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Sample records for work extremum principle

  1. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  2. Statistical analogues of thermodynamic extremum principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2018-05-01

    As shown by Jaynes, the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions of equilibrium statistical mechanics can be simply derived from the principle of maximum entropy, in which the statistical entropy S=- {k}{{B}}{\\sum }i{p}i{log}{p}i is maximised subject to constraints on the mean values of the energy E and/or number of particles N in a system of fixed volume V. The Lagrange multipliers associated with those constraints are then found to be simply related to the temperature T and chemical potential μ. Here we show that the constrained maximisation of S is equivalent to, and can therefore be replaced by, the essentially unconstrained minimisation of the obvious statistical analogues of the Helmholtz free energy F = E ‑ TS and the grand potential J = F ‑ μN. Those minimisations are more easily performed than the maximisation of S because they formally eliminate the constraints on the mean values of E and N and their associated Lagrange multipliers. This procedure significantly simplifies the derivation of the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions, and shows that the well known extremum principles for the various thermodynamic potentials possess natural statistical analogues which are equivalent to the constrained maximisation of S.

  3. Use and validity of principles of extremum of entropy production in the study of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitor Reis, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown how both the principles of extremum of entropy production, which are often used in the study of complex systems, follow from the maximization of overall system conductivities, under appropriate constraints. In this way, the maximum rate of entropy production (MEP) occurs when all the forces in the system are kept constant. On the other hand, the minimum rate of entropy production (mEP) occurs when all the currents that cross the system are kept constant. A brief discussion on the validity of the application of the mEP and MEP principles in several cases, and in particular to the Earth’s climate is also presented. -- Highlights: •The principles of extremum of entropy production are not first principles. •They result from the maximization of conductivities under appropriate constraints. •The conditions of their validity are set explicitly. •Some long-standing controversies are discussed and clarified

  4. Two-extremum electrostatic potential of metal-lattice plasma and the work function of an electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surma S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal-lattice plasma is treated as a neutral two-component two-phase system of 2D surface and 3D bulk. Free electron density and bulk chemical potential are used as intensive parameters of the system with the phase boundary position determined in the crystalline lattice. A semiempirical expression for the electron screened electrostatic potential is constructed using the lattice-plasma polarization concept. It comprises an image term and three repulsion/attraction terms of second and fourth orders. The novel curve has two extremes and agrees with certain theoretical forms of potential. A practical formula for the electron work function of metals and a simplified schema of electronic structure at the metal/vacuum interface are proposed. This yields 10.44 eV for the Fermi energy of free electron gas; -5.817 eV for the Fermi energy level; 4.509 eV for the average work function of bcc tungsten. Selected data are also given for fcc Cu and hcp Re. For harmonic frequencies ~ 10E16 per s of the self-excited metal-lattice plasma, energy gaps of 14.54 and 8.02 eV are found, which correspond to the bulk and surface plasmons, respectively. Further extension of this thermodynamics and metal-lattice theory based approach may contribute to a better understanding of theoretical models which are employed in chemical physics, catalysis and materials science of nanostructures.

  5. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  6. Model-free stabilization by extremum seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Scheinker, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With this brief, the authors present algorithms for model-free stabilization of unstable dynamic systems. An extremum-seeking algorithm assigns the role of a cost function to the dynamic system’s control Lyapunov function (clf) aiming at its minimization. The minimization of the clf drives the clf to zero and achieves asymptotic stabilization. This approach does not rely on, or require knowledge of, the system model. Instead, it employs periodic perturbation signals, along with the clf. The same effect is achieved as by using clf-based feedback laws that profit from modeling knowledge, but in a time-average sense. Rather than use integrals of the systems vector field, we employ Lie-bracket-based (i.e., derivative-based) averaging. The brief contains numerous examples and applications, including examples with unknown control directions and experiments with charged particle accelerators. It is intended for theoretical control engineers and mathematicians, and practitioners working in various industrial areas ...

  7. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  8. Extremum uncertainty product and sum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, C L; Kumar, S [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Dept. of Physics

    1978-01-01

    The extremum product states and sum states of the uncertainties in non-commuting observables have been examined. These are illustrated by two specific examples of harmonic oscillator and the angular momentum states. It shows that the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator are characterized by the minimum uncertainty sum <(..delta..q)/sup 2/>+<(..delta..p)/sup 2/>. The extremum values of the sums and products of the uncertainties of the components of the angular momentum are also obtained.

  9. Adaptive Extremum Control and Wind Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, i.e., adaptive extremum control and modelling and control of a wind turbine. The rst part of the thesis deals with the design of adaptive extremum controllers for some processes which have the behaviour that process should have as high e ciency as possible...... in parameters, and thus directly lends itself to parameter estimation and adaptive control. The extremum control law is derived based on static optimization of a performance function. For a process with nonlinearity at output the intermediate signal between the linear part and nonlinear part plays an important....... Firstly, it is assumed that the nonlinear processes can be divided into a dynamic linear part and static nonlinear part. Consequently the processes with input nonlinearity and output nonlinearity are treated separately. With the nonlinearity at the input it is easy to set up a model which is linear...

  10. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  11. Extremum seeking control with data-based disturbance feedforward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkov, Sava; De Jager, Bram; Steinbuch, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a practical extension to the classical gradient-based extremum seeking control for the case when the disturbances responsible for the changes in the extremum of a related performance function can be measured. The additional information is used to improve accuracy, convergence

  12. Comparison of Extremum-Seeking Control Techniques for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Han Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to Japan’s recent nuclear crisis and petroleum price hikes, the search for renewable energy sources has become an issue of immediate concern. A promising candidate attracting much global attention is solar energy, as it is green and also inexhaustible. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT controller is employed in such a way that the output power provided by a photovoltaic (PV system is boosted to its maximum level. However, in the context of abrupt changes in irradiance, conventional MPPT controller approaches suffer from insufficient robustness against ambient variation, inferior transient response and a loss of output power as a consequence of the long duration required of tracking procedures. Accordingly, in this work the maximum power point tracking is carried out successfully using a sliding mode extremum-seeking control (SMESC method, and the tracking performances of three controllers are compared by simulations, that is, an extremum-seeking controller, a sinusoidal extremum-seeking controller and a sliding mode extremum-seeking controller. Being able to track the maximum power point promptly in the case of an abrupt change in irradiance, the SMESC approach is proven by simulations to be superior in terms of system dynamic and steady state responses, and an excellent robustness along with system stability is demonstrated as well.

  13. Lectures on mathematical theory of extremum problems

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    The author of this book, Igor' Vladimirovich Girsanov, was one of the first mathematicians to study general extremum problems and to realize the feasibility and desirability of a unified theory of extremal problems, based on a functional­ analytic approach. He actively advocated this view, and his special course, given at the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of the Moscow State University in 1963 and 1964, was apparently the first systematic exposition of a unified approach to the theory of extremal problems. This approach was based on the ideas of Dubovitskii and Milyutin [1]. The general theory of extremal problems has developed so intensely during the past few years that its basic concepts may now be considered finalized. Nevertheless, as yet the basic results of this new field of mathematics have not been presented in a form accessible to a wide range of readers. (The profound paper of Dubovitskii and Milyutin [2] can hardly be recommended for a first study of the theory, since, in particular, it doe...

  14. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison

    2013-05-10

    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  15. Emergent Behavior of Multi-Vehicle Formations Using Extremum Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodecki, M.; Subbarao, K.; Chu, Q.P.

    2013-01-01

    Emergent behavior of a formation flight control system based on an advanced extremum seeking algorithm is investigated. The control system was implemented on a nonlinear high fidelity aircraft model and combined with a wake vortex model in order to accurately represent the aerodynamic coupling

  16. Physical working principles of medical radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-04-01

    There has been research interest in using radar for contactless measurements of the human heartbeat for several years. While many systems have been demonstrated, not much attention have been given to the actual physical causes of why this work. The consensus seems to be that the radar senses small body movements correlated with heartbeats, but whether only the movements of the body surface or reflections from internal organs are also monitored have not been answered definitely. There has recently been proposed another theory that blood perfusion in the skin could be the main reason radars are able to detect heartbeats. In this paper, an experimental approach is given to determine the physical causes. The measurement results show that it is the body surface reflections that dominate radar measurements of human heartbeats.

  17. Dynamic performance of maximum power point tracking circuits using sinusoidal extremum seeking control for photovoltaic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, R.; Artillan, P.; Cabal, C.; Estibals, B.; Alonso, C.

