for the drones' increased frequency of heating at low experimental temperatures was their low local ambient air and/or comb temperature.

  17. Contribution of honeybee drones of different age to colonial thermoregulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In addition to honeybee workers, drones also contribute to colonial thermoregulation. We show the drones’ contribution to thermoregulation at 5 different experimental temperatures ranging from 15–34 °C. The frequency and the degree of endothermy depended on the drones’ local ambient temperature and age. Location on brood or non-brood areas had no influence. The frequency of endothermic drones and the intensity of endothermy increased with decreasing temperature. 30% of drones of 8 days and older heated their thorax by more than 1 °C above the abdomen. The youngest drones (0–2 days) did not exceed this level of endothermy. Though young drones were less often engaged in active heat production, their contribution to brood warming was not insignificant because their abundance on the brood nest was 3.5 times higher than that of the oldest drones (≥13 days). Results suggest that the stimulus for the drones’ increased frequency of heating at low experimental temperatures was their low local ambient air and/or comb temperature. PMID:22140282

  18. Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies increases signal production by waggle-dancing foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R; Burke, Kelly M; Seeley, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated considerable benefits of intracolonial genetic diversity for the productivity of honeybee colonies: single-patriline colonies have depressed foraging rates, smaller food stores and slower weight gain relative to multiple-patriline colonies. We explored whether differences in the use of foraging-related communication behaviour (waggle dances and shaking signals) underlie differences in foraging effort of genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies. We created three pairs of colonies; each pair had one colony headed by a multiply mated queen (inseminated by 15 drones) and one colony headed by a singly mated queen. For each pair, we monitored the production of foraging-related signals over the course of 3 days. Foragers in genetically diverse colonies had substantially more information available to them about food resources than foragers in uniform colonies. On average, in genetically diverse colonies compared with genetically uniform colonies, 36% more waggle dances were identified daily, dancers performed 62% more waggle runs per dance, foragers reported food discoveries that were farther from the nest and 91% more shaking signals were exchanged among workers each morning prior to foraging. Extreme polyandry by honeybee queens enhances the production of worker–worker communication signals that facilitate the swift discovery and exploitation of food resources. PMID:18198143

  19. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  20. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  1. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) SOAP API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The purpose of the SOAP based API is to provide the full Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content to the consumer. It is anticipated that this API will be...

  2. Age-associated increase of the active zone protein Bruchpilot within the honeybee mushroom body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin B Gehring

    Full Text Available In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we explored the localization of the honeybee BRP (Apis mellifera BRP, AmBRP in the bee brain and examined age-related changes in the AmBRP abundance in the central bee brain and in microglomeruli of the mushroom body calyces. We report predominant AmBRP localization near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within the mushroom body MG. The relative amount of AmBRP was increased in the central brain of two-week old bees whereas the amount of Synapsin, another presynaptic protein involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, shows an increase during the first two weeks followed by a decrease. In addition, we demonstrate an age-associated modulation of AmBRP located near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within MG located in mushroom body calyces where sensory input is conveyed to mushroom body intrinsic neurons. We discuss that the observed age-associated AmBRP modulation might be related to maturation processes or to homeostatic mechanisms that might help to maintain synaptic functionality in old animals.

  3. Androgenic effect of honeybee drone milk in castrated rats: roles of methyl palmitate and methyl oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, A B; Ducza, E; Báthori, M; Hunyadi, A; Béni, Z; Dékány, M; Hajagos-Tóth, J; Verli, J; Gáspár, Róbert

    2014-04-28

    Numerous honeybee (Apis mellifera) products have been used in traditional medicine to treat infertility and to increase vitality in both men and women. Drone milk (DM) is a relatively little-known honeybee product with a putative sexual hormone effect. The oestrogenic effect of a fraction of DM has recently been reported in rats. However, no information is available on the androgenic effects of DM. The purpose of the present study was to determine the androgen-like effect of DM in male rats and to identify effective compounds. A modified Hershberger assay was used to investigate the androgenic effect of crude DM, and the plasma level of testosterone was measured. The prostatic mRNA and protein expression of Spot14-like androgen-inducible protein (SLAP) were also examined with real-time PCR and Western blot techniques. GC-MS and NMR spectroscopic investigations were performed to identify the active components gained by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The crude DM increased the relative weights of the androgen-dependent organs and the plasma testosterone level in castrated rats and these actions were flutamide-sensitive. DM increased the tissue mRNA and protein level of SLAP, providing further evidence of its androgen-like character. After bioactivity-guided fractionation, two fatty acid esters, methyl palmitate (MP) and methyl oleate (MO), were identified as active compounds. MP alone showed an androgenic effect, whereas MO increased the weight of androgen-sensitive tissues and the plasma testosterone level only in combination. The experimental data of DM and its active compounds (MO and MP) show androgenic activity confirming the traditional usage of DM. DM or MP or/and MO treatments may project a natural mode for the therapy of male infertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Córdoba (Spain) by biomonitoring foraging honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Miriam; Molero, Rafael; Gaju, Miquel; van der Steen, Josef; Porrini, Claudio; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Due to features that make them outstanding environmental bioindicator, colonies of Apis mellifera are being used to study environmental pollution. The primary objective of this research was to use honeybee colonies to identify heavy metals and determine their utility for environmental management. Five stations each with two A. mellifera hives were strategically located in urban, industrial, agricultural and forested areas within the municipality of Córdoba (Spain), and foraging bees were collected from April to December in 2007, 2009 and 2010 to analyse spatial and temporal variation in Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd pollution. Metal concentrations, in milligram per kilogram of honeybee, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Significant differences in concentrations were found among the various locations and periods. The highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds proposed for this study (Pb, 0.7 mg/kg; Cr, 0.12 mg/kg; Ni, 0.3 mg/kg; and Cd, 0.1 mg/kg) was observed for Pb and Cr (6.25% respectively), station S4 (13.22%), year 2007 (20.83%) and in months of May and July (11.90% each). Regarding the Cd, which was analysed only in 2010, the highest number of values exceeding the upper reference thresholds was 40%. Biomonitoring with colonies of A. mellifera could contribute to improved surveillance and control systems for atmospheric pollution by integrating qualitative and quantitative assessments, thus facilitating prevention and readiness in the event of environmental crises.

  5. The Web as an API.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, J. H. (Jorge H.)

    2001-01-01

    As programmers we have worked with many Application Development Interface API development kits. They are well suited for interaction with a particular system. A vast source of information can be made accessible by using the http protocol through the web as an API. This setup has many advantages including the vast knowledge available on setting web servers and services. Also, these tools are available on most hardware and operating system combinations. In this paper I will cover the various types of systems that can be developed this way, their advantages and some drawbacks of this approach. Index Terms--Application Programmer Interface, Distributed applications, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, Web.

  6. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  7. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) induces neuronal and behavioral changes in honeybees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okle, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.okle@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Jacob-Burckhardt-Strasse 25, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Rath, Lisa; Galizia, C. Giovanni [Zoology and Neurobiology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Dietrich, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Jacob-Burckhardt-Strasse 25, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The cyanobacterially produced neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is thought to induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC)-like symptoms. However, its mechanism of action and its pathway of intoxication are yet unknown. In vivo animal models suitable for investigating the neurotoxic effect of BMAA with applicability to the human are scarce. Hence, we used the honeybee (Apis mellifera) since its