Bauer, Lance O; Manning, Kevin J
The present study is unique in employing unusually difficult attention and working memory tasks to reveal subtle cognitive decrements among overweight/obese adolescents. It evaluated novel measures of background electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during one of the tasks and tested correlations of these and other measures with psychological and psychiatric predictors of obesity maintenance or progression. Working memory and sustained attention tasks were presented to 158 female adolescents who were rated on dichotomous (body mass index percentile working memory task. During the sustained attention task, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited more EEG frontal beta power as well as greater intraindividual variability in reaction time and beta power across task periods than their normal-weight peers. Secondary analyses showed that frontal beta power during the sustained attention task was positively correlated with anxiety, panic, borderline personality features, drug abuse, and loss of control over food intake. The findings suggest that working memory and sustained attention decrements do exist among overweight/obese adolescent girls. The reliable detection of the decrements may depend on the difficulty of the tasks as well as the manner in which performance and brain activity are measured. Future studies should examine the relevance of these decrements to dietary education efforts and treatment response. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fosco, Whitney D; Hawk, Larry W
A child's ability to sustain attention over time (AOT) is critical in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet no prior work has examined the extent to which a child's decrement in AOT on laboratory tasks relates to clinically-relevant behavior. The goal of this study is to provide initial evidence for the criterion validity of laboratory assessments of AOT. A total of 20 children with ADHD (7-12 years of age) who were enrolled in a summer treatment program completed two lab attention tasks (a continuous performance task and a self-paced choice discrimination task) and math seatwork. Analyses focused on relations between attention task parameters and math productivity. Individual differences in overall attention (OA) measures (averaged across time) accounted for 23% of the variance in math productivity, supporting the criterion validity of lab measures of attention. The criterion validity was enhanced by consideration of changes in AOT. Performance on all laboratory attention measures deteriorated as time-on-task increased, and individual differences in the decrement in AOT accounted for 40% of the variance in math productivity. The only variable to uniquely predict math productivity was from the self-paced choice discrimination task. This study suggests that attention tasks in the lab do predict a clinically-relevant target behavior in children with ADHD, supporting their use as a means to study attention processes in a controlled environment. Furthermore, this prediction is improved when attention is examined as a function of time-on-task and when the attentional demands are consistent between lab and life contexts.
Steiger, P.; Cummings, S. R.; Black, D. M.; Spencer, N. E.; Genant, H. K.
Age-related changes in bone density contribute to the risk of fractures. To describe the relationship between age and bone mass in elderly women, we studied a large cohort of women over age 65 years who were recruited from population-based lists in four cities in the United States. Bone density in g/cm2 was measured by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the distal and proximal radius, the calcaneus, the lumbar spine, and the proximal femur. Centralized data collection was used to control data quality and consistency. We found a strong inverse relationship between bone density and age for most sites. Decrements in bone density between women aged 65-69 years and women 85 years and older exceeded 16% in all regions except the spine, where the difference between the two age groups was 6%. Ward's triangle and the calcaneus exhibited the largest decrements, with 26 and 21%, respectively. The estimates of annual changes in bone mineral density by linear regression at sites other than the spine ranged from -0.82% at the femoral neck and trochanter to -1.30% at Ward's triangle. Correlations between the different regions ranged from r = 0.51 between the proximal radius and Ward's triangle to r = 0.66 between the distal radius and calcaneus. We conclude that the inverse relationship between age and bone mass measured by absorptiometry techniques in white women continues into the ninth decade of life. The relationship is strongest for bone density of Ward's triangle and the calcaneus and weakest for the spine.
Greenwell, Brandon M; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Maupin, Genny M
The purpose of this study was to analyze historical hearing sensitivity data to determine factors associated with an occupationally significant change in hearing sensitivity in U.S. Air Force aviation-related personnel. This study was a longitudinal, retrospective cohort analysis of audiogram records for Air Force aviation-related personnel on active duty during calendar year 2013 without a diagnosis of non-noise-related hearing loss. The outcomes of interest were raw change in hearing sensitivity from initial baseline to 2013 audiogram and initial occurrence of a significant threshold shift (STS) and non-H1 audiogram profile. Potential predictor variables included age and elapsed time in cohort for each audiogram, gender, and Air Force Specialty Code. Random forest analyses conducted on a learning sample were used to identify relevant predictor variables. Mixed effects models were fitted to a separate validation sample to make statistical inferences. The final dataset included 167,253 nonbaseline audiograms on 10,567 participants. Only the interaction between time since baseline audiogram and age was significantly associated with raw change in hearing sensitivity by STS metric. None of the potential predictors were associated with the likelihood for an STS. Time since baseline audiogram, age, and their interaction were significantly associated with the likelihood for a non-HI hearing profile. In this study population, age and elapsed time since baseline audiogram were modestly associated with decreased hearing sensitivity and increased likelihood for a non-H1 hearing profile. Aircraft type, as determined from Air Force Specialty Code, was not associated with changes in hearing sensitivity by STS metric.Greenwell BM, Tvaryanas AP, Maupin GM. Risk factors for hearing decrement among U.S. Air Force aviation-related personnel. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):80-86.
Flynn-Evans, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra
Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload occur to some extent for ground and flight crews, prior to and during spaceflight missions. Ground evidence indicates that such risk factors may lead to performance decrements and adverse health outcomes, which could potentially compromise mission objectives. Efforts are needed to identify the environmental and mission conditions that interfere with sleep and circadian alignment, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. Specifically, this report highlights a collection of new evidence to better characterize the risk and reveals new gaps in this risk as follows: Sleep loss is apparent during spaceflight. Astronauts consistently average less sleep during spaceflight relative to on the ground. The causes of this sleep loss remain unknown, however ground-based evidence suggests that the sleep duration of astronauts is likely to lead to performance impairment and short and long-term health consequences. Further research is needed in this area in order to develop screening tools to assess individual astronaut sleep need in order to quantify the magnitude of sleep loss during spaceflight; current and planned efforts in BHP's research portfolio address this need. In addition, it is still unclear whether the conditions of spaceflight environment lead to sleep loss or whether other factors, such as work overload lead to the reduced sleep duration. Future data mining efforts and continued data collection on the ISS will help to further characterize factors contributing to sleep loss. Sleep inertia has not been evaluated during spaceflight. Ground-based studies confirm that it takes two to four hours to achieve optimal performance after waking from a sleep episode. Sleep inertia has been associated with increased accidents and reduced performance in operational environments. Sleep inertia poses considerable risk during spaceflight when emergency
Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N
Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations.
Gordon, Allegra R; Krieger, Nancy; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Haneuse, Sebastien; Samnaliev, Mihail; Charlton, Brittany M; Austin, S Bryn
Gender nonconformity, that is, transgressing conventionally "masculine" vs. "feminine" characteristics, is often stigmatized. Stigmatization and discrimination are social stressors that raise risk of adverse mental and physical health outcomes and may drive health inequities. However, little is known about the relationship between such social stressors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This paper aimed to examine associations between perceived gender nonconformity and HRQOL in a cohort of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Using data from 8408 participants (18-31 years) in the U.S. Growing Up Today Study (93% white, 88% middle-to-high income), we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for the association of gender nonconformity (three levels: highly gender conforming, moderately conforming, and gender nonconforming) and HRQOL using the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, including sexual orientation identity. Gender nonconformity was independently associated with increased risk of having problems with mobility [RR (95% confidence interval): 1.76 (1.16, 2.68)], usual activities [2.29 (1.67, 3.13)], pain or discomfort [1.59, (1.38, 1.83)], and anxiety or depression [1.72 (1.39, 2.13)], after adjusting for sexual orientation and demographic characteristics. Decrements in health utility by gender nonconformity were observed: compared to persons who were highly gender conforming, mean health utility was lower for the moderately gender conforming [beta (SE): -0.011 (.002)] and lowest for the most gender nonconforming [-0.034 (.005)]. In our study, HRQOL exhibited inequities by gender nonconformity. Future studies, including in more diverse populations, should measure the effect of gender-related harassment, discrimination, and violence victimization on health and HRQOL.
Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Kober, Kord M.; Miaskowski, Christine
Context Little is known about energy levels in oncology patients and their family caregivers (FCs). Objectives This study sought to identify latent classes of participants, based on self-reported energy levels and to evaluate for differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics between these classes. Methods Energy subscale scores from the Lee Fatigue Scale were used to determine latent class membership. Morning and evening energy scores were obtained just prior to, during, and for four months following the completion of radiation therapy. Genetic associations were evaluated for fifteen pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. Results Two latent classes with distinct morning energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger, female, not married/partnered, Black, and had more comorbidities, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the Low Morning Energy class. Two polymorphisms (IL2 rs1479923, NFKB1 rs4648110) were associated with morning energy latent class membership. Two latent classes with distinct evening energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger and male and who had more comorbidities, decreased body weight, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the Moderate Evening Energy class. Five different polymorphisms (IL1R2 rs4141134, IL6 rs4719714, IL17A rs8193036, NFKB2 rs1056890, TNFA rs1800683) were associated with evening energy latent class membership. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that decrements in morning and evening energy are associated with different phenotypic risk factors as well as cytokine gene variations. PMID:26031709
Aouizerat, Bradley E; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M; Cooper, Bruce A; Kober, Kord M; Miaskowski, Christine
Little is known about energy levels in oncology patients and their family caregivers. This study sought to identify latent classes of participants, based on self-reported energy levels and evaluate for differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics between these classes. Energy subscale scores from the Lee Fatigue Scale were used to determine latent class membership. Morning and evening energy scores were obtained just before, during, and for four months after the completion of radiation therapy. Genetic associations were evaluated for 15 proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. Two latent classes with distinct morning energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger, female, not married/partnered, black, and had more comorbidities, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the low morning energy class. Two polymorphisms (IL2 rs1479923 and NFKB1 rs4648110) were associated with morning energy latent class membership. Two latent classes with distinct evening energy trajectories were identified. Participants who were younger and male and who had more comorbidities, decreased body weight, and a lower functional status were more likely to be in the moderate evening energy class. Five different polymorphisms (IL1R2 rs4141134, IL6 rs4719714, IL17A rs8193036, NFKB2 rs1056890, and TNFA rs1800683) were associated with evening energy latent class membership. This study provides preliminary evidence that decrements in morning and evening energy are associated with different phenotypic risk factors and cytokine gene variations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brustio, Paolo Riccardo; Magistro, Daniele; Zecca, Massimiliano; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica Emma
This cross-sectional study investigated the age-related differences in dual-task performance both in mobility and cognitive tasks and the additive dual-task costs in a sample of older, middle-aged and young adults. 74 older adults (M = 72.63±5.57 years), 58 middle-aged adults (M = 46.69±4.68 years) and 63 young adults (M = 25.34±3.00 years) participated in the study. Participants performed different mobility and subtraction tasks under both single- and dual-task conditions. Linear regressions, repeated-measures and one-way analyses of covariance were used, The results showed: significant effects of the age on the dual and mobility tasks (pperformance under dual-task conditions in all groups (pperformance in the older group (pperformance, especially in older adults who showed a higher dual-task cost, suggesting that dual-tasks activities are affected by the age and consequently also mobility and cognitive tasks are negatively influenced.
Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus
Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mathiassen, S.E.
Aims: To determine quantitative exposure-response relations between work with highly elevated arms and supraspinatus tendinitis, shoulder pain with disability, and shoulder pain without disability. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a historical cohort of 1886 males from three occu...... between current work with highly elevated arms and clinically verified shoulder disorders. Substantial long term cumulative effects were not shown. A potential for primary prevention was revealed....
Figliuzzi, Bruno; Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Buie, Cullen; Moran, Jeffrey
Understanding the nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces is a key issue in electrokinetics. In recent studies, Nakayama and Andelman [J. Chem. Physics 2015] Hatlo et al. [EPL 2012], and Zhao and Zhai [JFM 2013] demonstrated that dielectric decrement significantly influences the ionic concentration in the electric double layer (EDL) at high zeta potential, leading to the formation of a condensed layer near the particle's surface. In this presentation, we apply the dielectric decrement model to study two archetypal problems in electrokinetics, namely the electrophoresis of particles with fixed surface charges and the electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles. Our aim is to rely on numerical simulations to incorporate nonlinear effects including crowding effects due to the finite size of ions, dielectric decrement in the EDL, surface conduction, concentration polarization and advection in the bulk solution. In parallel, we derive a simplified composite layer model that enables us to obtain analytical estimates of the physical quantities involved in the physical description of the problem.
Blustein, David L.
Building on diverse influences from critical perspectives in vocational psychology and the relational movement in contemporary psychological discourse, this article introduces the relational theory of working. Attending to the full array of people who work and who want to work, the relational theory conceptualizes working as an inherently…
grain dust, welding fumes and wood dust. (Table III).1 Exposure to animal epithelia, hairs and secretions is commonly reported among laboratory animal workers and agricultural workers. Latex allergy-related asthma appears to be less common due to the introduction of latex-free gloves in most health care settings.
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...
Full Text Available Tracey Covassin, Robert J ElbinMichigan State University, Department of Kinesiology, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Sports-related concussion is an injury that continues to receive attention from both the popular media and sports medicine community. The many different symptom presentations and cognitive decrements that follow concussions, have made this injury difficult to detect and manage. Furthermore, concussed athletes should not always be entrusted to appropriately self-report their concussion symptoms; therefore the burden falls on the clinician and coach. Recent management recommendations call for using a multi-faceted approach to managing concussion, which consists of neurocognitive testing before (ie, baseline/preseason and after injury. In addition age, sex, and previous history of concussion have been found to influence the risk and recovery from this injury.Keywords: cognitive function, neurocognitive testing, concussion
Work-related medical rehabilitation (WMR) is a strategy to improve work participation in patients with poor work ability. This review summarizes the state of knowledge on WMR. The prevalence of poor work ability and corresponding need for WMR is high (musculoskeletal disorders: 43%; mental disorders: 57%). The meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in patients with musculoskeletal disorders shows better return to work outcomes after one year in favor of WMR patients than compared to patients participating in usual medical rehabilitation. The amount of work-related measures in rehabilitation was clearly increased during recent years. A direct involvement of the workplace and a closer cooperation with employers and occupational health physicians may further improve the outcomes of WMR. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Landex, Nadia Lander
A medical doctor occasionally experienced itching papular exanthema during work hours. Careful history taking and a diary of symptoms demonstrated an association between the urticaria and stressful work situations. Urticaria can have many triggers, and stress is among the well-known triggers. The usual treatment of urticaria consists of avoiding triggers and, if necessary, antihistamines. Whereas it might be difficult to follow these recommendations in the case of work-related urticaria, the disorder may be perceived as a reminder of work situations which are going awry.
Cheryl A Frye
Full Text Available Some hippocampally-influenced affective and/or cognitive processes decline with aging. The role of androgens in this process is of interest. Testosterone (T is aromatized to estrogen, and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17α-diol (3α-diol. To determine the extent to which some age-related decline in hippocampally-influenced behaviors may be due to androgens, we examined the effects of variation in androgen levels due to age, gonadectomy, and androgen replacement on cognitive (inhibitory avoidance, Morris water maze and affective (defensive freezing, forced swim behavior among young (4-months, middle-aged (13-months, and aged (24-months male rats. Plasma and hippocampal levels of androgens were determined. In experiment 1, comparisons were made between 4-, 13-, and 24-month old rats that were intact or gonadectomized (GDX and administered a T-filled or empty silastic capsule. There was age-related decline in performance of the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, defensive freezing, and forced swim tasks, and hippocampal 3α-diol levels. Chronic, long-term (1-4 weeks T-replacement reversed the effects of GDX in 4- and 13-month old, but not 24-month old, rats in the inhibitory avoidance task. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed whether acute subcutaneous T or 3α-diol, respectively, could reverse age-associated decline in performance. 3α-diol, but not T, compared to vehicle, improved performance in the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, forced swim, and defensive freezing tasks, irrespective of age. Thus, age is associated with a decrease in 3α-diol production and 3α-diol administration reinstates cognitive and affective performance of aged male rats.
Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.
. These companies employ highly educated and com-petent people who apply their personal knowledge to generate new knowledge in close relationship with both custom-ers and colleagues. The employees are self-managed and work in networks and decentralised structures around pro-jects. Their working life is described...... tied to the employees. The opportunities are on the other more financially tangible in terms of increased efficiency, decreased sick-leave, extra time for new developments, less mistakes made, increased working capacity, quality, effi-ciency and productivity....
Luptáková Iveta Dirgová; Bilíková Mária
The aim of this paper is to elucidate decrement models and their use in actuarial calculations in life insurance. The first part deals with the most often used decrement model, the mortality table. The second part gives an example based on a simple model to illustrate the creation of a multi-valued decrement table using the data from the single-value tables for a group of decrements and their use in insurance mathematical calculations.
Luptáková Iveta Dirgová
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to elucidate decrement models and their use in actuarial calculations in life insurance. The first part deals with the most often used decrement model, the mortality table. The second part gives an example based on a simple model to illustrate the creation of a multi-valued decrement table using the data from the single-value tables for a group of decrements and their use in insurance mathematical calculations.
Anshel, Mark H.
This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect warm-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated warm-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to warm-up decrement are explored.…
Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune
A method for estimating frequency response functions by the Random Decrement technique is investigated in this paper. The method is based on the auto and cross Random Decrement functions of the input process and the output process of a linear system. The Fourier transformation of these functions ...... Decrement function. The method is demonstrated by a simulation study....
Christensen, Lars Rune; Jensen, Rasmus Eskild; Bjørn, Pernille
, emergent in personal and often humorous situations. Relation work is intertwined with other activities such as articulation work and it is rhythmic by following the work patterns of the participants. By comparing how relation work is conducted in collocated and geographically distributed settings we...
Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Ibrahim, S. R.
The Vector Random Decrement technique has previously been introduced as an effcient method to transform ambient responses of linear structures into Vector Random Decrement functions which are equivalent to free decays of the current structure. The modal parameters can be extracted from the free...
The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...
Anca Jarmila Guţă
The paper presents the way work relations develop between public administration institution clerks, their relations with their superiors, the main subordination types of public administration clerks. The paper also dwells on the role played by the head of an institution belonging to public administration in establishing the most favorable work relations, the behaviour the subordinates should have with the institution head, the way a superior exerts his prerogative of making a decision and the...
Prevention of work disability is a primary goal within treatment of spinal disorders. Work-related outcome measures therefore are essential indices within evidence-based medicine. So far many measures suffer, however, from standardized measurement, standardized terminology, and a lack of theoretical background. This review addresses traditional indicators like work status and sickness absence, and discusses more theory-bound concepts, i.e. work ability, occupational risk factors for recurrence of symptoms and re-injury, work-related attitudes that may become obstacles to recovery, and individual reactions to occupational stressors that increase the risk of maintenance and recurrence of symptoms. The review includes methodological and theoretical considerations and recommendations for the use of work-related outcome measures in future outcome research.
Suominen, Tarja; Rankinen, Sirkku; Kuokkanen, Liisa; Kukkurainen, Marja Leena; Savikko, Niina; Doran, Diane Irvine
This study describes experiences of work empowerment among staff members at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital in Helsinki, Finland. The data were collected on two occasions in 2004 and 2005 using a structured questionnaire with background variables and items concerning verbal, behavioural and outcome empowerment. The questionnaires were sent to all (n1=115, n2=112) members of multidisciplinary teams at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital, with the exception of physicians, departmental secretaries and administrative personnel. The response rate at both data collections was 58%. The data were analysed by statistical methods. No statistically significant differences were seen in work empowerment between the two data collections. Perceptions of work-related empowerment were relatively strong. Work-related empowerment appears to be relatively constant and independent of changes in the organization. Indeed there is good reason to ask whether work empowerment is primarily a function of the individual employee's strengths and competencies.
Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.
Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the common occupational hazards among health care providers. Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate MSDs in terms of perception of pain experienced by physicians, surgeons and dental surgeons during professional work. Subjects and ...
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to
Quirce, Santiago; Campo, Paloma; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Gómez-Torrijos, Elisa; Martínez-Arcediano, Ana; Mur, Pilar; Delgado, Julio
Work-related asthma includes two subtypes: occupational asthma or asthma caused by specific agents (sensitizers or irritants) in the workplace, and work-exacerbated asthma or pre-existing asthma worsened by workplace exposures. Areas covered: This review provides an update on the definitions and the clinical features of the different work-related asthma subtypes as well as new insights into their etiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of work-related asthma should be made on objective basis using a constellation of clinical, physiologic and allergologic tests. Specific inhalation challenge with the suspected occupational agent(s) remains as the reference standard for diagnosis. A literature search was performed using the following terms: work-related asthma, occupational asthma, work-exacerbated asthma, irritant-induced asthma and etiological agents. Expert commentary: Studies focusing on the biological effects and mechanisms of environmental exposures in the development of sensitizer-induced or irritant-induced asthma in various workplace settings are of greatest interest. An integrative approach that combines clinical parameters with component-resolved diagnosis as well as inflammatory biomarkers appears to be very promising. Occupational allergy provides a good opportunity to understand the complex relationships between exposure to allergens in the workplace, interaction with genes and the co-exposures to other factors in the working environment.
Olesen, Henning Salling
of societal change. The article develops this argument on the basis of empirical research from the Life history project and other research at Roskilde University, which studies gendered, work related learning as re-configuration of identities. Gender has not been the point of departure, but empirical studies......The basic societal transformation to a “learning society” presupposes learning and identity processes. In order to understand the conditions and dynamics of work related learning we need to theorize the subjective significance of work and we need to study work related learning processes in a way...... which reflects the societal transitions. The aim of this article is to consider the connection between these theoretical and methodological questions: Studies into subjective processes (individual and collective learning and identity processes) helps us theorise the contradictory and asynchronous nature...
Laukkanen, Laura; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
Nurse managers are responsible for solving work-related ethical problems to promote a positive ethical culture in healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to describe the activities that nurse managers use to solve work-related ethical problems. The ultimate aim was to enhance the ethical awareness of all nurse managers. The data for this descriptive cross-sectional survey were analyzed through inductive content analysis and quantification. Participants and research context: The data were collected in 2011 using a questionnaire that included an open-ended question and background factors. Participants were nurse managers working in Finnish healthcare organizations (n = 122). Ethical considerations: Permission for the study was given by the Finnish Association of Academic Managers and Experts of Health Sciences. Nurse managers identified a variety of activities they use to solve work-related ethical problems: discussion (30%), cooperation (25%), work organization (17%), intervention (10%), personal values (9%), operational models (4%), statistics and feedback (4%), and personal examples (1%). However, these activities did not follow any common or systematic model. In the future, nurse managers need a more systematic approach to solve ethical problems. It is important to establish new kinds of ethics structures in organizations, such as a common, systematic ethical decision-making model and an ethics club for nurse manager problems, to support nurse managers in solving work-related ethical problems.
de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.
Eckleberry-Hunt, Jodie; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Taku, Kanako; Hunt, Ronald; Vasappa, Rashmi
Although we know much about work-related physician burnout and the subsequent negative effects, we do not fully understand work-related physician wellness. Likewise, the relation of wellness and burnout to physician happiness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how physician burnout and wellness contribute to happiness. We sampled 2000 full-time physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Respondents completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about workload, the Physician Wellness Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. We performed a hierarchical regression analysis with the burnout and wellness subscales as predictor variables and physician happiness as the outcome variable. Our response rate was 22%. Career purpose, personal accomplishment, and perception of workload manageability had significant positive correlations with physician happiness. Distress had a significant negative correlation with physician happiness. A sense of career meaning and accomplishment, along with a lack of distress, are important factors in determining physician happiness. The number of hours a physician works is not related to happiness, but the perceived ability to manage workload was significantly related to happiness. Wellness-promotion efforts could focus on assisting physicians with skills to manage the workload by eliminating unnecessary tasks or sharing workload among team members, improving feelings of work accomplishment, improving career satisfaction and meaning, and managing distress related to patient care.
Full Text Available Motivation and reward can have differential effects on separate aspects of sustained attention. We previously demonstrated that continuous reward/punishment throughout a sustained attention task improves overall performance, but not vigilance decrements. One interpretation of these findings is that vigilance decrements are due to resource depletion, which is not overcome by increasing overall motivation. However, an alternative explanation is that as one performs a continuously rewarded task there are less potential gains/losses as the task progresses, which could decrease motivation over time, producing a vigilance decrement. This would predict that keeping future gains/losses consistent throughout the task would reduce the vigilance decrement. In the current study, we examined this possibility by comparing two versions (continuous-small loss vs. anticipate-large loss of a 10-minute gradual onset continuous performance task (gradCPT, a challenging go/no-go sustained attention task. Participants began each task with the potential to keep $18. In the continuous-small-loss version, small monetary losses were accrued continuously throughout the task for each error. However, in the anticipate-large-loss version, participants lost all $18 if they erroneously responded to one target that always appeared toward the end of the vigil. Typical vigilance decrements were observed in the continuous-small-loss condition. In the anticipate-large-loss condition, vigilance decrements were reduced, particularly when the anticipate-large loss condition was completed second. This suggests that the looming possibility of a large loss can attenuate the vigilance decrement and that this attenuation may occur most consistently after sufficient task experience. We discuss these results in the context of current theories of sustained attention.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den
Introduction Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work.
Full Text Available Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael
This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…
Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene
Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical examinat...
Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.
There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several
Jungbauer, Franciscus Henricus Wilhelmus
This thesis describes the nature and the quantity of work-related skin exposure in occupations where ‘wet work’ is performed. Activities that cause one or both hands to become wet, in contact with detergents or other skin irritating substances or activities that need to be done with occlusive gloves
Coded data from 83 work ethnographies and a telephone survey of 371 workers found that coworker solidarity generates high job satisfaction and better relations with management. Effects of the quality of coworker relationships equaled or exceeded the effects of job characteristics on satisfaction or management relations. (SK)
Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C
The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.
Full Text Available Work-related asthma is asthma that is caused or exacerbated by exposures at work. It is the most common form of occupational lung disease in developed countries. It has important impacts on the health and well-being of the affected individual, as well as consequences for society because of unemployment issues and workers' compensation claims. With ongoing exposure, occupational asthma can result in persistent airway hyperresponsiveness and, possibly, permanent disability for the individual. Thus, it is important for the clinician to be able to diagnose this disorder as quickly and accurately as possible. The evaluation of a patient with work-related asthma can be extensive. It includes obtaining a consistent history, identifying the cause in the workplace, and confirming the diagnosis with objective tests. After a diagnosis has been made, treatment must sometimes go beyond the medications used for nonoccupational asthma and include interventions to minimize or completely remove the individual from exposure to the causal agent if he or she has sensitizer-induced occupational asthma. In addition, once an individual has been identified with occupational asthma, steps should be taken to prevent the development of this disorder in other workers. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and provide the clinician with a stepwise approach to the diagnosis and management of a patient with work-related asthma.
Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Rankinen, Sirkku; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Savikko, Nina; Doran, Diane
This study describes the views of multidisciplinary teams on work-related empowerment in a transitional organization. The data were collected between September 2003 and January 2004 (n=115) and one year later (n=112) using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of verbal and behavioural items, empowerment outcomes, and factors promoting and impeding empowerment. The target population consisted of all members working in multidisciplinary teams at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital in Finland. The response rate was 58% at both data collections. The data were analysed statistically using SPSS software. The multidisciplinary teams rated their work empowerment quite highly. The number of empowerment promoting factors was lowest for the category of future orientedness, consisting of continuity of work, opportunities for advancement, and access to information. The number of impeding factors was also highest for the same category of future orientedness, consisting here of organizational bureaucracy and hierarchy, authoritarian leadership, poor access to information, and short working periods. It is important not to underestimate the impacts of organizational changes: they have a direct effect on the work environment and may contribute to higher rates of dissatisfaction, burnout and absenteeism among health care workers.
Stine Wm Wren
Full Text Available Motion-induced blindness describes the disappearance of stationary elements of a scene when other, perhaps non-overlapping, elements of the scene are in motion. We measured the effects of increment (200.0 cd/m2 and decrement targets (15.0 cd/m2 and masks presented on a grey background (108.0 cd/m2, tapping into putative ON- and OFF-channels, on the rate of target disappearance psychophysically. We presented two-frame motion, which has coherent motion energy, and dynamic Glass patterns and dynamic anti-Glass patterns, which do not have coherent motion energy. Using the method of constant stimuli, participants viewed stimuli of varying durations (3.1 s, 4.6 s, 7.0 s, 11 s, or 16 s in a given trial and then indicated whether or not the targets vanished during that trial. Psychometric function midpoints were used to define absolute threshold mask duration for the disappearance of the target. 95% confidence intervals for threshold disappearance times were estimated using a bootstrap technique for each of the participants across two experiments. Decrement masks were more effective than increment masks with increment targets. Increment targets were easier to mask than decrement targets. Distinct mask pattern types had no effect, suggesting that perceived coherence contributes to the effectiveness of the mask. The ON/OFF dichotomy clearly carries its influence to the level of perceived motion coherence. Further, the asymmetry in the effects of increment and decrement masks on increment and decrement targets might lead one to speculate that they reflect the ‘importance’ of detecting decrements in the environment.
Full Text Available Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based and non-spatial (feature based. When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants’ performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL as well.
Suherman; Hutasuhut, Arief T. W.; Badra, Khaldun; Al-Akaidi, Marwan
Transmission control protocol (TCP) is a reliable transport protocol handling end to end connection in TCP/IP stack. It works well in copper or optical fibre link, but experiences increasing delay in wireless network. Further, TCP experiences multiple retransmissions due to higher collision probability within wireless network. The situation may get worsen in an ad hoc network. This paper examines the impact half window or window reduction rate to the overall TCP performances. The evaluation using NS-2 simulator shows that the smaller the window decrement rate results the smaller end to end delay. Delay is reduced to 17.05% in average when window decrement rate decreases. Average jitter also decreases 4.15%, while packet loss is not affected.
We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y(sub 200) and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity bins to mass. We also use a relation between BCG luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be in the range approx.10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14)/h Stellar Mass, a lower range than has been previously probed.
de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the
Tuominen, Tiina; Fuglsang, Lars; Hasu, Mervi
In this paper, we aim to understand how elderly care work is changing alongside the introduction of new co-creative frameworks and practices. The ideas of value co-creation and service co-production are expanding rapidly to new service areas also in the public sector. The elderly care context may...... the concept of ‘relational agency’ to discuss how the interests and capabilities of the workers and users to co-create value are relationally constructed, and how these agentic properties contribute to the manner in which value is co-created. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by analysing...
Inceoglu, I; Bartram, D; Segers, J.
This paper examines age-related differences in work motivation in two samples of 9,388 and 2,512 individuals who completed a comprehensive motivation questionnaire for selection or development purposes. In the first sample, age differences were examined by controlling for gender and investigating whether relationships between age and motivation were non-linear. Statistically significant relationships between motivation and age were found for most motivation scales, explaining up to 12% of the...
Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune
Using the Random Decrement (RD) technique to obtain free response estimates and combining this with time domain modal identification methods to obtain the poles and the mode shapes is acknowledged as a fast and accurate way of analysing measured responses of structures subject to ambient loads...
also performed on all subjects, again I I 33 with special emphasis on HIV-related findings (e.g., oral hairy 3 leukoplakia ). A complete blood count and...disturbances 3 and recognize the value of neuropsychological measures for assessing the outcome of surgery or drug treatment . I Information processing... treatment programs or who &aported any injection drug use. We also established limits for the frequency and quantity of substance use, which were
Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.
Health-related quality of life and health preference of Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus managed in primary care and secondary care setting: decrements associated with individual complication and number of complications.
Jiao, Fangfang; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Gangwani, Rita; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health preference of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are essential in health economic evaluations but data on Chinese population is rare. This study aims to evaluate HRQoL and health preference of diabetic patients with different diabetic complications in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1275 patients with DM, including 518 subjects with various DM-related complications. HRQoL and health preference were estimated using SF-12 and SF-6D questionnaires, respectively. Disease status of DM and complications were identified from documented clinical diagnosis. Multivariable regression was used to investigate the effects of specific complications on HRQoL and health preference, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical parameters. The presence of any diabetic complication was associated with lower physical component summary (-3.81 points, P diabetic complications. The health preference score for diabetic subjects without complications was 0.882 (95% CI, 0.778 to 0.989). The reductions of health preference score were significant for stroke (-0.042, 95% CI -0.072 to -0.012), ESRD (-0.055, 95% CI -0.093 to -0.017), and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (-0.043, 95% CI -0.075 to -0.010), while heart disease had an insignificant reduction (-0.017, 95% CI -0.042 to 0.008). The presence of any of the four major diabetic complications (heart disease, stroke, ESRD and STDR) was associated with lower HRQoL and health preference scores. Findings of this study facilitated the cost-effectiveness studies of alternative management strategies for prevention of diabetic complications in Chinese population.
Tomei, G; Ricci, S; Fidanza, L; Sacco, C; De Cesare, D P; Ricci, P; Pimpinella, B; Giubilati, R; Suppi, A; Anzelmo, V; Tomei, F; Casale, T; Rosati, M V
In the assessment of work-related stress it is crucial to find the factors that generate and increase it in order to identify categories of individuals at risk, to plan interventions for prevention, elimination or reduction of risk. The aim of the study is to assess the subjective stress in 68 workers of a large Italian company dealing with human health, through the use of a questionnaire-indicating tool, elaborated by the Italian National Institute for insurance against accidents at work (INAIL) and developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). We studied a final sample of 68 individuals (34 drivers/rescuers and 34 video display unit (VDU) operators). The questionnaire consists of 35 items (divided into six areas) with five possible answers each, that cover working conditions considered potential causes of stress. The drivers/rescuers had a better performance than the VDU operators, especially in the areas "demand", "relationships" and "role". We compared men and women in the two groups, finding that, in VDU operators, women had a better performance than men in all areas, except "role" and "changes", in which the overall scores were the same in men and women. In the drivers/rescuers women showed more critical scores in the items "relationships" and "change". The results show that: the questionnaire-indicating tool is useful, with a demonstrated effectiveness for the occupational physician during the visits and proven validity; additional future efforts should focus on understanding the psycho-social, organizational and individual problems related to stress and the consequent implementation of preventive measures.
Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo
We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kataja, E-L; Karlsson, L; Huizink, A C; Tolvanen, M; Parsons, C; Nolvi, S; Karlsson, H
Cognitive deficits, especially in memory and concentration, are often reported during pregnancy. Similar cognitive dysfunctions can also occur in depression and anxiety. To date, few studies have investigated the associations between cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. This field is of interest because maternal cognitive functioning, and particularly its higher-order aspects are related to maternal well-being and caregiving behavior, as well as later child development. Pregnant women (N =230), reporting low (n =87), moderate (n =97), or high (n =46) levels of depressive, general anxiety and/or pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms (assessed repeatedly with EPDS, SCL-90/anxiety subscale, PRAQ-R2, respectively) were tested in mid-pregnancy for their cognitive functions. A computerized neuropsychological test battery was used. Pregnant women with high or moderate level of psychiatric symptoms had significantly more errors in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning task than mothers with low symptom level. Depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy and concurrent pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were significant predictors of the performance in the task. General anxiety symptoms were not related to visuospatial working memory. Cognitive functions were evaluated only at one time-point during pregnancy precluding causal conclusions. Maternal depressive symptoms and pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were both associated with decrements in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning. Depressive symptoms seem to present more stable relationship with cognitive deficits, while pregnancy-related anxiety was associated only concurrently. Future studies could investigate, how stable these cognitive differences are, and whether they affect maternal ability to deal with demands of pregnancy and later parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Driesen, Naomi R; McCarthy, Gregory; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Bloch, Michael H; Calhoun, Vincent D; D'Souza, Deepak C; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; He, George; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Ramani, Ramachandran; Anticevic, Alan; Suckow, Raymond F; Morgan, Peter T; Krystal, John H
Preclinical research suggests that N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDA-Rs) have a crucial role in working memory (WM). In this study, we investigated the role of NMDA-Rs in the brain activation and connectivity that subserve WM. Because of its importance in WM, the lateral prefrontal cortex, particularly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and its connections, were the focus of analyses. Healthy participants (n=22) participated in a single functional magnetic resonance imaging session. They received saline and then the NMDA-R antagonist ketamine while performing a spatial WM task. Time-course analysis was used to compare lateral prefrontal activation during saline and ketamine administration. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was used to compare dorsolateral prefrontal connectivity during the two conditions and global-based connectivity was used to test for laterality in these effects. Ketamine reduced accuracy on the spatial WM task and brain activation during the encoding and early maintenance (EEM) period of task trials. Decrements in task-related activation during EEM were related to performance deficits. Ketamine reduced connectivity in the DPFC network bilaterally, and region-specific reductions in connectivity were related to performance. These results support the hypothesis that NMDA-Rs are critical for WM. The knowledge gained may be helpful in understanding disorders that might involve glutamatergic deficits such as schizophrenia and developing better treatments.
system.6,16,18,24 Mechanical disruption of muscle fibres caused by prolonged eccentric muscle activity has ... necrosis and inflammation occurred in muscle biopsies per- formed on runners after running a marathon ..... Nicol C, Komi PV, Marconnet P. Fatigue effects of marathon running on neuromuscular performance.