    2011-04-01

    The article studies the dynamic performance of a family of maximum power point tracking circuits used for photovoltaic generation. It revisits the sinusoidal extremum seeking control (ESC) technique which can be considered as a particular subgroup of the Perturb and Observe algorithms. The sinusoidal ESC technique consists of adding a small sinusoidal disturbance to the input and processing the perturbed output to drive the operating point at its maximum. The output processing involves a synchronous multiplication and a filtering stage. The filter instance determines the dynamic performance of the MPPT based on sinusoidal ESC principle. The approach uses the well-known root-locus method to give insight about damping degree and settlement time of maximum-seeking waveforms. This article shows the transient waveforms in three different filter instances to illustrate the approach. Finally, an experimental prototype corroborates the dynamic analysis.

  18. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  19. Principles to promote physician satisfaction and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; West, Colin P; Poland, Gregory A; LaRusso, Nicolas F; Menaker, Ronald; Bahn, Rebecca S

    2008-12-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that difficulty balancing their personal and professional life is a major contributor to physician distress. Limited evidence suggests that the mission and policies of health care organizations may relate to physician satisfaction. In this article, we describe principles to promote professional satisfaction and work-life integration developed by the Mayo Clinic department of medicine. These principles can be used to measure and align policies. It is hoped they will serve as a model that can be used by other health care organizations.

  20. Quantum-Classical Correspondence Principle for Work Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Jarzynski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For closed quantum systems driven away from equilibrium, work is often defined in terms of projective measurements of initial and final energies. This definition leads to statistical distributions of work that satisfy nonequilibrium work and fluctuation relations. While this two-point measurement definition of quantum work can be justified heuristically by appeal to the first law of thermodynamics, its relationship to the classical definition of work has not been carefully examined. In this paper, we employ semiclassical methods, combined with numerical simulations of a driven quartic oscillator, to study the correspondence between classical and quantal definitions of work in systems with 1 degree of freedom. We find that a semiclassical work distribution, built from classical trajectories that connect the initial and final energies, provides an excellent approximation to the quantum work distribution when the trajectories are assigned suitable phases and are allowed to interfere. Neglecting the interferences between trajectories reduces the distribution to that of the corresponding classical process. Hence, in the semiclassical limit, the quantum work distribution converges to the classical distribution, decorated by a quantum interference pattern. We also derive the form of the quantum work distribution at the boundary between classically allowed and forbidden regions, where this distribution tunnels into the forbidden region. Our results clarify how the correspondence principle applies in the context of quantum and classical work distributions and contribute to the understanding of work and nonequilibrium work relations in the quantum regime.

  1. Ethical Principles, Process, and the Work of Bioethics Commissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-05-01

    Shortly after the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues was constituted in 2010 and days before the commission members were to join a conference call to discuss possible topics for their deliberation, Craig Venter held a press conference announcing that his lab had created a synthetic chromosome for a species of mycoplasma and had inserted this genetic material into organisms of another species of mycoplasma (the genes of which had been deactivated), transforming the host species into the donor species. While not overtly claiming to have "created life in the test tube," Venter's publicity seemed cleverly designed to provoke the media into reporting his discovery in just that way. The resulting uproar caused President Obama to give his new bioethics commission the assignment of investigating the ethics of the emerging field of synthetic biology. The commission went right to work. It formed working groups to deliberate about parts of the report, feeding ideas and language to the staff members who would do the actual writing, and then present the working group suggestions to the commission as a whole for public deliberation at open meetings. One of those working groups was charged with coming up with ethical principles that would guide the analysis. Having served as a member of that working group, I report here on the process by which these principles emerged and reflect upon the suitability of that process for the work of public bioethics commissions. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  2. Symmetry Principles and Conservation Laws in Atomic and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a relationship between position, velocity, and accelera- tion. .... tion, namely that the position q and velocity. : q specify ... statement of the `principle of extremum action'. The necessary .... of Pauli{Runge{Lenz vector which is the quantum ana-.

  3. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  4. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  5. Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Common Principles, Common Capacity Limits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus Oberauer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is often described as a system for simultaneous storage and processing. Much research – and most measures of working-memory capacity – focus on the storage component only, that is, people's ability to recall or recognize items after short retention intervals. The mechanisms of processing information are studied in a separate research tradition, concerned with the selection and control of actions in simple choice situations, dual-task constellations, or task-switching setups. both research traditions investigate performance based on representations that are temporarily maintained in an active, highly accessible state, and constrained by capacity limits. In this article an integrated theoretical framework of declarative and procedural working memory is presented that relates the two domains of research to each other. Declarative working memory is proposed to hold representations available for processing (including recall and recognition, whereas procedural working memory holds representations that control processing (i. e., task sets, stimulus-response mappings, and executive control settings. The framework motivates two hypotheses: Declarative and procedural working memory have separate capacity limits, and they operate by analogous principles. The framework also suggests a new characterization of executive functions as the subset of processes governed by procedural working memory that has as its output a change in the conditions of operation of the working-memory system.

  6. Combustion distribution control using the extremum seeking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, A.; Krstic, M.; Djurovic, Z.; Kvascev, G.; Papic, V.

    2014-12-01

    Quality regulation of the combustion process inside the furnace is the basis of high demands for increasing robustness, safety and efficiency of thermal power plants. The paper considers the possibility of spatial temperature distribution control inside the boiler, based on the correction of distribution of coal over the mills. Such control system ensures the maintenance of the flame focus away from the walls of the boiler, and thus preserves the equipment and reduces the possibility of ash slugging. At the same time, uniform heat dissipation over mills enhances the energy efficiency of the boiler, while reducing the pollution of the system. A constrained multivariable extremum seeking algorithm is proposed as a tool for combustion process optimization with the main objective of centralizing the flame in the furnace. Simulations are conducted on a model corresponding to the 350MW boiler of the Nikola Tesla Power Plant, in Obrenovac, Serbia.

  7. Combustion distribution control using the extremum seeking algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjanovic, A; Djurovic, Z; Kvascev, G; Papic, V; Krstic, M

    2014-01-01

    Quality regulation of the combustion process inside the furnace is the basis of high demands for increasing robustness, safety and efficiency of thermal power plants. The paper considers the possibility of spatial temperature distribution control inside the boiler, based on the correction of distribution of coal over the mills. Such control system ensures the maintenance of the flame focus away from the walls of the boiler, and thus preserves the equipment and reduces the possibility of ash slugging. At the same time, uniform heat dissipation over mills enhances the energy efficiency of the boiler, while reducing the pollution of the system. A constrained multivariable extremum seeking algorithm is proposed as a tool for combustion process optimization with the main objective of centralizing the flame in the furnace. Simulations are conducted on a model corresponding to the 350MW boiler of the Nikola Tesla Power Plant, in Obrenovac, Serbia

  8. Group Work with Adolescents: Principles and Practice. Second Edition. Social Work Practice with Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekoff, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This popular text provides essential knowledge and skills for conducting creative, strengths-based group work with adolescents. A rich introduction to the field, enlivened by numerous illustrations from actual sessions, the book provides principles and guidelines for practice in a wide range of settings. The book covers all phases of group work,…

  9. MPPT for Photovoltaic Modules via Newton-Like Extremum Seeking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Leyva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper adapts the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control technique to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic panels. This technique uses the gradient and Hessian of the panel characteristic in order to approximate the operating point to its optimum. The paper describes in detail the gradient and Hessian estimations carried out by means of sinusoidal dithering signals. Furthermore, we compare the proposed technique with the common Extremum Seeking Control that only uses the gradient. The comparison is done by means of PSIM simulations and it shows the different transient behaviors and the faster response of the Newton-like Extremum-Seeking Control solution.

  10. Extremum-Seeking Control and Applications A Numerical Optimization-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    Extremum seeking control tracks a varying maximum or minimum in a performance function such as a cost. It attempts to determine the optimal performance of a control system as it operates, thereby reducing downtime and the need for system analysis. Extremum Seeking Control and Applications is divided into two parts. In the first, the authors review existing analog optimization based extremum seeking control including gradient, perturbation and sliding mode based control designs. They then propose a novel numerical optimization based extremum seeking control based on optimization algorithms and state regulation. This control design is developed for simple linear time-invariant systems and then extended for a class of feedback linearizable nonlinear systems. The two main optimization algorithms – line search and trust region methods – are analyzed for robustness. Finite-time and asymptotic state regulators are put forward for linear and nonlinear systems respectively. Further design flexibility is achieved u...

  11. Formulating Fermat's principle for light traveling in negative refraction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselago, Viktor G

    2002-01-01

    The formulation of Fermat's principle for electromagnetic waves traveling in materials with a negative refractive index is refined. It is shown that a formulation in terms of the minimum (or extremum) of wave travel time between two points is not correct in general. The correct formulation involves the extremum of the total optical length, with the optical length for the wave propagation through left-handed materials taken to be negative. (methodological notes)

  12. An integration weighting method to evaluate extremum coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushchenko, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    The numerical version of the Laplace asymptotics has been used to evaluate the coordinates of extrema of multivariate continuous and discontinuous test functions. The performed computer experiments demonstrate the high efficiency of the integration method proposed. The saturating dependence of extremum coordinates on such parameters as a number of integration subregions and that of K going /theoretically/ to infinity has been studied in detail for the limitand being a ratio of two Laplace integrals with exponentiated K. The given method is an integral equivalent of that of weighted means. As opposed to the standard optimization methods of the zero, first and second order the proposed method can be successfully applied to optimize discontinuous objective functions, too. There are possibilities of applying the integration method in the cases, when the conventional techniques fail due to poor analytical properties of the objective functions near extremal points. The proposed method is efficient in searching for both local and global extrema of multimodal objective functions. 12 refs.; 4 tabs

  13. Applying the principles of augmented learning to photonics laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, U. H. P.; Haupt, Matthias; Reinboth, Christian; Just, Jens-Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Most modern communication systems are based on opto-electrical methods, wavelength division multiplex (WDM) being the most widespread. Likewise, the use of polymeric fibres (POF) as an optical transmission medium is expanding rapidly. Therefore, enabling students to understand how WDM and/or POF systems are designed and maintained is an important task of universities and vocational schools that offer education in photonics. In the current academic setting, theory is mostly being taught in the classroom, while students gain practical knowledge by performing lab experiments utilizing specialized teaching systems. In an ideal setting, students should perform such experiments with a high degree of autonomy. By applying the principles of augmented learning to photonics training, contemporary lab work can be brought closer to these ideal conditions. This paper introduces "OPTOTEACH", a new teaching system for photonics lab work, designed by Harz University and successfully released on the German market by HarzOptics. OPTOTEACH is the first POF-WDM teaching system, specifically designed to cover a multitude of lab experiments in the field of optical communication technology. It is illustrated, how this lab system is supplemented by a newly developed optical teaching software - "OPTOSOFT" - and how the combination of system and software creates a unique augmented learning environment. The paper details, how the didactic concept for the software was conceptualised and introduces the latest beta version. OPTOSOFT is specifically designed not only as an attachment to OPTOTEACH, it also allows students to rehearse various aspects of theoretical optics and experience a fully interactive and feature-rich self-learning environment. The paper further details the first experiences educators at Harz University have made working with the lab system as well as the teaching software. So far, the augmented learning concept was received mostly positive, although there is some potential

  14. Associative memory cells and their working principle in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Hui; Cui, Shan

    2018-01-01

    The acquisition, integration and storage of exogenous associated signals are termed as associative learning and memory. The consequences and processes of associative thinking and logical reasoning based on these stored exogenous signals can be memorized as endogenous signals, which are essential for decision making, intention, and planning. Associative memory cells recruited in these primary and secondary associative memories are presumably the foundation for the brain to fulfill cognition events and emotional reactions in life, though the plasticity of synaptic connectivity and neuronal activity has been believed to be involved in learning and memory. Current reports indicate that associative memory cells are recruited by their mutual synapse innervations among co-activated brain regions to fulfill the integration, storage and retrieval of associated signals. The activation of these associative memory cells initiates information recall in the mind, and the successful activation of their downstream neurons endorses memory presentations through behaviors and emotion reactions. In this review, we aim to draw a comprehensive diagram for associative memory cells, working principle and modulation, as well as propose their roles in cognition, emotion and behaviors. PMID:29487741

  15. Radioprotection regulations of working place and the principle of precaution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisseu, A.

    2004-01-01

    The World Council of Nuclear Workers, WONUC is an association of the Unions and any other organized bodies of the world's nuclear professionals and workers from industry, research and administration involved in nuclear technologies. WONUC is recognized as an N.G.O. by United Nations. It has a deep interest in radiation protection and in the assessment of the hazards associated with the biological effects of low and very low doses of ionizing radiation for at least three reasons: 1.The nuclear workers represent, with radiologists and technicians in hospitals, the largest group of workers for whom exposure to ionizing radiation is the main occupational hazard. 2.Their families usually live in the vicinity of nuclear plants. 3.They will be in charge of the implementation of any regulations. For these reasons, nuclear workers are very much concerned by the controversies which have arisen with regard to the dose limit and the LNT assessment of the risks associated with exposure to low and very low doses of radiation. This debate is of major importance for the future of the radiation protection system for our working conditions in ionizing environment. Two pitfalls must be avoided: fuelling unjustified anxiety on doubtful bases (the analysis of the Chernobyl data show that unjustified anxiety has been more harmful than ionising radiation) or underestimating the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. As it is clear that following topics: The linear no threshold relationship, the effect of dose rate, DNA repair mechanisms, or indirect effects such as genomic instability and bystander effects, Hormesis, To assess the uncertainty of the various risk assessments and to analyse the scientific ways through which these uncertainties could be reduced, ought to be still discussed, the World Council of Nuclear Worker is claiming for the application of the principle of precaution to have the best advantage of the radiation protection system which will cover any

  16. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Thermoelectric Generation System Using the Extremum Seeking Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssennoga Twaha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes and implements maximum power Point Tracking (MPPT control on thermoelectric generation system using an extremum seeking control (ESC algorithm. The MPPT is applied to guarantee maximum power extraction from the TEG system. The work has been carried out through modelling of thermoelectric generator/dc-dc converter system using Matlab/Simulink. The effectiveness of ESC technique has been assessed by comparing the results with those of the Perturb and Observe (P&O MPPT method under the same operating conditions. Results indicate that ESC MPPT method extracts more power than the P&O technique, where the output power of ESC technique is higher than that of P&O by 0.47 W or 6.1% at a hot side temperature of 200 °C. It is also noted that the ESC MPPT based model is almost fourfold faster than the P&O method. This is attributed to smaller MPPT circuit of ESC compared to that of P&O, hence we conclude that the ESC MPPT method outperforms the P&O technique.

  17. Quantum theory and statistical thermodynamics principles and worked examples

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents a concise yet detailed introduction to quantum physics. Concise, because it condenses the essentials to a few principles. Detailed, because these few principles –  necessarily rather abstract – are illustrated by several telling examples. A fairly complete overview of the conventional quantum mechanics curriculum is the primary focus, but the huge field of statistical thermodynamics is covered as well. The text explains why a few key discoveries shattered the prevailing broadly accepted classical view of physics. First, matter appears to consist of particles which, when propagating, resemble waves. Consequently, some observable properties cannot be measured simultaneously with arbitrary precision. Second, events with single particles are not determined, but are more or less probable. The essence of this is that the observable properties of a physical system are to be represented by non-commuting mathematical objects instead of real numbers.  Chapters on exceptionally simple, but h...

  18. The Primacy of Principles: Exploring Journalism Educators' Democratic Imperative to Do Good Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Caryn L.

    2013-01-01

    By engaging in an interdisciplinary examination of the democracy-education relationship, this humanistic inquiry will identify and explore the principles that define journalism educators' special obligation to do good work. My thesis is prefaced on the notion that determining the principles that guide what it means for educators to do good work in…

  19. The sufficient condition for an extremum in the classical action integral as an eingenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pereira, J.G.

    The sufficient condition for an extremum in the classical action integral is studied using Morse's theory. Applications to the classical harmonic and anharmonic oscillators are made. The analogy of the calculations to the quantum mechanical problems in one dimension is stressed. (Author) [pt

  20. Real-time sail and heading optimization for a surface sailing vessel by extremum seeking control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treichel, Kai; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a simplified mathematical model representing the main elements of the behaviour of sailing vessels as a basis for simulation and controller design. For adaptive real-time optimization of the sail and heading angle we then apply extremum seeking control (which is a gradient...

  1. Active vision via extremum seeking for robots in unstructured environments : Applications in object recognition and manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calli, B.; Caarls, W.; Wisse, M.; Jonker, P.P.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel active vision strategy is proposed for optimizing the viewpoint of a robot's vision sensor for a given success criterion. The strategy is based on extremum seeking control (ESC), which introduces two main advantages: 1) Our approach is model free: It does not require an

  2. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basing finite element methods on variational principles, especially if, as maximum and minimum principles, these can provide bounds and hence estimates of accuracy. The non-symmetric (and hence stationary rather than extremum principles) are seen however to play a significant role in optimisation theory. (Orig./A.B.)