Results. The rate of decline in running speed occurred at an earlier age (~ 32 years) during the running race compared with the cycling tour (~ 55 years). Conclusions. These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on ...
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data fro the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e. g. wind, traffic...... and small ground motion. The random Decrement technique is used to estimate the correlation function or the free decays from the ambient data. From these functions, the modal parameters are extracted using the Ibrahim Time domain method. The possible influence of the traffic mass load on the bridge...... is investigated by assuming that the response level of the bridge is dependent on the mass of the vehicle load. The eigenfrequencies of the bridge is estimated as a function of the response level. This indicates the degree of influence of the mass load on the estimated eigenfrequencies. The results...
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data from the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e.g. wind, traffic...... and small ground motion. The Random Decrement technique is used to estimate the correlation function or the free decays from the ambient data. From these functions, the modal parameters are extracted using the Ibrahim Time Domain method. The possible influence of the traffic mass load on the bridge...... is investigated by assuming that the response level of the bridge is dependent on the mass of the vehicle load. The eigenfrequencies of the bridge are estimated as a function of the response level. This indicates the degree of influence of the mass load on the estimated eigenfrequencies. The results...
Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, Anders
The aim of this paper is to investigate and illustrate the possibilities of using correlation functions estimated by the Random Decrement Technique as a basis for parameter identification. A two-stage system identification system is used: first, the correlation functions are estimated by the Random...... Decrement Technique, and then the system parameters are identified from the correlation function estimates. Three different techniques are used in the parameter identification process: a simple non-parametric method, estimation of an Auto Regressive (AR) model by solving an overdetermined set of Yule......-Walker equations and finally, least-square fitting of the theoretical correlation function. The results are compared to the results of fitting an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model directly to the system output from a single-degree-of-freedom system loaded by white noise....
Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, Anders
The aim of this paper is to investigate and illustrate the possibilities of using correlation functions estimated by the Random Decrement Technique as a basis for parameter identification. A two-stage system identification method is used: first the correlation functions are estimated by the Random...... Decrement technique and then the system parameters are identified from the correlation function estimates. Three different techniques are used in the parameters identification process: a simple non-paramatic method, estimation of an Auto Regressive(AR) model by solving an overdetermined set of Yule......-Walker equations and finally least square fitting of the theoretical correlation function. The results are compared to the results of fitting an Auto Regressive Moving Average(ARMA) model directly to the system output. All investigations are performed on the simulated output from a single degree-off-freedom system...
Barriga-Paulino, Catarina I; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Arjona, Antonio; Morales, Manuel; Gómez, Carlos M
Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS). The RTs, total errors, and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in the phases of encoding, retention, and matching were obtained. Results revealed a decrease in the amplitude of ERPs with age, paralleled by improved performance on the DMTS task (i.e., shorter RTs and fewer errors). None of these variables were affected by gender. To determine whether memory performance was influenced by the individual pattern of maturation beyond age, the amplitude of the different ERP components was correlated with RT and errors on the WM task after removing the effect of age. Frontal N2 and posterior P1 and the Late Positive Component were the only ERPs that presented significant correlations with behavioral errors. Behavioral performance was predicted by age and by the scores on the first component extracted from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the ERPs. Age (under 17 years old) explained 85.04% and the PCA component explained 14.96% of the variance explained by the bivariate model predicting behavioral errors (1/age + scores of 1st PCA component). From the age of 17 on, the principal PCA component ceases to be an independent component predicting error performance. The results suggest that the individual maturation of ERP components seems to be of particular importance in controlling behavioral errors in WM, as measured by the DMTS. Copyright © 2016
Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I
Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buitrago Echeverri, María Teresa; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Granja Palacios, Consuelo
The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-related death. 301.302 Section 301... COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.302 Work-related death. A claim for compensation as the result of work-related death may be filed by a dependent of the deceased...
Hampson, Michelle; Driesen, Naomi R; Skudlarski, Pawel; Gore, John C; Constable, R. Todd
.... This study investigated the functional connectivity between the PCC and MFG/vACC during a working memory task and at rest by examining temporal correlations in magnetic resonance signal levels between the regions...
Lara, Tania; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Correa, Ángel
Time of day modulates our cognitive functions, especially those related to executive control, such as the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses. However, the impact of individual differences in time of day preferences (i.e. morning vs. evening chronotype) had not been considered by most studies. It was also unclear whether the vigilance decrement (impaired performance with time on task) depends on both time of day and chronotype. In this study, morning-type and evening-type participants performed a task measuring vigilance and response inhibition (the Sustained Attention to Response Task, SART) in morning and evening sessions. The results showed that the vigilance decrement in inhibitory performance was accentuated at non-optimal as compared to optimal times of day. In the morning-type group, inhibition performance decreased linearly with time on task only in the evening session, whereas in the morning session it remained more accurate and stable over time. In contrast, inhibition performance in the evening-type group showed a linear vigilance decrement in the morning session, whereas in the evening session the vigilance decrement was attenuated, following a quadratic trend. Our findings imply that the negative effects of time on task in executive control can be prevented by scheduling cognitive tasks at the optimal time of day according to specific circadian profiles of individuals. Therefore, time of day and chronotype influences should be considered in research and clinical studies as well as real-word situations demanding executive control for response inhibition. PMID:24586404
Brincker, Rune; Krenk, S.; Jensen, Jakob Laigaard
The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...... - in some case up to 100 times faster that the FFT technique. Another important advantage is that if the RDD technique is implemented correctly, the correlation function estimates are unbiased. Comparison with exact solutions for the correlation functions show that the RDD auto-correlation estimates suffer...
Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jakob Laigaard
The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...... - in some case up to 100 times faster that the FFT technique. Another important advantage is that if the RDD technique is implemented correctly, the correlation function estimates are unbiased. Comparison with exact solutions for the correlation functions show that the RDD auto-correlation estimates suffer...
McBride, Deborah; LeVasseur, Sandra A; Li, Dongmei
Prior research has documented the effect of concurrent mobile phone use on medical care. This study examined the extent of hospital registered nurses' awareness of their mobile-phone-associated performance decrements. The objective of this study was to compare self-reported performance with reported observed performance of others with respect to mobile phone use by hospital registered nurses. In March 2014, a previously validated survey was emailed to the 10,978 members of the Academy of Medical Surgical Nurses. The responses were analyzed using a two-proportion z test (alpha=.05, two-tailed) to examine whether self-reported and observed rates of error were significantly different. All possible demographic and employment confounders which could potentially contribute to self-reported and observed performance errors were tested for significance. Of the 950 respondents, 825 (8.68%, 825/950) met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The representativeness of the sample relative to the US nursing workforce was assessed using a two-proportion z test. This indicated that sex and location of primary place of employment (urban/rural) were represented appropriately in the study sample. Respondents in the age groups 55 years old were overrepresented. Whites, American Indians/Alaskan natives, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islanders were underrepresented, while Hispanic and multiple/other ethnicities were overrepresented. It was decided to report the unweighted, rather than the weighted survey data, with the recognition that the results, while valuable, may not be generalizable to the entire US registered nursing workforce. A significant difference was found between registered nurses' self-reported and observed rates of errors associated with concurrent mobile phone use in following three categories (1) work performance (z=-26.6142, Pmobile phone use by nurses at work was a serious distraction; always (13%, 107/825), often (29.6%, 244/825), sometimes (44.6%, 368/825), rarely
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.
This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…
Work related learning is a topic of considerable interest currently and can be broadly seen to be concerned with all forms of training and learning closely related to the daily work of employees. From the angle of higher education work related learning is an important development because parts of
Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard
These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.
Finkelstein, David Ritz
A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.
Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van
Boredom occurs regularly at work and can have negative consequences. This study aimed to increase insight in the antecedents and processes underlying the development of work-related boredom by (a) examining whether work-related need satisfaction and the quality-of-work motivation mediate the
Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.
Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon.
This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement ...
Brincker, Rune; Krenk, Steen; Jensen, Jacob Laigaard
The Random Decrement (RDD) Technique is a versatile technique for characterization of random signals in the time domain. In this paper a short review of the theoretical basis is given, and the technique is illustrated by estimating auto-correlation functions and cross-correlation functions on modal...... - in some cases up to 100 times faster than the FFT technique. Another important advantage is that if the RDD technique is implemented correctly, the correlation function estimates are unbiased. Comparison with exact solutions for the correlation functions shows that the RDD auto-correlation estimates...... suffer from smaller RDD auto-correlation estimation errors than the corresponding FFT estimates. However, in the case of estimating cross-correlation functions for the stochastic processes with low mutual correlation, the FFT tehcnique might be more accurate....
van de Ven, Hardy A.; Hesselink, John Klein; Bultmann, Ute; de Boer, Michiel R.; de Looze, Michiel P.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Brouwer, Sandra
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of
Ven, H.A. van de; Klein Hesselink, J.; Bultmann, U.; Boer, M.R. de; Looze, M.P. de; Klink, J.J.L. van der; Brouwer, S.
The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of N=5640
Work-related rehabilitation has for several years been gaining greater importance in orthopaedic rehabilitation. High-quality studies have confirmed that work-related medical rehabilitation has favourable effects on earning capacity and work-life participation. This does however not hold true for all work-related rehabilitation programmes. In this context, 5 theses concerning success factors of work-related medical rehabilitation are developed. It is set out that the effects of work-related medical rehabilitation on work ability and work-life participation can be improved if programmes realize a needs-oriented assignment, include cognitive-behavioural components, follow a multimodal approach, step up treatment intensity, and if treatments are manualized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
Work related learning is a topic of considerable interest currently and can be broadly seen to be concerned with all forms of training and learning closely related to the daily work of employees. From the angle of higher education work related learning is an important development because parts of the formal curriculum tend to be as closely related as possible to the future jobs of students.
Mache, Stefanie; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A
The aim of this study was to examine relations and influences between work-related factors, personal resources, work engagement and work ability of surgeons working in German hospitals. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey investigation. We used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and the Work Ability Index to evaluate surgeons' work engagement, working conditions and work ability. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. Surgeons reported a moderate work ability and work engagement. The results indicated significant associations between surgeons' sources of work engagement, work ability and work-related factors (e.g. job resources). Significant differences regarding these variables were also detected between males and females and the various age groups. The study results reflect the positive effect of supportive working conditions and work engagement on the preservation of work ability, indicating their importance in promoting surgeons' work ability. Due to the elderly population and the continuing development of health care in Germany, the demand for surgeons increases. These circumstances give reasons for a strong need to preserve and restore surgeons' work ability. New strategies for training and improving the capacity and performance of surgeons are necessary.
Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan
.... To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience...
Introduction: Farming is a physically laborious occupation and farm workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal complaints. Objective: To determine the work related ... them from musculoskeletal complaints. Improvement in farm work practices through ergonomic training might help reduce musculoskeletal complaints.
Esbensen, Morten; Bardram, Jakob
Distributed collaboration has a number of problems associated with it. One of these problems is the fact that distributed actors have to engage in explicit work to achieve the connections between them needed in a collaboration. The work of creating these connections have been named relation work....... Relation work is performed throughout a collaboration, however it is especially interesting to investigate in the context of the video meeting. This report asks the question “How can we design support for relation work in distributed video meetings?”. The two main contributions of this report are; (i......) the design, implementation and evaluation of SideBar - a videoconferencing system supporting relation work, and (ii) the proposal of three guidelines relevant for the design of relation work support....
Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07487893X; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847895; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related
Li, Li; Lin, Trisha T.C
... criticality) and organizational norms influence the work-related smartphone dependency of Chinese young workers. Implications for theories and practices are discussed. Keywords: smartphone dependency, young working adults, dependency relations, task characteristics, organizational norms People use smartphones for day-to-day working practices in a variet...
Morken, Tone; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Moen, Bente E
Since 1992, physicians have reported work-related diseases among workers in Norway's offshore petroleum industry to the Petroleum Safety Authority, as required by law. To analyse the number of reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors (occupation and reported exposure) from 1992 to 2003. Data from the Petroleum Safety Authority's registry of work-related diseases were analysed. During the 12 years, 3131 new work-related musculoskeletal disorders were reported and this was the category of work-related disease most frequently reported (47%). The number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders varied substantially from year to year. Disorders of the upper limb accounted for 53% and back disorders for 20% of all work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Lower limb disorders accounted for 16%, of which knee disorders dominated (12% of all cases). The dominant occupational categories were maintenance work (40%) and catering (21%). Frequently reported types of exposure were high physical workload, repetitive work and walking on hard surfaces/climbing stairs and ladders. Strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders should be carried out to reduce the burden of high physical workload and repetitive work, especially in maintenance work and catering. Further research is recommended on the association between walking on hard surfaces/climbing stairs and ladders and knee disorders. Reporting routines need to be improved to monitor trends over time and to assess the effects of interventions.
Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van
Objectives: We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods: We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch
Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van
Objectives - We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods - We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch
Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha
Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective.
This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes...
Opollo, J G; Gray, J; Spies, L A
To describe perceived work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers. A secondary aim was to seek participant input on ways to improve work environments. Poor patient outcomes, decreased employee motivation and decisions to leave the organization have been linked to poor work conditions. Interventions to correct healthcare worker shortage in developing countries require information about work quality of life. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in health and educational settings in Uganda in July 2011. Participants completed the Biographical Information Scale demographic questionnaire and the validated 24-item Work-Related Quality of Life scale. Sample included 146 healthcare workers employed in various settings. Participants reported poorer quality of work life on the work conditions, control at work and home-work interface subscales. Participants perceived stress at work to be low and experienced higher job career satisfaction. There was a significant relationship between work-related quality of life, gender and hours worked. Participants' suggestions to improve work life ranged from simple no-cost suggestions to more complex system level interventions. Work-related quality of life was low in this convenience sample. Perceived stress at work was lower than expected, but may have been due to nurses' expectations of a normal work assignment. Predominantly women, the participants had significant caregiving responsibilities. Nurses must acquire a seat at the table where crucial decisions about nursing and its future are made. By advancing leadership skills, nurses can effectively advocate for organizational changes that address broad factors related to increasing job satisfaction, and retaining and attracting nurses. Nurses can influence work quality of life individually and collectively by identifying workplace concerns, demanding safe work environments, fostering teamwork and enhancing professional growth. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
This work, which will be presented at SOT 2014, demonstrates that a single exposure to either ozone or acrolein causes decrements in cardiac function and altered electrical activity (i.e. arrhythmia). The results suggest that this effect is mediated by the airway sensor TRPA1. ...
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... productivity. Relevance to industry: The paper identifies organizational options on which managers, employees and ergonomists can focus when initiating new stress management practices and preventive changes aimed at redesigning knowledge work. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed...
Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk
.... It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them...
Perreira, Tyrone; Berta, Whitney; Ginsburg, Liane; Barnsley, Jan; Herbert, Monique
Work attitudes have been associated with work productivity. In health care, poor work attitudes have been linked to poor performance, decreased patient safety, and quality care. Hence, the importance, ascribed in the literature, of work that clearly identifies the relationships between and among work attitudes and work behaviors linked to performance. The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationships between work attitudes-perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support (POS), affective commitment-consistently associated with a key type of performance outcome among nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). A survey was developed and administered to frontline nurses working in the province of Ontario, Canada. Data analysis used path analytic techniques. Direct associations were identified between interpersonal justice and POS, procedural justice and POS, and POS and affective commitment to both one's supervisor and one's co-workers. Affective commitment to patients and career was directly associated with OCBs. Affective commitment to one's co-worker was directly associated with OCBs directed toward individuals, as affective commitment to one's organization was with OCBs directed toward the organization. Finally, OCBIs and OCBs were directly associated. Examining the relationships of these constructs in a single model is novel and provides new information regarding their complexity. Findings suggest that prior approaches to studying these relationships may have been undernuanced, and conceptualizations may have led to somewhat inaccurate conclusions regarding their associations. With limited resources, knowledge of nurse work attitudes can inform human resource practices and operational policies involving training programs in employee communication, transparency, interaction, support, and performance evaluation.
Olsen, Ingrid Blø; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen; Løvvik, Camilla
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are major causes of sickness absence and disability. Prevention requires knowledge of how individuals perceive causal mechanisms, and in this study we sought to examine work-related factors as causal attribution of CMDs. A trial sample of n = 1,193, recruited because they struggled with work participation due to CMDs, answered an open-ended questionnaire item about what they believed were the most important causes of their CMDs. The population included participants at risk of sickness absence, and participants with reduced work participation due to sickness absence, disability or unemployment. We used thematic content analysis and categorized responses from 487 participants who reported work-related factors as causal attributions of their CMDs. Gender differences in work-related causal attributions were also examined. The participants attributed their CMDs to the following work-related factors; work stress, leadership, reduced work participation, job dissatisfaction, work conflict, social work environment, job insecurity and change, workplace bullying, and physical strain. Women tended to attribute CMDs to social factors at work. Findings from this study suggest several work-related risk factors for CMDs. Both factors at the workplace, and reduced work participation, were perceived by study participants as contributing causes of CMDs. Thus, there is a need to promote work participation whilst at the same time targeting aversive workplace factors. Further, our findings indicate that work-related factors may affect women and men differently. This illustrates that the association between work participation and CMDs is complex, and needs to be explored further.
Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann
Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated r...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....
van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O
Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need
Choi, Eun Sook; Ha, Yeongmi
Work-related stress and risk factors among Korean employees were identified in this study. Data were obtained from employees aged 20 to 64 using the Korean Working Conditions Survey 2006 (KWCS). Multiple logistic regression analysis using SAS version 9.1 was performed to examine risk factors of work-related stress by gender. The age-adjusted prevalence of work-related stress among male and female employees was 18.4% and 15.1% respectively. After adjustments for multiple variables among both male and female employees, there was a significant relationship between work-related stress and risk factors including education, company size, work time, ergonomic risks, biological.chemical risks, and job demands. The significant variables for male employees were housework load, occupational class, and shift work, and for female employees, type of employment. There is a need to develop and support intensive stress management programs nationally giving consideration to work-related stress associated with working time, physical working environment, and job demands. Based on gender specific approaches, for male employes, stress management programs should be developed with consideration being given to occupational class and shift work. For stress management programs for female employees, consideration needs to be given to permanent employment status, specifically those in small companies.
The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna
Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…
Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Kyed, Morten; Christensen, Ann Dorte
of safety and the practices that lead to work-related accidents. The article concludes that the gender perspective is useful to expand the knowledge about safety and work-accidents in relation to for instance pride and bodily strength as well as the struggles between different masculinities....
Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan
Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p grade teachers perceives the workplace as extremely stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
Emmerich, Astrid I; Rigotti, Thomas
This study investigates the role of context-specific authenticity at work for work-related outcomes (intrinsic motivation, work ability) and depressivity. Furthermore reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are investigated. Longitudinal data from 1,243 employees from 63 subsidiaries of a non-profit organization in the social sector were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Work-related authenticity at T1 predicted work ability and depressivity, but not intrinsic motivation at T2, about 6 months later. Work-related authenticity at T2 was predicted by intrinsic motivation and depressivity, but not by work ability at T1. We conclude that work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are positively reinforcing each other. Thus, enabling employees to be authentic supposedly increases their well-being and is a pivotal opportunity for organizations to foster health and performance-related indicators like work ability and prevent negative health indicators like depressivity. At the same time, authenticity of employees can be fostered through workplace health promotion.
Emmerich, Astrid I.; Rigotti, Thomas
This study investigates the role of context-specific authenticity at work for work-related outcomes (intrinsic motivation, work ability) and depressivity. Furthermore reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are investigated. Longitudinal data from 1,243 employees from 63 subsidiaries of a non-profit organization in the social sector were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Work-related authenticity at T1 predicted work ability and depressivity, but not intrinsic motivation at T2, about 6 months later. Work-related authenticity at T2 was predicted by intrinsic motivation and depressivity, but not by work ability at T1. We conclude that work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are positively reinforcing each other. Thus, enabling employees to be authentic supposedly increases their well-being and is a pivotal opportunity for organizations to foster health and performance-related indicators like work ability and prevent negative health indicators like depressivity. At the same time, authenticity of employees can be fostered through workplace health promotion. PMID:28316581
Hespanhol Bernardo, Marcia; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Campinas (PUCC); de Souza, Heloisa Aparecida; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Campinas (PUCC); Garrido Pinzón, Johanna; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Campinas (PUCC); Kawamura, Eduardo Alessandro; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Campinas (PUCC)
Although statistics from various countries indicate a significant increase in cases of work-related mental disorders, the interventions that governments and international organizations propose are often limited to “psychosocial risk factors” and focused on stress prevention. Also, these interventions are uncritically conducted in relation to contemporary economic, political and social scenarios involving work relations. This article presents a more comprehensive proposal to deal with mental h...
Bakshi, Sumitra Ganesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Kannan, Sadhana; Myatra, Sheila Nainan
Work-related stress is common among medical caregivers and concerns all perioperative care providers. Although anesthesiologists are known to experience stress, there are limited Indian data addressing this issue. This survey was conducted among Indian anesthesiologists to determine their awareness about work stress and views regarding prevention programs. A survey questionnaire was distributed to delegates visiting the exhibits at the national anesthesiology conference in 2011. The questionnaire had ten questions on the work pattern, five on work-related stress, nine on opinion regarding the need and willingness to participate in stress-related programs. There were 1178 responders. Forty-three percent were faculty in medical institutions, 26% were residents and 25% were in free-lance practice. Ninety-one percent of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme. There was a significant correlation between the amount of stress and working for more than 8 h (P working on weekends (P = 0.002), and carrying work back home (P work stress. Eighty-four percent of participants felt the need for stress management programs and 69% expressed their willingness to participate in the same. The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.
Workers' working conditions, work-related health problems and sickness absence are interdependent factors. Both workers' health problems and their absence are adverse events which generate significant costs for both Poland's Social Insurance Institution (ZUS) and employers. Despite the related burdens, it is difficult to assess the number of workers who experience work-related health problems, to indicate the share of those workers who have been unfit for work owing to such disorders and to indicate the types of workers' disorders which are caused by factors the workers are exposed to in the working environment. This article presents the findings of surveys carried out in selected production and service-providing companies, assessing the scale and nature of work-related health problems and their links with workers' sickness absence.
Winward, Jennifer L; Hanson, Karen L; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A
To assess recovery of cognitive effects, we investigated neuropsychological performance after 1 month of monitored abstinence in teens with histories of heavy episodic drinking, protracted marijuana use, or concomitant use of alcohol and marijuana. Adolescents (ages 16-18 years) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HED; n=24), marijuana use (MJ; n=20), both heavy alcohol and marijuana use (HED+MJ; n=29), and socio-demographically similar control teens (CON; n=55) completed a neuropsychological battery following 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. Groups were similar on 5th grade standardized test scores, suggesting comparable academic functioning before onset of substance use. Relative to CON, HED showed poorer cognitive flexibility (p=.006), verbal recall (p=.024), semantic clustering (p=.011), and reading skills (p=.018). MJ performed worse than CON on inhibition task accuracy (p=.015), cued verbal memory (p=.031), and psychomotor speed (p=.027). Similar to HED youth, HED+MJ showed differences relative to CON on cognitive flexibility (p=.024) and verbal recall (p=.049). As with MJ teens, HED+MJ showed poorer task accuracy (p=.020). Unique to the HED+MJ group was poorer working memory (p=.012) relative to CON. For all substance using participants, worse performance across domains correlated with more lifetime use of alcohol and of marijuana, more withdrawal symptoms from alcohol, and earlier age of onset of marijuana use (psalcohol use, marijuana use, and concomitant use of both substances during adolescence appear to be associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, and each substance (or combination of substances) may be linked to poorer performance in specific cognitive domains.
Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I
In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.
Ptáček, Radek; Vňuková, Martina; Raboch, Jiří
In the past two decades, special attention was paid to mental health issues. The available literature suggests, for example, the relationship between the workload and mental discomfort and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. This article focuses mainly on the issue of work-related stress and its impact on mental health. In this context, it must be acknowledged that possible psychological problems due to work are not only employees problem. These difficulties can significantly affect performance - and thus they should be the concern of the employer, but also of customers, clients and patients who come into contact with the worker who might develop some mental problems, due to the nature of his work and working conditions. This article provides an overview of the various factors affecting the mental health of employees. These are, for example, work demands, working hours and workplace relations. In conclusion, it brings results of Czech study examining job stress among working population.
Sun, Wenjun; Chen, Karen; Terhaar, Abigail; Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Heidrich, Susan M.; Tevaarwerk, Amye J.; Sesto, Mary E.
BACKGROUND Research has identified barriers and facilitators affecting cancer survivors’ return to work (RTW) following the end of active treatment (surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy). However, few studies have focused on barriers and facilitators that cancer survivors experience while working during active treatment. Strategies used by cancer survivors to solve work-related problems during active treatment are underexplored. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe factors that impact, either positively or negatively, breast cancer survivors’ work activities during active treatment. METHODS Semi-structured, recorded interviews were conducted with 35 breast cancer survivors who worked during active treatment. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis to identify themes regarding work-related barriers, facilitators and strategies. RESULTS Barriers identified included symptoms, emotional distress, appearance change, time constraints, work characteristics, unsupportive supervisors and coworkers, family issues and other illness. Facilitators included positive aspects of work, support outside of work, and coworker and supervisor support. Strategies included activities to improve health-related issues and changes to working conditions and tasks. CONCLUSIONS Breast cancer survivors encounter various barriers during active treatment. Several facilitators and strategies can help survivors maintain productive work activities. PMID:28059814
The bachelor thesis deals with the issue of employees motivation in relation to work benefits. The main aim is to analyse the impact of employee benefits on motivating employees. The theoretical part of the bachelor thesis defines motivation, work motivation, motive, stimulus, and theory of motivation of working behaviour. It also describes employee benefit, their ways of implementation and their breakdown. Lastly, the current trends of benefits that occur in the labour market and are include...
Forest machine operators are still experiencing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) despite extensive mechanisation and modernisation of harvesting systems. However, paucity of local ergonomics research and technology transfer problems may affect the use of mechanised systems in South Africa.
Occupational lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and pneumoconioses caused by exposure to airborne particulates are a major contributor to mortality and disability globally. However, work-related asthma remains under-recognised, poorly managed and inadequately compensated.
Conclusion: We identified factors associated with work-related fatigue among hospital workers in Taipei City. These findings can be applied toward on-the-job training and the development of preventive measures for occupational safety in general hospitals.
van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.
This Working Paper aims to present and discuss recent evidence on the effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on wages, working conditions and industrial relations. It presents a. an overview of the available literature on the effects of FDI on wages, particularly in developed countries; b. the
Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) contribute to poor posture and prolonged stress and strain due to work demands and the environment. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of WRMSDs in long-distance bus drivers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study ...
Conclusion: Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work disruptions and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is important that dentists incorporate complementary and alternative medicine strategies into practice to ...
Sumitra Ganesh Bakshi
Conclusion: The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.
Bakker, A.; Mierlo, X. van; Akkerman, S.
People typically find it hard to use mathematics and statistics they have learned at school in work contexts. We used a boundary-crossing approach to help apprentices in secondary vocational laboratory education integrate the statistics learned at school with work-related knowledge. In
Lokshin, Michael; Glinskaya, Elena; Bontch-Osmolovski, Mikhail
Using two rounds of nationally representative household survey data in this study, the authors measure the impact on poverty in Nepal of local and international migration for work. They apply an instrumental variable approach to deal with nonrandom selection of migrants and simulate various scenarios for the different levels of work-related migration, comparing observed and counterfactual ...
Dewa, C.S.; Hees, H.; Trojanowski, L.; Schene, A.H.
OBJECTIVE: Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the implications of endometriosis on women's work life. This study aimed at examining the relation between endometriosis-related symptoms and work ability in employed women with endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort study, 610 patients with diagnosed endometrio...... symptom onset to diagnosis was associated with low work ability. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a severe impact of endometriosis on the work ability of employed women with endometriosis and add to the evidence that this disease represents a significant socio-economic burden....
Kesner, Ladislav; Horáček, Jiří
Existing theories of empathic response to visual art works postulate the primacy of automatic embodied reaction to images based on mirror neuron mechanisms. Arguing for a more inclusive concept of empathy-related response and integrating four distinct bodies of literature, we discuss contextual, and personal factors which modulate empathic response to depicted people. We then present an integrative model of empathy-related responses to depicted people in art works. The model assumes that a re...
Latocca, R; Fornari, C; Madotto, F; Cesana, G C
The present epidemiological study aimed to investigate prevalence and trends of stress-job-related uneasiness and symptoms on a representative sample of Lombardia's working population. Data on occupational events (absenteeism and accidents at work), psychosomatic symptoms and smoke habit have been collected. Prevalence and trends of stress-job-related uneasiness are similar to those reported by the European Foundation in the Report for Sectorial Profiles (2002). The study confirms higher levels of absenteeism in corporations with high prevalence of women and in low socioeconomic level works.
Murphy, Kerri Anne
This study explored the relationship between community college students' working lives and student engagement. Student engagement has been used as a proxy for student persistence based on its strong association with student persistence and its powerful negative association with school drop-out. Work has been studied extensively as related to…
Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J
New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes.
Laethem, M. van; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Kecklund, L.G.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Geurts, S.A.E.
Objective In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep
Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk
[Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on t...
Fraleigh, Virginia A.
This manual is designed to assist personnel responsible for training teachers in the implementation of the World of Related Knowledge and Educational Development (WORK-ED). (The program is a career education course for ninth graders developed to enable students who have not chosen the traditional college-prep high school course to make career…
Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.
We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…
Riva, M M; Bancone, C; Bigoni, F; Bresciani, M; Santini, M; Mosconi, G
The construction industry is characterized by a high number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and even higher prevalence of work-related diseases. The aim of this work is to analyze the results of a research project that has among its objectives the study of the prevalence of work-related diseases and the fitness to work in construction industry. In the period 2003-2011 were evaluated 2069 construction workers, from 218 companies (average age 37.9 years, mean seniority 21.1 years, 17.1 in the construction industry). The prevalence of work-related diseases was 14.06%, in the first place the noise-induced hearing loss, followed by musculoskeletal disorders and entrapment neuropathies. The 24.7% of fitness to work was influenced by the presence of limitations, the 0.6% of the population was not suitable for the specific task. The prevalence of work-related diseases in construction industry is high, with a peak among the elderly, but also significant occurrence among young people. It is important the percentage of the population with health problems that limit the fitness to work.
Dietrich, Julia; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
People's personal goals interact with their life situations in many ways. This study examined the appraisals of personal goals during a transition from education to work and their interplay with stress in different domains of life. Finnish young adults (N = 265, 60% female) reported on their goals in the work domain, and related appraisals of…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and health-related problems among computer-user employees in the banking institutions in Nairobi. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences in terms of gender and position of work in relation to the above.
Annor, Francis B; Roblin, Douglas W; Okosun, Ike S; Goodman, Michael
To examine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and four subscales of work-related psychosocial stress at study baseline and over time. We used survey data from a major HMO located in the Southeastern part of the US on health and healthy behaviors linked with patients' clinical, pharmacy and laboratory records for the period between 2005 and 2009. Study participants (n=537) consisted of working adults aged 25-59 years, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without advanced micro or macrovascular complications at the time of the survey. We estimated the baseline (2005) association between HbA1c and work-related psychosocial stress and their interactions using linear regression analysis. Using individual growth model approach, we estimated the association between HbA1c over time and work-related psychosocial stress. Each of the models controlled for socio-demographic variables, diet and physical activity factor, laboratory factor, physical examinations variables and medication use in a hierarchical fashion. After adjusting for all study covariates, we did not find a significant association between work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control either at baseline or over time. Among fairly healthy middle aged working adults with DM, work-related psychosocial stress was not directly associated with glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Kompier, Michiel A J; Kecklund, Göran; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Geurts, Sabine A E
In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep quality. A randomly selected sample of Dutch employees received an online survey in 2012 and 2013. Of all invited employees, 877 participated in both waves. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. We found evidence for reversed relations between work-related stress and sleep quality. Specifically, when controlling for perseverative cognition, work-related stress was not directly related to subsequent sleep quality, but low sleep quality was associated with an increase in work-related stress over time. Moreover, negative bidirectional associations over time were found between perseverative cognition and sleep quality, and positive bidirectional associations were found between work-related stress and perseverative cognition. Lastly, a mediation analysis showed that perseverative cognition fully mediated the relationship between work-related stress and sleep quality. The study findings suggest that perseverative cognition could be an important underlying mechanism in the association between work-related stress and sleep quality. The bidirectionality of the studied relationships could be an indication of a vicious cycle, in which work-related stress, perseverative cognition, and sleep quality mutually influence each other over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Zotti, R; Bovenzi, M
To investigate the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms and to assess the effect of atopy in a group of trainee bakers. A prospective study of work related respiratory symptoms among 125 trainee bakers who were investigated with a questionnaire plus skin prick test with wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens at baseline and then after 6, 18, and 30 months. At the baseline examination, four students (3.2%) complained of respiratory symptoms (cough and rhinitis) when working with flours and four were skin positive to wheat flour or alpha-amylase. The incidence of work related respiratory symptoms was 3.4% at 6 months, and the cumulative incidence was 4.8% and 9.0% at 18 and 30 months, respectively. The incidence of skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was 4.6% at 6 months and the cumulative incidence was 4.6% at 18 months and 10.1% at 30 months. The generalised estimating equation approach to longitudinal data showed that work related respiratory symptoms in the study population was significantly associated with a personal history of allergic disease (odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.8 to 18.2) and skin sensitisation to wheat flour or alpha-amylase (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 14.9). Atopy based on prick test was not related to the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms over time (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.3 to 3.8). Personal history of allergic disease is a predisposing factor for the development of symptoms caused by exposure to wheat flour and may be a criterion of unsuitability for starting a career as a baker. Atopy based on the skin prick test is useful for identifying subjects with allergic disease, but should not be used to exclude non-symptomatic atopic people from bakery work.
Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K
and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder.......The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case...
Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk
[Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=-0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.
Under what conditions the work activity may be structuring health and in which ones can become a source of disease and suffering? How explain the current situation of deterioration and increased mental pathology in relation to work? The job must be conceived as a trigger among others, or could play a specific role in the etiology of various psychological and psychosomatic pictures? This article addresses these questions from the perspective of Psychodynamic of work. Based on the theory of living labor developed by C. Dejours, the article analyzes the dynamic pleasure-suffering in relation to work and the role of defensive mechanisms in those dynamics. In turn, it characterized the current epidemiological situation, describing the prevalent pathologies related to mental health and work. Finally, the article exposes the thesis of Psychodynamic of work regarding the increase and aggravation of these pathologies. The article aims to present the main axes of Psychodynamics of Work, which is a theory and clinical practice whose object is the psychodynamic analysis of subjective and intersubjective processes mobilized by work situations.
McMullin, J A; Marshall, V W
This study examined the complexities of age relations at work. Garment workers believed that their fate was linked to ageism and that their work experience was discounted by management. Managers wanted to be rid of older workers because they commanded higher wages than younger workers. The issue was cost reduction, and age was implicated unintendedly. Still, managers seemed to use stereotypical images to discourage older workers and they did not organize work routines to facilitate the adaptation of them. Instead, they subcontracted the easy jobs, relying on the experience of the older employees for difficult work while not adapting the workplace. Theoretically, the authors argue that ageism and age discrimination can best be understood through a recognition of the importance of structured age relations and human agency.