  3. I PLAY AT WORK-ten principles for transforming work processes through gamification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprescu, Florin; Jones, Christian; Katsikitis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Gamified workplaces could be a positive and innovative solution to addressing contemporary problems in organizations. Such problems include high levels of stress, reduced sense of community, reduced loyalty and rapid changes in the workforce. To better prepare organizations for the future it may be helpful to identify and understand the potential advantages, disadvantages and areas for future research in relationship to the use of gamification for personal and organizational wellbeing. An analysis of research literature across disciplines in combination with expert opinion identified gamified workplaces as a promising strategy for promoting wellbeing. Furthermore, this paper proposes a set of 10 principles (I PLAY AT WORK) that may support gamification efforts. In addition to the value of mapping the present for the benefit of the future, there is also considerable value in reshaping core ideas related to the workplaces. Gamified workplaces can provide opportunities for a more vigorous and strategic inter-disciplinary research agenda that can stimulate investments in the area.

  4. Conflict at work: basic principles and applied issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Zedeck, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conflict at work is quickly classified as a "darkside" construct that has primarily negative, destructive, and aversive consequences to individual employees’ well-being and task performance, to citizenship behavior and performance in work teams, and to organizational fitness and survival chances. In

  5. Teaching the Principles of Effective Online Course Design: What Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gormley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While much has been written about the pedagogy and challenges of online learning, there is comparatively little research that advises how online course design competencies can be achieved. Certainly a growing range of course design resources is being created and made openly available, but there is a need to evaluate their actual impact on practice. This predominantly qualitative study describes the impact of two learning interventions – open online tutorials and a design and development workshop – aimed at introducing the fundamentals of online course design. Four online course developers at an Irish university were interviewed about their experiences creating multimedia-based online courses. Two of the developers were given access to targeted learning interventions and were subsequently interviewed about their experiences using those interventions. The main findings were that novice online course developers can potentially learn and apply design principles through a dedicated introductory phase, techniques that promote discussion of effective pedagogy, and ongoing collaboration in course design. These strategies could be adapted to specific contexts elsewhere.

  6. Principles in Action: The Work of Henri Wallon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyat, Gilbert

    1974-01-01

    An examination of the life and philosophy of Henri Wallon, A French psychiatrist, psychologist, and educator, focusing on his views regarding the role of imitation in adaptation and learning, emotional development, syncretic thought, his differences with Piaget, and an assessment of the impact of his work. (EH)

  7. From games to gamified workplaces. I PLAY AT WORK principles for transforming work processes through gamification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin eOprescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamified workplaces could be a positive and innovative solution to addressing contemporary problems in organisations. Such problems include high levels of stress, reduced sense of community, reduced loyalty and rapid changes in the workforce. To better prepare organisations for the future it may be helpful to identify and understand the potential advantages, disadvantages and areas for future research in relationship to the use of gamification for personal and organisational wellbeing. An analysis of research literature across disciplines in combination with expert opinion identified gamified workplaces as a promising strategy for promoting wellbeing. Furthermore, this paper proposes a set of 10 principles as part of a gamification guiding framework (I PLAY AT WORK. In addition to the value of mapping the present for the benefit of the future, there is also considerable value in reshaping core ideas related to the workplaces. Gamified workplaces can provide opportunities for a more vigorous and strategic inter-disciplinary research agenda that can stimulate investments in the area.

  8. Laser physics from principles to practical work in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Eichhorn, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This textbook originates from a lecture course in laser physics at the Karlsruhe School of Optics and Photonics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). A main goal in the conception of this textbook was to describe the fundamentals of lasers in a uniform and especially lab-oriented notation and formulation as well as many currently well-known laser types, becoming more and more important in the future. It closes a gap between the measureable spectroscopic quantities and the whole theoretical description and modeling. This textbook contains not only the fundamentals and the context of laser physics in a mathematical and methodical approach important for university-level studies. It allows simultaneously, owing to its conception and its modern notation, to directly implement and use the learned matter in the practical lab work. It is presented in a format suitable for everybody who wants not only to understand the fundamentals of lasers but also use modern lasers or even develop and make laser setups. T...

  9. Ethical principles in the work of nurse educator-A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Leena; Stolt, Minna; Metsämäki, Riikka; Rinne, Jenni; Kasen, Anne; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The application of ethical principles within the teaching profession and nursing practice forms the core of the nurse educator's professional ethics. However, research focusing on the professional ethics of nurse educators is scarce. To describe ethical principles and issues relating to the work of nurse educators from the perspectives of both nurse educators themselves and nursing students. A descriptive study using cross-sectional data and content analysis. Nursing education program involving students from nine polytechnics in Finland. Nursing students (n=202) and nurse educators (n=342). Data were derived from an online survey, with two open-ended questions: Nursing students and nurse educators were asked to name the three main ethical principles that guide the work of nurse educators and also to describe ethical issues involved in the work. Students most often named professionalism, justice, and equality as the main ethical principles for a nurse educator. Nurse educators considered justice, equality, and honesty as the main ethical principles. The content analysis showed that professionalism and the relationship between educator and student were the key categories for ethical issues as perceived by nursing students. Nursing students most often identified inequality between the nurse educator and nursing student as the ethical issue faced by the nurse educator. Nursing students and nurse educators differed somewhat both in their views of the ethical principles guiding an educator's work and in the ethical issues arising in the work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FROM THE POLISH WORKS ON THE CODIFICATION OF JUDICIAL PRINCIPLES OF CONDUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzeniewska-Lasota Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author depicts the process of creating the codification of judicial principles of professional conduct. Firstly, the author describes the beginnings of the “model of a good judge”, followed thereafter by discussion in judicial environment on the need of normative conceptualization of the principles of conduct, which would constitute a separate collection. The proposals of the ethical codifications are presented, together with the two concluding works: The Judicial Set of Principles of Conduct [Zbiór zasad postępowania sędziów] created by the Association of Judges “Iustitia” and The Set of Principles of Professional Conduct for Judges and Candidate Judges [Zbiór zasad etyki zawodowej sędziów i asesorów Sądowych] by the National Council of the Judiciary in Poland.

  11. A new extremum seeking technique and its application to maximize RF heating on FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, D.; Astolfi, A.; Centioli, C.; Podda, S.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new global extremum seeking algorithm to optimize the coupling between the emitting Lower Hybrid (LH) antennas and the plasma scrape off layer in the radiofrequency (RF) heating problem in tokamak plasmas. The new algorithm, where the existing disturbances affecting the system are seen as the probing signals, requires less constraining properties than the previous ones and is more robust. In particular, simulation results are presented illustrating the effectiveness of the algorithm on the Lower Hybrid RF heating of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU).

  12. Social work in a society under pressure. Keeping professional principles and standards upright.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Blok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the content and outcome of the 5th Annual International Conference on Social Work & Social Work Education in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands on February 5, 2016. It shows how Social Work is embedded in society, and describes the pressure of contemporary (international problems on society, and the way in which authorities respond to it. The article continues with a discussion of the answers given by the 200 conference participants on the question how social workers and social work educators could cope with this pressure without denying their international professional principles and standards.

  13. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages

  14. Using Cartoons to Transfer Knowledge Concerning the Principles of Work Disability Prevention Among Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Coutu, Marie-France; Durand, Marie-José; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Loisel, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Purpose This study assesses how well two cartoons transfer knowledge of principles of work disability prevention among stakeholders, according to their level of experience. We also document stakeholders' perceptions of the usefulness of the cartoons. Method We performed a descriptive study. Two groups of stakeholders were recruited: (1) experienced (working for more than 2 years in work disability), (2) non-experienced (in training). A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended questions documented stakeholders' understanding of each cartoon box and their perception of the possible usefulness of the cartoons. We transformed qualitative responses into quantitative responses for descriptive purposes. We performed independent t tests to compare the groups' level of understanding, and content analysis for the perception of usefulness. Results Overall, 149 stakeholders (50 experienced and 99 non-experienced) participated and identified 79.4 and 61.4 % of all principles presented in each of the two cartoons respectively. Experienced stakeholders identified more principles compared to non-experienced stakeholders (p = 0.007). Both cartoons were perceived to be useful for knowledge transfer. Conclusions Principles were generally well identified in the cartoons by all participants. Cartoons can be used as an effective tool among stakeholders to achieve a common understanding in order to coordinate their actions.

  15. Working principle and structure characteristics analysis of the reactivity control drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tianyu; Huang Zhiyong; Chen Feng; He Xuedong

    2010-01-01

    The startup, power regulation and safety shutdown of the nuclear reactor are operated by the reactivity control devices. Reactivity control drive mechanism is a key mechanical transmission component, which directly control the location of the neutron absorber in the core. Its working condition is complex, and its service life should be long., which requires high reliability. PWR as well as newly developed different type of reactors have different control devices drive mechanism. This paper mainly do analysis and comparison about the working environment, mechanical transmission principle, structure, performance, service life and other aspects of PWR, HTR control devices drive mechanism. In addition, this paper is also based on the working principles of reactive control devices drive mechanism, also consider the trends of its design and test verification by the international countries, and discussed the method and feasibility of improving and perfecting the structure and function of drive mechanism. (authors)

  16. A Newton-Based Extremum Seeking MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Systems with Stochastic Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcontroller based maximum power point tracking (MPPT has been the most popular MPPT approach in photovoltaic systems due to its high flexibility and efficiency in different photovoltaic systems. It is well known that PV systems typically operate under a range of uncertain environmental parameters and disturbances, which implies that MPPT controllers generally suffer from some unknown stochastic perturbations. To address this issue, a novel Newton-based stochastic extremum seeking MPPT method is proposed. Treating stochastic perturbations as excitation signals, the proposed MPPT controller has a good tolerance of stochastic perturbations in nature. Different from conventional gradient-based extremum seeking MPPT algorithm, the convergence rate of the proposed controller can be totally user-assignable rather than determined by unknown power map. The stability and convergence of the proposed controller are rigorously proved. We further discuss the effects of partial shading and PV module ageing on the proposed controller. Numerical simulations and experiments are conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT algorithm.

  17. Principles of Work Sample Testing. 1. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    UNIVERSITY % ’ Bowling Green , Ohio 43403 e April 1979 Contract DAHC 19-77-C-0007 Cj Prepared for U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTEfor the BEHAVIORAL and...inferring changes in enotionality, and GSR is said to be a measure of emotion . Much of psychological measurement is derived measurement, but it is...ARI TECHNICAL REPORT TR-79-A8 Principles of Work Sample Testingi I. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses b y Robert M. Guion BOWLING GREEN STATE

  18. Organization principles in visual working memory: Evidence from sequential stimulus display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zaifeng; Gao, Qiyang; Tang, Ning; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2016-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of visual working memory (VWM) have been studied extensively in recent years, the active property of VWM has received less attention. In the current study, we examined how VWM integrates sequentially presented stimuli by focusing on the role of Gestalt principles, which are important organizing principles in perceptual integration. We manipulated the level of Gestalt cues among three or four sequentially presented objects that were memorized. The Gestalt principle could not emerge unless all the objects appeared together. We distinguished two hypotheses: a perception-alike hypothesis and an encoding-specificity hypothesis. The former predicts that the Gestalt cue will play a role in information integration within VWM; the latter predicts that the Gestalt cue will not operate within VWM. In four experiments, we demonstrated that collinearity (Experiment 1) and closure (Experiment 2) cues significantly improved VWM performance, and this facilitation was not affected by the testing manner (Experiment 3) or by adding extra colors to the memorized objects (Experiment 4). Finally, we re-established the Gestalt cue benefit with similarity cues (Experiment 5). These findings together suggest that VWM realizes and uses potential Gestalt principles within the stored representations, supporting a perception-alike hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A time-varying extremum-seeking control approach for discrete-time systems with application to model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guay, M.; Beerens, R.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the solution of a real-time optimization problem using adaptive extremum seeking control for a class of unknown discrete-time nonlinear systems. It is assumed that the equations describing the dynamics of the nonlinear system and the cost function to be minimized are unknown and

  20. Extremum seeking x-ray position feedback using power line harmonic leakage as the perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zohar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small x-ray beam sizes necessary for probing nanoscale phenomena require exquisite stability to prevent data corruption by noise. One source of instability at synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines is the slow detuning of x-ray optics to marginal alignment where the onset of clipping increases the beam’s susceptibility to higher frequency position oscillations. In this article, we show that a 1  μm amplitude horizontal x-ray beam oscillation driven by power line harmonic leakage into the electron storage ring can be used as perturbation for horizontal position extremum seeking feedback. Feedback performance is characterized by convergence to 1.5% away from maximum intensity at optimal alignment.

  1. Formation Flight System Extremum-Seeking-Control Using Blended Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An extremum-seeking control system for formation flight that uses blended performance parameters in a conglomerate performance function that better approximates drag reduction than performance functions formed from individual measurements. Generally, a variety of different measurements are taken and fed to a control system, the measurements are weighted, and are then subjected to a peak-seeking control algorithm. As measurements are continually taken, the aircraft will be guided to a relative position which optimizes the drag reduction of the formation. Two embodiments are discussed. Two approaches are shown for determining relative weightings: "a priori" by which they are qualitatively determined (by minimizing the error between the conglomerate function and the drag reduction function), and by periodically updating the weightings as the formation evolves.

  2. Work-principle model for predicting toxic fumes of nonideal explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Michael S. [National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Center, P.O. Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0070 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    The work-principle from thermodynamics was used to formulate a model for predicting toxic fumes from mining explosives in underground chamber tests, where rapid turbulent combustion within the surrounding air noticeably changes the resulting concentrations. Two model constants were required to help characterize the reaction zone undergoing rapid chemical transformations in conjunction with heat transfer and work output: a stoichiometry mixing fraction and a reaction-quenching temperature. Rudimentary theory with an unsteady uniform concentration gradient was taken to characterize the combustion zone, yielding 75% for the mixing fraction. Four quenching temperature trends were resolved and compared to test results of ammonium nitrate compositions with different fuel-oil percentages (ANFO). The quenching temperature 2345 K was the optimum choice for fitting the two major components of fume toxicity: carbon monoxide (CO) and total nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}). The resulting two-constant model was used to generate comparisons for test results of ANFO compositions with additives. Though respectable fits were usually found, charge formulations which reacted weakly could not be resolved numerically. The work-principle model yields toxic concentrations for a range of charge formulations, making it a useful tool for investigating the potential hazard of released fumes and reducing the risk of unwanted incidents. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Construction techniques and working principles of external cathode Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, Francisco Xavier

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the construction technique and working principles of the external cathode Geiger-Mueller counter are described in detail. During the analysis of the behavior of these counters a new phenomena was observed, related to an increase int he background rate with the applied voltage. The experiments have also shown that the pulse amplitude of those counters decreases exponentially with the counting rate. The counters built with the techniques described in this paper has shown plateaus of about 1400 V with slope of 0,8%/100 V. (author)

  4. When psychologists work with religious clients: applications of the general principles of ethical conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, M A; VanOrman, B T

    1999-12-01

    Psychologists become more effective and relevant when they appreciate that many clients hold religious values and commitments. Greater awareness of religion and religious values in the lives of clients may aid clinicians' efforts to provide more accurate assessments and effective treatment plans. The authors use the American Psychological Association's (1992) "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" as a framework to examine many of the ethical issues relevant when psychologists work with religious clients. This article also provides suggestions for ways in which clinicians may obtain the skills needed to offer competent assessments and interventions with religiously committed clients.

  5. A Symbiosis of Islamic Principles and Basic Human Values on Work and Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokis Rohaiza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some basic issues on work and life based on Islamic and non-religious principles. Work and life are inseparable facets of and for human existence. Work derives from the demands of life, and thus it becomes a responsibility for every individual person. The article attempts to relate some highlighted Qur’anic verses and Hadith with basic occupational values such as honesty, modesty and innovativeness, among others, at workplaces. In the end, it makes an effort to understand the working of the subconscious mind on work to make life worthwhile. The plan for this article is to lay emphasis that the presence of human beings, which includes their mind, energy and whatever they can offer in the forms of work, benefits all. In such a case, not only those humans may be seen as successful in fulfilling the work-needs, but also victorious in completing the life-demands as human beings. “Virtuous workplace” is the most ideal platform for such purpose.

  6. General proof of the entropy principle for self-gravitating fluid in f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiongjun [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures andQuantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University,Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Guo, Minyong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Jing, Jiliang [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures andQuantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University,Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

    2016-08-29

    The discussions on the connection between gravity and thermodynamics attract much attention recently. We consider a static self-gravitating perfect fluid system in f(R) gravity, which is an important theory could explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. We first show that the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation of f(R) theories can be obtained by thermodynamical method in spherical symmetric spacetime. Then we prove that the maximum entropy principle is also valid for f(R) gravity in general static spacetimes beyond spherical symmetry. The result shows that if the constraint equation is satisfied and the temperature of fluid obeys Tolmans law, the extrema of total entropy implies other components of gravitational equations. Conversely, if f(R) gravitational equation hold, the total entropy of the fluid should be extremum. Our work suggests a general and solid connection between f(R) gravity and thermodynamics.