Full Text Available In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present paper was to review the current research into the DCM in relation to stroke and to scrutinize potential gender differences. A literature search was performed and eight studies from three countries were identified. Based on the reviewed studies, there is some evidence that high psychological demands, low job control, and job strain are associated with increased stroke risk in women as well as in men. Any major reduction in deaths and disability from stroke is likely to come from decreasing social inequalities in health, and reducing work stress has a potential to contribute to a reduced risk of stroke in working populations.
Frost, P; Andersen, J. H.
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the risk of shoulder impingement syndrome relative to shoulder intensive work. METHODS: A cross sectional study of a historical cohort of 1591 workers employed between 1986 and 1993 at a slaughterhouse or a chemical factory. Workers not doing tasks in slaughtering or meat processing constituted the reference group. Intensity of shoulder work in meat processing tasks was assessed by video based observations. Information on shoulder disorders was collected by quest...
Booth, Rob; Mackintosh, Bundy; Sharma, Dinkar
High trait anxious individuals tend to show biased processing of threat. Correlational evidence suggests that executive control could be used to regulate such threat-processing. On this basis, we hypothesised that trait anxiety-related cognitive biases regarding threat should be exaggerated when executive control is experimentally impaired by loading working memory. In Study 1, 68 undergraduates read ambiguous vignettes under high and low working memory load; later, their interpretations of t...
Full Text Available Background: Health professions like dentistry, nursing and physical therapy have been reported at high risk for developing workrelated musculoskeletal disorders. Results of studies conducted in these occupational groups may help formulate prevention strategies. However, no such data among physical therapists has been reported in India. Material and Methods: We conducted an online survey among 100 physiotherapists in Delhi. Results: The response rate was 75%. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is found to be high since 92% of them reported to feel some pain after joining physical therapy which affects daily activities and even sometimes forces them to change their work. Physical therapists specialty, gender, furniture used in clinic and duration of patient contact are found to be related to the pain development (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics and techniques of patient handling in development of work-related pain symptoms. Med Pr 2015;66(4:459–469
Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.
Nyo Nyo Min
Full Text Available AIM:To describe the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries and its visual outcome in tertiary hospital in southern Malaysia. METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed as work-related ocular injuries who attended to the eye casualty of Hospital Sultan Ismail in Johor Bahru, Malaysia from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013. Data for clinical presentation, types of injuries, use of eye protective device(EPDand visual outcome were collected using a standardized proforma.RESULTS: A total of 935 ocular injuries attended to Hospital Sultan Ismail during 3y period. Among them 440 cases were work-related ocular injuries and included in the study. There was significant male preponderance(98.19%and commonest age group affected was 21 to 30y(45%. The most common type of injury was superficial injuries(70.91%, followed by chemical(11.13%, open globe(8.41%, closed globe(6.83%and thermal(2.72%. Although Malays are commonly involved in work-related ocular injury accounted for 78.47%, two-thirds of open globe injuries were seen in foreign workers. Only 59 patients(13.41%reported that they wore EPD at the time of incident. Generally, 89.86%(n=399had good vision, 5.45%(n=24had moderate vision and 3.86%(n=17poor vision. Visual outcome related to specific types of injuries showed that poor outcome was higher in open globe injuries groups compared with closed globe injuries \\〖odd ratio(OR=3.33, 95% confidence interval(CI=0.68 to 16.33\\〗. Overall hospital attendance rate of work-related ocular trauma ranged from 20.7 to 51.9 per 1000 new cases and decline of approximately 1.5% per year(PCONCLUSION: Work-related ocular trauma is important cause of ocular morbidity in working forces particularly young men. Malay males between 21 to 40y have higher risk. Majority of work-related ocular trauma seen in our hospital are generally of superficial injuries and potentially preventable. This study indicates they need to improve safety measures to
de Jong, Merel; Tamminga, Sietske J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M
This study aimed to (1) describe the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of cancer survivors and (2) explore associations between the QWL of cancer survivors and health- and work-related variables. Employed and self-employed cancer survivors were recruited through hospitals and patient organizations. They completed the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire for Cancer Survivors (QWLQ-CS) and health- and work-related variables in this cross-sectional study. The QWL scores of cancer survivors were described, and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables were assessed. The QWLQ-CS was completed by 302 cancer survivors (28% male) with a mean age of 52 ± 8 years. They were diagnosed between 0 and 10 years ago with various types of cancer, such as breast cancers, gastrointestinal cancers, urological cancers, and haematological cancers. The QWL mean score of cancer survivors was 75 ± 12 (0-100). Cancer survivors had statistically significant lower QWL scores when they had been treated with chemotherapy or when they reported co-morbidity (p ≤ 0.05). Cancer survivors without managerial positions, with low incomes or physically demanding work, and who worked a proportion of their contract hours had statistically significantly lower QWL scores (p ≤ 0.05). This study described the QWL of cancer survivors and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables. Based on these variables, it is possible to indicate groups of cancer survivors who need more attention and support regarding QWL and work continuation.
Dewa, Carolyn S; Hees, Hiske; Trojanowski, Lucy; Schene, Aart H
Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders. This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews. Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular. Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of "partial disability". In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability.
Carolyn S Dewa
Full Text Available Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders.This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews.Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular.Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of "partial disability". In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability.
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert
Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.
Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya
This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as dimensions of work-related wellbeing in a sample of members of the police force in South Africa. A survey design was used. Stratifed random samples of members of the police force (N = 677 were taken in the North West Province of South Africa. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, Police Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results provided support for a four-factorial model of work-related wellbeing consisting of the following dimensions: job satisfaction (indicating pleasure vs. displeasure, occupational stress (indicating anxiety vs. comfort, burnout (indicating fatigue vs. vigour, and engagement (indicating enthusiasm vs. depression.
disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis , gout, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, and/or any chronic or acute...El Elbow El Yes El No Gout El El Thyroid Problems El El Lupus El El Rheumatoid Arthritis El El 31. Have you ever had surgery for work-related... symptomatology and disability related to CTS specifically, and perhaps WRUEDs in general, may be multiply determined by factors other than physiological
CHUNG, Yun Kyung; KWON, Young-jun
The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers’ compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker’s compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84–0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation. PMID:23892901
Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang
Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.
Booth, Robert W; Mackintosh, Bundy; Sharma, Dinkar
High trait anxious individuals tend to show biased processing of threat. Correlational evidence suggests that executive control could be used to regulate such threat-processing. On this basis, we hypothesized that trait anxiety-related cognitive biases regarding threat should be exaggerated when executive control is experimentally impaired by loading working memory. In Study 1, 68 undergraduates read ambiguous vignettes under high and low working memory load; later, their interpretations of these vignettes were assessed via a recognition test. Trait anxiety predicted biased interpretation of social threat vignettes under high working memory load, but not under low working memory load. In Study 2, 53 undergraduates completed a dot probe task with fear-conditioned Japanese characters serving as threat stimuli. Trait anxiety predicted attentional bias to the threat stimuli but, again, this only occurred under high working memory load. Interestingly however, actual eye movements toward the threat stimuli were only associated with state anxiety, and this was not moderated by working memory load, suggesting that executive control regulates biased threat-processing downstream of initial input processes such as orienting. These results suggest that cognitive loads can exacerbate trait anxiety-related cognitive biases, and therefore represent a useful tool for assessing cognitive biases in future research. More importantly, since biased threat-processing has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety, poor executive control may be a risk factor for anxiety disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Anderson, Rachel M; Birnie, Andrew K; Koblesky, Norah K; Romig-Martin, Sara A; Radley, Jason J
Cognitive decline in aging is marked by considerable variability, with some individuals experiencing significant impairments and others retaining intact functioning. Whereas previous studies have linked elevated hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity with impaired hippocampal function during aging, the idea has languished regarding whether such differences may underlie the deterioration of other cognitive functions. Here we investigate whether endogenous differences in HPA activity are predictive of age-related impairments in prefrontal structural and behavioral plasticity. Young and aged rats (4 and 21 months, respectively) were partitioned into low or high HPA activity, based upon averaged values of corticosterone release from each animal obtained from repeated sampling across a 24 h period. Pyramidal neurons in the prelimbic area of medial prefrontal cortex were selected for intracellular dye filling, followed by 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry. Aged animals displayed dendritic spine loss and altered geometric characteristics; however, these decrements were largely accounted for by the subgroup bearing elevated corticosterone. Moreover, high adrenocortical activity in aging was associated with downward shifts in frequency distributions for spine head diameter and length, whereas aged animals with low corticosterone showed an upward shift in these indices. Follow-up behavioral experiments revealed that age-related spatial working memory deficits were exacerbated by increased HPA activity. By contrast, variations in HPA activity in young animals failed to impact structural or behavioral plasticity. These data implicate the cumulative exposure to glucocorticoids as a central underlying process in age-related prefrontal impairment and define synaptic features accounting for different trajectories in age-related cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348387-11$15.00/0.
Golubic, Rajna; Milosevic, Milan; Knezevic, Bojana; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka
This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine which occupational stressors are present in nurses' working environment; to describe and compare occupational stress between two educational groups of nurses; to estimate which stressors and to what extent predict nurses' work ability; and to determine if educational level predicts nurses' work ability. Nurses' occupational stress adversely affects their health and nursing quality. Higher educational level has been shown to have positive effects on the preservation of good work ability. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006-2007. Questionnaires were distributed to a convenience sample of 1392 (59%) nurses employed at four university hospitals in Croatia (n = 2364). The response rate was 78% (n = 1086). Data were collected using the Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire and Work Ability Index Questionnaire. We identified six major groups of occupational stressors: 'Organization of work and financial issues', 'public criticism', 'hazards at workplace', 'interpersonal conflicts at workplace', 'shift work' and 'professional and intellectual demands'. Nurses with secondary school qualifications perceived Hazards at workplace and Shift work as statistically significantly more stressful than nurses a with college degree. Predictors statistically significantly related with low work ability were: Organization of work and financial issues (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 122-236), lower educational level (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 122-236) and older age (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.09). Hospital managers should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in Croatian hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decreasing nurses' occupational stress levels, thus maintaining their work ability.
Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn
with anxiolytics (hazard ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 2.70) but not with purchasing anxiolytics or hypnotics only. The frequency of violent episodes and risk of caseness were unrelated. Work-related violence is associated with increased risk of clinically pertinent mental health problems. Reducing...
Amanda C. Graham; Linda E. Kruger
This report analyzes how a small group of Forest Service scientists participating in efforts to implement adaptive management approach working relations, and how they understand and apply the research process. Nine scientists completed a questionnaire to assess their preferred mode of thinking (the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument), engaged in a facilitated...
Introduction: Farming is a physically laborious occupation and farm workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal complaints. Objective: To determine the work related musculoskeletal complaints among farm workers at an agricultural college in Zimbabwe. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted ...
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of work-related symptoms among oral health workers other than the dentist in Nigeria and the preventive measures put in place to reduce exposure to hazardous agents and practices. The study was by means of self-administered questionnaires filled by all cadres of oral ...
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and context of all work-related accidents that occurred as a result of contamination with blood and blood products, among surgical residents at the Black lion teaching specialized referral hospital, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data was collected from ...
McWilliams, Jettie M.
Stress is a common problem in today's society. Even though stress has been recognized as a problem in the workplace, the identification of specific work-related stress producers, coping mechanisms, and symptoms has been somewhat neglected. The purpose of this study was to analyze levels and areas of stress in selected service professions and to…
Long, Bonita C.
Interviewed 20 professional women on their work-related stress and coping processes to identify those who were good and poor at coping. Found that more effective copers seemed to have used problem-focused coping such as seeking information or advice or taking problem-solving action, whereas less effective copers seemed to have used strategies such…
Dentists commonly experience musculoskeletal pain during the course of their career. This study investigated the incidence and mechanism of work-related musculoskeletal pain among practising dentists in Kwa-Zulu Natal. A descriptive survey was conducted among 94 dentists, who voluntarily consented to participate in ...
Discussing the workings of technology in care as aesthetic rather than as ethical or epistemological interventions focusses on how technologies engage in and change relations between those involved. Such an aesthetic study opens up a repertoire to address values that are abundant in care, but are as
Discussing the workings of technology in care as aesthetic rather than as ethical or epistemological interventions focusses on how technologies engage in and change relations between those involved. Such an aesthetic study opens up a repertoire to address values that are abundant in care, but are as
Pop-Vasileva, Aleksandra; Baird, Kevin; Blair, Bill
This study examines the work-related attitudes of Australian accounting academics. A survey of 350 academics provides an insight into the specific organisational and institutional factors associated with the dissatisfaction, stress levels, and propensity to remain of academics. Of particular concern is the lower level of satisfaction and…
... cancer patients; corrective surgery for spinal impairments; electroencephalograms and brain scans related... or her employment or by reducing the number of hours he or she worked. (B) The Board considers a... condition; and immunosuppressive medications that kidney transplant patients regularly take to protect...
Work-related musculoskeletal injuries remain a concern for the nursing profession. The purpose of this study was to reduce work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries by 10% on the rehabilitation unit in a Midwestern hospital. Using a quality improvement and evidence-based practice lens, one group time-series design was employed. Shift reports, interdisciplinary collaboration, self-study educational packets, and journal club sessions were implemented. Results, although not statistically significant, indicated over a 50% reduction in work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries. Self-engagement and the Hawthorne effect are thought to have contributed to this decline in injury rates. A cost-benefit analysis indicates an estimated savings of $90,000 over 4 months. A yearly practice-based education program and improvement in electronic health records is advocated to sustain this decrease in nursing injury rates. Context-specific interventions, communication, algorithm approach to patient transfers, and research knowledge are needed to decrease rehabilitation work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; Xu, Le; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Dake
The authors' aim was to examine the relations among mental multiplication, working memory load (WML), and automaticity by alternating the difficulty level of task characteristics. In Experiment 1, involving 30 fifth-grade students with mixed abilities, a 2 (WML) × 2 (automaticity) design was utilized. In Experiment 2, involving 21 high-achieving…
Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) represent a significant occupational problem among road construction workers. This study conducted a prevalence and symptom survey of WRMDs among road construction workers in a Nigerian community and its relationship with risk factors over a twelve month period.
Objective: The slow discharge of long-term psychiatry patients from Weskoppies Hospital into the community has not matched the national and international drive towards deinstitutionalisation. This article investigates patient and social work factors related to successful community placement, in the context of limited ...
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.
Andrade, Gabriela Oliveira; Dantas, Rosa Amélia Andrade
Anaesthesiology is a specialty whose specificity of the working process results in high levels of stress as an inevitable condition - a particularly worrying situation in the daily life of these professionals. This study, based on data from national and international literature, aims to discuss the basis of the occurrence of mental and behavioural disorders or of psychopathological injuries (psychological distress) related to working activity in anesthesiologists. A literature review was conducted, with papers selected from Medline and Lilacs databases, published between 2000 and 2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish, and addressing the possible association between occupational hazards of the anaesthesiologist profession and mental health problems and psychic distress. Twenty-six publications were listed. Several aspects of the anesthesiologist's work are important points to better understand the relationship between mental health at work and working organization. Poor temporal structuring of work, conflictuous interpersonal relationships and poor control over the activity itself may be mentioned as illness enhancers. The working organization, when not appropriate, is an important occupational risk factor for the life and mental health of workers, mainly of professionals focused on the care of people. This paper focuses on anesthesiologists, who are constantly exposed to stressful and anxiogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Andrade, Gabriela Oliveira; Andrade Dantas, Rosa Amélia
Anaesthesiology is a specialty whose specificity of the working process results in high levels of stress as an inevitable condition - a particularly worrying situation in the daily life of these professionals. This study, based on data from national and international literature, aims to discuss the basis of the occurrence of mental and behavioural disorders or of psychopathological injuries (psychological distress) related to working activity in anesthesiologists. A literature review was conducted, with papers selected from Medline and Lilacs databases, published between 2000 and 2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish, and addressing the possible association between occupational hazards of the anaesthesiologist profession and mental health problems and psychic distress. Twenty-six publications were listed. Several aspects of the anesthesiologist's work are important points to better understand the relationship between mental health at work and working organization. Poor temporal structuring of work, conflictuous interpersonal relationships and poor control over the activity itself may be mentioned as illness enhancers. The working organization, when not appropriate, is an important occupational risk factor for the life and mental health of workers, mainly of professionals focused on the care of people. This paper focuses on anesthesiologists, who are constantly exposed to stressful and anxiogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm
Boundaries between work and private life are diminishing, but little is known on how this influences worker health. Therefore, we examined the association between work-related contacts outside of regular working hours by e-mail or phone and self-reported health in a representative sample of European employees (n = 23 760). The risk of reporting ≥1 health problem(s) was increased in workers contacted sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.27) or often (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.34) as compared with never, controlling for several demographic and workplace characteristics. Further research is needed to quantify work and nonwork patterns and their health effects.
Awang, Halimah; Tan, Lih Yoong; Mansor, Norma; Tongkumchum, Phattrawan; Eso, Mayuening
To examine factors associated with successful return to work among participants in a Social Security Organisation Return To Work programme. Secondary data for 9,850 participants were obtained from the Social Security Organisation Return To Work database. The dependent variable was the Return To Work programme outcome, successful return to employment (same employer or different employer) or unsuccessful return. Logistic regression analysis with weighted sum contrasts was performed to assess the odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for successful return to employment across the various subgroups of participants. Overall, 65.5% of participants successfully returned to employment, either with their former employers or with new employers. Successful return to employment was found to be significantly higher than the overall proportion among those participants who had had commuting accidents, followed by those who had had workplace accidents. Successful return to employment was also associated with injuries of the upper and lower limbs, employers who were interested in hiring disabled workers, motivation to participate in the programme, an intervention period of 3 months or less, age 29 years or younger, and male participants. A structured multidisciplinary intervention programme provides a positive outcome in terms of returning to work. Related factors have various impacts on successful return to work.
Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van
Boredom is an emotion that occurs regularly at the workplace, with negative consequences for the employee and the organization. It is therefore important to understand why work-related boredom leads to such adverse consequences and what can be done to mitigate its occurrence and its negative
van Hooff, M.L.M.; van Hooft, E.A.J.
Boredom is an emotion that occurs regularly at the workplace, with negative consequences for the employee and the organization. It is therefore important to understand why work-related boredom leads to such adverse consequences and what can be done to mitigate its occurrence and its negative
Ku, Cheol Ryong; Lee, Narae; Hong, Jae Won; Kwon, In Gyu; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Lee, Eun Jig; Yun, Mijin; Cho, Arthur
Gastrectomy method is known to influence glucose homeostasis. 18 F-fluoro-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) images acquired after gastrectomy often reveals newly developed physiological small bowel uptake. We correlated newly developed small bowel FDG uptake and glucose homeostasis in postgastrectomy gastric cancer patients. We retrospectively analyzed 239 patients without diabetes who underwent staging and follow-up FDG PET/CT scanning before and after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Postoperative small bowel glycolysis was quantified by recording intestinal total lesion glycolysis (TLG). TLG was assessed with regard to surgical method (Billroth I, Billroth II [BII], Roux-en-Y [RY]), fasting glucose decrement (≥10 mg/dL), and other clinical factors. Patients' weight, fasting glucose, cholesterol, TLG, and body fat levels significantly decreased after surgery. The glucose decrement was significantly associated with fasting glucose, surgical methods, total cholesterol, TLG, and total body fat on univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that BII surgery (odds ratio 6.51) and TLG (odds ratio 3.17) were significantly correlated with glucose decrement. High small bowel glycolysis (TLG >42.0 g) correlated with glucose decrement in RY patients. Newly developed small bowel glycolysis on postgastrectomy FDG PET/CT scanning is correlated with a glucose decrement. These findings suggest a potential role of FDG PET/CT scanning in the evaluation of small bowel glycolysis and glucose control. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Tones, Megan; Pillay, Hitendra; Fraser, Jennifer
Contemporary lifespan development models of adaptive development have been applied to the workforce to examine characteristics of the ageing employee. Few studies have examined adaptive development in terms of worker perceptions of workplace, or their learning and development issues. This study used the recently developed Revised Learning and Development Survey to investigate employee selection and engagement of learning and development goals, opportunities for learning and development at work, and constraints to learning and development at work. Demographic and career goal variables were tested amongst a sample of private hospital employees, almost all of whom were nurses. Workers under 45 years of age perceived greater opportunities for training and development than more mature aged workers. Age and physical demands interacted such that physical demands of work were associated with lower engagement in learning and development goals in mature aged workers. The opposite was observed amongst younger workers. Engagement in learning and development goals at work predicted goals associated with an intention to decrease work hours or change jobs to a different industry when opportunities to learn via work tasks were limited. At the same time limited opportunities for training and development and perceptions of constraints to development at work predicted the intention to change jobs. Results indicate consideration must be paid to employee perceptions in the workplace in relation to goals. They may be important factors in designing strategies to retain workers.
Dumont, Kitty; Louw, Johann
The late Henri Tajfel (1919-1982) is one of the central figures who shaped the development of post-war European social psychology. His contributions range from the establishment of an infrastructure for a European social psychology, and the start of a new intellectual movement within social psychology, to the formulation of a set of concepts addressing intergroup relations that were finally integrated into Social Identity Theory. The present study provides an empirical examination of Tajfel's contribution to intergroup research over the last 30 years via a citation analysis of five journals: the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the British Journal of Social Psychology, the European Journal of Social Psychology, the South African Journal of Psychology, and the German Journal of Social Psychology (Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie). The results indicate that Tajfel's work on intergroup relations is increasingly cited, especially since the 1990s, and the international recognition of his work is substantial. Three possible reasons for the recognition his work still enjoys are proposed: its potential to generate theoretical and empirical controversies; its explanatory power; and the extent to which his work is used as a referential framework.
Discussing the workings of technology in care as aesthetic rather than as ethical or epistemological interventions focusses on how technologies engage in and change relations between those involved. Such an aesthetic study opens up a repertoire to address values that are abundant in care, but are as yet hardly theorized. Kamphof studies the problem that sensor technology reveals things about the elderly patients without the patients being aware of this. I suggest improvement of these relations may be considered in aesthetic terms, for instance by developing the affective quality of people's technological relationships.
Wang, Mo; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Alexanderson, Kristina; Runeson, Bo; Tinghög, Petter; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
Work-related functional impairment in terms of sickness absence and disability pension (SA/DP) has been reported to be associated with subsequent suicide. However, there is only limited knowledge on SA/DP patterns prior to suicide. The aim was to identify trajectories of work-related functional impairment prior to suicide and to describe associations of socio-demographic and medical factors with such trajectories. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of the 4 209 individuals aged 22-65 years who committed suicide during 2007-2010 in Sweden. Work-related functional impairment was measured as mean annual number of months of SA/DP. We analyzed trajectories of SA/DP during five years prior to suicide (i.e., 2002-2009) by a group-based trajectory method. Associations between socio-demographic and medical factors with different groups of trajectories were estimated by chi2-test and multinomial logistic regression. Five different functional impairment trajectory groups were identified prior to suicide. One group had constant low levels of SA/DP (46%), while 30% had constant high levels of SA/DP. Two groups (16%) showed increasing number of SA/DP months. The remaining 7% showed decreasing number of SA/DP months before the suicide. Sex, age, educational level, family situation, and diagnosis-specific healthcare were significantly associated with different trajectory groups (Likelihood ratio X2 tests suicide attempts were found in the group with constant low levels. Opposite characteristics were displayed in the group with constant high levels. This study identified five different groups of work-related functional impairment trajectories before suicide. These differences might be partly explained by the variations in socio-demographic profiles and health care consumptions five years before suicide.
de Vries, Juriena D; Claessens, Brigitte J C; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Kompier, Michiel A J
This longitudinal study examined 'normal', 'reversed', and 'reciprocal' relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of employees' work-related fatigue and task demands were studied. These groups were based on employees' compliance with the international physical activity norm. Two waves with a one-year time lag of a national representative survey on the quality of work, health, and well-being among Dutch employees were used (N = 2275). Longitudinal effects were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Meaningful physical activity groups were compared using group-by-time analysis of covariance. Support was found for reciprocal relations between physical activity and work-related fatigue. It was found that an increase in physical activity is associated with a decrease in work-related fatigue over time and that an increase in work-related fatigue is associated with a decrease in physical activity over time. No significant longitudinal relations were found between physical activity and task demands. Employees whose compliance with the physical activity norm changed over time showed fairly stable levels of work-related fatigue and task demands. The current findings provide evidence for the potential role of physical activity in the prevention and reduction in work-related fatigue. However, results also indicate that fatigued workers, who would benefit most from physical activity, are less physically active. Our results further indicate that relying on changes in compliance to the physical activity norm may not be the most suitable way to examine changes in work-related fatigue.
Samadi, Osai; Breunis, Henriette; Sandoval, Joanna; Akilan, Kosalan; Timilshina, Narhari; Alibhai, Shabbir M H
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive, acute-onset hematological malignancy. Greater use of intensive chemotherapy (IC), supportive care, and stem cell transplantation have led to an increasing number of long-term survivors. Few studies have examined employment issues among AML survivors and to our knowledge, no study has examined the long-term effects of treatment on return to work. This study is the first to utilize a validated measure of work-related limitation and productivity (WLQ-16) to assess the long-term effects of AML treatment on employment rates, work-related limitations, and overall productivity. We examined RTW issues in 111 adult AML 1-year survivors after conventional IC. We found that, over time, the number of employed survivors increased (to 54% by 36 months) while the number of unemployed, retired, and sick leave patients decreased. Among those employed, the majority were employed full time. Employed individuals reported few work-related limitations and productivity loss scores were low, ranging from 3.47% at 18 months to 2.34% at 36 months. These data suggest that, over time, over half of AML survivors who underwent IC regain social, emotional, cognitive, and physical function sufficient to RTW with few limitations.
Kanfer, Ruth; Frese, Michael; Johnson, Russell E
Work motivation is a topic of crucial importance to the success of organizations and societies and the well-being of individuals. We organize the work motivation literature over the last century using a meta-framework that clusters theories, findings, and advances in the field according to their primary focus on (a) motives, traits, and motivation orientations (content); (b) features of the job, work role, and broader environment (context); or (c) the mechanisms and processes involved in choice and striving (process). Our integrative review reveals major achievements in the field, including more precise mapping of the psychological inputs and operations involved in motivation and broadened conceptions of the work environment. Cross-cutting trends over the last century include the primacy of goals, the importance of goal striving processes, and a more nuanced conceptualization of work motivation as a dynamic, goal-directed, resource allocation process that unfolds over the related variables of time, experience, and place. Across the field, advances in methodology and measurement have improved the match between theory and research. Ten promising directions for future research are described and field experiments are suggested as a useful means of bridging the research-practice gap. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
da Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Susser, Ezra; Menezes, Paulo Rossi
To identify work-related factors associated with depressive symptoms and probable major depression in primary care teams. Cross-sectional study among primary care teams (community health workers, nursing assistants, nurses, and physicians) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil (2011-2012; n = 2940), to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression and their associations with job strain and other work-related conditions. Community health workers presented higher prevalence of probable major depression (18%) than other primary care workers. Higher odds ratios for depressive symptoms or probable major depression were associated with longer duration of employment in primary care; having a passive, active, or high-strain job; lack of supervisor feedback regarding performance; and low social support from colleagues and supervisors. Observed levels of job-related depression can endanger the sustainability of primary care programs. Public Health implications. Strategies are needed to deliver care to primary care workers with depression, facilitating diagnosis and access to treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive interventions can include training managers to provide feedback and creating strategies to increase job autonomy and social support at work.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic stress disorder acquired at work can be debilitating both for workers and their employers. The disorder can result in increased sick leave, reduced productivity, and even unemployment. Furthermore, workers are especially unlikely to return to their previous place of employment after a traumatic incident at work because of the traumatic memories and symptoms of avoidance that typically accompany the disorder. Therefore, intervening in work-related PTSD becomes especially important in order to get workers back to the workplace. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science. The articles were independently screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, followed by a quality assessment of all included articles. Results The systematic search identified seven articles for inclusion in the review. These consisted of six research articles and one systematic review. The review focused specifically on interventions using real exposure techniques for anxiety disorders in the workplace. In the research articles addressed in the current review, study populations included police officers, public transportation workers, and employees injured at work. The studies examined the effectiveness of EMDR, cognitive-behavioural techniques, and an integrative therapy approach called brief eclectic psychotherapy. Interestingly, 2 of the 6 research articles addressed add-on treatments for workplace PTSD, which were designed to treat workers with PTSD who failed to respond to traditional evidence-based psychotherapy. Conclusions Results of the current review suggest that work-related interventions show promise as effective strategies for promoting return to work in employees who acquired PTSD in the workplace. Further research is needed in this area to determine how different occupational groups with specific types of traumatic exposure might respond differently to work
Kang, Dongmug; Kim, Youngki; Lee, Young-Il; Koh, Sangbaek; Kim, Inah; Lee, Hoonkoo
This article presents the process of workers' problems with work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), the introduction of risk assessments (RA) for their prevention, and the consequences of this process in Korea. In 1997, economic crisis caused a rapid increase of massive layoffs, worker dispatch system introduction, job insecurity, and use of irregular workers resulting in work intensification. Work intensification increased WMSDs, which created massive workers' compensation collective claims. Workers argued for the reduction of work intensity. The RAs introduced as a consequence of the workers' struggle is unique in the world. Whereas these RAs were expected to play a pivotal role in WMSDs prevention, they dis not due to workers' lack of engagement after the compensation struggle. In fact, changes in the compensation judgment system and criteria have resulted in lower compensation approval rates leading to lower workers' compensation claims. The Korean experience provides insight into WMSDs causes in a globalized world. In such a the globalized world, work intensification as the result of work flexibility could be an international trend.
Findley, L. J.; Suratt, P. M.; Dinges, D. F.
Loss of attention with time-on-task reflects the increasing instability of the waking state during performance in experimentally induced sleepiness. To determine whether patients with disorders of excessive sleepiness also displayed time-on-task decrements indicative of wake state instability, visual sustained attention performance on "Steer Clear," a computerized simple RT driving simulation task, was compared among 31 patients with untreated sleep apnea, 16 patients with narcolepsy, and 14 healthy control subjects. Vigilance decrement functions were generated by analyzing the number of collisions in each of six four-minute periods of Steer Clear task performance in a mixed-model analysis of variance and linear regression equations. As expected, patients had more Steer Clear collisions than control subjects (p=0.006). However, the inter-subject variability in errors among the narcoleptic patients was four-fold that of the apnea patients, and 100-fold that of the controls volunteers; the variance in errors among untreated apnea patients was 27-times that of controls. The results of transformed collision data revealed main effects for group (p=0.006), time-on-task (p=0.001), and a significant interaction (p=0.022). Control subjects showed no clear evidence of increasing collision errors with time-on-task (adjusted R2=0.22), while apnea patients showed a trend toward vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.42, p=0.097), and narcolepsy patients evidenced a robust linear vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.87, p=0.004). The association of disorders of excessive somnolence with escalating time-on-task decrements makes it imperative that when assessment of neurobehavioral performance is conducted in patients, it involves task durations and analyses that will evaluate the underlying vulnerability of potentially sleepy patients to decrements over time in tasks that require sustained attention and timely responses, both of which are key components in safe driving performance.
Full Text Available Effects of payment method on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among sewing machine operators R. Nawawi1, B.M. Deros1*, D.D.I. Daruis2, A. Ramli3, R.M. Zein4 and L.H. Joseph3 1Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia *Email: email@example.com 2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Malaysia 3Department of Physiotherapy Faculty of Science, Lincoln University College, Malaysia 4Department of Consultation, Research & Development, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, Malaysia ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify payment method and its effects on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among Malaysian sewing machine operators. The study sample comprised 337 sewing machine operators (male, n=122, female, n=215; aged between 18-54 years old; mean 30.74±8.44 from four different garment-making companies in Malaysia. They were being paid via time rate wages (n=246 and piece rate wages (n=91. Data was collected through Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and pen-and-paper assessment via Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. From the study, the piece rate wage group was found to take fewer breaks, had high work production demands, worked at a faster pace and experienced more exhaustion and pressure due to increasing work demands as compared to the time rate group. They were also observed working with higher physical exposure such as repetitive tasks, awkward static postures, awkward grips and hand movements, pulling, lifting and pushing as compared to those in the time rate wage group. The final RULA scores was also higher from the piece rate wage group (72.53% RULA score 7 which indicated higher work risks among them. The study found that the type of wage payment was significantly associated with work risks (p=0.036, df=1 and WRMSD at the shoulder, lower back
Kesner, Ladislav; Horáček, Jiří
Existing theories of empathic response to visual art works postulate the primacy of automatic embodied reaction to images based on mirror neuron mechanisms. Arguing for a more inclusive concept of empathy-related response and integrating four distinct bodies of literature, we discuss contextual, and personal factors which modulate empathic response to depicted people. We then present an integrative model of empathy-related responses to depicted people in art works. The model assumes that a response to empathy-eliciting figural artworks engages the dynamic interaction of two mutually interlinked sets of processes: socio-affective/cognitive processing, related to the person perception, and esthetic processing, primarily concerned with esthetic appreciation and judgment and attention to non-social aspects of the image. The model predicts that the specific pattern of interaction between empathy-related and esthetic processing is co-determined by several sets of factors: (i) the viewer's individual characteristics, (ii) the context variables (which include various modes of priming by narratives and other images), (iii) multidimensional features of the image, and (iv) aspects of a viewer's response. Finally we propose that the model is implemented by the interaction of functionally connected brain networks involved in socio-cognitive and esthetic processing.
Kesner, Ladislav; Horáček, Jiří
Existing theories of empathic response to visual art works postulate the primacy of automatic embodied reaction to images based on mirror neuron mechanisms. Arguing for a more inclusive concept of empathy-related response and integrating four distinct bodies of literature, we discuss contextual, and personal factors which modulate empathic response to depicted people. We then present an integrative model of empathy-related responses to depicted people in art works. The model assumes that a response to empathy-eliciting figural artworks engages the dynamic interaction of two mutually interlinked sets of processes: socio-affective/cognitive processing, related to the person perception, and esthetic processing, primarily concerned with esthetic appreciation and judgment and attention to non-social aspects of the image. The model predicts that the specific pattern of interaction between empathy-related and esthetic processing is co-determined by several sets of factors: (i) the viewer's individual characteristics, (ii) the context variables (which include various modes of priming by narratives and other images), (iii) multidimensional features of the image, and (iv) aspects of a viewer's response. Finally we propose that the model is implemented by the interaction of functionally connected brain networks involved in socio-cognitive and esthetic processing. PMID:28286487
Rodrigues, J.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.
that length. The idea is applied in the analysis of ambient vibration data collected in a ¼ scale model of a 4-story building. The results show that a considerable improvement is achieved, in terms of noise reduction in the spectral density functions and corresponding quality of the frequency domain modal...... from the time series, are due to the noise reduction that results from the time averaging procedure of the random decrement technique, and from avoiding leakage in the spectral densities, as long as the random decrement functions are evaluated with sufficient time length to have a complete decay within...
Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of communication among managers, human resource (HR experts, and occupational health care specialists, as they deal with such informal information as weak signals in the prevention of work-related illnesses, using a theoretical framework in which the prevention of work-related illness is analogous to theory on crisis management. This is a qualitative study in which individual and focus-group interviews were conducted in a Swedish context with occupational health care specialists, managers, and HR experts. The results suggest that organizational solutions have failed and continue to fail at controlling workers’ health problems, although the main difficulty is not in identifying the ‘right’ individually oriented weak signals. Rather, it is upper management’s reliance on formal information (e.g., statistics and surveys – because of the difficulty in supplementing it with informal information (e.g., rumors and gossip – that makes it difficult to improve traditional health and safety work
Wiegel, Constantin; Sattler, Sebastian; Göritz, Anja S; Diewald, Martin
Working conditions of academic staff have become increasingly complex and occupational exposure has risen. This study investigates whether work-related stress is associated with the use of prescription drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE). The study was designed around three web-based surveys (n1 = 1131; n2 = 936; n3 = 906) to which university teachers at four German universities were asked to respond. It assessed past CE-drug use and the willingness to use CE-drugs as factors influencing future use. Overlap among participants across the surveys allowed for analyses of stability of the results across time. Our study suggests a currently very low prevalence of CE-drug use as well as a low willingness to use such drugs. The results showed a strong association between perceptions of work-related stress and all measures of CE-drug use (when controlling for potential confounding factors). They also showed that past use of CE-drugs increased participants' willingness to use them again in the future, as did lower levels of social support. Two different measures showed that participants' moral qualms against the use of CE-drugs decreased their probability of using them. The results increase our knowledge about the prevalence of CE-drug use and our understanding of what motivates and inhibits the use of CE-drug.