  7. Field differential equations for a potential flow from a Hamilton type variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierros Palacios, A.

    1992-01-01

    The same theoretical frame that was used to solve the problem of the field equations for a viscous fluid is utilized in this work. The purpose is to obtain the differential field equations for a potential flow from the Lagrangian formalism as in classical field theory. An action functional is introduced as a space-time integral over a region of three-dimensional Euclidean space, of a Lagrangian density as a function of certain field variables. A Hamilton type extremum action principle is postulated with adequate boundary conditions, and a set of differential field equations is derived. A particular Lagrangian density of the T-V type leads to the wave equation for the velocity potential. (Author)

  8. Does the principle of minimum work apply at the carotid bifurcation: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beare, Richard J; Das, Gita; Ren, Mandy; Chong, Winston; Sinnott, Matthew D; Hilton, James E; Srikanth, Velandai; Phan, Thanh G

    2011-01-01

    There is recent interest in the role of carotid bifurcation anatomy, geometry and hemodynamic factors in the pathogenesis of carotid artery atherosclerosis. Certain anatomical and geometric configurations at the carotid bifurcation have been linked to disturbed flow. It has been proposed that vascular dimensions are selected to minimize energy required to maintain blood flow, and that this occurs when an exponent of 3 relates the radii of parent and daughter arteries. We evaluate whether the dimensions of bifurcation of the extracranial carotid artery follow this principle of minimum work. This study involved subjects who had computed tomographic angiography (CTA) at our institution between 2006 and 2007. Radii of the common, internal and external carotid arteries were determined. The exponent was determined for individual bifurcations using numerical methods and for the sample using nonlinear regression. Mean age for 45 participants was 56.9 ± 16.5 years with 26 males. Prevalence of vascular risk factors was: hypertension-48%, smoking-23%, diabetes-16.7%, hyperlipidemia-51%, ischemic heart disease-18.7%. The value of the exponent ranged from 1.3 to 1.6, depending on estimation methodology. The principle of minimum work (defined by an exponent of 3) may not apply at the carotid bifurcation. Additional factors may play a role in the relationship between the radii of the parent and daughter vessels

  9. Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices: Working Principle and Iridium Based Emitter Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil J. W. List

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though organic light-emitting device (OLED technology has evolved to a point where it is now an important competitor to liquid crystal displays (LCDs, further scientific efforts devoted to the design, engineering and fabrication of OLEDs are required for complete commercialization of this technology. Along these lines, the present work reviews the essentials of OLED technology putting special focus on the general working principle of single and multilayer OLEDs, fluorescent and phosphorescent emitter materials as well as transfer processes in host materials doped with phosphorescent dyes. Moreover, as a prototypical example of phosphorescent emitter materials, a brief discussion of homo- and heteroleptic iridium(III complexes is enclosed concentrating on their synthesis, photophysical properties and approaches for realizing iridium based phosphorescent polymers.

  10. Personality Development at Work: Workplace Conditions, Personality Changes, and the Corresponsive Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kimdy; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigations concerning adult personality development have increasingly focused on factors that are associated with apparent personality trait changes. The current study contributes to this literature by replicating and extending previous research concerning personality trait development in young adulthood and perceptions of workplace conditions. Method Analyses were based on up to 442 individuals who participated in the ongoing Family Transitions Project (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). The current analyses included personality trait data from 1994 and 2003, high-school grades and SES indicators from 1994, and reports about work conditions in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Results Personality attributes were prospectively associated with work conditions and income. Findings also support the corresponsive principle of personality development (e.g. Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003): Traits that were prospectively associated with particular workplace conditions often seemed to be accentuated by those conditions. Conclusions Personality traits are prospectively associated with perceptions of the workplace. Workplace conditions are also associated with trait development. PMID:23336723

  11. Personality Development at Work: Workplace Conditions, Personality Changes, and the Corresponsive Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kimdy; Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Rand

    2014-02-01

    Investigations concerning adult personality development have increasingly focused on factors that are associated with apparent personality trait changes. The current study contributes to this literature by replicating and extending previous research concerning personality trait development in young adulthood and perceptions of workplace conditions. Analyses were based on up to 442 individuals who participated in the ongoing Family Transitions Project (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). The current analyses included personality trait data from 1994 and 2003, high school grades and socioeconomic status indicators from 1994, and reports about work conditions in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Personality attributes were prospectively associated with work conditions and income. Findings also support the corresponsive principle of personality development (e.g., Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003): Traits that were prospectively associated with particular workplace conditions often seemed to be accentuated by those conditions. Personality traits are prospectively associated with perceptions of the workplace. Workplace conditions are also associated with trait development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Lean principles optimize on-time vascular surgery operating room starts and decrease resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Courtney J; Walsh, Daniel B; Horvath, Alexander J; Walsh, Teri R; Herrick, Daniel P; Prentiss, Steven J; Powell, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Lean process improvement techniques are used in industry to improve efficiency and quality while controlling costs. These techniques are less commonly applied in health care. This study assessed the effectiveness of Lean principles on first case on-time operating room starts and quantified effects on resident work hours. Standard process improvement techniques (DMAIC methodology: define, measure, analyze, improve, control) were used to identify causes of delayed vascular surgery first case starts. Value stream maps and process flow diagrams were created. Process data were analyzed with Pareto and control charts. High-yield changes were identified and simulated in computer and live settings prior to implementation. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of on-time first case starts; secondary outcomes included hospital costs, resident rounding time, and work hours. Data were compared with existing benchmarks. Prior to implementation, 39% of first cases started on time. Process mapping identified late resident arrival in preoperative holding as a cause of delayed first case starts. Resident rounding process inefficiencies were identified and changed through the use of checklists, standardization, and elimination of nonvalue-added activity. Following implementation of process improvements, first case on-time starts improved to 71% at 6 weeks (P = .002). Improvement was sustained with an 86% on-time rate at 1 year (P < .001). Resident rounding time was reduced by 33% (from 70 to 47 minutes). At 9 weeks following implementation, these changes generated an opportunity cost potential of $12,582. Use of Lean principles allowed rapid identification and implementation of perioperative process changes that improved efficiency and resulted in significant cost savings. This improvement was sustained at 1 year. Downstream effects included improved resident efficiency with decreased work hours. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  13. Evaluation of an Extremum Seeking Control Based Optimization and Sequencing Strategy for a Chilled-water Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhongfan; Li, Yaoyu; Mu, Baojie; Salsbury, Timothy I.; House, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Chilled-water plants with multiple chillers account for a significant fraction of energy use in large commercial buildings. Real-time optimization and sequencing of such plants is thus critical for building energy efficiency. Due to the cost and complexity associated with calibrating a chiller plant model to field operation, model-free control has become an attractive solution. Recently, Mu et al. (2015) proposed a model-free real-time optimization and sequencing strategy based on extremum se...

  14. Extremum seeking to control the amplitude and frequency of a pulsed jet for bluff body drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackston, Rowan D.; Wynn, Andrew; Morrison, Jonathan F.

    2016-10-01

    Feedback control of fluid flows presents a challenging problem due to nonlinear dynamics and unknown optimal operating conditions. Extremum seeking control presents a suitable method for many flow control situations but involves its own challenges. In this paper, we provide a brief analysis of the extremum seeking method, with attention to modifications that we find to be advantageous. In particular, we present an adaptation for optimisation of the frequency of a harmonic input signal, a common scenario for open-loop flow control systems. We then present results from the experimental implementation of our modified method to the open-loop control system of Oxlade et al. (J Fluid Mech 770:305-318, 2015), an axisymmetric bluff-body wake, forced by a pulsed jet. We find that the system is able to achieve optimal operating conditions in both the amplitude and frequency of the harmonic input signal, and is able to largely reject the disturbances arising from measurements of a highly turbulent flow. We finally show the ability of the extremum seeking system to adapt to changing conditions.