Bublak, P.; Müller, U.; Grön, G.; M. Reuter; Von Cramon, D
It has been suggested that in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), difficulties in the manipulation of information, which result in problems in executive tasks, are related to a reduction of working memory capacity (J. D. E. Gabrieli, J. Singh, G. T. Stebbins, & C. G. Goetz, 1996). The present study selectively varied the manipulation demand irrespective of the maintenance requirement. In a group of 14 PD patients, performance declined overproportionally with the increasing task demand and...
Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo
This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in working-aged populations and occupational exposures are important causal agents. Our aims were to evaluate the best methods to assess occurrence, public health impact, and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma and to achieve comparable estimates for different populations. We addressed three central questions: 1: What is the best method to assess the occurrence of occupational asthma? We evaluated: 1) assessment of the occurrence of occupational asthma per se, and 2) assessment of adult-onset asthma and the population attributable fractions due to specific occupational exposures. 2: What are the best methods to assess public health impact and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma? We evaluated methods based on assessment of excess burden of disease due to specific occupational exposures. 3: How to achieve comparable estimates for different populations? We evaluated comparability of estimates of occurrence and burden attributable to occupational asthma based on different methods. Assessment of the occurrence of occupational asthma per se can be used in countries with good coverage of the identification system for occupational asthma, i.e. countries with well-functioning occupational health services. Assessment based on adult-onset asthma and population attributable fractions due to specific occupational exposures is a good approach to estimate the occurrence of occupational asthma at the population level. For assessment of public health impact from work-related asthma we recommend assessing excess burden of disease due to specific occupational exposures, including excess incidence of asthma complemented by an assessment of disability from it. International comparability of estimates can be best achieved by methods based on population attributable fractions. Public health impact assessment for occupational asthma is central in prevention and health policy planning
Happiness Anulika Aweto
Full Text Available Objectives: This study has investigated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, the most commonly affected body parts, the risk factors of WMSDs and the coping strategies adopted by hairdressers. Material and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Two hundred and ninety-nine hairdressers (242 females and 57 males from salons in Surulere and Mushin Local Government Areas of Lagos State completed a 27-item questionnaire. They were selected using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. The inferential analysis was conducted using the Chi2 test. The level of significance stood at p < 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders stood at 75.6%. Two hundred and twenty-one (91.3% participants reported gradual onset of musculoskeletal disorders. One hundred and sixteen (47.9% participants had the onset of the WMSDs at the age range of 26–35 years. The most commonly affected body parts included the low back (76.3%, shoulder (62.5% and neck (46.3%. Some of the major job risk factors of the WMSDs that were identified included: working in the same position for long periods and attending to a large number of customers in 1 day. Taking sufficient rest breaks by participants was one of the coping strategies adopted by the participants. The mean number of years of working experience was 7.85±0.4 years. One hundred and twenty-four (41.5% participants had worked for 1–5 years. The Chi2 analysis showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with the age of a participant (Chi2 = 78.78, p = 0.001, years of working experience (Chi2 = 78.03, p = 0.001 and hours spent working in a standing position (Chi2 = 8.77, p = 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The age of hairdressers, their years of working and the long hours they spent working in a standing position may be significant factors that contribute to the high prevalence of the WMSDs
Turner, S; Forman, S D; McNamee, R; Wilkinson, S M; Agius, R
Both solar and non-solar exposures associated with occupation and work tasks have been reported as skin carcinogens. In the UK, there are well-established surveillance schemes providing relevant information, including when exposures took place, occupation, location of work and dates of symptom onset and diagnosis. To add to the evidence on work-related skin neoplasia, including causal agents, geographical exposure and time lag between exposure and diagnosis. This study investigated incident case reports of occupational skin disease originating from clinical specialists in dermatology reporting to a UK-wide surveillance scheme (EPIDERM) by analysing case reports of skin neoplasia from 1996 to 2012 in terms of diagnosis, employment, suspected causal agent and symptom onset. The suspected causal agent was 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' in 99% of the reported work-related skin neoplasia cases. Most cases reported (91%) were in males, and the majority (62%) were aged over 65 at the time of reporting. More detailed information on exposure was available for 42% of the cases, with the median time from exposure to symptom onset ranging from 44 (melanoma) to 57 (squamous cell carcinoma) years. Irrespective of diagnostic category, the median duration of exposure to 'sun/sunlight/ultraviolet light' appeared longer where exposures occurred in the UK (range 39-51 years) rather than outside the UK (range 2.5-6.5 years). It is important to provide effective information about skin protection to workers exposed to solar radiation, especially to outdoor workers based outside the UK. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Executive functioning (e.g., working memory is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.
Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal system disorders are common among health care workers worldwide. They are common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are defined as “regional impairments of the muscles, tendons, nerves and joints. Physiotherapy can lead to WRMSDs in physiotherapist because of the nature of their profession. Despite of having expert knowledge of musculoskeletal injuries and injury prevention strategies they still report a high incidence of work-related injuries during their professional practice due to their training and continuous professional development Methods: A total of 100 Physiotherapists which included 78 females and 22 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years were recruited in the study. The subjects were taken as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from Tricity. Results: Pearson’s correlation and Chi square analysis was used to determine correlation and the association of prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms with personal characteristics, job risk factors and coping strategies. The data obtained from this study documents that majority of Physiotherapists have experienced WRMSDs at some time. The prevalence of WRMSDs among Physiotherapists in Tricity is high (91%. The most common risk factors identified in the present study were dealing with an excessive number of patients in one day; continuing to work while injured or hurt; lifting or transferring dependent patients and work scheduling. In present study, the low back and neck regions were the most commonly affected site among physiotherapists (72.5% each followed by upper back (28.6 %, shoulder (20.9%, wrist and hand (17.6%, knee (12.1%, ankle and foot (12.1% and hip (7.70% Conclusions: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are an important health risk within the physiotherapy profession. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the Physiotherapists in Tricity is high that
Capodaglio, P; Nigrelli, M P; Malaguti, S; Panigazzi, M; Pierobon, A
In this paper we describe a patient with mor-sensory loss in the right forearm and hand, which persisted more than 2 years after work-related crush trauma of the left hand. Radiographic and electromyographic investigations, somatosensory evoked potentials, CT scans of the encephalus as well as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Roarschach test have been performed. On the basis of these investigations, we think this represents a case of conversion disorder with somatic features. Included is a brief overview of other psychological illness with physical findings involving the upper limb.
Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per
by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...... the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high...... of depression, whereas the other seven studies used self-administered questionnaires. The authors found moderate evidence for a relation between the psychological demands of the job and the development of depression, with relative risks of approximately 2.0. However, indication of publication bias weakens...
Borchgrevink, H M
Noise is a health risk. The only scientifically established adverse health effect of noise is noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Besides noise may affect quality of life and cause annoyance and sleep disturbance. The present scientific evidence of potential non-auditory effects of noise on health is quite weak. Whether health promotion works in relation to noise may be reflected by permanent hearing threshold shift development in population studies. Hearing impairment continues to be the most prevalent disability in Western societies. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) still rates noise induced hearing loss among the top ten work-related problems. Recent studies report that employees continue to develop noise induced hearing loss although to a lesser extent than before, in spite of occupational hearing conservation programmes. Besides socio-acusis and leisure noise seem to be an increasing hazard to hearing, also in young children and adolescents. This seems partly related to acute leisure noise exposure (e.g. toy pistols, amplified music). However, population studies increasingly find non-normal high-frequency hearing including the characteristic NIHL-"notch" around 6 kHz also in subjects who do not report noise exposure incidents or activities. Today 12.5% of US children 6-19 years show a noise-"notch" in one or both ears (n= 5249, Niskar et al 2001). A Norwegian county audiometry survey on adults >/= 20 years n=51.975) showed mean unscreened thresholds +10 dB at 6 kHz for both genders even or the youngest age group 20-24 years (Borchgrevink et al 2001). Accordingly, the present health promotion initiatives seem insufficient in relation to noise and noise-induced hearing loss.
Mansfield, Elizabeth; Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Cassidy, John David; Bayley, Mark; Mantis, Steve; Kristman, Vicki; Kirsh, Bonnie; Gomez, Manuel; Jeschke, Mark G; Vartanian, Oshin; Moody, Joel; Colantonio, Angela
To explore how individuals with work-related mild traumatic brain injury (wrMTBI) experience return-to-work (RTW) processes when returning to the workplace where the injury occurred. RTW experiences were explored using in-depth interviews and an inductive analytic approach. Qualitative analysis guided by the research question moved through phases of line-by-line and thematic coding through which categories and the interaction between categories emerged. Twelve workers diagnosed with a wrMTBI reported on their RTW experiences following wrMTBIs that occurred 3-5 years prior to the time of the interview. Participants perceived employer and workers' compensation factors as profoundly influencing their RTW experiences. Participants consistently reported that employers and workers' compensation representatives had an inadequate understanding of wrMTBI sequelae. Six of 12 participants were re-injured following their wrMTBI, with three of these injuries occurring at work. Employers, co-workers and workers' compensation representatives should be aware of wrMTBI sequelae so injured workers can receive appropriate supports and both stigmatization and re-injury can be mitigated. Greater attention to the structural and social elements of workplace and compensation environments could inform strategies to break down barriers to successful return-to-work following a wrMTBI.
Whitwell, Robert L; Buckingham, Gavin; Enns, James T; Chouinard, Philippe A; Goodale, Melvyn A
It has been demonstrated that pictorial illusions have a smaller influence on grasping than they do on perceptual judgments. Yet to date this work has not considered the reduced influence of an illusion as it is measured repeatedly. Here we studied this decrement in the context of a Ponzo illusion to further characterize the dissociation between vision for perception and for action. Participants first manually estimated the lengths of single targets in a Ponzo display with their thumb and index finger, then actually grasped these targets in another series of trials, and then manually estimated the target lengths again in a final set of trials. The results showed that although the perceptual estimates and grasp apertures were equally sensitive to real differences in target length on the initial trials, only the perceptual estimates remained biased by the illusion over repeated measurements. In contrast, the illusion's effect on the grasps decreased rapidly, vanishing entirely after only a few trials. Interestingly, a closer examination of the grasp data revealed that this initial effect was driven largely by undersizing the grip aperture for the display configuration in which the target was positioned between the diverging background lines (i.e., when the targets appeared to be shorter than they really were). This asymmetry between grasping apparently shorter and longer targets suggests that the sensorimotor system may initially treat the edges of the configuration as obstacles to be avoided. This finding highlights the sensorimotor system's ability to rapidly update motor programs through error feedback, manifesting as an immunity to the effects of illusion displays even after only a few trials.
Muhamedagic, Lejla; Muhamedagic, Belma; Halilovic, Emina Alimanovic; Halimic, Jasmina Alajbegovic; Stankovic, Aleksa; Muracevic, Bedrana
Aim To determine relation between near work and myopia progression in student population. Causes of myopia occurrence are not sufficiently explained. Methods This retrospective-prospective, descriptive research included 100 students with verified myopia up to -3 Dsph. Ophthalmological examination and measurement diopter-hours variable (Dh) were done twice, in the period from January 2011 until January 2012. Results A multivariate regression analysis of impact on the difference of distance visual acuity without correction to the right and left eye and difference of automatic computer refractometry in cycloplegia of both eyes indicates that, diopter-hours variable (Dh) had statistically significant impact on increase of distance visual acuity difference (right eye OR: I measurement–Dh 1.489, II measurement–Dh 1.544, prefractometry in cycloplegia (right eye OR: I measurement 1.361, II measurement 1.493, p<0.05; left eye OR: I measurement 0.931, II measurement 1.019, p<0.05) during both measurements. Conclusion Near work cause the increase of myopia. This research opened a perspective for other researches on the impact of near work on myopia. PMID:24944532
Twamley, Elizabeth W; Narvaez, Jenille M; Sadek, Joseph R; Jeste, Dilip V; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K
Schizophrenia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection both are associated with high rates of neurocognitive impairment. These impairments predict unemployment in both disorders, independent of other disease-related factors that may affect employment. In this study, we investigated work-related abilities and previous employment patterns in 27 unemployed patients with schizophrenia, 27 demographically matched unemployed HIV-infected participants, and 27 nonmatched employed HIV seropositive (HIV+) participants. All subjects were administered a computerized and hands-on assessment of vocational abilities and a comprehensive work history interview. Compared with the employed HIV+ group, the two unemployed groups had lower estimates of maximal lifetime job functioning. In terms of current vocational abilities, the employed HIV+ subjects generally performed best, followed by the unemployed HIV+ subjects and the patients with schizophrenia. Although the unemployed schizophrenia subjects had the most decline in vocational abilities (from estimated lifetime maximum level), the patterns of decline were similar in the two unemployed groups and were suggestive of parallel impairments in frontal-subcortical functioning.
Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G; Mossholder, K W; Touliatos, J
A possible link between birth order and various individual characteristics (e. g., intelligence, potential eminence, need for achievement, sociability) has been suggested by personality theorists such as Adler for over a century. The present study examines whether birth order is associated with selected personality variables that may be related to various work outcomes. 3 of 7 hypotheses were supported and the effect sizes for these were small. Firstborns scored significantly higher than later borns on measures of dominance, good impression, and achievement via conformity. No differences between firstborns and later borns were found in managerial potential, work orientation, achievement via independence, and sociability. The study's sample consisted of 835 public, government, and industrial accountants responding to a national US survey of accounting professionals. The nature of the sample may have been partially responsible for the results obtained. Its homogeneity may have caused any birth order effects to wash out. It can be argued that successful membership in the accountancy profession requires internalization of a set of prescribed rules and standards. It may be that accountants as a group are locked in to a behavioral framework. Any differentiation would result from spurious interpersonal differences, not from predictable birth-order related characteristics. A final interpretation is that birth order effects are nonexistent or statistical artifacts. Given the present data and particularistic sample, however, the authors have insufficient information from which to draw such a conclusion.
Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Schouteten, Roel L.J.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Burdorf, Alex
Aim To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important
This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were utilized. The data were…
Catalina-Romero, C; Sainz, J C; Pastrana-Jiménez, J I; García-Diéguez, N; Irízar-Muñoz, I; Aleixandre-Chiva, J L; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Calvo-Bonacho, E
We aimed to analyse the impact of psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence (NWRSA) among a prospective cohort study, stratified using a random sampling technique. Psychosocial variables were assessed among 15,643 healthy workers using a brief version of the Spanish adaptation of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. A one year follow-up assessed the total count of NWRSA days. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used for multivariate analyses. After adjusting for covariates, low levels of job control and possibilities for development (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.36 [men]; OR: 1.39 95% CI: 1.09-1.77 [women]), poor social support and quality of leadership (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.50 [men]; OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.01-1.63 [women]), and poor rewards (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57 [men]; OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.66 [women]) predicted a total count of sickness absence greater than zero, in both men and women. Double presence was also significantly associated with NWRSA different than 0, but only among women (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81). Analyses found no association between psychosocial risk factors at work and the total count (i.e., number of days) of sickness absences. The results suggest that work-related psychosocial factors may increase the likelihood of initiating an NWRSA episode, but were not associated with the length of the sickness absence episode. Among our large cohort we observed that some associations were gender-dependent, suggesting that future research should consider gender when designing psychosocial interventions aimed at decreasing sickness absences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poot, L.; Snippe, H.P.; Hateren, J.H. van
As is well known, dark adaption in the human visual system is much slower than is recovery from darkness. We show that at high photopic luminances the situation is exactly opposite. First, we study detection thresholds for a small light flash, at various delays from decrement and increment steps in
da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Apostolidis, Thémis
To analyse the social representations of nurses about intensive care practices comparing the variables 1) time since graduation and 2) shift worked. Qualitative field research using social representation theory. Individual interviews were conducted and lexical analysis was applied. Intensive Care Unit of a federal hospital with 21 clinical nurses. Day shift nurses are more pragmatic and operationally oriented because they deal directly with the general functioning of the unit. Less experienced nurses face difficulties dealing with intensive care contexts, but have a critical view of their practices, while more experienced nurses apply practical knowledge in their decision-making and actions. The relationship of proximity or distance from patients, mediated by technology, is related to the domains of knowledge that are required to manage technology and to the role technology plays in intensive care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weston, Eric; Pollard, Jonisha P.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) prevention measures have been studied in great depth throughout various industries. While the nature and causes of these disorders have been characterized in many industries, WMSDs occurring in the U.S. mining sector have not been characterized for several years. In this report, MSHA accident/injury/illness data from 2009 to 2013 were characterized to determine the most frequently reported WMSDs in the U.S. mining sector. WMSDs were most frequently reported in workers with less than 5 years or more than 20 years of mining experience. The number of days lost from work was the highest for shoulder and knee injuries and was found to increase with worker age. Underground and surface coal, surface stone and stone processing plants experienced the greatest number of WMSDs over the period studied. WMSDs were most commonly caused by an employee suffering from an overexertion, falls or being struck by an object while performing materials handling, maintenance and repair tasks, getting on or off equipment or machines, and walking or running. The injury trends presented should be used to help determine the focus of future WMSD prevention research in mining. PMID:27294012
Zlatka Borisova Stoyneva
Full Text Available In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.
Serinken, Mustafa; Türkçüer, Ibrahim; Dağlı, Bekir; Karcıoğlu, Ozgür; Zencir, Mehmet; Uyanık, Emrah
This study was conducted as a survey including work-related injuries (WRI) of workers in the textile and clothing industry admitted to the emergency department (ED). This prospective study included patients with WRI reportedly occurring in the textile and clothing industry over a two-year period. The study sample comprised only the casualties occurring at the workplace and while working de facto. A total of 374 patients were eligible for the study. More than three-fourths of the study sample were females (76.2%, n=285). A significant proportion of the patients were between 14 and 24 years of age (44.7%, n=167). Approximately two-thirds reported that this was their first admission to a hospital related to WRI (65.8%, n=246). WRIs occurred most frequently between 07:00-09:00 (27.3%) and 23:00-01:00 (17.9%). "Carelessness" and "rushing" were the most commonly reported causes of WRIs from the patients perspective (40.6% and 21.4%, respectively). Three-fourths of the patients reported that they were using protective equipment (74.3%, n=278). With respect to injury types, laceration/puncture/ amputation/avulsion injuries accounted for 55.6% (n=208) of the sample. Trauma to the upper extremities was the main type of injury in 75.1% (n=281) of the cases. Broad population-based studies are needed to define the situation as a whole in WRIs in the textile and clothing industry in the country. Strict measures should be undertaken and revised accordingly to prevent WRIs in these growing sectors.
Carangan, M; Tham, K Y; Seow, E
Singapore has a resident population of 3.26 million and 0.53 million foreign workers. The objective of the study was to compare the injuries sustained by foreign and local workers presenting to an emergency department (ED). Adult victims of work-related injury who presented to an urban public hospital ED from 1 December 1998 to 31 May 1999 were interviewed. Chart reviews were done for those hospitalised. Data collected were those of demographic, nature of injury, ambulance care, ED and hospital care, outcome and final diagnoses. There were 1244 local workers and 1936 foreign workers, giving a ratio of 1 local:1.6 foreign workers. The mean age of foreign workers was 29.6 years [standard deviation (SD) 6.2], which was younger (P workers. Fridays and Saturdays were the common days for injuries among foreign workers as opposed to Wednesdays and Mondays for local workers. Falls from height > or = 2m occurred among 9.1% of foreign workers, more (P workers, resulting in 2 out of 3 foreign workers death. Though the pattern of injuries was similar between foreign and local workers, foreign workers needed longer (P = 0.03) sick leave and more (P = 0.01) foreign workers were hospitalised, giving a ratio of 2 foreign workers for every 1 local worker hospitalised. Foreign workers had no difficulty accessing ED and hospital care for work-related injuries. The pattern and severity of injuries were similar between foreign and local workers but more foreign workers were hospitalised.
Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563; Burdorf, Alex
Objective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires,
Full Text Available Determining the relationship within the segments, and establish the correlation between the functional and motor areas may be important for programming load both in education and in sports and recreation. For this reason we set goals and work this year. The main objective of this research is to determine association and motor characteristics impact on functional ability (physical work capacity. The sample is defined as a sample of 263 respondents drawn from the population of secondary schools: Gymnasium Zenel Hajdini; Marin Barleti and Mehmet Isai in city of Gjilan. Nine tests were used to estimate motoric capabilities and a test of functional capacity of aerobic-type (physical work capacity. To determine the relation between the predictor (motor variables and criterion variables (physical working capacity - PWC170 it is prepared the regression analysis of the manifest space. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 12.0 for Windows. The connection of the entire system of variables static relative strength with a score of Physics working capacity (PWC170 on a bicycle ergo meter as aerobic type variable explains the coefficient of multiple correlations, which is RO 0.394. Regression analysis indicates that the better results on a bicycle ergo meter will have respondents who score better in tests of static relative strength of the leg (at the test isometric muscle contraction quadriceps thighs and static tests of the relative strength of arm and shoulder area (at the test of isometric contraction triceps muscle circumference.
Adegoke Babatunde OA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapists are known to be prone to Work- related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs but its prevalence among physiotherapists in Nigeria has not been reported. This study investigated the prevalence and work factors of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria. Methods A cross- sectional survey was administered to physiotherapists in different parts of Nigeria using a 2- part questionnaire with items adopted from questionnaires used for similar studies around the world. Two hundred and seventeen copies of the questionnaire were distributed for self administration but 126 physiotherapists returned completed surveys for a 58.1% response. The data were analyzed using SPPS version 10 at alpha level of 0.05. Descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages and inferential statistics of x2 were used as appropriate for data analysis. Results Reported 12- month prevalence of WRMDs among Nigerian physiotherapists was 91.3%. Prevalence of WRMDs was significantly higher in female physiotherapists (p = 0.007 and those with lower body mass index (p = 0.045. The low back (69.8% was the most commonly affected body part, followed by the neck (34.1%. Fifty percent of the physiotherapists first experienced their WRMDs within five years of graduation and the highest prevalence (61.7% was found among physiotherapists younger than 30 years. Treating large number of patients in a day was cited by most (83.5% of the respondents as the most important work factor for their WRMDs. The most commonly adopted coping strategy identified was for the therapists to modify their position and/or the patient's position (64.3%. Majority of the respondents (87.0% did not leave the profession but 62.6% changed and/or modified their treatment because of their WRMDs. Conclusion The prevalence of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria is higher than most values reported for their counterparts around the world. The coping strategies and work factors of WRMDs
Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L
The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.
We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.
Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were utilized. The data were analysed through multiple regression and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analysis methods. The findings revealed that the sub-dimensions of work-related basic need satisfaction significantly predicted work engagement. Upper management should improve work conditions of their personnel, which are related with competency, autonomy, and relatedness needs of academics. This way, academic staff will have better efficiency in terms of work engagement, which will also result in higher work adaptation and participation.
Full Text Available Under sleep loss, vigilance is reduced and attentional failures emerge progressively. It becomes difficult to maintain stable performance over time, leading to growing performance variability (i.e. state instability in an individual and among subjects. Task duration plays a major role in the maintenance of stable vigilance levels, such that the longer the task, the more likely state instability will be observed. Vulnerability to sleep-loss-dependent performance decrements is highly individual and is also modulated by a polymorphism in the human clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3. By combining two different protocols, we manipulated sleep-wake history by once extending wakefulness for 40 h (high sleep pressure condition and once by imposing a short sleep-wake cycle by alternating 160 min of wakefulness and 80 min naps (low sleep pressure condition in a within-subject design. We observed that homozygous carriers of the long repeat allele of PER3 (PER35/5 experienced a greater time-on-task dependent performance decrement (i.e., a steeper increase in the number of lapses in the Psychomotor Vigilance Task compared to the carriers of the short repeat allele (PER34/4. These genotype-dependent effects disappeared under low sleep pressure conditions, and neither motivation, nor perceived effort accounted for these differences. Our data thus suggest that greater sleep-loss related attentional vulnerability based on the PER3 polymorphism is mirrored by a greater state instability under extended wakefulness in the short compared to the long allele carriers. Our results undermine the importance of time-on-task related aspects when investigating inter-individual differences in sleep loss-induced behavioural vulnerability.
Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Kim, Day Sung; Jang, Sun Je; Hong, Ki Hun; Yoo, Seung-Won
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can be compensated through the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. We looked at the characteristics of WMSDs in worker's compensation records and the epidemiological investigation reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI). Based on the records of compensation, the number of cases for WMSDs decreased from 4,532 in 2003 to 1,954 in 2007. However the proportion of WMSDs among the total approved occupational diseases increased from 49.6% in 2003 to 76.5% in 2007, and the total cost of WMSDs increased from 105.3 billion won in 2004 to 163.3 billion won in 2007. The approval rate of WMSDs by the OSHRI accounted for 65.6%. Ergonomic and clinical characteristics were associated with the approval rate; however, the degenerative changes had a minimal affect. This result was in discordance between OSHRI and the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service. We presumed that there were perceptional gaps in work-relatedness interpretation that resulted from the inequality of information in ergonomic analyses. We propose to introduce ergonomic analysis to unapproved WMSDs cases and discuss those results among experts that will be helpful to form a consensus among diverse groups.
Full Text Available Background: Raw sewage contains various pathogenic organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungus, worms and protozoa. Workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are exposed to these organisms as well as to H2S gas causing many health hazards. Objectives: To assess some work-related health effects among WWTPs workers with special emphasis on the most common infections as well as cardiopulmonary disorders. Methods: 43 workers at Berket Al-Sabih WWTPs were studied. An equal number of non-exposed comparison group were also studied. All participants were asked about their personal demographic data, symptoms suggesting infection, respiratory tract impairment and cardiovascular manifestations. Spirometric measurements were made at the end of the work shift. A resting standard 12-lead ECG was also taken for each participant. For those with a positive ECG finding, echocardiography was also performed. Serum examination for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV and hepatitis E virus (HEV was also done. A heparinized blood sample to measure sulf-hemoglobin, as an indicator of H2S exposure, was taken. Stool was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Leptospira spirochete. Results: WWTPs workers suffered from body ache, abdominal pain, wheeze, asthma and dyspnea more frequently than the comparison group (p<0.05. An obstructive pattern of pulmonary function impairment and a higher mean sulf-hemoglobin% were significantly more common among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. Antibody levels against HAV and HEV as well as frequency of positive stool PCR test results for L. spirochete were significantly higher among WWTPs workers than the comparison group. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH according to ECG and mean ejection fraction (EF as measured by echocardiography were significantly more frequent in WWTPs workers than in the comparison group. Conclusion: WWTPs workers are high risk of developing various infections and
Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Salmi, Venla; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
Studies have reported higher levels of absenteeism due to illness among special education teachers compared to other teachers, but it is not known which factors might contribute to this difference. We examined whether health, health behaviors, and exposure to violence at work differed between special education and general education teachers in Finnish basic education. Survey data from 5760 general and special education teachers were analyzed with multilevel logistic models adjusted for individual- and school-level confounding factors. No difference was found between the health behaviors of general and special education teachers. The differences in physical and mental health between the two groups were also relatively small. With regard to work-related violence, however, male special education teachers were 3 times more likely to be exposed to mental abuse, and 5 times more likely to be exposed to physical violence when compared to their male colleagues in general education. Although female special educators were also at an increased risk of mental abuse and physical violence compared to their female general teacher colleagues, their odds ratios for such an encounter were smaller (2- and 3-fold, respectively) than those of male special education teachers. The school-level variance of physical violence toward teachers was large, which indicates that while most schools have little physical violence toward teachers, schools do exist in which teachers' exposure to violence is common. These findings suggest that special education teachers may benefit from training for handling violent situations and interventions to prevent violence at schools. © 2012, American School Health Association.
Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, M.A.J.
PURPOSE: This longitudinal study examined 'normal', 'reversed', and 'reciprocal' relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of
Vries, J.D. de; Claessens, B.J.C.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Kompier, A.J.
Purpose This longitudinal study examined ‘normal’, ‘reversed’, and ‘reciprocal’ relationships between (1) physical activity and work-related fatigue; and (2) physical activity and task demands. Furthermore, the effects of across-time change in meaningful physical activity groups on levels of
Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila
Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…
Moradi, Tayebeh; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Azizi-Fini, Ismail
Nurses as the largest group of health care providers should enjoy a satisfactory quality of working life to be able to provide quality care to their patients. Therefore, attention should be paid to the nurses' working life. This study aimed to investigate the quality of nurses' working life in Kashans' hospitals during 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 nurses during 2012. The data-gathering instrument consisted of two parts. The first part consisted of questions on demographic information and the second part was the Walton's quality of work life questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. For statistical analysis T test and one way ANOVA were used. The results of the study showed that 60% of nurses reported that they had moderate level of quality of working life while 37.1% and 2% had undesirable and good quality of working life, respectively. Nurses with associate degrees reported a better quality of working life than others. A significant relationship was found between variables such as education level, work experience, and type of hospital with quality of working life score (P salary (P = 0.052), age, gender and marital status (P > 0.05). Nurses' quality of work life was at the moderate level. As quality of work life has an important impact on attracting and retaining employees, it is necessary to pay more attention to the nurses' quality of work life and its affecting factors.
This paper addresses a gap between analytic clinical theory and practice which emerges when examining the words we work with via textual and narrative research of case histories. Both subject matter and methodology fit with the remit of conceptual research in psychoanalysis, currently ranging from inductive to nomothetical approaches. Research of clinical language reveals an implicit account of human nature and the world which undergirds clinical practice. Based in the critical philosophy of the previous century, this is termed clinical paradigm. Such implicit views are induced rather than explicitly taught during analytic training, and need to be spelled out in order to become available to discourse and difference of opinion. Textual research shows these implicit pre-clinical attitudes to be inherently pessimistic and thus too similar to the views of self and others found in cumulative relational trauma. Moreover, clinical accounts tend to normalize subtly antagonistic forms of relating, recently recognised as micro-trauma. Importantly, this contravenes the agapic orientation of our theories and ethics. Paradigmatic reflection as a form of professional individuation addresses this gap. This includes a more optimistic outlook which can be traced through the philosophical implications of quantum theory. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro
To examine the relationships between work engagement, productivity, and self-reported work-related sedentary behavior in Japanese adults. The present study recruited 2,572 Japanese individuals (20-59 years old) via an internet survey and assessed their demographic characteristics, work-related characteristics, and sedentary behavior. Data were analyzed with logistic regression. The mean proportion of work days involving work-related sedentary behavior was approximately 70% and the mean number of weekly working hours was approximately 43 hours. Among those aged 40-59 years, work-related sedentary behavior was associated with low work vigor (odds ratio: 1.43), dedication (1.61), absorption (1.39), and total score of work engagement (1.49). Among those aged 20-39 years, work-related sedentary behavior was associated with low efficiency (1.38). Reducing work-related sedentary behavior may improve workers' engagement and productivity.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.
Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function. Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group. Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed. Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001 and higher FeNO values (p=0.012 were observed in hairdressers. A larger working area and presence of window ventilation were associated with better pulmonary function. Conclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.
Sedoughi, Zeynab; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahraki, Sedigheh Khodabaneh; Anari, Seyed Hossein Saberi; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza
.... Regarding the importance of nurses’ role in health system, the present study aimed to study the relation of work-family balance and quality of life of nurses working at selected Iranian teaching hospitals. Methods...
Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van
This study aimed to advance insight into inter- and intrapersonal processes that may affect the associations between work-related boredom and employee well-being. We employed a daily perspective to examine (1) the relations between work-related boredom and depressed mood at the end of the workday
Steger, Michael F.; Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah; Miller, Michal; Menger, Lauren; Rothmann, Sebastiaan
The central aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of affective disposition and meaningful work on employee engagement. Specifically, it was proposed that meaningful work moderates the relationship between affective disposition and engagement. Questionnaires were completed by 252 white-collar employees, working in a variety of…
Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa; Albuquerque-Oliveira, Paulo Rogério; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh
To estimate the contribution of work-related diseases to sick leaves due to general and occupational health problems. Sociodemographic, occupational and health data from 29,658 records of temporary disability benefits, granted on account of health problems by the Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (National Institute of Social Security) in the state of Bahia (Northeastern Brazil), were analyzed. All constant ICD-10 clinical diagnoses were taken into consideration, except for those referring to external causes and factors that influence contact with health services. The link between diagnosis and occupation was based on the ICD-10 code and whether the type of compensation was due to a "work-related accident/disease" or not. From all the benefits, 3.1% were granted due to work-related diseases: 70% were musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases, while 14.5% were related to the nervous system. In general, benefits granted at more than two times the expected frequency were as follows: tenosynovitis in the manufacturing sector (Proportion Ratio-PR=2.70), carpal tunnel syndrome in the financial intermediation sector (PR=2.43), and lumbar disc degeneration in the transportation, postal service and telecommunications sectors (PR=2.17). However, no causal connection could be established for these diseases, in these activity sectors, in a significant percentage of benefits. Results suggest the existence of possible occupational risk factors for diseases in these fields of activity, as well as the underreporting of the link between diseases and work, thus disguising the responsibility of companies and the perspective of prevention through work reorganization.
The effectiveness of the antihistamine chlorpheniramine maleate in preventing the early performance decrement in monkeys following a supralethal dose... chlorpheniramine and were performance tested 24 hours prior to irradiation. These five animals and 10 additional animals were then injected with 10 mg of... chlorpheniramine at 60 minutes and at 30 minutes before irradiation. The monkeys were tested and their performance was recorded for 2 hours following a 4000
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
Education and training is the key to transform the organization of work into more knowing work. This is a common assumption in a number of political discourses about the demise of Fordist, Taylorist and bureaucratic ways of organizing work. It is though not very clear what the relationship...... is between education and training and the organization of work. In this chapter I will describe three different conceptions of the interaction between education and training and work and of the different dynamics of this interaction. I explore the scope for education and training policy in changing...... the organization of work and draw special attention to the problems of reductionism and determinism in each of these approaches. As conclusion a conceptual framework is outlined that combines the three conceptions and opens up for understanding the complex interplay between the various types of dynamics at play...
Douglas, Grace L.; Cooper, Maya; Bermudez-Aguirre, Daniela; Sirmons, Takiyah
evidence for the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System and the gaps in relation to exploration, as identified by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP). The research reviewed here indicates strategies to establish methods, technologies, and requirements that increase food stability, support adequate nutrition, quality, and variety, enable supplementation with grow-pick-and-eat salad crops, ensure safety, and reduce resource use. Obtaining the evidence to establish an adequate food system is essential, as the resources allocated to the food system may be defined based on the data relating nutritional stability and food quality requirements to crew performance and health.
ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Euwema, Martin C.
Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees' family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work interference (FWI) experienced by the employee also affects the work outcomes of a co-worker. We predict that the employee's FWI has an effect on the co-worker's outcomes through the crossover of positive and…
van den Berg, Peter T
The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards.
This guide is intended as a working document for coordinators of cooperative work education in diversified occupations. It contains materials for use in providing students with general classroom instruction concurrent with on-the-job training. The following topics are covered in the individual units in the first-year curriculum: the cooperative…
Vocation, interpreted as the calling of every individual believer to serve God in ordinary life, has been an important feature of Protestantism. However, not only has the notion of vocation gradually disappeared from the late modern understanding of work and profession, the identification of vocation and work has also been criticized by…
These patient factors were mirrored in the social work services rendered to the long-term patients during the study ... Key words: Deinstitutionalisation; Social work; Mental health services; Hospitals, psychiatric; Long-term care; In-patients; Patient discharge ..... including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or a psychotic.
Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K
Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stynen, Dave; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, IJmert
This study aims to examine the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions by studying the pathways (fatigue and work enjoyment) from resources to retirement intentions, the buffering role of resources for psychological job demands, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal timeframe. Longitudinal results on a subsample of full-time, older workers (n = 1642) from the Maastricht Cohort Study suggest that over four years of follow-up personal resources like personal mastery and perceived health related to less (prolonged) fatigue and more work enjoyment. Personal mastery also related to later retirement intentions. A work-related resource like decision authority related to less prolonged fatigue. (Prolonged) fatigue related to earlier retirement intentions, suggesting that fatigue may be a pathway to early retirement. Finally, little evidence was found for effect modification by resources. This prospective study indicates that work-related and personal resources may be useful for prolonging working careers. Practitioner Summary: To date, the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions is rarely studied. As this prospective study shows that resources may impact older workers' (prolonged) fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions, the monitoring and fostering of resources is of importance for prolonging their working careers.
Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna
Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.
Nijp, Hylco H.; Beckers, Debby G. J.; van de Voorde, F.C.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.
New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of
Gignac, Monique A M; Cao, Xingshan; Lacaille, Diane; Anis, Aslam H; Badley, Elizabeth M
To prospectively examine arthritis-related productivity losses, work changes, and leaving employment, the relationships among these work transitions, and the factors associated with them. Participants with inflammatory arthritis or osteoarthritis were interviewed at 4 time points, 18 months apart, using a structured questionnaire. At baseline (T1), all participants (n = 490; 381 women, 109 men) were employed. At T2, T3, and T4, the sample decreased to 413, 372, and 349 participants, respectively. Respondents were recruited using community advertising and from rheumatology and rehabilitation clinics. Work transitions considered were productivity losses (absenteeism, job disruptions), work changes (reduced hours, changing jobs), and leaving employment. Also measured were demographic, illness, work context, and psychological variables. Generalized estimation equations modeled predictors of work transitions over time. Although 63.1% of respondents remained employed throughout the study, work transitions were common (reported by 76.5% of participants). Productivity losses, especially job disruptions such as being unable to take on extra work, were the most frequently reported. Work transitions were related to subsequently making other work transitions, including leaving employment. Age, sex, education, activity limitations, control, depression, and arthritis-work spillover were also associated with work transitions. This study sheds light on a process of diverse employment changes that may occur in the lives of many individuals with arthritis. It emphasizes the interrelationships among work transitions, as well as other factors in predicting work transitions, and it provides insight into work changes that may signal impending difficulties with remaining employed.
Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels
indicates that a measurable reduction of repetitive work has been achieved, while recognizing the the new management strategies focusing on human resources development have also played an important role. These results are used to suggest that - under certain conditions - a combination of state regulation......The Danish Action Plan against Repetitive Work is presented and discussed as a possible new strategy for regulating repetitive work as well as other complicated working environment problems. The article is based on an empirical evaluation ot the Action Plan. The asseessment of the Action Plan...
Hampton, Debra C; El-Mallakh, Peggy
The purpose of this study was to examine nursing students' perceptions regarding the usefulness of group work in online nursing programs, to identify challenges with online group work, and to determine which factors contribute to successful completion of online group assignments. An online survey was used to obtain data for this qualitative descriptive study. The sample consisted of 217 nursing students in RN-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master's of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Nursing Practice programs. The majority of online nursing students preferred not to work on assignments in groups due to the challenges but realized the importance and value of doing so. Participants stated that the greatest challenges to effective group work included time management and unequal contributions of individual group members. Strategies that facilitated effective group work included identification of compatible group members, communication, establishment of clear expectations for time lines and organization, and oversight from the course instructors. Faculty need to implement strategies to result in positive learning experiences for online nursing students because working effectively in groups is a critical nursing skill. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(10):611-616.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Tefft, Brandon J.; Tefft, James A.
As the topic of relativity is developed in a first-year physics class, there seems to be a tendency to move as quickly as possible to the fascinating ideas set forth in Einstein's special theory of relativity. In this paper we linger a little with the Galilean side of relativity and discuss an intriguing problem and its solution to illustrate a…
Awang, Halimah; Mansor, Norma; Rodrigo, Shamsulbahriah K A
Illness and injury have a significant impact on employees, their families and employers. The consequences faced by an injured worker could lead to disability, which could then lead to inability to work. This study examined the patterns of the Return to Work (RTW) using data from The Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) of Malaysia RTW database from 2010 to 2013. Factors of successful return to work, employees' salary upon returning to formal employment were also investigated. Gender, age, year of injury, industry, and job hierarchy were found to be significant predictors of employees' salary upon returning to work. Although there are other costs involved on the part of employers and employees, themselves, in the long term the financial returns that can be brought back by injured workers who have successfully returned to work combined with the qualitative benefits substantially outweighs the costs of RTW program.
Objective: A repeated measures study was used to assess the effect of work tasks on select proinflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Methods: Ten firefighters and two volunteers were monitored for particulate matter and carbon monoxide on workdays, January-July 2015. Before and after work-shift dried blood spots were analyzed for inflammatory mediators using the Meso Scale Discovery assay, while blood smears were used to assess leukocyte parameters. Results: Firefighters lighting with drip-torches had higher cross-work-shift increases in interleukin-8, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A compared to holding, a task involving management of fire boundaries. A positive association between interleukin-8 and segmented-neutrophil was observed. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that intermittent occupational diesel exposures contribute to cross-work-shift changes in host systemic innate inflammation as indicated by elevated interleukin-8 levels and peripheral blood segmented-neutrophils. The decision whether to perform a prescribed burn balances land use, risk of fire and potential health impacts. Understanding the latter requires a quick non intrusive assay which can be used to monitor the health of those exposed to smoke. This is first study to use blood smears to assess changes in systemic differential leukocyte cell populations following wood smoke exposure from prescribed burn. This research is useful for understandi
Full Text Available Establishing a causal relationship between factors at work and disease is difficult for occupational physicians and researchers. This paper seeks to provide arguments for the judgement of evidence of causality in observational studies that relate work factors to disease. I derived criteria for the judgement of evidence of causality from the following sources: the criteria list of Hill, the approach by Rothman, the methods used by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, and methods used by epidemiologists. The criteria are applied to two cases of putative occupational diseases; breast cancer caused by shift work and aerotoxic syndrome. Only three of the Hill criteria can be applied to an actual study. Rothman stresses the importance of confounding and alternative explanations than the putative cause. IARC closely follows Hill, but they also incorporate other than epidemiological evidence. Applied to shift work and breast cancer, these results have found moderate evidence for a causal relationship, but applied to the aerotoxic syndrome, there is an absence of evidence of causality. There are no ready to use algorithms for judgement of evidence of causality. Criteria from different sources lead to similar results and can make a conclusion of causality more or less likely.
Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ju Jong; Mun, Hyeon Je; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja
Objectives To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. Methods A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants’ socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All...
Schene, Aart H; Koeter, Maarten W J; Kikkert, Martijn J; Swinkels, Jan A; McCrone, Paul
Major depression has far-reaching consequences for work functioning and absenteeism. In most cases depression is treated by medication and clinical management. The addition of occupational therapy (OT) might improve outcome. We determined the cost-effectiveness of the addition of OT to treatment as usual (TAU). Sixty-two adults with major depression and a mean absenteeism of 242 days were randomized to TAU (out-patient psychiatric treatment) or TAU+OT [6 months, including (i) diagnostic phase with occupational history and work reintegration plan, and (ii) therapeutic phase with individual sessions and group sessions]. Main outcome domains were depression, work resumption, work stress and costs. Assessments were at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 and 42 months. The addition of OT to TAU: (i) did not improve depression outcome, (ii) resulted in a reduction in work-loss days during the first 18 months, (iii) did not increase work stress, and (iv) had a 75.5% probability of being more cost-effective than TAU alone. Addition of OT to good clinical practice does not improve depression outcome, improves productivity without increasing work stress and is superior to TAU in terms of cost-effectiveness.
Choi, Eun Sook; Jung, Hye Sun; Kim, Su Hyun; Park, Hyunju
Work-related anxiety and depression are frequent work-related mental health problems. In this study the relationship between workplace violence and work-related anxiety and/or depression among Korean employees was evaluated. Data were obtained from the Korean Working Condition Survey of 2006. Participants were 9,094 Korean workers aged 15-64 yr. Multiple logistic regression using SAS version 9.1 was used. The incidence of work-related anxiety, work-related depression and workplace violence were 4.5%, 3.5%, and 1.8% respectively. When personal and occupational risk factors were adjusted, workplace violence was significantly associated with work-related anxiety and depression (OR for anxiety: 4.07, CI: 2.62-6.34; OR for depression: 4.60, CI: 2.92-7.25). Work-related anxiety was significantly related to type of employment, working period at present workplace, work time, shift work, job demand, and social support from superiors. Factors influencing work-related depression were gender, education, alcohol consumption, company size, type of employment, working period at present workplace, work time, shift work, and job demand. To promote psychological health in workers there is a need to develop work-related anxiety and depression prevention programs and to decrease in workplace violence. In developing these programs, consideration should be given to personal factors, working conditions, and psychosocial working environments.
Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Thurston, Mark
This article presents a systematic method of dream work called the Five Star Method. Based on cocreative dream theory, which views the dream as the product of the interaction between dreamer and dream, this creative intervention shifts the principal focus in dream analysis from the interpretation of static imagery to the analysis of the dreamer's…
Correlation analysis, Chi-square contingency tables and frequencies were used to test the research question, and the three hypotheses. The study revealed that the variables that contributed most to work stress among bankers were: 'being scared of one's inability to finish a job given by a boss', 'being hard pressed to finish ...
Jensen, Jens Christian; Sherson, David
BACKGROUND: A 44-year-old industrial worker produced panels for folding doors for 9 years. During this period, he developed osteoarthritis (OA) of both first carpometacarpal joints. Surgery was performed without improvement. METHODS: Clinical examination, demonstration and recording of work...
... limits successful placement and increases the burden of hospital based social workers. The problem cannot be resolved at a hospital level and needs to be addressed in the context of provincial and national health departments. Key words: Deinstitutionalisation; Social work; Mental health services; Hospitals, psychiatric; ...
...; radiation treatment or chemotherapy for cancer patients; corrective surgery for spinal disorders... or by reducing the number of hours he or she worked. (B) We consider a family member to be anyone who... medication on a diabetic condition; and immunosuppressive medications that kidney transplant patients...
...; radiation treatment or chemotherapy for cancer patients; corrective surgery for spinal disorders... or by reducing the number of hours he or she worked. (B) We consider a family member to be anyone who... medication on a diabetic condition; and immunosuppressive medications that kidney transplant patients...
Potato cultivation requires manual work and workers are exposed to extreme postural stresses. The present study was aimed at evaluating the musculoskeletal disorder and postural stress experienced by female workers engaged in potato cultivation. The study was conducted on 155 female cultivators in different districts of ...
The study was a descriptive cross-sectional by design involving solid wastes Scavengers in Ilorin metropolis, North-central Nigeria. ... of preventing work hazards with 58.3% and 56.8% respectively while poor knowledge was recorded for nose guard, face mask and overall/apron with 43.2%, 39.3% and 9.3% respectively.
Conclusion: In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.
Braeken, J.; Mulder, J.; Wood, S.
Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination
Liu, Yi; Wu, Li-Min; Chou, Pi-Ling; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Yang, Li-Chien; Hsu, Hsin-Tien
This study aimed to (a) test the fit of the hypothesized model for new nurses' intent to leave and (b) determine the extent to which personal characteristics, work conditions, and work-related fatigue predict intent to leave among new nurses. This study was a cross-sectional survey study. A total of 162 new nurses were recruited. A hypothesized model was proposed for model testing. Structural equation modelling was used for data analysis. Work conditions only had an effect through work-related fatigue on new nurses' intent to leave. Personal characteristics did not have a significant effect on new nurses' intent to leave. The final model showed a good fit. Work-related fatigue, work conditions, and health explained 65% of the variance in new nurses' intent to leave. Work-related fatigue was a major determinant of new nurses' intent to leave. More attention should be paid to fatigue reduction strategies among new nurses. Work-related fatigue should be monitored, particularly for new nurses who work more than 10 hr per day and who have greater workloads. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Sun, Wenjun; Chen, Karen; Terhaar, Abigail; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Heidrich, Susan M; Tevaarwerk, Amye J; Sesto, Mary E
Research has identified barriers and facilitators affecting cancer survivors' return to work (RTW) following the end of active treatment (surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy). However, few studies have focused on barriers and facilitators that cancer survivors experience while working during active treatment. Strategies used by cancer survivors to solve work-related problems during active treatment are underexplored. The aim of this study was to describe factors that impact, either positively or negatively, breast cancer survivors' work activities during active treatment. Semi-structured, recorded interviews were conducted with 35 breast cancer survivors who worked during active treatment. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis to identify themes regarding work-related barriers, facilitators and strategies. Barriers identified included symptoms, emotional distress, appearance change, time constraints, work characteristics, unsupportive supervisors and coworkers, family issues and other illness. Facilitators included positive aspects of work, support outside of work, and coworker and supervisor support. Strategies included activities to improve health-related issues and changes to working conditions and tasks. Breast cancer survivors encounter various barriers during active treatment. Several facilitators and strategies can help survivors maintain productive work activities.
Garcia, Grant H; Mahony, Gregory T; Fabricant, Peter D; Wu, Hao-Hua; Dines, David M; Warren, Russell F; Craig, Edward V; Gulotta, Lawrence V
With an active aging population, more patients expect to return to previous activities and work after surgery. To determine the rate and timing to return of sports and employment after shoulder hemiarthroplasty. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent shoulder hemiarthroplasty from 2007 to 2013. Follow-up consisted of a patient-reported questionnaire regarding physical fitness, sporting activities, and work status. From 105 patients screened, 79 were available for follow-up. The average follow-up time was 63.1 months, and the average age at follow-up was 69 years. Scores on the visual analog scale for pain improved from 6.2 to 2.1 (P sports preoperatively, and 67.2% of these restarted at least 1 of their previous sports postoperatively. The average time to return to full sports was 6.5 months for those who returned. Direct rates of return were as follows: fitness sports (69%), swimming (65%), running (64%), cycling (63%), and doubles tennis (57%). Younger age was associated with highest demand level achieved (P = .023). Forty-nine patients worked preoperatively, with 69.4% returning to previous employment after surgery; the average time to return to work was 1.4 months. In comparative analysis, patients who did not return to work had a higher mean body mass index (32 ± 7 vs 27 ± 5 kg/m(2); P sports at an average of 6.5 months postoperatively. Patients older than 65 years experienced similar improvements in ASES scores compared with patients younger than 65 years, although absolute scores were lower on average. Those who returned to higher demand sports were younger on average. Of patients working preoperatively, 69.4% returned to their previous employment at an average of 1.4 months. Patients who did not return to employment had significantly higher body mass index on average. These findings will help surgeons manage expectations of shoulder hemiarthroplasty candidates preoperatively. © 2015 The
Infrastructure and General Services Department
Due to work being carried out for the TRAM we inform you that vehicles coming from Geneva will be prohibited from turning left into Entrance B. This restriction will be in place for approx. 10 weeks*) starting from Monday 30 August 2010. You are highly recommended to enter CERN through Entrance A during this period even though a diversion will be put in place to allow access to CERN from Entrance B (as shown in the attached sketch). In addition, approx. 20 car parking spaces will be temporarily unavailable at the western end of the flags car park. We thank you in advance for your kind understanding. ______________ *) The exact end date of the work will be communicated in due course. GS-SEM Group
A. Rongen (Anne); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar); A. Burdorf (Alex)
textabstractObjective: To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Methods: Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using
Boskabady Mohammad Hosein; Taheri Ehsan; Ahmadi Sina; Ebrahimi Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh Malihe; Mohammadi Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh Alireza
Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptom...
related injuries and illnesses among the workers. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was ... Data was collated and analysed with IBM SPSS version 21.0 software. The associations between socio-demographic variables, and ...
Full Text Available Although employees are encouraged to take exercise after work to keep physically fit, they should not suffer injury. Some sports injuries that occur after work appear to be work-related and preventable. This study investigated whether cognitive failure mediates the influence of mental work demands and conscientiousness on risk-taking and risky and unaware behaviour during after-work sports activities. Participants were 129 employees (36% female who regularly took part in team sports after work. A structural equation model showed that work-related cognitive failure significantly mediated the influence of mental work demands on risky behaviour during sports (p < .05 and also mediated the directional link between conscientiousness and risky behaviour during sports (p < .05. A path from risky behaviour during sports to sports injuries in the last four weeks was also significant (p < .05. Performance constraints, time pressure, and task uncertainty are likely to increase cognitive load and thereby boost cognitive failures both during work and sports activities after work. Some sports injuries after work could be prevented by addressing the issue of work redesign.
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
the long-term prevention, which focuses on changing the organizational and managerial circumstances. It is however possible to change this approach, if both managers and employees become aware of the problems and see the impact of their consequences. If working processes were optimized, the various...... also points out the activities causing the prob-lems, how the problems are managed, and the reason for the approach used. The study and con-clusions are based on qualitative research in five knowledge-intensive companies. Knowledge work is described simultaneously in both positive and negative terms...... – it can be both exciting and stressful. With regard to causes, it is evident that the strains of knowledge work are often caused by the organization and management of the knowledge worker. Autonomy and individualized responsibility causes both a formal and informal transfer of responsibility...
Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl; Subramaniam, Indra Devi
Increasing numbers of workers use computer for work. So, especially among office workers, there is a high risk of musculoskeletal discomforts. This study examined the associations among 3 factors, psychosocial work factors, work stress and musculoskeletal discomforts. These associations were examined via a questionnaire survey on 30 office workers (at a university in Malaysia), whose jobs required an extensive use of computers. The questionnaire was distributed and collected daily for 20 days. While the results indicated a significant relationship among psychosocial work factors, work stress and musculoskeletal discomfort, 3 psychosocial work factors were found to be more important than others in both work stress and musculoskeletal discomfort: job demands, negative social interaction and computer-related problems. To further develop study design, it is necessary to investigate industrial and other workers who have experienced musculoskeletal discomforts and work stress.
Bedewi, Nabih E.; Yang, Jackson C. S.
Identification of the system parameters of a randomly excited structure may be treated using a variety of statistical techniques. Of all these techniques, the Random Decrement is unique in that it provides the homogeneous component of the system response. Using this quality, a system identification technique was developed based on a least-squares fit of the signatures to estimate the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of a linear randomly excited system. The mathematics of the technique is presented in addition to the results of computer simulations conducted to demonstrate the prediction of the response of the system and the random forcing function initially introduced to excite the system.
Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.
With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…
Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH
BACKGROUND: Pain in the neck and upper extremity is reported with high frequency in repetitive work. Mechanical overload of soft tissues seems a plausible mechanism, but psychological factors have received considerable attention during the past decade. If psychological factors are important for d...
Schene, Aart H.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Kikkert, Martijn J.; Swinkels, Jan A.; McCrone, Paul
BACKGROUND: Major depression has far-reaching consequences for work functioning and absenteeism. In most cases depression is treated by medication and clinical management. The addition of occupational therapy (OT) might improve outcome. We determined the cost-effectiveness of the addition of OT to
Putnik, Katarina; Houkes, Inge
Little information exists on work and stress related health of medical doctors in non-EU countries. Filling this knowledge gap is needed to uncover the needs of this target population and to provide information on comparability of health related phenomena such as burnout across countries. This study examined work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among Serbian primary healthcare physicians (PHPs) and compared burnout levels with other medical doctors in EU countries. Data were collected via surveys which contained Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated instruments measuring work and home related characteristics. The sample consisted of 373 PHPs working in 12 primary healthcare centres. Data were analysed using t-tests and Chi square tests. No gender differences were detected on mean scores of variables among Serbian physicians, who experience high levels of personal accomplishment, workload, job control and social support, medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and work-home interference, and low levels of home-work interference. There were more women than men who experienced low job control and high depersonalisation. Serbian physicians experienced significantly higher emotional exhaustion and lower depersonalisation than physicians in some other European countries. To diminish excessive workload, the number of physicians working in primary healthcare centres in Serbia should be increased. Considering that differences between countries were detected on all burnout subcomponents, work-related interventions for employees should be country specific. The role of gender needs to be closely examined in future studies as well.
Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K
To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.
Eijsden-Besseling, M.D. van; Bergh, K.A. van den; Staal, J.B.; Bie, R.A. de; Smeets, R.J.P.; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of work- and treatment-related factors on clinical status and functional disability in patients with non-specific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD). PARTICIPANTS: 182 computer workers with non-specific WRULD, 18-50 years old, not having specific WRULD nor
ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; de Graaf, Ron
This study examines the association of work and health-related characteristics with the intention to continue working after the age of 65 years. Data were from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative population survey, including 1854 employees aged 45-64 years; 29.0% reported the intention to continue working after 65 years. Lower education, more adverse psychosocial working conditions and any physical disorder were negatively associated with this intention. Mental disorders were not associated. These findings highlight the importance of favourable working conditions and good physical health in relation to employees' intention to continue working after 65 years. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Neurology of the newborn. In E.M. Brett (Ed), Paediatric Neurology, (3d ed), pp 1-24, New York: Churchill Livingstone. Brogmus, G.E., Sorock, G.S., and...York State Dentistry Journal, 64, 44-48. Flor, H., Turk, D.C., and Birbaumer, N. (1985). Assessment of stress-related psychophysiological reactions in
Spallek, Michael; Kuhn, Walter; Uibel, Stefanie; van Mark, Anke; Quarcoo, David
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to repetitive work are common in manufacturing industries, such as the automotive industry. However, it's still unclear which MSDs of the upper limb are to be expected in the automotive industry in a first aid unit as well as in occupational precaution examinations. It is also unclear which examination method could be performed effectively for practical reasons and under rehabilitation aspects. Additionally, it was to discuss whether the conception of unspecific description for MSDs has advantages or disadvantages in contrast to a precise medical diagnosis. We investigated the health status of two study populations working at two automotive plants in Germany. The first part included 67 consecutive patients who were seen for acute or chronic MSDs at the forearm over a 4-month period at the plants' medical services. Information about patients' working conditions and musculoskeletal symptoms was obtained during a standardized interview, which was followed by a standardized orthopedic-chiropractic physical examination. In the second part, 209 workers with daily exposure to video display terminals (VDT) completed a standardized questionnaire and were examined with function-oriented muscular tests on the occasion of their routine occupational precaution medical check-up. The majority of the 67 patients seen by the company's medical services were blue-collar works from the assembly lines and trainees rather than white-collar workers from offices. Rates of musculoskeletal complaints were disproportionately higher among experienced people performing new tasks and younger trainees. The most common MSD in this group were disorders of flexor tendons of the forearm. By contrast, among the 209 employees working at VDT disorders of the neck and shoulders were more common than discomfort in the forearm. A positive tendency between restricted rotation of the cervical vertebrae and years worked at VDT was observed. In addition, only less than 8
Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs due to repetitive work are common in manufacturing industries, such as the automotive industry. However, it's still unclear which MSDs of the upper limb are to be expected in the automotive industry in a first aid unit as well as in occupational precaution examinations. It is also unclear which examination method could be performed effectively for practical reasons and under rehabilitation aspects. Additionally, it was to discuss whether the conception of unspecific description for MSDs has advantages or disadvantages in contrast to a precise medical diagnosis. Methods We investigated the health status of two study populations working at two automotive plants in Germany. The first part included 67 consecutive patients who were seen for acute or chronic MSDs at the forearm over a 4-month period at the plants' medical services. Information about patients' working conditions and musculoskeletal symptoms was obtained during a standardized interview, which was followed by a standardized orthopedic-chiropractic physical examination. In the second part, 209 workers with daily exposure to video display terminals (VDT completed a standardized questionnaire and were examined with function-oriented muscular tests on the occasion of their routine occupational precaution medical check-up. Results The majority of the 67 patients seen by the company's medical services were blue-collar works from the assembly lines and trainees rather than white-collar workers from offices. Rates of musculoskeletal complaints were disproportionately higher among experienced people performing new tasks and younger trainees. The most common MSD in this group were disorders of flexor tendons of the forearm. By contrast, among the 209 employees working at VDT disorders of the neck and shoulders were more common than discomfort in the forearm. A positive tendency between restricted rotation of the cervical vertebrae and years
Hansen, C. D.; Andersen, JH
The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a broad range of possible factors relating to work, personal circumstances and attitudes towards sickness absence on a person's decision to go to work despite feeling ill, a phenomenon that has been termed sickness presence (SP), or 'presenteeism...
Wong, Kevin; Grundfast, Kenneth M; Levi, Jessica R
Previous studies have suggested that musculoskeletal symptoms are common among practicing otolaryngologists. Early training can be the ideal time to foster knowledge of ergonomics and develop safe work habits, however, little data exists regarding musculoskeletal symptoms in residents. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize musculoskeletal symptoms in a preliminary sample of otolaryngology residents. A cross-sectional survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was sent to 30 Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residencies to examine musculoskeletal symptoms among residents. A two-sample test of proportions was performed to compare symptoms between male and female residents. In total, 141 respondents (response rate=34.7%) completed the survey. Fifty-five percent of survey respondents were male and 45% were female. Musculoskeletal symptoms were most frequently reported in the neck (82.3%), followed by the lower back (56%), upper back (40.4%), and shoulders (40.4%). The most common symptoms were stiffness in the neck (71.6%), pain in the neck (61.7%), and pain in the lower back (48.2%). In total, 6.4% of residents missed work and 16.3% of residents stopped during an operation at some point due to their symptoms. Most residents (88.3%) believed their musculoskeletal symptoms were attributed to their surgical training. Female residents were significantly more likely to experience neck (p<0.0001) and wrist/hand (p=0.019) discomfort compared to male residents. Musculoskeletal symptoms were common among residents, approaching rates similar to those previously identified in practicing otolaryngologists. Increased emphasis on surgical ergonomics is warranted to improve workplace safety and prevent future injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Teaching units are very important when you want to integrate university and society, to pre- degree and post- degree teaching process, and during research, becoming a huge educative place to develop these activities. This research is related to a diagnose the author made to particular workers and Tributary Administrations National Office functionaries from Santiago of Cuba related to the information level contributors have about tributary subjects, to be sure there are insufficiencies in the local and national media when it comes to tributary information. Based on the results, the author contributes with some actions to improve teachers, communication, integrating university and tributary offices. This actions are also directed to students, functionaries and leaders from both institutions, in order to be more efficients in the contributors, knowledge so they can understand the importance of tributes and therefore, to improve the low collection indicator the Tributary Administrations are facing right now.
A quick look at the people in the International Relations sector, showcasing the huge range of nationalities, languages and roles the sector covers ranging from software development and exhibition curation, to schools programmes.
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye
.... The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea...
Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan
Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading…
Aalto, Anna-Mari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Bergbom, Barbara; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko
International mobility of health care professionals is increasing, though little is known about how working in a culturally diverse team affects the native physicians' psychosocial work environment. We examined Finnish physicians' perceptions of work-related wellbeing according to whether they had foreign-born colleagues (FBCs) in their work unit. We also examined whether work-related resources moderate the potential association between work-related wellbeing and working alongside FBCs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted for a random sample of physicians in Finland in 2010 (3826 respondents, response rate 55%). Analyses were restricted to native Finnish physicians working in public health care. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA. In unadjusted analyses, having FBCs was related to poor team climate (pwork unit (p=0.007 for interaction between FBCs and procedural justice and pwork units face challenges related to team climate and job satisfaction. The results also show that leadership plays an important role in culturally diverse work units. The potential challenges of culturally diverse teams for native physicians may be reduced by fair decision-making and by increasing physicians' job control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bikker, Ido G; Preis, Carsten; Egal, Mahamud; Bakker, Jan; Gommers, Diederik
Computed tomography of the lung has shown that ventilation shifts from dependent to nondependent lung regions. In this study, we investigated whether, at the bedside, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the cranial and caudal thoracic levels can be used to visualize changes in ventilation distribution during a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial and the relation of these changes to global compliance in mechanically ventilated patients. Ventilation distribution was calculated on the basis of EIT results from 12 mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery at a cardiothoracic ICU. Measurements were taken at four PEEP levels (15, 10, 5 and 0 cm H2O) at both the cranial and caudal lung levels, which were divided into four ventral-to-dorsal regions. Regional compliance was calculated using impedance and driving pressure data. We found that tidal impedance variation divided by tidal volume significantly decreased on caudal EIT slices, whereas this measurement increased on the cranial EIT slices. The dorsal-to-ventral impedance distribution, expressed according to the center of gravity index, decreased during the decremental PEEP trial at both EIT levels. Optimal regional compliance differed at different PEEP levels: 10 and 5 cm H2O at the cranial level and 15 and 10 cm H2O at the caudal level for the dependent and nondependent lung regions, respectively. At the bedside, EIT measured at two thoracic levels showed different behavior between the caudal and cranial lung levels during a decremental PEEP trial. These results indicate that there is probably no single optimal PEEP level for all lung regions.
Kohki Nakamura, MD
Full Text Available A 32-year-old man underwent catheter ablation of an orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. The sinus rhythm electrocardiogram exhibited a normal PQ interval and no delta waves, but atrial pacing produced a prolonged PQ interval and wide QRS morphology with right bundle-branch block due to antegrade accessory pathway (AP conduction. During the tachycardia, atrial double potentials consisting of the coronary sinus musculature (CSM and left atrial (LA potentials were observed. Ventricular extrastimulation exhibited retrograde decremental conduction with an identical atrial activation sequence as during the tachycardia. A radiofrequency application within the posterolateral CS during ventricular pacing eliminated the CSM-LA conduction and concomitantly the ventriculoatrial conduction via the AP was abolished. In this case, the CSM was associated with the bidirectional decremental conduction properties of the AP, and the antegrade slow conduction resulted in the absence of a shortening of the PQ interval and delta waves during sinus rhythm despite the continuous presence of antegrade AP conduction.
Kisilevsky, B S; Muir, D W
Response decrement, novelty response, and dishabituation of body movements to repeated presentations of a white noise stimulus of 66, 76, and 86 dB were studied in 89, 2-3-day-olds in the first epoch of active-quiet sleep following a feeding. Newborns receiving the 86 dB repeating stimulus had greater movement scores compared to those receiving the 76 dB intensity who, in turn, had greater movement scores than those receiving the 66 dB intensity. All groups demonstrated movement response decline following repeated stimulation and a novelty response was observed when either a 66 or 76 dB repeating stimulus was increased to 86 dB. A novelty response was not observed when intensity was decreased and dishabituation was not observed following a novelty response. For a white noise stimulus, these findings are more consistent with the selective adaptation than the habituation explanation of neonatal response decrement to repeated auditory stimulation.
Van Den Ouweland, Loth; Van den Bossche, Piet
Research shows that both individual and job-related factors influence a worker's work-related learning. This study combines these factors, examining the impact of fit between one's work values and job characteristics on learning. Although research indicates that fit benefits multiple work-related outcomes, little is known about the impact of fit…
Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.
Over 25,600 lives were lost on the road in the European Union in 2016, of those a large proportion were victims of work-related road (WRR) collisions. Even though the exact number is unknown, it is likely that up to 40% of all road deaths are work-related. Part I: Work-related road safety (WRRS)
van Zoonen, W.; van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
This study explores the antecedents of work-related social-media use. To date the role of employees in organizational sense giving through work-related social-media use remains under investigated. The findings suggest that - in a work-related context - social media serve multiple functions: as a
Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.B.
Work engagement in Europe: an ultra-short work engagement scale and its relation with related concepts. Research and policy attention on work-related stress, mental health and well-being has increased, both in the international scientific literature as well as in society. Within the latter sphere,
Meijer, E.; Suarthana, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484859X; Rooijackers, J.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Jacobs, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314101144; Meijster, T.; de Monchy, J.G.R.; van Otterloo, E.; van Rooy, G.B.G.J.; Spithoven, J.J.; Zaat, V.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542
Identification of work-related allergy, particularly work-related asthma, in a (nationwide) medical surveillance programme among bakery workers requires an effective and efficient strategy. Bakers at high risk of having work-related allergy were indentified by use of a questionnaire-based prediction
This study examines the impact of work-related psychosocial and mechanical risk factors for work disability in the general working population. A randomly drawn cohort from the general population in Norway aged 18-66 years was followed for 3 years (N = 12 550, 67% response rate at baseline). Eligible respondents were in paid work for ≥ 10 hours per week in 2006 and were still in paid work or had quit working because of health problems (work disability) in 2009 (N = 6745). Five work-related psychosocial factors and eight mechanical exposures were measured. The outcome of interest was self-reported work disability at 3-year follow-up. In total, 2.6% (176 individuals) reported work disability at the 3-year follow-up. Disability rates were higher among women, older workers, and those with fewer years of education and higher levels of psychological distress and musculoskeletal complaints. After adjusting for these factors, work-related psychosocial predictors of disability were low levels of supportive leadership [odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-2.56] and monotonous work (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.09-2.16). Mechanical factors were neck flexion (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.56), prolonged standing (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.46), whole-body vibration (OR 4.15, 95% CI 1.77-9.71), and heavy physical work (OR 2.23. 95% CI 1.08-4.57). The estimated population risk attributable to these factors was about 45%. Monotonous work, prolonged standing, neck flexion, and whole-body vibration appear to be the most consistent and important predictors of work disability.
The concept of basic psychological needs is regarded as a significant predictor of individual function in life (Van den Broeck, Vanteenkiste, De ... There are studies that investigate the basic psychological need satisfaction in relation to different variables. For example Andreassen ..... Journal of Happiness. Studies, 3:71-92.
Sung, Jee Eun
Purposes of the current study were to investigate whether age-related decline emerged in a case-marker assignment task (CMAT) and to explore the relationship between working-memory (WM) capacity and case-marker processing. A total of 121 individuals participated in the study with 62 younger adults and 59 elderly adults. All were administered a CMAT that consisted of active and passive constructions with canonical and noncanonical word-order conditions. A composite measure of WM tasks served as an index of participants' WM capacity. The older group performed worse than the younger group, and the noncanonical word order elicited worse performance than the canonical condition. The older group demonstrated greater difficulty in case-marker processing under the canonical condition and passive construction. Regression results revealed that age, education, and sentence type were the best predictors to account for performance on the CMAT. The canonicity of word order and passive construction were critical factors related to decline in abilities in a case-marker assignment. The combination of age, education, and sentence type factors accounted for overall performance on case-marker processing. Results indicated the crucial necessity to find a cognitively and linguistically demanding condition that elicits aging effects most efficiently, considering language-specific syntactic features.
Full Text Available Orientation: Work-related sense of coherence (Work-SoC is defined as the perceived comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness of an individual’s current work situation.Research purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the factorial invariance and the construct validity of a scale that measures Work-SoC.Motivation for the study: It might be useful to specifically apply the concept of sense of coherence to the work context.Research design, approach and method: Statistical analysis was performed on crosssectional (n = 3412 and longitudinal (n = 1286 questionnaire data collected in eight medium to large Swiss companies from diverse economic sectors (four industrialproduction companies, one food-processing company, one public-administration service and two hospitals. The dataset therefore covers a broad range of different occupational groups.Main findings: Multiple-group analyses indicated that the scale’s factor structure remains invariant across different employee groups and across time. High values in job resources were related to high values in Work-SoC whereas high values in job demands were related to low values in Work-SoC. Furthermore, Work-SoC acted as a partial mediator between job resources and work engagement.Practical/managerial implications: It can be concluded that Work-SoC might serve as a practical screening instrument for assessing an employee’s perception of the potential health-promoting qualities of his or her current work situation.Contribution/value-add: The study advances both the salutogenic theory and the field of positive occupational health psychology by redefining sense of coherence as an interactional and context-specific construct that is useful for intervention research.
Mokarami, Hamidreza; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Asgari, Ali; Choobineh, Alireza; Stallones, Lorann
The present study was designed to investigate the simultaneous effects of physical, psychosocial and other work-related risk factors on the work ability index (WAI) score among industrial workers. This study used a cross-sectional design with a questionnaire survey. A total of 280 workers were included in the study. Data were collected using three questionnaires including the Persian version of the WAI, the Persian version of the job content questionnaire and an author-developed measure (to assess work-related factors, health-related factors and socio-demographic characteristics). The majority of the participants were young, but they had poor WAI scores (mean 37.3 ± 6.4) and 44.3% of them had poor or moderate work ability. Occupational accidents and injuries were found to be the strongest predictors of WAI scores. Additionally, there was a strong association between WAI scores and supervisor support, skill discretion, occupational training, sleep quality, work nature and educational level. Intervention programs should focus on improving supervisor support, sleep quality, job skills and knowledge and on decreasing physical and mental work demands. Additionally, implementing a comprehensive occupational health and ergonomics program for controlling and reducing hazardous working environments and occupational injury rates should be considered.
Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan
Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading comprehension and reading accuracy. Tests of word reading accuracy and reading comprehension, and working memory tests in three different modalities (v...
Hult, Marja; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Koponen, Päivikki; Saaranen, Terhi
The aims of this study were to describe the perceived work ability of unemployed individuals and to explore the association between perceived good work ability and sociodemographic, work-related and well-being factors. The data were derived from the Finnish Regional Health and Well-being Study (ATH) collected by postal and Internet-based questionnaires in 2014-2015. The random sample was selected from the Finnish National Population Register. The present study includes data from unemployed or laid-off respondents ( n=1975) aged 20-65 years. Logistic regression was used in the statistical analysis. Perceived work ability was measured with the Work Ability Score. Factors significantly associated with good work ability were having young children living in the household, short-term unemployment, low or moderate physical strain in most recent job, moderate mental strain in most recent job, satisfaction with most recent job, good self-rated health and good quality of life. Good self-rated health (odds ratio=10.53, 95% confidence interval 5.90-18.80) was the most substantial factor in the multivariate model. The findings provide further evidence on the factors related to good work ability of the unemployed. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for promoting work ability and to minimise the harmful effects of long-term unemployment.
Coluccia, Anna; Lorini, Francesca; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea; Gaetani, Marco
The issue of the assessment of work-related stress has stimulated in recent years, the production of several theoretical paradigms and assessment tools. In this paper we present a new scale for the assessment of organizational well-being and work-related stress specific for healthcare organizations (Work-related Stress Assessment Scale - WSAS). The goal of the authors is to examine the psychometric properties of the scale, so that it can be used in the healthcare setting as a work-related stress assessment tool. The answers of 230 healthcare professionals belonging to different roles have been analyzed. The study was realized in 16 Units of the University Hospital "S. Maria alle Scotte "of Siena. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed the presence of five factors with good internal consistency and reliability, "relationship to the structure of proximity" (α = 0.93) "change" (α = 0.92), "organization of work "(α = 0.81)," relationship with the company / Governance "(α = 0.87)" working environment "(α = 0.83). The analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Models) has confirmed the goodness of the factor solution (NNFI = 0.835, CFI = 0.921, RMSEA = 0.060). The good psychometric qualities, the shortness and simplicity of the scale WSAS makes it a useful aid in the assessment of work-related stress in health care organizations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone mineral density (BMD accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4, both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years. Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2, calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3 and bone mineral content (BMC, g were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18, areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082 and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347 which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36, the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9 in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0 for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ρ = 0.55 to ρ = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis
Mayers, Lester B; Redick, Thomas S; Chiffriller, Sheila H; Simone, Ashley N; Terraforte, Keith R
To measure working memory capacity among a cohort of collegiate athletes and to compare results between athletes competing in head-contact-prone sports with those not subject to repeated head contacts. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of sport-related concussion on working memory capacity. Ambidirectional cohort study. Athletics department at an American university. Student athletes competing in various sports. None. Automated operation span test scores. Working memory capacity is not impaired in student athletes who participate in head-contact-prone sports or in student athletes with a history of diagnosed concussion, even those who are multiconcussed. Our results suggest that athletes competing in sports that impose significant working memory loading score higher on the automated operation span test than do other athletes. Further research is required to determine the value of measuring working memory capacity in acutely concussed, symptomatic athletes.
Full Text Available Background: Work and family are the source of tranquility and if the balance between these two is not provided, pleasure, happiness and peace of human being would be lost, which will cause unreturnable loss for him. Regarding the importance of nurses’ role in health system, the present study aimed to study the relation of work-family balance and quality of life of nurses working at selected Iranian teaching hospitals. Methods: Present study is a cross sectional, descriptive-analytical study which was carried out on 306 nurses working at three teaching hospitals of Iran. The sampling method was stratified sampling and questionnaire was the data collection instrument. Data analysis was carried out using inferential statistics through SPSS Ver18. Findings: nurses spent more time to work than family and they had more satisfaction of their family life than their work. This suggests the imbalance of nurses in two dimension of time balance and satisfaction balance, which has resulted a decrease in quality of life of studied nurses. Nurse’s involvement in work and life as the third component of work-life balance concept, was balanced and it did not indicate significant correlation with quality of life. Nurses experiencing less work-family conflict and more stress in their life, had higher level of quality of life. Conclusion: Nurses will be more exposed to the negative outcomes of work-life imbalance than other groups of employees, so paying attention to managing the demands of work and family aimed at improving the nurses’ quality of life, has specific importance. Hence, designing a plan which defines main components of work-family balance among various groups of hospital staff including nurses, should be put at the top agenda of Iran’s health system policy makers.
Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivière, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane
The aim of this study was to determine: 1) if quality of work life (QWL), location of cross-training, stress variables, and various demographic factors in nurses are associated with work ability, and 2) nursing occupational stress, QWL, and various associated factors are related with nurses' work ability. There is limited research examining the obstetrical nursing environment. Given the amount of time and energy people expend at the workplace, it is crucial for employees to be satisfied with their lives at work. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four hospitals in northeastern Ontario, Canada. A stratified random sample of registered nurses (n= 111) were selected. The majority of participants were female (94.6%) ranging in age from 24 to 64 years (M = 41.9, s.d. = 10.2). For the stress and QWL model, one variable: QWL (home-work support - see Methods for definition) (p= 0.015), cross-trained (see Methods for definition) nurses (p= 0.048), and having more than 4 patients per shift (p= 0.024) significantly contributed to the variance in work ability scores. In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher work ability for nurses who received home-work support were estimated to be 1.32 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.66) times the odds of a higher work ability for nurses who did not receive home-work support. Work ability in the work environment of obstetrical nursing is important. To be high functioning, workplaces should maximize the use of their employees' actual and potential skills.
Sullins, W. R., Jr.; Rogers, J. G.
The kinds of activities that are attractive to man in long duration isolation are delineated considering meaningful work as major activity and a choice of leisure/living provisions. The dependent variables are the relative distribution between various work, leisure, and living activities where external constraints on the subject's freedom of choice are minimized. Results indicate that an average of at least five hours per day of significant meaningful work is required for satisfactory enjoyment of the situation; most other parameters of the situation have less effects on overall performance and satisfaction
Porter, Caitlin M; Parrigon, Scott E; Woo, Sang Eun; Saef, Rachel M; Tay, Louis
This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. Using a policy-capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence. Multilevel moderated mediation was conducted to simultaneously evaluate whether the indirect effects of potential work partners' characteristics (i.e., nationalities and levels of work-related competence) on work partner preference through perceived similarity were moderated by cultural and intellectual openness. Perceived similarity mediated the relationships between work partner nationality and work-related competence and participants' work partner preferences. Furthermore, the negative indirect effect of work partner nationality on work partner preference via perceived similarity was attenuated by cultural openness, and the positive indirect effect of work partner work-related competence on work partner preference via perceived similarity was strengthened by intellectual openness. Cultural and intellectual openness may have distinct functions that influence how people perceive, evaluate, and appreciate social information when making social judgments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Al-Yagon, Michal; Cinamon, Rachel Gali
The study examined conflict and facilitation in work-family relations among working mothers of children with learning disorders (LD) or with typical development. The study also focused on three maternal personal resources (maternal anxious/avoidant attachment security, affect and sense of coherence) as antecedents of these work-family relations,…
Loerbroks, A; Gadinger, M C; Bosch, J A; Stürmer, T; Amelang, M
There is an extensive literature linking stressful work conditions to adverse health outcomes. Notwithstanding, the relationship with asthma has not been examined, although various other measures of psychological stress have been associated with asthma. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relation between work stress and asthma prevalence and incidence. We used data from a population-based cohort study (n = 5114 at baseline in 1992-1995 and n = 4010 at follow-up in 2002/2003). Asthma was measured by self-reports. Two scales that assessed psychologically adverse work conditions were extracted from a list of work-condition items by factor analysis (these scales were termed 'work stress' and 'inability to relax after work'). For each scale, the derived score was employed both as continuous z-score and as categorized variable in analyses. Associations with asthma were estimated by prevalence ratios (PRs) and risk ratios (RRs) using Poisson regression with a log-link function adjusting for demographics, health-related lifestyles, body mass index and family history of asthma. Analyses were restricted to those in employment (n = 3341). Work stress and inability to relax z-scores were positively associated with asthma prevalence (PR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.97, 1.36 and PR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.12, 1.83, respectively). Prospective analyses using z-scores showed that for each 1 standard deviation increase in work stress and inability to relax, the risk of asthma increased by approximately 40% (RR for work stress = 1.46, 95%CI = 1.06, 2.00; RR for inability to relax = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.91). Similar patterns of associations were observed in analyses of categorized exposures. This is the first study to show a cross-sectional and longitudinal association of work stress with asthma.
Colell, Esther; Sánchez-Niubò, Albert; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; Delclós, Jordi; Benavides, Fernando G
To explore the prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in a sample of the Spanish working population and to examine its association with certain work-related stress factors. Using data from the 2007 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs (Encuesta Domiciliaria sobre Alcohol y Drogas en España [EDADES]), we analyzed the distribution of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in the previous month in the working population aged 16 to 64 years old (n=13,005). Associations with exposure to certain work-related stress factors (noxious working environment, precariousness, workload, and social support) were examined using logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives among women in the previous month doubled that of men (6.5% and 3.3%, respectively), while use among the oldest age group was twice that of the youngest group in both sexes (10.2% in women and 5.5% in men older than 45 years), and was four times higher among those reporting poor health (18.9% in women and 11% in men). Concerning work-related stress, exposure to moderate (OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.31-2.92) and high (OR: 1.95; 95%CI: 1.14-3.34) levels of precariousness in men and moderate levels in women (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.03-1.99) was associated with the use of hypnotics and sedatives. The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives was high in women and in workers older than 45 years. Further research is needed on the relationship between the use of hypnotics and sedatives and workers' health, and on the role that work-related stress factors play in this association. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Kecklund, L.G.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Leineweber, C.; Tucker, P.T.
The right balance between work, personal life and daily recovery is an important determinant of employees’ well-being, health and experience of stress. One of the most important things in many people's lives is their relationship with their family. Work and home life are central aspects of most
Molchany, Jerome W.; Lund, David J.
Protecting the eye from coherent light sources is of critical concern to both military and civilian laser users. Laser protective eyewear degrades visual performance. Common and emerging applications use lasers emitting at numerous wavelengths or single lasers emitting at multiple wavelengths. Protection against multiple wavelengths increases the difficulty in selecting or building protective eyewear and concomitantly usually increases the performance penalty. Pursuit tracking performance decrements were measured as a function of bandwidth and peak wavelength transmission for 12 bandpass filters. Eight volunteers tracked a target subtending 34 milliradians (mrad) at a constant velocity of 5 mrad/sec for 15 sec. The target traversed an arc located 5 m from the tracker. Each volunteer received two training days and two test days. Twelve bandpass filters, with bandwidths of 10, 25, 40, and 70 nm, and peak wavelengths of 450, 550, and 650 nm were randomly inserted into the optics of the tracker. No volunteer received all 4 bandwidths of one peak wavelength on either test day, thereby reducing any adaptational effect. Luminance was equated across filters using Neutral Density (ND) filters. An ND filter of equal Optical Density served as the control. The total luminance at the eye was 0.8 cd/m2. Trials were collected at a rate of 4 per filter. The 10 nm blue filter elicited the poorest performance, followed by the 25, 40, and 70 nm blue filters. The red filters enhanced performance across all but the narrowest bandwidth. It can be assumed that the blue end of the visible spectrum with it's `forward of the retina' focusing properties and the low number of blue photoreceptors are responsible for the large decrements. Current philosophy in laser eye protection is to allow as much of the blue end of the spectrum through a filter to preserve scotopic transmission. The shortwave transmission may inadvertently increase error rates for visual tasks.
Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Jong-Dar; Chen, Chao-Jen
AIM: To examine the associations between objective health indicators and high need for recovery (NFR) after work, one of the subjective presentations of work related-fatigue, among apparently healthy workers in modern workplaces.
Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Cortès, Imma; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cascant, Lorena
To provide a framework for epidemiological research on work and health that combines classic occupational epidemiology and the consideration of work in a structural perspective focused on gender inequalities in health. Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology, when considered from a gender perspective, are described. Limitations in research on work related gender inequalities in health are identified. Finally, some recommendations for future research are proposed. Classic occupational epidemiology has paid less attention to women's problems than men's. Research into work related gender inequalities in health has rarely considered either social class or the impact of family demands on men's health. In addition, it has rarely taken into account the potential interactions between gender, social class, employment status and family roles and the differences in social determinants of health according to the health indicator analysed. Occupational epidemiology should consider the role of sex and gender in examining exposures and associated health problems. Variables should be used that capture the specific work environments and health conditions of both sexes. The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment status and social class.
... National Park Service Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) AGENCY: National...' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) was formed (1) to develop a more consistent and objective... their air quality related values (AQRVs); and (2) to provide State permitting authorities and potential...
Aguirre Roldán, Adriana María; Quijano Barriga, Ana María
The burnout syndrome is a set of work-related symptoms related to weariness and exhaustion, in response to the emotional stress at work and its consequences. The aim of the study was to measure the frequency of burnout in General Practitioners (GPs) from 3 private institutions in Bogotá, Colombia and to determine the associated factors according to the variables taken into account. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study which was used to analyse the Questionnaire for Burnout Syndrome (CESQT). The population was 106 GPs. The level of burnout was at a critical level in 6.6% of the GP population. The variables showed that having a stable partner and children are a protective factor. By contrast, work in emergency rooms is a risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bültmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E.H.
returned to work. In the fitted Cox model we found that fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for depression predicted a longer time to RTW (HR: 0.61, CI: 0.45–0.84), whereas a better self-rated health predicted a shorter time to RTW (HR: 1.18, CI: 1.03–1.34). Employees working in the municipal (HR: 0.62, CI: 0......Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness...
Sili, Alessandro; Fida, Roberta; Trezza, T; Vellone, E; Alvaro, Rosaria
Research has amply demonstrated that positive leadership counters the onset of burnout and conflicting situations between colleagues that in turn create favourable conditions for a healthy organization and consequently for good quality of care. To investigate if more positive leadership is associated with lower levels of conflict in the work environment that in turn are associated with lower levels of burnout, psychosomatic disorders and negative indicators of work environment (feeling not being adequately appreciated, lack of clarity about tasks and roles, gossip, resentment towards the organization), and with higher levels of work satisfaction. Five scales of QISO (Nursing Organizational Health Questionnaire) and the Maslach Inventory (Burnout scale), were administered to a total of 192 nurses working in medical and surgical departments of two different Italian hospitals. The study design was cross-sectional. To test the hypothesis a structural equation model (SEM) was used. The results of this study demonstrate the crucial role played by positive leadership of nursing coordinators that, directly and indirectly, promotes a healthy work environment with lower conflicts, burnout, and psychosomatic disorders among nurses and limits the presence of negative indicators in workplace. This study demonstrates the key role of the nursing coordinator in creating a healthy work environment that contributes to physical and work-related health of the nursing staff.
Smith, Peter M; Black, Oliver; Keegel, Tessa; Collie, Alex
To examine if the factors associated with days of absence following a work-related injury are similar for mental health versus musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. A secondary analysis of wage replacement workers' compensation claims in the state of Victoria, Australia. We examined the relationship between individual, injury, occupational and workplace variables with days of wage replacement over the 2-year period following first day of absence from work separately for mental health claims and MSK claims using negative binomial regression models. Mental health conditions were associated with a greater number of days of absence over the 2 years following first incapacity compared to MSK conditions. Differences were observed in employment, injury and industry variables on absence from work for mental claims compared to MSK claims. Working in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining industries and employment with a small organisation were more strongly associated with the number of days of wage-replacement among MSK compared to mental health claims, and working in the public administration and safety, or education and training industries or being employed in a position with high time pressure were associated with greater days of wage-replacement among mental health compared to MSK claims. Predictors of days away from work in the 2 years following an injury differ for mental health versus MSK claims. Given the increasing number of mental health claims in Australia more research is required to understand differences in return-to-work for this group of claimants compared to those with physical injuries.
Takahashi, Ana Maria
We examine the role of income relative deprivation, hours worked for different tasks, and children in the job-related stress experienced by academics. Males' job-related stress increases when their incomes are lower than that of their peers', but females are not susceptible to such income comparisons. Job-related stress decreases with hours spent on research provided the hours are not excessive, but hours spent in teaching and on administrative tasks always increase job-related stress. The pr...
Yang, Ting; Zhou, Dinglun; Song, Mingying; Lan, Yajia
To investigate the current status and characteristics of work-related fatigue among scientific and technical personnel and its associated factors, and to provide a scientific basis for further interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the staff from a single scientific institution, using a self-administered questionnaire. Basic information of participants, Fatigue Scale-14, and Job Content Questionnaire were collected. The prevalence of work-related fatigue among the scientific and technical personnel was 54.6%; work-related fatigue was positively correlated with occupational stress (rs = 0.384, P fatigue were found between different types of occupational stress. The associated factors of work-related fatigue included occupational stress profiles, social support, and educational status. A higher risk of work-related fatigue was found in the staff under high stress, compared with those under low stress (OR = 8.5, 95%CI = 3.9∼18.7). Social support served as a protective factor for work-related fatigue, while a higher level of education was correlated with more severe work-related fatigue. Work-related fatigue is common and serious among scientific and technical personnel, especially in those under high stress. Effective interventions according to occupational stress are of great importance to reduce work-related fatigue.
Park, T A; Hartley, J
Economic incentives are emerging as useful preventive approaches to motivating farmers to adopt safer farming and managerial practices. The effectiveness of these programs and incentives will be enhanced by focusing resources on factors that play a critical role in contributing to farm accidents and the injury severity. A primary objective is to identify and assess the relative impact of factors that jointly influence the probability of work-related farm accidents relative to nonwork-related accidents and the severity of farm accidents. The model uses survey data on producer characteristics, farm organization, and work routines from the Georgia Healthy Farmers Project (GHFP). A probit model describing the factors that influence the probability of a work-related accident is estimated jointly with an ordered probit model for farm accident severity. The probit model indicates that older farmers and hired farm workers have higher probabilities of experiencing work-related accidents relative to nonwork-related events. Significant variables that influence the severity of farm accidents are more difficult to identify from the ordered probit models for both work-related and nonwork-related farm accidents.
Schulz, M; Damkröger, A; Voltmer, E; Löwe, B; Driessen, M; Ward, M; Wingenfeld, K
Nursing is associated with high levels of emotional strain and heavy workloads. Changing working conditions raise the importance of investigating job satisfaction, stress and burnout and its consequences for nurses. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-related behaviour and experience patterns are associated with mental and physical health status in nurses. A sample of 356 nurses in four German hospitals were interviewed using questionnaires regarding work-related behaviour and experience patterns, work stress, depression, anxiety and physical symptoms ('Work-related Behaviour and Experience Pattern'--AVEM and ERI). The main result of this study is that unhealthy work-related behaviour and experience patterns (i.e. the excessive ambitious type and the resigned type) are associated with reduced mental and physical health. Preventive, as well as intervention, strategies are needed that focus both on the individual as well as on working conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Uda, Kazu; Morioka, Ikuharu
This questionnaire survey was performed in order to reveal the characteristics of work-related stressors on nurses working in emergency and critical care centers (emergency nurses) and factors related to their stress responses. There were 347 subjects who replied to the survey: 199 emergency nurses and 148 nurses working in internal medicine departments (control group) in 11 hospitals in the Kinki and Tokai areas of Japan. The work-related stressor scores among the emergency nurses were significantly higher than those in the control group for 6 out of 8 factors: work difficulties, patient life-support duties, relationships with patients and their families, dealing with patient death, relationships with doctors and technical innovation. The work-related stressor score was significantly lower among the emergency nurses for one factor: lack of communication. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the stress response and the other factors such as work-related stressors, individual and situational factors, non-work factors and social support. Risk factors related to the stress response of the emergency nurses were: perceived stress due to work difficulties, negative lifestyles and desiring a career change. Important aspects of mental health support for emergency nurses are: strengthening technical support, such as holding study sessions to reduce work difficulties, as well as adjusting the working environment to improve individual lifestyles.
Anderson, Naomi J; Smith, Caroline K; Byrd, Jesse L
The trucking industry has a high burden of work-related injuries. This study examined factors, such as safety climate perceptions, that may impact injury risk. A random sample of 9800 commercial driver's license holders (CDL) were sent surveys, only 4360 were eligible truck drivers. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were developed to describe the population and identify variables associated with work-related injury. 2189 drivers completed the pertinent interview questions. Driving less-than-truckload, daytime sleepiness, pressure to work faster, and having a poor composite score for safety perceptions were all associated with increased likelihood of work-related injury. Positive safety perception score was protective for odds of work-related injury, and increased claim filing when injured. Positive psychological safety climate is associated with decreased likelihood of work-related injury and increased likelihood that a driver injured on the job files a workers' compensation claim. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J
Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.
Postel, M W; Jaung, M S; Chen, G; Yu, S; Stallones, L; Xiang, H
Farm work-related injuries are considered an important issue facing rural area adolescents. However, little research has been done in developing countries, including China. This study evaluated agricultural work-related injuries among Chinese middle school adolescents, focusing on the potential association between farm work hours, sleep patterns, school-related stress, and farm work-related injuries. This cross-sectional study surveyed 1,551 middle school students in Hunan Province who reported working on farms. The surveys assessed their involvement in farm work, sleep patterns, school activities, and farm work-related injuries during a three-month recall period. The cumulative incidence of farm work-related injury was 15.6% among the 1187 students who reported working on a farm. Average days per month farming, number of pesticide applications per month, sleep disturbances, and school-related stress were significantly associated with farm work-related injuries (p work days per month, sleep disturbance (less than 7 hours of sleep: OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.07-5.22; awakening at night and having trouble falling back to sleep: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.36-5.37; having nightmares: OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.18-4.24) and school-related stress (difficult homework: OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.21-4.99; extra homework assigned often by parents: OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.88-6.97; and scolded/chastised by parents for poor school performance: OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.75-3.65) were statistically significant risk factors for farm work-related injuries (p < 0.05).
Full Text Available Occupational work as personal and social identification can be conceptualized as one of the life goals that we strive for and find meaning in. A basic categorization of the phenomenon of work-related identity is suggested, based on psychological theories of identity, memory and relational schema. It distinguishes between organizational, workgroup and professional identity. The two former relate to the concepts of social identity and collective self and the latter to the concepts of personal identity and individual self. These are assumed to form functionally independent cognitive structures, leading to separate motivations and influences on work-related satisfaction. Given this, empirical research on the impact of work-related identity on employee satisfaction, in general terms, is reviewed. The article concludes with some prospective directions for future research by sketching a general model of work-related self. It is hypothesised to evolve by a causal progression from employment across time via emotional and cognitive components.
Occupational work as personal and social identification can be conceptualized as one of the life goals that we strive for and find meaning in. A basic categorization of the phenomenon of work-related identity is suggested, based on psychological theories of identity, memory and relational schema. It distinguishes between organizational, workgroup and professional identity. The two former relate to the concepts of social identity and collective self and the latter to the concepts of personal identity and individual self. These are assumed to form functionally independent cognitive structures, leading to separate motivations and influences on work-related satisfaction. Given this, empirical research on the impact of work-related identity on employee satisfaction, in general terms, is reviewed. The article concludes with some prospective directions for future research by sketching a general model of work-related self. It is hypothesized to evolve by a causal progression from employment across time via emotional and cognitive components. PMID:27014140
Nasser, Fatima; Li, Zhongyang; Martin, Nadine; Gueguen, Philippe
This paper proposes an automatic modal analysis approach for signals of high-rise buildings recorded under real-world ambient excitations. The fact of working over such type of signals is faced with several challenges: the time-domain convolution between the system impulse response and the seismic noise, the existence of several components, the presence of closely-spaced frequency modes, with high additive noises, and low, exponential and damped amplitudes. The proposed approach handles these challenges simultaneously without the need for a user intervention. It is based on a filter-free Random Decrement Technique to estimate the free-decay response, followed by a spectral-based method for a rough modal estimate and finalized by a Maximum-Likelihood Estimation process to refine the modal estimates. Each of these processes is responsible to tackle one or more of the aforementioned challenges in the aim to provide an automatic and moreover a reliable modal analysis of the studied signals.
Vahle-Hinz, Tim; Bamberg, Eva; Dettmers, Jan; Friedrich, Niklas; Keller, Monika
The present study reports the lagged effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced during both workdays and weekends. Fifty employees participated in a diary study. Multilevel and regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between work stress measured at the end of a workday, work-related rumination measured during the evening, and restful sleep measured the following morning. Work stress, measured as the mean of 2 consecutive workdays, was substantially but not significantly related to restful sleep on weekends. Work stress was unrelated to nocturnal heart rate variability. Work-related rumination was related to restful sleep on weekends but not on workdays. Additionally, work-related rumination on weekends was positively related to nocturnal heart rate variability during the night between Saturday and Sunday. No mediation effects of work stress on restful sleep or nocturnal heart rate variability via work-related rumination were confirmed.
Bijker, R.; Duijts, Saskia; Smith, S.N.; de Wildt- Liesveld, R.; Anema, Johannes R.; Regeer, B.J.
Purpose Work participation after breast cancer treatment is generally negatively affected. Occupational health professionals might improve work-related outcomes by bridging the gap between sick-listed employees' levels of functioning and work demands. To aid them in this task, this review explored
van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.
This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation of employee's work to specified transportation... Relation of employee's work to specified transportation. In order for the exemption to apply to an employee... fruits or vegetables from the farm to the specified places within the same State. Engagement in other...
Research has reported several effective coping strategies for work-related stress. One area that is yet to be fully explored is the place of leisure activities as a coping strategy. The study aimed at investigating the rate and pattern of workers' involvement in leisure activities as a coping strategy for work-related stress.
Social workers experience tremendous work-related stress--particularly among those providing direct services in healthcare settings. A review of related literature summarized several critical challenges faced by social workers who work with highly difficult clients in these settings, including (a) clients who engage in manipulative high-risk…
... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases... Forms and Recording Criteria § 1904.11 Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic... tuberculosis (TB), and that employee subsequently develops a tuberculosis infection, as evidenced by a positive...
Conclusion: Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.
Alperovitch-Najenson, D; Treger, I; Kalichman, L
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and work avoidance of work-related musculoskeletal complaints and to compare patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors of physical therapists (PTs) and nurses in a rehabilitation hospital. Cross-sectional observational study was carried out using questionnaires relating to basic demographics, prevalence of musculoskeletal morbidity, workload, and job satisfaction. Comparing 26 PTs and 54 nurses, all females, lower back pain was significantly more prevalent in PTs, even after adjusting for the confounding demographic factors; PTs performed full and partial manual patient transfer, as well as trunk bending and walking assistance more frequently than the nurses and were significantly more satisfied. Unique physical load could be the main factor for the high prevalence of lower back pain in PTs. They should urgently initiate a "no-lift policy" in treatment.
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the status of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs in nurses working in the hospitals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods. The prevalence of WMSDs since working and in the previous 12 months was evaluated using self-administrated modified musculoskeletal questionnaire based on North European questionnaire. In this cross-sectional study, 6674 nurses involved in the nursing profession were selected from 16 hospitals using the stratified cluster sampling method. Results. The most commonly affected regions by WMSDs were lower back, neck, shoulder, and back, with an annual prevalence of 62.71%, 59.77%, 49.66%, and 39.50%, respectively. Statistical differences were noticed in the annual prevalence of WMSDs in those with different ages (P40 hrs per week; poor health status; and feeling of fatigue. Rest time of >10 min and no history of WMSDs were the protective factors of WMSDs. Conclusions. Shift and working/rest duration was closely related to WMSDs.
Bijker, Rimke; Duijts, Saskia F A; Smith, Sherzel N; de Wildt-Liesveld, Renée; Anema, Johannes R; Regeer, Barbara J
Purpose Work participation after breast cancer treatment is generally negatively affected. Occupational health professionals might improve work-related outcomes by bridging the gap between sick-listed employees' levels of functioning and work demands. To aid them in this task, this review explored the association between functional impairments and work-related outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Methods Publications from January 2000-March 2016 were identified through five online databases (i.e. Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library). Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they focused on functional impairments and work-related outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Two reviewers independently selected studies, extracted data and performed quality assessment. Results The search identified 998 studies, of which 20 studies met eligibility criteria. Impairments in physical functioning negatively affected return to work (RTW) and work ability in quantitative and qualitative studies. Studies measuring cognitive functioning with tests found no association with work-related outcomes, whereas the results of studies using self-reported measures were ambiguous. Social functioning was less commonly investigated and findings differed across work-related outcomes. Emotional functioning was not associated with work-related outcomes in quantitative studies, while in qualitative studies feelings such as insecurity were described as influencing RTW. Conclusions Functional impairments can severely hamper work participation in breast cancer survivors. This provides important opportunities for occupational health professionals to enhance RTW in breast cancer survivors, such as adequately addressing illness perceptions and work expectations. Ongoing research is warranted to aid occupational health professionals in providing effective vocational guidance and improve work-related outcomes in breast cancer survivors.
Shi-Ming Li; Si-Yuan Li; Meng-Tian Kang; Yuehua Zhou; Luo-Ru Liu; He Li; Yi-Peng Wang; Si-Yan Zhan; Bamini Gopinath; Paul Mitchell; Ningli Wang
Purpose To examine the associations of near work related parameters with spherical equivalent refraction and axial length in Chinese children. Methods A total of 1770 grade 7 students with mean age of 12.7 years were examined with cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length. Questions were asked regarding time spent in near work and outdoors per day, and near work related parameters. Results Multivariate models revealed the following associations with greater odds of myopia: continuous readin...
Korhonen, T; Ketola, R; Toivonen, R; Luukkonen, R; Häkkänen, M; Viikari-Juntura, E
To investigate work related and individual factors as predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units (VDUs). Employees in three administrative units of a medium sized city in Finland (n = 515) received mailed questionnaires in the baseline survey in 1998 and in the follow up survey in 1999. Response rate for the baseline was 81% (n = 416); respondents who reported neck pain for less than eight days during the preceding 12 months were included into the study cohort as healthy subjects (n = 232). The follow up questionnaire 12 months later was completed by 78% (n = 180). Incident neck cases were those reporting neck pain for at least eight days during the preceding 12 months. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4% (95% CI 25.5 to 41.3). Poor physical work environment and poor placement of the keyboard increased the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. Smoking showed a tendency for an increased risk of neck pain. There was an interaction between mental stress and physical exercise, those with higher mental stress and less physical exercise having especially high risk. In the prevention of neck disorders in office work with a high frequency of VDU tasks, attention should be given to the work environment in general and to the more specific aspects of VDU workstation layout. Physical exercise may prevent neck disorders among sedentary employees.
Seishu Nakagawa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Yasuyuki Taki; Rui Nouchi; Atsushi Sekiguchi; Yuka Kotozaki; Carlos Makoto Miyauchi; Kunio Iizuka; Ryoichi Yokoyama; Takamitsu Shinada; Yuki Yamamoto; Sugiko Hanawa; Tsuyoshi Araki; Keiko Kunitoki; Yuko Sassa
Sleep facilitates memory consolidation. Consequently, poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and...
Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oisaeng
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality. Numerous investigations have linked occupational factors and CVD. Occupational factors such as overtime work have an enormous effect on the CVD risk of industrial workers. However, risk factors for CVD are not systematically reviewed in the workplace. The purpose of the paper is to review work-related risk factors for CVD. A systematic review of work-related CVD risk factors was performed, yielding 180 articles. All articles were assessed in relation to inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in 44 articles being reviewed. The sole inclusion criteria was work-related environmental factors and intra/inter-personal factors (psychosocial factors), which is based on the socioecological perspective. The articles were also assessed regarding the quality of each study using the scoring methods developed by Cesario et al. and Brown et al. The literature review demonstrated that work environment factors such as shift work, overtime work, and noise and chemical exposures; and psychosocial factors such as job stress, social support, and socioeconomic status cannot be explained or intervened by one single risk factor. Furthermore, certain occupational factors were shown to aggravate or attenuate other risk factors. The implication of these findings is to incorporate work-related environmental and psychosocial factors into assessment of the patient's CVD risks and intervention plan. Future research should also incorporate a well-defined conceptual framework to address the effects of work-related environmental and psychosocial factors on CVD among CVD patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49 for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service, the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder. Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65% of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work.
Tonini, Stefano; Lanfranco, Andrea; Dellabianca, Antonio; Lumelli, Diego; Giorgi, Ines; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Fusi, Camilla; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M
The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work.
Liss, A; Alian, A Y; Wennström, J L; Abrahamsson, K H
To analyse dental hygienists' (DHs) views on professional competencies and behavioural interventions in the treatment of periodontitis patients, perceived work-related support and work satisfaction. A Web-based questionnaire was distributed to all DHs employed at the public dental service in the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden. 302 (83%) responded to the questionnaire; 291 of these DHs stated that they on regular basis treated periodontitis patients and thus constituted the sample for analyses. Based on initial correlation and bivariate analyses of the questionnaire data, multiple logistic regression models were formulated to estimate perceived competencies to treat patients with periodontitis and work satisfaction. The multiple analyses revealed that DHs who worked with specific methods for behavioural intervention, like motivational interviewing, were more likely to rate themselves as "definitely possessing the competencies required to treat patients with periodontitis" (OR 4.0). Likewise, this group of DHs did not consider it more difficult to charge their patients the financial costs for such a behavioural intervention than for scaling therapy (OR 3.1). The perception that one's professional competencies were utilized well in daily practice was associated with high work satisfaction (OR 4.1). More years in the profession (OR 1.03) and a good support by colleagues (OR 1.9) had also a positive impact on work satisfaction. Dental hygienists' considered that competencies in the treatment of periodontitis patients were related to the practice of behavioural interventions as part of therapy. A stimulating and supportive work environment, with opportunities for professional development, is important for work satisfaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wagenaar, Alfred F; Kompier, Michiel A J; Houtman, Irene L D; van den Bossche, Seth; Smulders, Peter; Taris, Toon W
We hypothesise that due to a lower quality of working life and higher job insecurity, the health and work-related attitudes of temporary workers may be less positive compared to permanent workers. Therefore, we aimed to (1) examine differences between contract groups (i.e. permanent contract, temporary contract with prospect of permanent work, fixed-term contract, temporary agency contract and on-call contract) in the quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes and (2) investigate whether these latter contract group differences in health and work-related attitudes can be explained by differences in the quality of working life and/or job insecurity. Data were collected from the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey 2008 (N = 21,639), and Hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance and cross-table analysis. Temporary work was associated with fewer task demands and lower autonomy and was more often passive or high-strain work, while permanent work was more often active work. Except for on-call work, temporary work was more insecure and associated with worse health and work-related attitude scores than permanent work. Finally, the quality of working life and job insecurity partly accounted for most contract differences in work-related attitudes but not in health. Especially agency workers have a lower health status and worse work-related attitudes. Job redesign measures regarding their quality of working life and job insecurity are recommended.
Keightley, Michelle L; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Gagnon, Isabelle; Leonard, Gabriel; Petrides, Michael; Ptito, Alain
Abstract In children, the importance of detecting deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion has grown with the increasing popularity of leisure physical activities and contact sports. Whereas most postconcussive symptoms (PCS) are similar for children and adults, the breadth of consequences to children remains largely unknown. To investigate the effect of mTBI on brain function, we compared working memory performance and related brain activity using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 concussed youths and 15 healthy age-matched control subjects. Neuropsychological tests, self-perceived PCS, and levels of anxiety and depression were also assessed. Our results showed that, behaviorally, concussed youths had significantly worse performances on the working memory tasks, as well as on the Rey figure delayed recall and verbal fluency. fMRI results revealed that, compared to healthy children, concussed youths had significantly reduced task-related activity in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and left superior parietal lobule during performance of verbal and nonverbal working memory tasks. Additionally, concussed youths also showed less activation than healthy controls in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, left thalamus, and left caudate nucleus during the nonverbal task. Regression analysis indicated that BOLD signal changes in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly correlated with performance such that greater activities in these regions, relative to the control condition, were associated with greater accuracy. Our findings confirmed functional alterations in brain activity after concussion in youths, a result similar to that observed in adults. However, significant differences were noted. In particular, the observation of reduced working memory accuracy suggests that youths may be unable to engage compensatory
Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Tamayo, Brittney A
A large and growing body of research demonstrates the impact of psychological stress on working memory. However, the typical study approach tests the effects of a single biological or psychological factor on changes in working memory. The current study attempted to move beyond the standard single-factor assessment by examining the impact of 2 possible factors in stress-related working memory impairments. To this end, 60 participants completed a working memory task before and after either a psychological stressor writing task or a control writing task and completed measures of both cortisol and mind wandering. We also included a measure of state anxiety to examine the direct and indirect effect on working memory. We found that mind wandering mediated the relationship between state anxiety and working memory at the baseline measurement. This indirect relationship was moderated by cortisol, such that the impact of mind wandering on working memory increased as cortisol levels increased. No overall working memory impairment was observed following the stress manipulation, but increases in state anxiety and mind wandering were observed. State anxiety and mind wandering independently mediated the relationship between change in working memory and threat perception. The indirect paths resulted in opposing effects on working memory. Combined, the findings from this study suggest that cortisol enhances the impact of mind wandering on working memory, that state anxiety may not always result in stress-related working memory impairments, and that high working memory performance can protect against mind wandering. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Locher, Miriam A.; Bolander, Brook; Höhn, Nicole
This paper functions as the introduction to the special issue on ‘relational work in Facebook and discussion boards’. We position our research endeavors within interpersonal pragmatics (see Locher and Graham 2010), by reviewing literature on politeness, impoliteness and relational work in the context of computer-mediated communication. Foregrounding the relational aspect of language, we are particularly interested in establishing the connections between politeness, face and linguistic identit...
Gee, Gilbert C.; de Castro, A. B.
Objectives. We examined whether workplace aggression was associated with self-rated health and work-related injury and illness among nurses in the Philippines. Methods. Our data came from a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n = 687) in the Philippines. We assessed the associations of self-reported physical assault and verbal abuse with self-rated health, work-related injury and illness, and missed workdays with Poisson regression. Control variables included demographic and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked, work setting, shift). Results. Verbal abuse was associated with poor general health (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 3.45). Both physical assault and verbal abuse were associated with work-related injury (PR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.20; PR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.23, respectively) and work-related illness (PR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.15; PR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.32, 2.14, respectively) after demographic and work characteristics were accounted for in the model. In addition, physical assault was associated with missed workdays (PR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.33). Conclusions. Workplace aggression was associated with increased risks of poor general health and adverse work-related health outcomes among nurses in the Philippines. PMID:21088262
Huang, Hanyun; Leung, Louis
This exploratory research proposes the concept of instant messaging (IM) addiction and examines (a) whether IM addiction exists among Chinese teenagers and, if so, who the addicts are, what their symptoms are, and to what extent they are addicted; (b) whether psychological variables such as shyness and alienation can predict IM use or addiction among teenagers; and (c) whether IM use or IM addiction can impair the academic performance of teenagers. Using Young's classic definition of Internet addiction, results of a stratified random sample of 330 teenagers in China in 2007 found 95.8% of participants use IM, and 9.8% of them can be classified as IM addicts. Factor analysis identified four major IM addiction symptoms among teenagers: preoccupation with IM, loss of relationships due to overuse, loss of control, and escape. Results also showed that shyness and alienation from family, peers, and school are significantly and positively associated with levels of IM addiction. As expected, both the level of IM use and level of IM addiction are significantly linked to teenagers' academic performance decrement.
Bodala, Indu P; Abbasi, Nida I; Yu Sun; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Al-Nashash, Hasan; Thakor, Nitish V
Eye tracking offers a practical solution for monitoring cognitive performance in real world tasks. However, eye tracking in dynamic environments is difficult due to high spatial and temporal variation of stimuli, needing further and thorough investigation. In this paper, we study the possibility of developing a novel computer vision assisted eye tracking analysis by using fixations. Eye movement data is obtained from a long duration naturalistic driving experiment. Source invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm was implemented using VLFeat toolbox to identify multiple areas of interest (AOIs). A new measure called `fixation score' was defined to understand the dynamics of fixation position between the target AOI and the non target AOIs. Fixation score is maximum when the subjects focus on the target AOI and diminishes when they gaze at the non-target AOIs. Statistically significant negative correlation was found between fixation score and reaction time data (r =-0.2253 and p<;0.05). This implies that with vigilance decrement, the fixation score decreases due to visual attention shifting away from the target objects resulting in an increase in the reaction time.
Karl, J Philip; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Cao, Jay J; Whigham, Leah D; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J; Lieberman, Harris R; Pasiakos, Stefan M
Energy deficit and dietary macronutrient intake are thought to independently modulate cognition, mood and sleep. To what extent manipulating the dietary ratio of protein-to-carbohydrate affects mood, cognition and sleep during short-term energy deficit is undetermined. Using a randomized, block design, 39 non-obese young adults (21±1 years, BMI 25±1 kg/m(2)) consumed diets containing 0.8 g, 1.6 g or 2.4 g protein per kg body weight per day for 31 days. Carbohydrate intake was reduced to accommodate higher protein intakes while dietary fat was maintained at 30% of total energy intake. Cognitive performance, mood, self-reported sleep quality, and plasma amino acid concentrations were periodically assessed during a 10-day energy balance period and a subsequent 21-day, 40% energy deficit period. Anger, tension and total mood disturbance increased during the initial ten days of energy deficit (Pmood or self-reported sleep quality were observed during energy balance or energy deficit. Thus, high-protein, low-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diets do not appear to benefit or impair cognition, mood or sleep in non-obese adults during energy deficit. These findings suggest that energy deficit may initially be psychologically difficult for non-obese individuals attempting to lose weight, but that these changes are transient. Employing strategies that alleviate decrements in mood during this initial period of adaptation may help sustain weight loss efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Ranjit
The main aim of this paper was to identify job stressors, gender responses and association of psychosocial work stressors with prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among foundry workers. The data were obtained with ergonomics checklist using Likert scale. The results of this study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among workers. The male workers were more prone to pain in neck while the female workers were more prone to MSDs in upper back and shoulders. Correlation analysis showed significant relationship of dimensions of work aspects with pain and discomfort. It proved that the work-related MSDs are the results of interaction of multiple stressors associated with work and work environment, and other personal factors. ANOVA indicated that the perception of work aspects as stressors differed significantly between male and female workers.
Smith, Andrew; Lu, Yao; An, Shuoming; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Gong, Zongping; Quan, H. T.; Jarzynski, Christopher; Kim, Kihwan
Although nonequilibrium work and fluctuation relations have been studied in detail within classical statistical physics, extending these results to open quantum systems has proven to be conceptually difficult. For systems that undergo decoherence but not dissipation, we argue that it is natural to define quantum work exactly as for isolated quantum systems, using the two-point measurement protocol. Complementing previous theoretical analysis using quantum channels, we show that the nonequilibrium work relation remains valid in this situation, and we test this assertion experimentally using a system engineered from a trapped ion, adding external noise to produce the effects of decoherence. Our experimental results reveal the work relation's validity over a variety of driving speeds, decoherence rates, and effective temperatures and represent the first confirmation of the work relation for evolution described by a non-unitary master equation.
Full Text Available Integrating theories of adult attachment and well-being at the workplace, the present study tested the role of attachment style in predicting work-related well-being in terms of job satisfaction and job involvement, over and above dispositional trait measures (emotional traits and work-related traits. A sample of workers took part in a correlational study that explored the relationships among a adult attachment, b emotional traits, c work-related traits, and d work-related well-being indices. The results showed that both secure and anxious attachment style explained workers’ job involvement, whereas the secure and avoidant attachment styles explained workers’ job satisfaction. The current findings thus confirm and expand the literature's emphasis on studying the variables and processes that underlie people's mental health in the work setting, and have implications for assessing and promoting well-being in the workplace.
Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja
In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Wills, Andrew; Watson, Barry; Biggs, Herbert
Few studies have examined the impact of safety climate upon occupational safety behavior or intentions, focusing instead on the event of incidents and injuries. Similarly, while safety climate has been studied in numerous industrial settings, limited attention has been given to the motor vehicle fleet context. This study conceptualized safety climate and work-related driver safety within a model informed by Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism and the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. The relative impact of safety climate upon four self-reported measures of work-related driver safety was investigated including: 1) current work-related driver behavior, 2) future work-related driving intentions, and 3) past crash involvement while driving for work. There was a moderate relationship between safety climate perceptions and the safety of current driver behavior at work (r = 0.40). The relationship with the safety of future driving intentions was also moderate (r = 0.29). Multiple regression analyses revealed that safety climate was a significant predictor of current driver behavior (beta = 0.30) and future driving intentions (beta = 0.18) at work. However, attitude was the stronger predictor of future driving intentions (beta = 0.28). Logistic regression analyses showed that neither fleet safety climate, nor the other factors included, predicted work-related crash involvement or traffic offences. Possible explanations for these results are outlined. Implications of the findings for occupational safety management, particularly in the fleet setting, are also discussed.
Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C
Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nilsson, Marie; Blomqvist, Kerstin; Andersson, Ingemar
Experiencing work-life balance is considered a health promoting resource. To counter-balance the negative development of teachers' work situation, salutogenic resources need to be examined among teachers. To examine resources related to teachers' experience of their work-life balance. Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was distributed to 455 teachers in compulsory schools in a Swedish community. A total of 338 teachers participated (74%). A multiple linear regression method was used for the analysis. Four variables in the regression model significantly explained work-life balance and were thereby possible resources: time experience at work; satisfaction with everyday life; self-rated health; and recovery. The strongest association with work-life balance was time experience at work. Except time experience at work, all were individual-related. This study highlights the importance of school management's support in reducing teachers' time pressure. It also emphasizes the need to address teachers' individual resources in relation to work-life balance. In order to support teachers' work-life balance, promote their well-being, and preventing teachers' attrition, we suggest that the school management would benefit from creating a work environment with strengthened resources.
Coshow, Suzanne M; Davis, Paul; Wolosin, Robert J
In response to nurse turnover, hospitals have taken steps to ensure that their nurses are satisfied with their jobs. On-boarding may not be the most pressing retention issue facing health care organizations as the loss of mid-career nurses may be the larger problem. There are some areas of work satisfaction for nurses which may be more responsive to organizational efforts to reach higher aggregate levels of satisfaction. Health care organizations may due well to focus on the relative satisfaction of their mid-career nurses. Opportunities to increase nurse job satisfaction across different facets of work may be an effective strategy to address retention.
Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ju Jong; Mun, Hyeon Je; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja
To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants' socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All analyses were stratified by gender, and multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine associations between work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and work-related risk factors. The risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 1.9 times higher among male workers in the kitchen department than males in the room department (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.79), and 2.5 times higher among male workers with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.04). All of the aforementioned cases demonstrated a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Moreover, the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 3.3 times higher among female workers aged between 30 and 34 than those aged 24 or younger (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.56-7.04); 0.3 times higher among females in the back office department than those in the room department (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.91); 1.6 times higher among females on shift schedules than those who were not (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.02-2.59); 1.8 times higher among females who performed more intensive work than those who performed less intensive work (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.17-3.02), and; 2.1 times higher among females with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34-3.50). All of the aforementioned cases also displayed a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. This study
Peters, Velibor; Engels, Josephine A; de Rijk, Angelique E; Nijhuis, Frans J N
There is scarce research on age and sustainable employability of nurses working in various types of work schedules. Earlier research showed that nurses working in work schedules differ regarding age. Different operationalisations of age might explain variations in sustainable employability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how nurses working in various types of work schedule differ regarding sustainable employability, and the role that age plays in these differences. Age was defined as chronological age, organisational age, life-span age, and functional age. Questionnaires were distributed to 974 Dutch nurses in residential elder care (response rate 51 %) with questions about the type of work schedule, aspects of sustainable employability, various operationalisations of age, and registered sickness absence data were used. Nurses working in various types of work schedules differed regarding aspects of sustainable employability, also when operationalisations of age were added. The 'life-span age' was directly related to aspects of sustainable employability. Statistically, work ability and job satisfaction were only explained by varying operationalisations of age. Nurses' sustainable employability appeared to be mainly related to differences between the types of work schedule rather than age. Fixed early shifts are characterised by the most positive aspects of sustainable employability, and three rotating schedules score worst. To improve sustainable employability, organisations should implement a system in which nurses with different types of work schedule are monitored in combination with their life-span perspective.
Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; van der Beek, Allard J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex
The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors and poorer health. A 1-year longitudinal study with employed persons aged 45-64 was conducted within the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (n = 8,837). Using an online questionnaire, work-related factors (physical: physical load; psychosocial: psychological job demands, autonomy, and support) and work engagement were measured at baseline and health at baseline and 1-year follow-up. General linear models were used to assess associations of work-related factors and work engagement with health. Tests of interaction terms assessed whether work engagement buffered the work-related factor-health associations. Unfavourable psychosocial work-related factors at baseline were associated with poorer mental health at follow-up. Higher physical load, higher psychological job demands, and lower autonomy at baseline were associated with poorer physical health at follow-up. Higher work engagement at baseline was related to better physical and especially better mental health during the 1-year follow-up. Work engagement had a small effect on the associations between work-related factors and health. Among older employees, especially the promotion of a high work engagement and, to a lesser extent, favourable work-related factors can be beneficial for mental health in particular.
Phillips, Brian N; Kaseroff, Ashley A; Fleming, Allison R; Huck, Garrett E
Social skills play an important role in employment. This study provides a qualitative analysis of salient work related social skills and interventions for addressing social skills in public vocational rehabilitation (VR). A modified consensual qualitative research (CQR) approach was taken to understand the elements and influence of work related social skills in public VR. Thirty-five counselors, supervisors, and administrators participated in semistructured interviews to provide their perspectives of work related social skills and the interventions they use for addressing these skills. Multiple aspects of work-related social skills were described as being important for VR consumer success. The most common work related social skills across all participants were nonverbal communication and the ability to connect with others. Primary social interventions included informal social skills training (SST), systems collaboration, and creating an appropriate job match. Public rehabilitation agency staff, constantly faced with addressing work related social skills, possess many insights about salient skills and interventions that can benefit future research and practice. Agencies currently address social skills deficits by providing interventions to both person and environment. The research provides directions for future research related to identification of social skills and interventions to address related deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Gold, D. R.; Rogacz, S.; Bock, N.; Tosteson, T. D.; Baum, T. M.; Speizer, F. E.; Czeisler, C. A.
A hospital-based survey on shift work, sleep, and accidents was carried out among 635 Massachusetts nurses. In comparison to nurses who worked only day/evening shifts, rotators had more sleep/wake cycle disruption and nodded off more at work. Rotators had twice the odds of nodding off while driving to or from work and twice the odds of a reported accident or error related to sleepiness. Application of circadian principles to the design of hospital work schedules may result in improved health and safety for nurses and patients.
Faskhodi, Arefe Amini; Siyyari, Masood
Among different teacher-related variables burnout can have irrevocable effects on the whole educational system. Due to the importance of considering all positive and negative related variables, and also lack of attention to positive criteria in the area of work-related factors, this study is the first attempt in Iran in the field to include…
Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Mulder, Marie; Josephson, Malin; Alfredsson, Lars; Wiktorin, Christina
To determine associations between work-related exposures and the prognosis of self-reported neck/shoulder pain. This prospective cohort study was based on 803 working subjects who reported neck/shoulder pain at baseline. The proportion of subjects who 5-6 years later were symptom-free was calculated. Data concerning work-related biomechanical, psychosocial, and organizational exposures were collected at baseline. The Cox regression analyses were used to calculate the relative chances (RC) of being symptom-free at the end of the study for single exposures, and also for up to three simultaneous work-related exposures. Adjustments were made for sex and age. Only 36% of the subjects were symptom-free 5-6 years later. The relative chance for being symptom-free at the end of the study was 1.32 (95% CI = 0.99-1.74) for subjects who were exposed to sitting > or =75% of the working time and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.02-2.29) for subjects who were exposed to job strain, i.e., the combination of high demands and low decision latitude. The relative chance of being symptom-free at the end of the study was 0.61 (95% CI = 0.40-0.94) for subjects with at least two out of three simultaneous biomechanical exposures at work; manual handling, working with the hands above shoulder level, and working with vibrating tools. In a heterogeneous population with moderate nonspecific neck/shoulder pain, sedentary work enhanced the chance of being symptom-free 5-6 years later, whereas simultaneous exposures to at least two of manual handling, working with hands above shoulder level and working with vibrating tools were associated with a lower chance of being symptom-free at the end of the study. This could imply that subjects with neck/shoulder pain should avoid such simultaneous exposures.
Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work...... work pressure (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.73) nor women with self-reported low influence on work organization (0.98; 0.69, 1.39) or long working hours (0.93; 0.54, 1.58) were at higher risk of breast cancer than women with no such stressors. Women with high work tempo had a slightly higher risk...... of breast cancer (1.25; 1.02, 1.54) than women with a suitable work tempo, but there was no dose-response effect. There were no clear differences in the prognostic characteristics of breast tumors diagnosed in women with and without work-related stressors. CONCLUSIONS: Work-related stressors do not affect...
Full Text Available Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading comprehension and reading accuracy. Tests of word reading accuracy and reading comprehension, and working memory tests in three different modalities (verbal, numerical and spatial, were given to 197 6- to 11-year old children. The results support the view that working memory tasks that require the processing and recall of symbolic information (words and numbers are better predictors of reading comprehension than tasks that require visuo-spatial storage and processing. The different measures of verbal and numerical working memory were not equally good predictors of reading comprehension, but their predictive power depended on neither the word vs. numerical contrast nor the complexity of the processing component. In general, performance on the verbal and numerical working memory tasks predicted reading comprehension, but not reading accuracy, and spatial WM did not predict either. The patterns of relations between the measures of working memory and reading comprehension ability were relatively constant across the age group tested.
Julian, Christopher H; Valente, Juliana M
Work provides daily structure, physical and mental activity, interpersonal contact, social status, self-esteem, respect of others, and the ability to use acquired skills. Wounded, ill, or injured soldiers are often removed from duty and assigned or attached to a Warrior Transition Unit during medical and rehabilitation management. Separation from meaningful employment can lead to negative physical and behavioral health outcomes that may impact an active duty soldier's ability to resume work. This cross-sectional study explored the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) psychosocial factors of Personal Causation, Values, Interests, Roles, Habits, and Perceptions of Environment related to returning to work in US Army Soldiers in a Warrior Transition Unit (WTU) at a large military medical center. Single data collection sessions were held for 34 soldiers using the following instruments: a demographic and work status questionnaire, the Role Checklist, and the Worker Role Interview (WRI). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square analysis, and the Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze the results. Analysis revealed that one WRI item related to Personal Causation and three items related to Roles and Habits were supportive factors for successfully returning to employment among soldiers that were working or engaged in returning to work. There are significant differences among psychosocial factors related to returning to work between soldiers who are currently working or have returned to work and those who have not. Longitudinal studies could help to clarify how these factors augment a soldier's rehabilitation at a WTU.
Mauss, D; Li, J; Schmidt, B; Angerer, P; Jarczok, M N
Work-related stress is a growing social challenge and has been associated with reduced employee health, well-being, and productivity. One tool to measure the stress-related wear and tear of the body is the Allostatic Load Index (ALI). This review summarizes recent evidence on the association between work-related stress and ALI in working adults. A systematic literature search following the PRISMA-Statement was conducted in 21 databases including Medline, PubPsych, MedPilot, and Cochrane Register. Publications addressing work related-stress and medical parameters using ALI were considered. Data on study population, analytic techniques, and results were tabulated. Methodological quality was evaluated using a standardized checklist. 9 articles were identified with a total of 3 532 employees from 5 countries reporting cross-sectional data from the years 2003-2013. Overall, 7 studies reported a positive and significant association between work-related stress and ALI, while 2 studies showed no or an insignificant association. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in methods applied and study quality. This systematic review provides evidence that work-related stress is associated with ALI in cross-sectional studies. This association needs to be demonstrated by future studies using longitudinal data on working populations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda
Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.
Jovanovic, Nina; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Swanton, Amanda; Alajbegovic-Halimic, Jasmina; Cavaljuga, Semra; Nisic, Faruk
Background Eye injuries are a prevalent workplace injury and cause substantial disability when vision is impaired. Objective To examine work-relatedness of demographic, injury, and clinical characteristics of eye injuries in a large clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods We performed a nine-year retrospective study of patients admitted with an eye injury to the Canton Hospital in Zenica, Bosnia and Herzeogvina. Controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to examine the influence of work-relatedness on patient and injury characteristics and clinical outcomes. Results Of 258 patients, 71 (27.5%) had work-related and 180 (69.8%) had non-work-related eye injuries. Work-related eye injury was associated with age, education, occupation, and injury type. Agricultural workers were eight times more likely to experience work-related eye injury (95%CI = 1.21–152.0) compared to manual workers. Work-relatedness of injury did not predict final visual acuity or length of hospital stay. Conclusion Promotion of eye safety is needed countrywide. Occupational eye protection is a priority due to the relatively proportion of eye injuries and the workplace being a relatively controlled environment. PMID:27813453
Wästberg, Birgitta A; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona
The study aimed to investigate (a) if women's perceptions of their work environment changed during a 16-week rehabilitation period and at a 12-month follow-up; (b) whether such changes were related to outcomes in terms of return to work, well-being and valued occupations. Eighty-four gainfully employed women on sick-leave due to stress-related disorders responded to instruments assessing perceptions of the work environment, well-being (self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health) and perceived occupational value. Data about return to work were collected from registers. Non-parametric statistics were used. The increase in the women's ratings of their work environment was non-significant between baseline and completed rehabilitation but was statistically significant between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. No relationships were found between changes in perceptions of the work environment and outcomes after the rehabilitation. At the follow-up, however, there were associations between perceived work environment changes in a positive direction and return to work; improved self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived occupational value and self-rated health; and reduced stress. It seems important to consider the work environment in rehabilitation for stress-related problems, and a follow-up appears warranted to detect changes and associations not visible immediately after rehabilitation. Work environment Perceptions of the work environment seem important for return to work, although other factors are likely to contribute as well. Perceptions of the work environment are associated with several aspects of well-being. When developing rehabilitation interventions a focus on the clients' perceptions of their work environment seems vital.
Full Text Available Psychological stress is suggested to accelerate the rate of biological aging. We investigated whether work-related exhaustion, an indicator of prolonged work stress, is associated with accelerated biological aging, as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomeres, that is, the DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends in cells.We used data from a representative sample of the Finnish working-age population, the Health 2000 Study. Our sample consisted of 2911 men and women aged 30-64. Work-related exhaustion was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey. We determined relative leukocyte telomere length using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR -based method.After adjustment for age and sex, individuals with severe exhaustion had leukocyte telomeres on average 0.043 relative units shorter (standard error of the mean 0.016 than those with no exhaustion (p = 0.009. The association between exhaustion and relative telomere length remained significant after additional adjustment for marital and socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and morbidities (adjusted difference 0.044 relative units, standard error of the mean 0.017, p = 0.008.These data suggest that work-related exhaustion is related to the acceleration of the rate of biological aging. This hypothesis awaits confirmation in a prospective study measuring changes in relative telomere length over time.
Serranheira, Florentino; Smith, Derek
Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) represent a major occupational health concern when considering the relationships between work and disease but associations between MSD and hospital work, especially in the nursing profession, aren't yet full understanded.QMSDuestions that still need to be answered include: Are nurses' work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and injuries dependent on the wards, the hospital organization and even the national occupational health policies that they originated from? Is their MSD related with workplaces demands, equipment, and nurse-patient ratios? Do these factors highlight different nursing occupational exposure to MSD hazards? What are the individual and psychosocial contributes to nurses WRMSDs in different nursing contexts? As such, a new approach which integrates more realistic working conditions, real hospital equipment, workplace features, and individual information would likely be a better way forwards in the addressing the current MSD epidemic among hospital nurses, worldwide......
Wills, Andrew R; Watson, Barry; Biggs, Herbert C
Research suggests safety climate (SC) is a strong predictor of safety-related outcomes in organizations. This study explores the relationship between six SC dimensions and four aspects of work-related driving. The SC factors measured were "communication and procedures," "work pressures," "relationships," "safety rules," "driver training," and "management commitment." The aspects of self-reported occupational driving measured were traffic violations, driver error, driving while distracted, and pre-trip vehicle maintenance. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the SC factors accounted for significant amounts of variance in all four aspects of work-related driving, over and above the control factors of age, sex, and work-related driving exposure. However, further investigation indicated certain SC factors (particularly safety rules, communication, and management commitment) were more strongly related to specific aspects of work-related driving behavior than others. Together, the SC factors were better able to predict self-reported distraction from the road than the other aspects of driving behavior measured. Implications for occupational safety, particularly for the management of work-related drivers are discussed.
Bo, J; Borza, V.; Seidler, R. D.
Numerous studies have shown that older adults exhibit deficits in motor sequence learning, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Our recent work has shown that visuospatial working-memory capacity predicts the rate of motor sequence learning and the length of motor chunks formed during explicit sequence learning in young adults. In the current study, we evaluate whether age-related deficits in working memory explain the reduced rate of motor sequence learning in older adul...
Sandberg, Joanne C; Strom, Carla; Arcury, Thomas A
The primary objective of this exploratory study was to delineate the broad range of adjustments women breast cancer survivors draw upon to minimize cancer-related limitations at the workplace. The study also analyzed whether survivors used strategies to address work-related limitations in isolation or in combination with other strategies, and whether they used formal or informal strategies. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 women who were employed at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer and who continued to work during treatment or returned to work. Interviews were conducted 3 to 24 months after diagnosis. An iterative process was used to systematically analyze the data (the transcripts) using qualitative methods. Participants who worked during or after treatment adjusted their work schedule, performed fewer or other tasks, modified or changed their work environment, reduced non-work activities at the workplace, used cognitive prompts, and acted preemptively to make work tasks manageable after their return to work. Survivors used multiple adjustments and drew upon both formal and informal tactics to minimize or prevent cancer- or treatment-related effects from negatively affecting job performance. Knowledge about the broad range of both formal and informal strategies identified in this study may enable health care and social services providers, as well as cancer survivors and employers, to identify a wide range of specific strategies that may reduce the negative effects of work-related limitations in specific work settings. Insights gained from this analysis should inform future research on work and cancer survivorship. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The information technology industry is considered to be one of the most demanding industries, with significant social, physical and psychological consequences for the wellbeing of the information technology professional. Work wellness and general psychological well-being plays an important role in the well-being of the information technology professional. The measurement of work-related wellness requires valid, reliable and culturally fair measuring instruments. However research on work welln...
Amanda Aparecida Silva; José Maria Pacheco de Souza; Flávio Notarnicola da Silva Borges; Frida Marina Fischer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and hea...
Stress is affecting teachers in their daily work and is related to low job satisfaction, low work motivation, low affiliation to organization etc. The study explored not only the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction but also the structure of patterns between various teacher's work stressors and particular elements of job satisfaction. In order to develop better understanding of the nature of the stressor experience, a study was undertaken to explore the stressor-job sa...
S Rothmann; AJH Pieterse
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job demands, job resources, sense of coherence and work-related well-being of employees at Sector Education Training Authorities (SETA...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A surveillance system that provides morbidity, mortality, and workplace exposure data on work-related respiratory diseases by geographic region, industry and...
Sarah Carbone; Jannah Wigle; Nadia Akseer; Raluca Barac; Melanie Barwick; Stanley Zlotkin
...’ participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model...
Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha
Work-related stress has been evaluated as one of the most important health risks in Europe. Prevention of work related stress and interventions to reduce risk factors for stress in the workplace are conducted together by the enterprise and occupational health services. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of Finnish occupational physicians on the stress management with enterprises. From the Finnish Association of Occupational Health Physicians membership list 207 physicians responded to self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0. The client enterprises contacted occupational health services frequently about work-related stress. Collaboration between occupational health and enterprises was strongest in companies' own occupational health services and generally with most experienced physicians. Occupational health services and enterprises shared responsibility for managing work-related stress. Professional experience and close contact with organisation management favours successful stress management between occupational health and enterprises.
The periodic medical examination at the workplace should be an opportunity to monitor the health of workers. Psychological well-being and work-related stress are part of health, and therefore the occupational physician is required to control these parameters during his examinations. 29 companies with a total of 4069 workers were monitored by the Italian version of the questionnaire on air quality MMO40/IAQ, which contains a section on work-related stress based on the demand/control/support model of Karasek, and by Goldberg's scales of anxiety and depression. Work-related stress was significantly correlated with the number of symptoms reported by workers (p work-related stress.
Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Wong, Man-Ting; Yu, Yu-Chung; Ju, Yan-Ying
...; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence...
Kähnert, H; Exner, A-K; Brand, S; Leibbrand, B
The knowledge about contents and arrangement of work-related measures in oncological rehabilitation is limited. The aim of the study was to develop a multimodal work-related module called Perspective Job for the oncological rehabilitation as well as to evaluate the process of development and the module itself. Perspective Job was developed within a rehabilitation team. For an examination of the process of development and of the module expert interviews with clinic employees and group interviews with patients were conducted. Group interviews were conducted before as well as after the implementation of Perspective Job to demonstrate changes in the rehabilitation from the patients point of view. Participants were oncological patients with substantial work-related problems. The module Perspective Job consists of work-related therapies as well as job trainings. The expert interviews illustrates: The process of development is valued as positive and meaningful by the rehabilitation team. Furthermore synergetic effects were used and the exchange of information and the communication within the team were promoted. The interviews with the patient emphasized that most perspective job therapies were classified as work-related and that an individual occupation-oriented care took place. The promoting exchanges of experience between the participants has been positively evaluated. In addition, they seemed to be well-prepared for the return to work. The development of a work-related module in the rehabilitation team is possible. The process was valued by the team members positively and promoted the multiprofessional cooperation. An occupationally oriented arrangement of the rehabilitation was solely perceived by the participants of Perspective Job, which felt better prepared to reintegrate into working life. The results emphasize the importance of teamwork for the development and implementation of work-related therapy modules for the oncological rehabilitation. © Georg Thieme
Wagenaar, Alfred F; Kompier, Michiel A J; Houtman, Irene L D; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Taris, Toon W
Changes in employment contracts may impact the quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes. We examined the validity of two partly competing theoretical approaches. Based upon a segmentation approach, we expected no change in scores among stable trajectories, whereas upward trajectories were expected to be for the better and downward trajectories to be for the worse (Hypothesis 1). As turnover theories suggest that this hypothesis may only apply to workers who do not change employer, we also examined these contract trajectories stratified for a change of employer (Hypothesis 2). Drawing on the 2007 and 2008 waves of the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (N=9,688), repeated measures analysis of covariance showed little across-time change in the criterion variables, thus largely disconfirming our first hypothesis. These results could (at least partly) be explained by employer change; this was generally associated with improved scores among all contract trajectories (Hypothesis 2). However, workers receiving a less stable contract from the same employer were found to be at risk for health and well-being problems. Segmentation theory-based assumptions on contract trajectories primarily apply to stable and downward contract trajectories at the same employer, whereas assumptions from turnover theories better apply to contract trajectories combined with a change of employer. Future research should focus more closely on factors predicting "involuntary" downward trajectories into precarious temporary employment or unemployment.
Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.
This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same
The aim of this thesis is to determine which work related physical and psychosocial risk factors exist which cause neck pain and absenteeism because of neck pain. There is some evidence for a positive relationship between he duration of sedentary posture at work and neck pain, and between twisting
Çapri, Burhan; Gündüz, Bülent; Akbay, Sinem Evin
The purpose of this research is to determine the relations between high school students' life satisfaction, burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores and examine the contribution of their burnout, work engagement and hopelessness scores in the prediction of their life satisfaction scores. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Maslach…
Rasmussen, Carmen; Bisanz, Jeffrey
The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mathematics and working memory in young children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Children with FASD and comparison children (4 to 6 years old) completed standardized tests of mathematics and working memory. Children with FASD showed impairments on mathematics (applied…
Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min
The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…
J.D. de Vries (Juriena); M.L.M. van Hooff (Madelon); S.A.E. Geurts (Sabine); M.A.J. Kompier (Michiel)
markdownabstract__Objectives__ The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness
Vries, J.D. de; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.
Objectives: The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness (secondary
Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital
We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…
Hernaus, Dennis; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Casales Santa, Marta M; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse
It is generally thought that the effect of acute stress on higher-order functions such as working memory is, for an important part, mediated by central catecholamine activity. However, little is known about the association between neuroendocrine stress responses and catecholamine-dependent working memory-related brain function in the absence of stress. Here, we investigate for the first time in healthy humans (n = 18) how neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol and alpha-amylase) relate to fronto-parietal working memory activity changes in response to atomoxetine, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor that selectively increases extracellular cortical dopamine and noradrenaline. We observed positive correlations between stress-induced cortisol (Pearson's r = 0.75, P working memory-related activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress-induced cortisol increases furthermore correlated with supramarginal gyrus working memory-related activity (r = 0.79, P working memory activity on placebo and greater working memory activity increases following atomoxetine in high stress responders. These results further corroborate the notion that neuroendocrine responses to stress are an informative proxy of catecholamine function relevant to higher order functions and provide novel hints on the complex relationship between acute stress, catecholamine function and working memory. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…
Roeters, A.; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.
This study examined whether the frequency of child-related activities was associated with parents’ own work demands and those of their partners. In addition to parental paid working hours, we considered the parents’ organizational culture and experienced job insecurity. Moreover, we differentiated
Roeters, A.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.
This study examined whether the frequency of child-related activities was associated with parents' own work demands and those of their partners. In addition to parental paid working hours, we considered the parents' organizational culture and experienced job insecurity. Moreover, we differentiated
Work related musculoskeletal disorders constitute a major problem to modern society. They are a major cause of work absenteeism and disability, thus constituting one of the most expensive disease categories. There is a great need for effective ways to prevent or reduce musculoskeletal problems.
Full Text Available Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relationsbetween children's reading skills and working memory (WM abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading comprehension and reading accuracy. Tests of word reading accuracy and reading comprehension, and working memory tests in three different modalities(verbal, numerical and spatial, were given to 197 6- to 11-year old children. The results support the view that working memory tasks that require the processing and recall of symbolic information (words and numbers are better predictors of reading comprehension than tasks that require visuo-spatial storage and processing. The different measures of verbal and numerical working memory were not equally good predictors of reading comprehension, but their predictive power depended on neitherthe word vs. numerical contrast nor the complexity of the processing component. In general, performance on the verbal and numerical working memory tasks predicted reading comprehension, but not reading accuracy, and spatial WM did not predict either. The patterns of relations between the measures of working memory and reading comprehension ability were relatively constant across theage group tested.
Sonnentag, Sabine; Mojza, Eva; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.
In this paper, we examined the within-person relations between morning recovery level (i.e., feeling refreshed and replenished) and work engagement throughout the day, and between work engagement throughout the day and the subsequent recovery level at the end of the workday. We hypothesized that job stressors (situational constraints, job demands) moderate these relations. A diary study over 1 workweek with 2 measurement occasions per day (N = 111 persons) provided support for most of the hyp...
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye
Objectives: A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian ...
Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja
There is a lack of empirical knowledge about nurses' perceptions of their workplace characteristics and conditions, such as level of autonomy and decision authority, work climate, teamwork, skill exploitation and learning opportunities, and their work motivation in relation to practice outputs such as patient safety. Such knowledge is needed particularly in countries, such as Estonia, where hospital systems for preventing errors and improving patient safety are in the early stages of development. This article reports the findings from a cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in Estonia that was aimed at determining their perceptions of workplace characteristics, working conditions, work motivation and patient safety, and at exploring the relationship between these. Results suggest that perceptions of personal control over their work can affect nurses' motivation, and that perceptions of work satisfaction might be relevant to patient safety improvement work.