  15. I PLAY AT WORK—ten principles for transforming work processes through gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprescu, Florin; Jones, Christian; Katsikitis, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Gamified workplaces could be a positive and innovative solution to addressing contemporary problems in organizations. Such problems include high levels of stress, reduced sense of community, reduced loyalty and rapid changes in the workforce. To better prepare organizations for the future it may be helpful to identify and understand the potential advantages, disadvantages and areas for future research in relationship to the use of gamification for personal and organizational wellbeing. An analysis of research literature across disciplines in combination with expert opinion identified gamified workplaces as a promising strategy for promoting wellbeing. Furthermore, this paper proposes a set of 10 principles (I PLAY AT WORK) that may support gamification efforts. In addition to the value of mapping the present for the benefit of the future, there is also considerable value in reshaping core ideas related to the workplaces. Gamified workplaces can provide opportunities for a more vigorous and strategic inter-disciplinary research agenda that can stimulate investments in the area. PMID:24523704

  16. Applications of Context-Aware Computing in Hospital Work - Examples and Design Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind

    2004-01-01

    Context-awareness is a key concept in ubiquitous computing, which sometimes seems to be a technology looking for a purpose. In this paper we report on the application of context-aware computing for medical work in hospitals, which has appeared to be a strong case for applying context-aware comput...... of designing, developing, and evaluating context-aware clinical applications, the paper outlines some key design principles for a context-awareness framework, supporting the development and deployment of context-aware clinical computer applications.......Context-awareness is a key concept in ubiquitous computing, which sometimes seems to be a technology looking for a purpose. In this paper we report on the application of context-aware computing for medical work in hospitals, which has appeared to be a strong case for applying context......-aware computing. We present the design of a context-aware pill container and a context-aware hospital bed, both of which reacts and adapts according to what is happening in their context. The applications have been evaluated in a number of workshop with clinicians and patients. Based on this empirical work...

  17. Intelligent Fiber Optic Sensor for Estimating the Concentration of a Mixture-Design and Working Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Borecki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction and working principles of an intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for examining the concentration of a mixture in conjunction with water. It can find applications e.g. in waste-water treatment plant for selection of a treatment process. The sensor head is the end of a large core polymer optical fiber, which constitutes one arm of an asymmetrical coupler. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on the Fresnel reflection from the air and from the mixture examined when the head is immersed in it. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal can be measured on head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence. Therefore, the measured signal depends on the surface tension, viscosity, turbidity and refraction coefficient of the solution. The signal coming from the head is processed electrically in an opto-electronic interface. Then it is fed to a neural network. The novelty of the proposed sensor lies in that it contains an asymmetrical coupler and a neural network that works in the generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on the efficiency of the asymmetrical coupler, the precision of the opto-electronic signal conversion and the learning accuracy of the neural network. Therefore, the number and quality of the points used for the learning process is very important. By way of example, the paper describes a sensor intended for examining the concentration of liquid soap in water.

  18. Principles of methodology guiding the study of religion as found in the work of Friedrich Heiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Samarina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of methodology in the study of religious phenomena appears as problematic to those Russian experts who deal with the scientific study of religious phenomena. On the other hand, western European researchers have already made much positive progress in this direction. This article attempts to define the principles which guide the scholar in the study of religion as found in the work of the renowned German scholar Friedrich Heiler. The author’s starting point is Heiler’s fundamental concept which permeates all his work and is most clearly defined in his last monograph: «Erscheinungsformen und Wesen der Religion». Heiler gives several pointers to students of religion: attention to detail, a fi rm grounding in the core matter of the object to be studies, and at the same time a comprehensive and panoramic view of religion and religious phenomena as a whole. The author concludes that Heiler’s protracted study of both Christianity and the Eastern religions led him to regard the phenomenological method as the most eff ective. The author presupposes a negative reception of this method by Russian students of religious phenomena due to the fact that the latter are too unfamiliar with Heiler’s work and conclusions

  19. Energy-saving control strategy for lighting system based on multivariate extremum seeking with Newton algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Chun; Dadras, Sara; Huang, Xuegang; Mei, Jun; Malek, Hadi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy-saving control strategy is proposed for multi-group lighting sources. • The proposed controller is designed to minimize the light-energy consumption. • It is designed to speed up the convergence rate without increasing the oscillation. • The minimal energy usage is guaranteed, while keeping the desired lighting level. • Experimental results shows the superiorities of the energy-saving control strategy. - Abstract: In recent years, the energy problem has been a universal concern. In order to improve the lighting energy efficiency and reduce the electric energy consumption, this paper develops an energy-saving control strategy for the lighting system with multiple lighting sources. The control strategy presented in this paper includes two parts: a new multivariate extremum seeking control method with Newton algorithm is developed to minimize the light-energy consumption by separately manipulating the brightness of multiple lighting sources, and a proportion-integration-differentiation control approach is adopted to realize the desired lighting level. The proposed scheme can increase the convergence speed of the closed loop system toward the minimum light-energy consumption, meanwhile, the accuracy of the control strategy will be improved. Experimental results illustrate that the light-energy consumption via the proposed method can reach more rapidly to a smaller vicinity of the minimum energy point, so, the lighting energy efficiency is greatly increased accordingly.

  20. Self-optimizing control of air-source heat pump with multivariable extremum seeking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liujia; Li, Yaoyu; Mu, Baojie; Xiao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The air-source heat pump (ASHP) is widely adopted for cooling and heating of residential and commercial buildings. The performance of ASHP can be controlled by several operating variables, such as compressor capacity, condenser fan speed, evaporator fan speed and suction superheat. In practice, the system characteristics can be varied significantly by the variations in ambient condition, operation setpoint, internal thermal load and equipment degradation, which makes it difficult to obtain accurate plant models. As consequence, the model based control strategies for ASHP could limit the achievable energy efficiency. Model-free self-optimizing control strategies are thus more preferable. In this study, a multi-input extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme is proposed for both heating and cooling operation of ASHP. The zone temperature is assumed to be regulated by the compressor capacity, while the expansion valve opening is used to regulate the suction superheat at the given setpoint. The total power consumption of the compressor, the condenser fan and the evaporator fan is measured as input to the ESC, while the ESC controls the evaporator fan speed, the condenser fan speed and the suction superheat setpoint. The proposed scheme is evaluated with a Modelica based dynamic simulation model of ASHP under both cooling and heating modes of operation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme to achieve the maximum achievable efficiency in a nearly model-free manner. - Highlights: • Multi-input ESC. • Air-source heat pump. • Cooling and heating. • Modelica based model

  1. Real-Time Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Systems by Extremum-Seeking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hernandez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal operation of a stationary sub-critical 11 kW el organic Rankine cycle (ORC unit for waste heat recovery (WHR applications is investigated, both in terms of energy production and safety conditions. Simulation results of a validated dynamic model of the ORC power unit are used to derive a correlation for the evaporating temperature, which maximizes the power generation for a range of operating conditions. This idea is further extended using a perturbation-based extremum seeking (ES algorithm to identify online the optimal evaporating temperature. Regarding safety conditions, we propose the use of the extended prediction self-adaptive control (EPSAC approach to constrained model predictive control (MPC. Since it uses input/output models for prediction, it avoids the need for state estimators, making it a suitable tool for industrial applications. The performance of the proposed control strategy is compared to PID-like schemes. Results show that EPSAC-MPC is a more effective control strategy, as it allows a safer and more efficient operation of the ORC unit, as it can handle constraints in a natural way, operating close to the boundary conditions where power generation is maximized.

  2. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  3. Middle classes: theoretical principles, contemporary working out, regarding the hired workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of defining middle classes. Theoretical principles of social and class structures, including middle classes, are examined. The criteria of reckoning some hired workers as middle classes worked out on the basis of normative methodology (normative criteria are submitted, the most important of them being educational qualifications, occupation, personal income and provision of housing. Methods of statistical and sociologic analysing data are applied. The results of analysing the conformity of the hired workers to the normative criteria of representing middle classes are produced. It is determined that today heads of organizations and their subdivisions as well as certified top and middle management specialists representing middle classes comprise only 2-3 per cent of the total number of the hired workers. It should be noted that there are practically no-one among them who has got a family with two and more children. The low level of wages is the main reason for that. In addition there are some other reasons, too. The results of the research could find application in the state social and economic policy

  4. Associative memory cells and their working principle in the brain [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition, integration and storage of exogenous associated signals are termed as associative learning and memory. The consequences and processes of associative thinking and logical reasoning based on these stored exogenous signals can be memorized as endogenous signals, which are essential for decision making, intention, and planning. Associative memory cells recruited in these primary and secondary associative memories are presumably the foundation for the brain to fulfill cognition events and emotional reactions in life, though the plasticity of synaptic connectivity and neuronal activity has been believed to be involved in learning and memory. Current reports indicate that associative memory cells are recruited by their mutual synapse innervations among co-activated brain regions to fulfill the integration, storage and retrieval of associated signals. The activation of these associative memory cells initiates information recall in the mind, and the successful activation of their downstream neurons endorses memory presentations through behaviors and emotion reactions. In this review, we aim to draw a comprehensive diagram for associative memory cells, working principle and modulation, as well as propose their roles in cognition, emotion and behaviors.