Cropley, Mark; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Querstret, Dawn; Beck, Sarah
Work-related rumination, that is, perseverative thinking about work during leisure time, has been associated with a range of negative health and wellbeing issues. The present paper examined the association between work-related rumination and cognitive processes centerd around the theoretical construct of executive functioning. Executive functioning is an umbrella term for high level cognitive processes such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility; and it underlies how people manage and regulate their goal directed behavior. Three studies are reported. Study I, reports the results of a cross-sectional study of 240 employees, and demonstrates significant correlations between work-related rumination and three proxy measures of executive functioning: cognitive failures (0.33), cognitive flexibility (-0.24), and situational awareness at work (-0.28). Study II (n = 939), expands on the findings from study 1 and demonstrates that workers reporting medium and high work-related rumination were 2.8 and 5 times, respectively, more likely to report cognitive failures relative to low ruminators. High ruminators also demonstrated greater difficulties with 'lapses of attention' (OR = 4.8), 'lack of focus of attention' (OR = 3.4), and 'absent mindedness' (OR = 4.3). The final study, examined the association between work-related rumination and executive functioning using interview data from 2460 full time workers. Workers were divided into tertiles low, medium, and high. The findings showed that high work-related rumination was associated with deficits in starting (OR = 2.3) and finishing projects (OR = 2.4), fidgeting (OR = 1.9), memory (OR = 2.2), pursuing tasks in order (OR = 1.8), and feeling compelled to do things (OR = 2.0). It was argued that work-related rumination may not be related to work demands per se, but appears to be an executive functioning/control issue. Such findings are important for the design and delivery of intervention programes aimed at
Shukla, K; Shahane, S; D’Souza, W
Background: Considering a huge working population in health sector faced with stressful work life, limited autonomy in work and declining work contentment calls for an overemphasis on evaluating and monitoring their satisfaction associated with work-related quality of life (WRQoL). This study evaluates WRQoL of hospital employees and validates the bilingual (English and Marathi) version of WRQoL scale. Methods: The study was conducted during March–April’2014 on employees of a corporate hospital of Pune, India after ethical approval and informed consent from employees. The bilingual WRQoL scale has been tested for reliability and validity, and WRQoL scores have been reported. Results: A total of 132 hospital employees (mean age 31 [±8] years, 55% males) who participated in the study reported overall moderate WRQoL scores. The scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.82, P employees. Higher work experience, employment at higher positions and those working in clinical and diagnostic departments reported a higher WRQoL. Conclusion: WRQoL scale is a reliable and valid instrument. Better WRQoL in employees placed in higher organizational positions indicates a need for focused measures to enhance WRQoL of employees in lower hierarchical levels, especially in control at work and home life interface domains. WRQoL needs regular monitoring for employees in lower positions and aging employees. PMID:27779152
Kröger, Christoph; Bode, Katharina; Wunsch, Eva-Maria; Kliem, Sören; Grocholewski, Anja; Finger, Friederike
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of work-related cognitive-behavioral treatment (W-CBT) with that of cognitive-behavioral treatment as usual (CBT-AU) for employees on sick leave as a result of a major depressive disorder (MDD). We collected data for 26 matched outpatients at pre- and posttreatment, as well as at 1-year follow-up. Outcome measures were the days of incapacity to work (DIW) as well as self-report measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Symptom Checklist 90-R [GSI], Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [FLZ]). We analyzed data with hierarchical linear modeling in a 2-level model. Therapy effects were defined in 3 ways: effect size (ES), response (based on the reliable change index), and remission compared with the general population's symptom level. The DIW were reduced significantly after both types of treatment, but employees showed even fewer DIW after W-CBT. At follow-up, significantly more employees were working as a result of W-CBT than with CBT-AU. Significant improvements on scores of self-rating measures corresponded with moderate-to-large effect sizes for both treatment types. Approximately 2 thirds of the treated employees were categorized as unimpaired on BDI scores at posttreatment and at follow-up. At least 1 half of the employees were classified as unimpaired on GSI scores at both assessment points. In future research, a randomized controlled trial should be conducted using a larger sample size to investigate the impact of moderators (e.g., employees at different branches of the company). Findings provided support for using common CBT techniques to enhance return to work without losing expected improvements at the symptom level. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Calderwood, Charles; Ackerman, Phillip L
Work stress is an important determinant of employee health and wellness. The occupational health community is recognizing that one contributor to these relationships may be the presence of negative off-job reactivity to work, which we argue involves continued thoughts directed towards work (cognitive reactivity), continued negative mood stemming from work (affective reactivity), and the alteration of post-work behaviours in response to work factors (behavioural reactivity). We explored the relative contributions of daily work stressors, affective traits, and subjective job stress perceptions to negative off-job reactivity. These relationships were evaluated in a study of hospital nurses (n = 75), who completed trait measures and then provided self-assessments of daily work stress and off-job reactions for four work days. The results of several multilevel analyses indicated that a main-effects model best described the data when predicting cognitive, affective, and behavioural reactivity from daily work stressors, affective traits, and subjective job stress perceptions. A series of multilevel dominance analyses revealed that subjective job stress perceptions dominated the prediction of behavioural reactivity, while trait negative affect dominated the prediction of affective reactivity. Theoretical implications and the relative salience of daily and enduring contributors to negative off-job reactivity are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ITOH, Hiroaki; KITAMURA, Fumihiko; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito
Little is reported regarding economic burden of work-related low back pain except for the United States. In the present study, annual medical cost of work-related low back pain in Japan was calculated based on the treatment fee per day, a total of days of treatment received for low-back pain of all causes, employment rates, and an estimated number of work-related low-back cases. The analysis indicated that, in 2011, the total annual medical cost for work-related low back pain was 82.14 billion yen, consisting of 26.48 and 55.66 billion yen for inpatients and outpatients, respectively. As well as for 2011, the costs were also estimated for 2008, 2005, and 2002. Whereas the total medical costs of work-related low back pain monotonically increased during 2002–2011, the costs for spine disorder (including spondylosis) have also increased in recent years. Work-related low back pain entails a considerable economic burden to Japanese society. PMID:23955653
Tonini, Stefano; Lanfranco, Andrea; Costa, Maria Cristina; Lumelli, Diego; Giorgi, Ines; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M
The attention of international agencies and scientific community on mobbing (bullying) and work-related stress is increasing. However, research on gender differences and etiologic agents is still limited. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of mobbing and work-related stress in an Italian case series. Between 2001 and 2009, at the Occupational Medicine Unit of our Institution we examined 345 outpatients (197 women and 148 men) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of "mobbing syndrome" was formulated, according to international criteria (ICD-I0 and DSM-IV), in a minority of cases: 35 subjects. In the other workers, we found pre-existing psychiatric conditions (not related to work), or altered relationships dynamics with the colleagues. Significant gender differences emerged among people with "mobbing syndrome": there was a high prevalence of women (65%), with medium to high level of education; the most affected age group was between 34 and 45 years; several occupations were involved, with a clear preponderance of office workers. Women are mostly harassed for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors; men for the content of their work. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential prerogative to contrast mobbing; this can be realized, at a preventive level, only through effective information and training for workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during the work.
Zaman, Anne-Claire G N M; Tytgat, Kristien M A J; van Hezel, Sanne; Klinkenbijl, Jean H G; de Boer, Angela G E M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
Aim is the development of a work-related support intervention, tailored to the severity of work-related problems of patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer treated with curative intent. Two methods were used: (1) Work-related problems were identified from the literature and submitted to an expert panel during a modified Delphi study. Experts allocated work-related problems into degrees of severity: mild, severe or complex. In addition, experts indicated which health care professional should provide the tailored support: (2) These outcomes were combined with existing interventions to design the tailored intervention. Semi-structured interviews with experts were conducted to assess whether the intervention was comprehensive, and feasible for daily practice. A decision diagram measuring severity of work-related problems was developed based on the modified Delphi study with 44 experts, encompassing social, disease and occupational problems. Based on the degree of severity, support was provided by: an oncological nurse (mild), oncological occupational physician (severe) or multidisciplinary team (complex). The intervention encompassed three individual meetings in the clinical setting and was considered comprehensive and feasible by 12 experts. The intervention is innovative in combining oncological and occupational care in the clinic and being tailored to the needs of GI cancer patients with specific work-related problems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McKenzie, Kirsten; Campbell, Margaret A; Scott, Deborah A; Discoll, Tim R; Harrison, James E; McClure, Roderick J
Work-related injuries in Australia are estimated to cost around $57.5 billion annually, however there are currently insufficient surveillance data available to support an evidence-based public health response. Emergency departments (ED) in Australia are a potential source of information on work-related injuries though most ED's do not have an 'Activity Code' to identify work-related cases with information about the presenting problem recorded in a short free text field. This study compared methods for interrogating text fields for identifying work-related injuries presenting at emergency departments to inform approaches to surveillance of work-related injury. Three approaches were used to interrogate an injury description text field to classify cases as work-related: keyword search, index search, and content analytic text mining. Sensitivity and specificity were examined by comparing cases flagged by each approach to cases coded with an Activity code during triage. Methods to improve the sensitivity and/or specificity of each approach were explored by adjusting the classification techniques within each broad approach. The basic keyword search detected 58% of cases (Specificity 0.99), an index search detected 62% of cases (Specificity 0.87), and the content analytic text mining (using adjusted probabilities) approach detected 77% of cases (Specificity 0.95). The findings of this study provide strong support for continued development of text searching methods to obtain information from routine emergency department data, to improve the capacity for comprehensive injury surveillance.
Santos, Alda; Chambel, Maria José; Castanheira, Filipa
To study work engagement as a mediator of the associations between relational job characteristics and nurses' affective commitment to the hospital. Earlier research has shown that work engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and affective organizational commitment. However, relational job characteristics, which may be job resources, have not been studied or examined in relation to work engagement and affective organizational commitment in the nursing profession. This study uses a correlational survey design and an online survey for data collection. Data for this correlational study were collected by survey over months (2013) from a sample of 335 hospital nurses. Measures included Portuguese translations of the Relational Job Characteristics' Psychological Effects Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Affective Organizational Commitment Scale. Data analysis supports a full mediation model where relational job characteristics explained affective commitment to the hospital through nurses' work engagement. Relational job characteristics contribute to nurses' work engagement, which in turn contributes to affective organizational commitment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy
This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye
A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.
Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A
The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Henning, Paul C; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M
Energy deficit (ED) diminishes fat-free mass (FFM) with concomitant reductions in anabolic hormone secretion. A modest increase in protein to recommended dietary allowance (RDA) levels during ED minimally attenuates decrements in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The impact of dietary protein above the RDA on circulating anabolic hormones and their relationships with FFM in response to ED are not well described. Thirty-three adults were assigned diets providing protein at 0.8 (RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g/kg/d for 31days. Testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I system components were assessed after a 10-day period of weight-maintenance (WM) and after a 21-day period of ED (40%) achieved by an increase in energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. Associations between the change in FFM and anabolic hormone levels were determined. As compared to WM and regardless of dietary protein intake, total and free testosterone, total IGF-I, and acid-labile subunit decreased (P<0.05), whereas SHBG and IGF binding proteins-1, -2, and -3 increased (P<0.05) during ED. There were no energy-by-protein interactions on any hormones or IGF-I system components measured. Changes in FFM in response to ED were negatively associated with acid-labile subunit (ALS) (r=-0.62, P<0.05) in 2×-RDA; however, no other relationships were observed. Consuming a high protein diet does not impact the androgenic and IGF-I system response to ED. These data suggest that the protective effects of high protein diets on FFM during ED are likely not influenced by anabolic hormone concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.
There are high levels of global and national underemployment, but limited information is available on the impact of this phenomenon on the quality of employees' working lives. This study examines the relations among perceived employer support for creative work, different forms of underemployment and employee quality of life, including job satisfaction, perceived job security and job satisfaction. The study was performed using cross-sectional data from the Canadian 2010 Work and Lifelong Learning Survey (WALL), which included 1,042 randomly selected currently employed participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years of age. The study found a significant inverse association between employer support for innovative work and different forms of underemployment. It also suggested a strong relationship between support for such work and participation in work-related informal learning. The results from this study confirmed the hypothesis that employer support for creative work is significantly associated with the quality of employees' working lives, as manifested through increased job security and job satisfaction. Employees experiencing greater support for workplace creativity report less job-related stress. The present study identified relatively low employer support for creative work and significant differences in the perception of support among managers and workers. The results of this study indicate that employer support for innovative work can mitigate significant underutilization of employee knowledge and skills. Such support can contribute to the reduction of job-related stress, increased job satisfaction and perceived job security. This kind of support can also improve the quality of life of employees and facilitate creativity and overall organizational and social development.
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of relational leadership (RL on the three different stages of employee innovative work behavior (EIWB in information technology industry of China. It also investigates the overall effect of relational leadership on total EIWB. It was proposed that relational leadership effects EWIB positively. For testing the hypotheses, a self-administered questionnaire was used to find out what are the responses of 261 employees from an IT company. Correlation and regression analysis suggested that relational leadership affects all three stages of employee innovative work behavior in significant manner. Its overall effect on EIWB is also very prominent in our analysis. The results of this study suggest that relational leadership, being a powerful motivational tool, helps employees to depict innovative work behavior at each of idea generation, idea promotion and idea realization stages of EIWB. The implications and limitations of the study are further discussed.
Somsila, Nattamon; Chaiear, Naesinee; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Tiamkao, Somsak
1) To assess work-related quality of life (WRQOL) among medical residents at a university hospital in northeast Thailand. 2) To determine the strength of the association between personal and working condition components and WRQOL among medical residents. A descriptive study was used to describe the WRQOL among medical residents. The study population comprised of all 375 residents affiliated with the university hospital. The Thai version of a self-administered work-related quality of life scale-2 was used for data collection. Testing the reliability revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.908. Questionnaires were completed by 259 of 375 (68.3%). The study found that the mean rating by residents for overall WRQOL was 113.8 out of 170 (SD 14.8). Most rated WRQOL as moderate (76.6%). The seven sub-factors were rated as moderate to high for employee engagement and control at work, moderate for home/work interface, general well-being and working conditions, high-moderate for job career satisfaction, and low-moderate for stress at work. Relationships between the personal and working condition components and WRQOL were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Residents in minor specialties had a higher WRQOL than those in major specialties (OR 2.522, 95% CI: 1.37, 4.63). Residents who had less than eight duty shifts/week had a higher WRQOL than those with more than eight duty shifts/week (OR 2.263, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.41). Similarly, residents working with less than 80 hours/week had a higher WRQOL than those working more than 80 hours/week (OR 2.344, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.72). A subgroup analyzes of those working in minor specialties showed the trend that working less than eight shifts/month and working less than 80 hours/week had the potential association with good quality of work-life (QWL). This phenomenon is presented in the subgroup analyses of those working in major specialties. Therefore, working hours and number of shifts might have played important role in contributing good QWL
Reine, Ieva; Palmer, Edward; Sonnander, Karin
The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences in wellbeing, as related to work status, among working-age people with severe impairments. This study is based on register and survey data for a sample of 7298 persons, drawn from the entire Swedish population of 15,515 working-age people 16-64 years old who, at the end of 2010, received Sweden's unique personal assistance allowance, an allowance paid from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency (SSIA) to persons with severe impairments, enabling them to pay for assistants to support them in the functions of daily life. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of relations between six measures of wellbeing, work status (not working, irregular work and regular work) and gender, together with key confounders. Of the persons surveyed, 21% responded that they had regular work. Gender differences were found for all confounders, except for age. They were mostly in favour of men, which could reflect the general pattern in the labour market at large. Our results indicated there are substantial differences between non-working, irregularly working and working persons for several wellbeing aspects. This study analyses the contributions to wellbeing of work participation among working-age people with severe impairments, with a focus on gender differences. The analysis shows that work is an important determinant of the six measures of wellbeing examined, where the relationship between work participation and wellbeing is especially strong for peoples' perceived standard of living. This major finding holds for both genders; however, the data show gender imbalance, in that compared with women, there was a larger percentage of men with severe impairments who have regular work. Future research should focus on finer distinctions between the types of work and the value added of personal assistants in the work context. Measures of general health not available for this study are needed to filter out a clearer
Capacio, B R; Harris, L W; Anderson, D R; Lennox, W J; Gales, V; Dawson, J S
The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. All compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (mumol/kg) values and peak effect times were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepam, 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock [MES] and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol [scMET]). The results suggest that at anticonvulsant doses against nerve agents, all the benzodiazepines and phenobarbital have the potential to cause a performance decrement, whereas candidate anticonvulsants of the non-benzodiazepine or non-barbiturate type would not be expected to demonstrate this effect on motor performance. It is concluded that compounds such as acetazolamide, amitriptyline and scopolamine offer alternatives to the highly decrementing benzodiazepines and phenobarbital and should be further tested as anticonvulsant candidates against nerve agent intoxication.
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110......-cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining...
Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas
Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110......-cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining...
Harzer, Claudia; Ruch, Willibald
Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities): (1) character strengths correlate with coping and (2) buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175]) filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.
Full Text Available Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities: (1 Character strengths correlate with coping and (2 buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175] filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.
Euler, Matthew J; Wiltshire, Travis J; Niermeyer, Madison A; Butner, Jonathan E
Electrophysiological studies have strongly implicated theta-band activity in human working memory processes. Concurrently, work on spontaneous, non-task-related oscillations has revealed the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) within sub-bands of the ongoing EEG, and has begun to demonstrate their functional significance. However, few studies have yet assessed the relation of LRTCs (also called scaling relations) to individual differences in cognitive abilities. The present study addressed the intersection of these two literatures by investigating the relation of narrow-band EEG scaling relations to individual differences in working memory ability, with a particular focus on the theta band. Fifty-four healthy adults completed standardized assessments of working memory and separate recordings of their spontaneous, non-task-related EEG. Scaling relations were quantified in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands via the estimation of the Hurst exponent obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis. A multilevel modeling framework was used to characterize the relation of working memory performance to scaling relations as a function of general scalp location in Cartesian space. Overall, results indicated an inverse relationship between both delta and theta scaling relations and working memory ability, which was most prominent at posterior sensors, and was independent of either spatial or individual variability in band-specific power. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the relevance of neural LRTCs for understanding brain functioning, and support a construct- and state-dependent view of their functional implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The basic aim of high performance work systems is to enable employees to exercise decision making, leading to flexibility, innovation, improvement and skill sharing. By facilitating the development of high performance work systems we help organizations make continuous improvement a way of life.The notion of a high-performance work system (HPWS constitutes a claim that there exists a system of work practices for core workers in an organisation that leads in some way to superior performance. This article will discuss the relation that HPWS has with the improvement of firms’ performance and high involvement of the employees.
Riad, Waleed; Mansour, Afaf; Moussa, Ashraf
Anesthesia is a demanding occupation due to long working hours, sustained vigilance, unpredictability of stressful situation, fear of litigation, competence, and production pressure. Work-related exhaustion can lead to several physical and psychological symptoms and delay decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different work conditions affect personnel exhaustion by studying a sample of anesthesiologists comparing them with ophthalmologists and ancillary hospital staff One hundred fifty persons divided into three equal groups (50 each) were invited to participate in this study. Subjects were asked to answer two self report questionnaires: The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) which used to assess work related exhaustion and mental health, respectively. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory scale (MFI 20) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) were significantly higher in anesthesiologists than in other groups (P = 0.001). Different aspects of work-related exhaustion showed that general, physical and mental fatigue were significantly higher in anesthesiologists (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Reduced activity and reduced motivation were also higher in anesthesiologists compare to the other groups (P = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). Work-related exhaustion under the current study is more obvious among anesthesiologists. Ophthalmologist and ancillary hospital employees felt that they had less stress at their work.
Full Text Available Working memory is activated in situations which require active control of directing attention, processing information and making it available for a short time. Its content is limited in capacity and changes with regard to the context of a performed activity. Self-control is the capacity of a voluntary conscious effort to persist in achieving a previously set goal. The aim of this research was to determine the relation of verbal and visuospatial aspects of working memory with self-control skills in persons with mild intellectual disability (ID. The sample included 40 participants 8-12 years of age (M=10.65, SD=1.19. Memorizing a Maze task, adapted for participants with ID, was used to determine the capacity of visuospatial aspect of working memory. Memorizing Animals task was used to assess verbal aspect of working memory, and Self-Control Rating Scale was used to determine the acquisition level of self-control skills. It was determined that verbal aspects of working memory were significantly related to the acquired level of self-control skills (p=0.002. There was no significant relation between the results of tasks assessing the capacity of visuospatial working memory and the success on the scale assessing self-control capacity (p=0.089. The relation between self-control and verbal aspect of working memory may be explained by close links between using speech and applying self-regulation strategies.
Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia is a demanding occupation due to long working hours, sustained vigilance, unpredictability of stressful situation, fear of litigation, competence, and production pressure. Work-related exhaustion can lead to several physical and psychological symptoms and delay decision making. The aim of this study was to evaluate how different work conditions affect personnel exhaustion by studying a sample of anesthesiologists comparing them with ophthalmologists and ancillary hospital staff Methods: One hundred fifty persons divided into three equal groups (50 each were invited to participate in this study. Subjects were asked to answer two self report questionnaires: The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20 and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 which used to assess work related exhaustion and mental health, respectively. Results: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory scale (MFI 20 and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12 were significantly higher in anesthesiologists than in other groups ( P = 0.001. Different aspects of work-related exhaustion showed that general, physical and mental fatigue were significantly higher in anesthesiologists ( P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Reduced activity and reduced motivation were also higher in anesthesiologists compare to the other groups ( P = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Work-related exhaustion under the current study is more obvious among anesthesiologists. Ophthalmologist and ancillary hospital employees felt that they had less stress at their work.
Wang, Jingjing; Cui, Ya; He, Lihua; Xu, Xiangrong; Yuan, Zhiwei; Jin, Xianning; Li, Zhimin
Medical staff in the department of obstetrics and gynecology are a group of professionals reportedly at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), however, little is known about the current status of this problem in China. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among this population in China. A self-developed questionnaire was distributed to 1017 obstetrics and gynecology practitioners to collect information on musculoskeletal symptoms and relevant factors. Prevalence and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in different parts of the body were calculated and the relationship between personal and ergonomic factors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders was analyzed using Chi-square test and unconditional logistic regression models. The results indicated a high prevalence of 85.5% among the subjects, with the shoulder (n = 575, 62.0%), neck (n = 560, 60.3%) and lower back (n = 504, 54.3%) being the three most affected regions. Individual, postural, work-environmental as well as psychosocial factors were recognized to be associated with WMSDs in different body parts. Therefore, attention must be given to the problem of musculoskeletal disorders among Chinese obstetrics and gynecology staff. It is recommended to develop good life habits, improve work environment, adjust work organization as well as train on proper postures in their daily operation.
Duijts, Saskia F A; van der Beek, Allard J; Boelhouwer, Ingrid G; Schagen, Sanne B
About half of all cancer survivors are 65 years of age or younger and potentially part of the labor force. Increasing numbers of these survivors are able to return to work (RTW) or even continue working during treatment. Many factors are known to inhibit occupational reintegration of cancer survivors, and further affect job performance after RTW. However, the impact of cancer-related cognitive impairment on work-related outcomes in cancer survivors is not well understood. Previous studies exploring cancer, cognition and the ability to work reported mixed results, because of inconsistency in the definitions of work-related outcomes, the use of self-reported rather than performance-based measurements and the interaction between cognitive limitations and other symptom burden, such as fatigue or job stress. In addition, a lack of interventions to specifically target cognitive problems at work was identified. Cognitive problems because of cancer diagnosis and treatment demand action in terms of developing a better understanding of their impact on the ability to work, as well as identifying effective therapeutic interventions to diminish this impact, including innovative accommodations, changes in work tasks or organization and ergonomic adjustments. Both employers and survivors should welcome such changes, to rise to the challenge of successfully adapting from the precancer status quo.
Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61% participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%. The participants with mental disorders and at least moderate levels of physical discomfort reported significantly higher levels of physical demand, time working (temporal demand, total effort and frustration with regard to farm work, in addition to significantly higher levels of frustration with regard to housework. Women with moderate or greater levels of both physical discomfort and frustration with farm work increased the chances of mental disorders. The results illustrate the complex challenge for health professionals in caring for women with mental disorders and physical discomforts related to their farm work, in the context of both the farm and domestic work demands these workers experience.
van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A
Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability.
Frost, L; Frost, P; Vestergaard, P
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Excessive sporting activities have been associated with risk of atrial fibrillation. To study if work related physical activity also confers risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter, the association between work related physical strain and the risk of a hospital discharge......, Cancer, and Health Study. The physical strain during working hours was categorised as sedentary, light, or heavy, and analysed using proportional hazard models. Subjects were followed up in the Danish National Registry of Patients and in the Danish Civil Registration System. RESULTS: During follow up...... of atrial fibrillation or flutter associated with sedentary work in a standing position, light workload, or heavy workload in men or women. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found of an association between physical activities during working hours and risk of a hospital discharge diagnosis of atrial fibrillation...
Ford, Michael T; Heinen, Beth A; Langkamer, Krista L
This meta-analysis is a review of the literature examining the relations among stressors, involvement, and support in the work and family domains, work-family conflict, and satisfaction outside of those domains. Results suggest that a considerable amount of variability in family satisfaction is explained by work domain-specific variables, whereas a considerable amount of variability in job satisfaction is explained by family domain-specific variables, with job and family stress having the strongest effects on work-family conflict and cross-domain satisfaction. The authors propose future directions for research on work and family issues focusing on other explanatory mechanisms and moderators of cross-domain relations. 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available A special kind of discrimination of women on work place is that related to their psychophysical condition. Whereas the health condition is often a pretext for discrimination of pregnant women, young mothers, sick and disabled women workers, the mobbing at work is discrimination that may have psychical troubles as a consequence. We present a brief analysis of relevant international and domestic regulations, demonstrating explicitly their breaking on the examples from the work of SOS Hotline for women victims of discrimination at work. The conclusion is that for struggle against the discrimination related to psychophysical condition of workingwomen it is important to fight against breaking the positive legal regulations, as well as working on their improvement. .
Cuneo, Charlotte L; Curtis Cooper, Maureen R; Drew, Carolyn S; Naoum-Heffernan, Christine; Sherman, Tricia; Walz, Kathleen; Weinberg, Janice
The Reiki Master Teacher group at a large academic, urban medical center studied the effects of Reiki on work-related stress in Registered Nurse Reiki I class participants. Research suggests that work-related stress is an influential factor in nursing burn out and retention. Reiki, an ancient form of Oriental "energy work" or healing, has been found to decrease stress. The Perceived Stress Scale tool was administered prior to the Reiki I class and after three weeks of practicing self-Reiki. Seventeen participants returned follow-up data. Results indicated that practicing Reiki more often resulted in reduced perceived stress levels. Data from this small pilot study supports educating nurses about Reiki practice to decrease work-related stress.
Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress.
Full Text Available In recent years, various international organizations have raised awareness regarding psychosocial risks and work-related stress. European stakeholders have also taken action on these issues by producing important documents, such as position papers and government regulations, which are reviewed in this article. In particular, 4 European models that have been developed for the assessment and management of work-related stress are considered here. Although important advances have been made in the understanding of work-related stress, there are still gaps in the translation of this knowledge into effective practice at the enterprise level. There are additional problems regarding the methodology in the evaluation of work-related stress. The European models described in this article are based on holistic, global and participatory approaches, where the active role of and involvement of workers are always emphasized. The limitations of these models are in the lack of clarity on preventive intervention and, for two of them, the lack of instrument standardization for risk evaluation. The comparison among the European models to approach work-related stress, although with limitations and socio-cultural differences, offers the possibility for the development of a social dialogue that is important in defining the correct and practical methodology for work stress evaluation and prevention.
Sindi, Shireen; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Solomon, Alina; Hooshmand, Babak; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands administered in midlife. Multiple cognitive domains were assessed. Analyses were adjusted for several potential confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with poorer performance on global cognition [β-coefficient, -0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.05 to -0.00], and processing speed [β -0.03, CI -0.05 to -0.01]. Results remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Work-related stress was not significantly associated with episodic memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency or manual dexterity. This study shows that global cognition and processing speed may be particularly susceptible to the effects of midlife work-related stress.
Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C
The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups.
Pransky, Glenn; Benjamin, Katy; Hill-Fotouhi, Carolyn; Fletcher, Kenneth E; Himmelstein, Jay; Katz, Jeffrey N
This pilot study explored a broad range of work-related outcomes for occupational low back injuries. A model of occupational outcomes and a survey instrument were developed on the basis of interviews, expert opinion, and literature reviews. New Hampshire workers who had an occupational back injury a year before the study were sampled from first reports of injury and sent a mailed survey about their postinjury experiences and related factors. Of 251 randomly selected cases, a valid address could be identified for 121, and 99 patients responded. Almost 60% of the respondents had lost 1 week of work or more. At 1 year after injury, half of the respondents had returned to their preinjury job and employer, and 20% were unemployed, half of them because of the injury. Most working respondents reported no decrease in their work capacity. However, 68% still had pain exacerbated by work, and 47% worried that their condition would worsen with continued work. Reinjury occurred in 42% of the respondents. The work-related outcome measures were largely independent of each other. Exploratory multivariate analyses demonstrated unique patterns of factors associated with each outcome. Reinjury risk was significantly greater in respondents whose employers offered accommodations or whose postinjury jobs had greater ergonomic risk. The small sample size limited the ability to achieve statistically significant results in multivariate analyses. Simply measuring return to work did not appear to capture the full range of job-related consequences from occupational back injuries in this pilot evaluation. Timing of return to work, occupational ergonomic risks, and appropriate job modifications appeared to be particularly important in a safe return to the job after an occupational low back injury. Results suggest opportunities to address risk factors that may improve work outcomes.
Full Text Available Orientation: Knowing that it is imperative to better understand the antecedents and consequences of needs-supplies fit, the present research had two main objectives. Firstly we wanted to extend our knowledge about traditional psychological needs, for example highlighted through the Self-Determination Theory, by presenting more specific work-related needs. Secondly, following the new directions of organisational fit theories, we wanted to better understand how individuals make sense of fit.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose more specific work-related needs in terms of employment quality and to test job crafting as an antecedent of needs-supplies fit (NS fit. We tested the double mediating role of NS fit (i.e. specific: based on more specific work-related needs, and general: based on global job perceptions between job crafting and individual outcomes namely burnout and work engagement.Motivation for the study: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, this study aimed to add more specific information to better help predict well-being at work. Moreover, the present research responds to the need to better understand how individuals make sense of fit.Research design, approach, and method: Data were collected in a Belgian Public Federal Service (N = 1500. Our research model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling with Mplus.Main findings: Results show, (1 that specific NS fit perception was positively related to a global NS fit perception and (2 the partial mediating role (specific and general of NS fit between job crafting and burnout and work engagement.Practical/managerial implications: Managers should encourage crafting behaviours and should know their team and that team’s specific needs.Contribution/added-value: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, our study suggests that needs-supplies may have more than one dimension. Moreover, it shows that job crafting is a way to increase NS
Mache, Stefanie; Vitzthum, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard
Work engagement has become a topic of great interest in recent years. However, clinicians' work engagement has rarely been studied and relatively little is known about its predictors and consequences. Therefore the objective of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to test a model of possible institutional and personal predictors and significant relations to job and life satisfaction. 123 clinicians specializing in Surgery Medicine participated in the study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism, were administered. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. The whole sample of surgeons rated work engagement with a high mean of M = 4.38; SD = .91. Job satisfaction and perceived quality of life have been rated with moderate scores. The results show that job resources have a greater impact on surgeons' work engagement than their job demands. Significant correlations between surgeons' work engagement, their job satisfaction and quality of life were found. Moreover, work engagement mediated the relation between institutional factors and surgeons' job satisfaction. Our research suggests that strengthening surgeons' work engagement will contribute to a more sustainable workplace, in terms of both individual and hospital performance. Therefore, increasing work engagement among surgeons should be of concern for supervisors and hospital managers. Future research should focus on further predictors that may have an influence on health professionals' work engagement. Another field for future research is to study potential effects of interventions on work engagement. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Loose, Veerle; van den Oord, Marieke; Burnotte, Frédéric; van Tiggelen, Damien; Stevens, Veerle; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven
INTRODUCTION: Neck pain is a common problem in F-16 pilots. A cross-sectional survey was used to determine the self-reported 1-yr prevalence of neck pain and to compare individual, work-related, and flight-related characteristics in F-16 pilots with and without neck pain. METHOD: There were 90 male
Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Felipe, Nieves; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
Objective: The shift from an industrial to a service-based economy has seen a decline in work-related injuries (WRIs) and mortality. How this relates to migrant workers, who traditionally held high-risk jobs is unknown. This study examined deaths and hospital admissions from WRI, among foreign and
Allen, Elizabeth C.; Beilock, Sian L.; Shevell, Steven K.
We explored the relation between individual differences in working memory (WM) and color constancy, the phenomenon of color perception that allows us to perceive the color of an object as relatively stable under changes in illumination. Successive color constancy (measured by first viewing a colored surface under a particular illumination and…
Salonen, Anssi; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Hense, Jonathan; Scheersoi, Annette; Keinonen, Tuula
School students demonstrate a lack of interest in choosing science studies and science-related careers. To better understand the underlying reasons, this study aims to examine secondary school students' perceptions of working life skills and how these perceptions relate to the skills of the twenty-first century. The participants in this study were…
Klaassen, E.B.; Evers, E.A.T.; Groot, R.H.M.; Backes, W.H.; Veltman, D.J.; Jolles, J.
We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on
Norder, G.; Hoedeman, R.; de Bruin, J.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.
Background It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. Aims To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10)
Coleman, James R; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L
The present study investigated individual differences in information processing following errant behavior. Participants were initially classified as high or as low working memory capacity using the Operation Span Task. In a subsequent session, they then performed a high congruency version of the flanker task under both speed and accuracy stress. We recorded ERPs and behavioral measures of accuracy and response time in the flanker task with a primary focus on processing following an error. The error-related negativity was larger for the high working memory capacity group than for the low working memory capacity group. The positivity following an error (Pe) was modulated to a greater extent by speed-accuracy instruction for the high working memory capacity group than for the low working memory capacity group. These data help to explicate the neural bases of individual differences in working memory capacity and cognitive control. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Schwarz, Betje; Neuderth, Silke; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bethge, Matthias
Systematic reviews indicate the effectiveness of multimodal rehabilitation. In Germany this has been shown, in particular, for work-related medical rehabilitation. A recently published guideline on work-related medical rehabilitation supports the dissemination of these programmes. The feasibility of this guideline was examined in a multicentre study. This paper presents findings on the relevance of multiprofessional teamwork for the implementation of successful work-related medical rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 7 inpatient orthopaedic rehabilitation teams and examined using qualitative content analysis. Multiprofessional teamwork emerged inductively as a meaningful theme. All teams described multiprofessional teamwork as a work-related medical rehabilitation success factor, referring to its relevance for holistic treatment of multifactorially impaired patients. Although similar indicators of successful multiprofessional teamwork were named, the teams realized multiprofessional teamwork differently. We found 3 team types, corresponding to multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team models. These types and models constitute a continuum of collaborative practice, which seems to be affected by context-related factors. The significance of multiprofessional teamwork for successful multimodal rehabilitation was underlined. Indicators of ideal multiprofessional teamwork and contextual facilitators were specified. The contingency approach to teamwork, as well as the assumption of multiprofessional teamwork as a continuum of collaborative practice, is supported. Stronger consideration of multiprofessional teamwork in the work-related medical rehabilitation guideline is indicated.
Helen N Macpherson
Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that the neural processes which underlie working memory change with age. Both age-related increases and decreases to cortical activity have been reported. This study investigated which stages of working memory are most vulnerable to age-related changes after midlife. To do this we examined age-differences in the 13Hz steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP associated with a spatial working memory delayed response task. Participants were 130 healthy adults separated into a midlife (40 to 60 years and an older group (61 to 82 years. Relative to the midlife group, older adults demonstrated greater bilateral frontal activity during encoding and this pattern of activity was related to better working memory performance. In contrast, evidence of age-related under activation was identified over left frontal regions during retrieval. Findings from this study suggest that after midlife, under-activation of frontal regions during retrieval contributes to age-related decline in working memory performance.