  5. On Coping and Defending: Applying Bruner's Personal Growth Principles to Working with Gifted/Talented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.; Jenkins-Friedman, Reva

    1988-01-01

    The article describes two approaches, based on the ideas of Jerome Bruner, to helping gifted students handle the social-emotional tasks involved in actualizing their abilities. One approach stresses developmental principles of Bruner while the other applies Bruner's principles to personal and group empowering. (DB)

  6. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlović, S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly through the whole product independently of its quantity and shape. These processing characteristics combined with improved food microbiological safety, less energy expenditure, low concentration of waste products and longer shelf life make high-pressure processing a very promising novel food technology. Combined with lower cost of treatment (but unfortunately higher initial cost of equipment compared to traditional processing technologies, it is also economically profitable. The main purpose of such treated food products are in preservation of sensory, nutritive and textural properties. As the temperature increase is very low, there are no significant changes in sensory properties, in contrast to conventional thermal processing (sterilization, pasteurization. However, with the combination of heating or cooling and high pressure, modification of existing and creation of new food products is possible. Today, high pressure is used for the treatment of meat products (inactivation of microorganisms, freezing and defrosting of foodstuffs, production of fruit juices (pasteurization, processing of oysters, modificationof milk characteristics (foaming etc. The main purpose of this work is to present the working principle and application of high pressure in the food industry.

  7. Algorithm for locating the extremum of a multi-dimensional constrained function and its application to the PPPL Hybrid Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.

    1978-03-01

    A description is presented of a general algorithm for locating the extremum of a multi-dimensional constrained function. The algorithm employs a series of techniques dominated by random shrinkage, steepest descent, and adaptive creeping. A discussion follows of the algorithm's application to a ''real world'' problem, namely the optimization of the price of electricity, P/sub eh/, from a hybrid fusion-fission reactor. Upon the basis of comparisons with other optimization schemes of a survey nature, the algorithm is concluded to yield a good approximation to the location of a function's optimum

  8. Treatment of Mobbing in School: Principles for and the Results of the Work of an Anti Mobbing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikas, Anatol

    1975-01-01

    Article attempted to define the concept of mobbing and to develop principles of treatment in connection with cases which really occur, and to use the work in a regular university course providing students with successful personal therapeutic experiences. (Author/RK)

  9. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work; Kontrollrumsfilosofi: Principer foer kontrollrumsutformning och kontrollrumsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla [Scandpower Risk Management AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages.

  10. Tracking the maximum efficiency point for the FC system based on extremum seeking scheme to control the air flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Maximum Efficiency Point (MEP) is tracked based on air flow rate. • The proposed Extremum Seeking (ES) control assures high performances. • About 10 kW/s search speed and 99.99% stationary accuracy can be obtained. • The energy efficiency increases with 3–12%, according to the power losses. • The control strategy is robust based on self-optimizing ES scheme proposed. - Abstract: An advanced control of the air compressor for the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) system is proposed in this paper based on Extremum Seeking (ES) control scheme. The FC net power is mainly depended on the air and hydrogen flow rate and pressure, and heat and water management. This paper proposes to compute the optimal value for the air flow rate based on the advanced ES control scheme in order to maximize the FC net power. In this way, the Maximum Efficiency Point (MEP) will be tracked in real time, with about 10 kW/s search speed and a stationary accuracy of 0.99. Thus, energy efficiency will be close to the maximum value that can be obtained for a given PEMFC stack and compressor group under dynamic load. It is shown that the MEP tracking allows an increasing of the FC net power with 3–12%, depending on the percentage of the FC power supplied to the compressor and the level of the load power. Simulations shows that the performances mentioned above are effective

  11. The Principle-Practical Discourse Edge: Elementary Preservice and Mentor Teachers Working Together on Colearning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunckel, Kristin L.; Wood, Marcy B.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in preparing elementary teachers to teach inquiry-based science is finding qualified mentor teachers who use research-based approaches to teach science in their classrooms. This situation means preservice teachers often see few connections between the research-based principles for teaching science they learn in university-based…

  12. Children's Conceptions of Work and Play: Exploring an Alternative to the Discounting Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Beth A.; Berger, Andrea R.

    Factors such as an expected reward have been shown to severely undermine individuals' intrinsic interest in a given task. This "overjustification effect," or "discounting principle," has been demonstrated across the life span, except in the case of young children, who have been shown to be incapable of engaging in this…

  13. Teaching Hybrid Principles of Finance to Undergraduate Business Students--Can It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letterman, Denise

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between course design and predictor variables: motivation, satisfaction, and success for students enrolled in the hybrid Principles of Finance course. The participants for this research project were 117 undergraduate students (encompassing 6 semesters) at Robert Morris University,…

  14. Design Principles of Worked Examples: A Review of the Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yi; Tsai, Hui-Chun

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers investigated the efficacy of using worked examples in classroom instruction and provided evidence in the effectiveness of worked example instruction in mathematics, computer programming, physics, and etc. However, there are limited studies in worked example design. The purpose of this study is to generate the instructional design…

  15. Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control Scheme Based on PSO for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Terng Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extremum seeking control (ESC scheme is proposed for maximum power point tracking (MPPT in photovoltaic power generation systems. The robustness of the proposed scheme toward irradiance changes is enhanced by implementing the ESC scheme using a sliding mode control (SMC law. In the proposed approach, the chattering phenomenon caused by high frequency switching is suppressed by means of a sliding layer concept. Moreover, in implementing the proposed controller, the optimal value of the gain constant is determined using a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed PSO-based sliding mode ESC (SMESC control scheme yields a better transient response, steady-state stability, and robustness than traditional MPPT schemes based on gradient detection methods.

  16. Ergonomics principles to design clothing work for electrical workers in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Juan; Cubillos, A

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of the Colombian legislation, have been identified the need to develop protective clothing to work according to specifications from the work done and in compliance with international standards. These involve the development and design of new strategies and measures for work clothing design. In this study we analyzes the activities of the workers in the electrical sector, the method analyzes the risks activity data in various activities, that activities include power generation plants, local facilities, industrial facilities and maintenance of urban and rural networks. The analyses method is focused on ergonomic approach, risk analysis is done, we evaluate the role of security expert and we use a design algorithm developed for this purpose. The result of this study is the identification of constraints and variables that contribute to the development of a model of analysis that leads to the development the work protective clothes.

  17. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  18. Reach-to-grasp movements in Macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the “isochrony principle” seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23658547

  19. The Integrative Principle: Higher Education and Work-Based Learning in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom's developing policy to integrate higher education curriculum and the demands of the workplace is explored, particularly in the context of undergraduate and graduate programs based on learning within the workplace. The policy itself, the relationship between work-based learning and conventional college instruction, and validation…

  20. Decomposition principles applied to the dynamic production and work-force scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardal, K.I.; Ari, A.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the production and inventory planning field, is the scheduling of production and work force in a dynamic environment. Although this problem can be formulated as a linear program, it is often quite difficult to solve directly, due to its large scale. Instead, it

  1. Fuel cell technology for classroom instruction. Basic principles, experiments, work sheets. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Cornelia; Hoeller, Stefan; Kueter, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This book provides a clear introduction and overview to fuel cell technology and its associated subject areas. Examples of experiments using solar cells, electrolysis and fuel cells convey the knowledge for forthcoming tests in an understandable manner. The preparation of classroom experiments is made considerably easier for the teacher thanks to the experiment work sheets. These contain the necessary information concerning the material, set-up and execution of the experiment, and questions for evaluation purposes. Online-Shop The training documents and student work sheets combine the basic knowledge, questions and answers, and are ideal for copying. A comprehensive glossary at the end of the book explains all the important technical terms. (orig.)

  2. Development of methodological principles for organization of students’ independent work in the e-learning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Іванович Пушкар

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of organization of professional competence formation of students’ independent work in e-learning is proposed in the article. Implementation of the proposed model of competence formation in e-learning is done on the example of multimedia complex for discipline "Processes of publishing and printing". Selection of the most important components for each competence is made on the basis of Saaty method

  3. Formulation of basic principles for innovative combustion and work processes; Projekt Erarbeitung von Grundlagen fuer innovative Brennverfahren und motorische Arbeitsprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, G.; Escher, A.; Boulouchos, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme IET, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 presents a review of work being done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on the development of basic principles for innovative combustion and work processes. A successfully-used approach involving reaction-path analysis, heat-release analysis and the optimisation of bio-inspired algorithms is discussed. Experimental investigations made using the high-pressure, high-temperature cell at the ETH are described and initial results are discussed. The commissioning of a one-stroke Rapid Compression Machine EHT and the results of initial experiments are presented.

  4. Engineering the work function of buckled boron α-sheet by lithium adsorption: a first-principles investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bing; Yu, Hai-tao; Xie, Ying; Lian, Yong-fu

    2014-11-26

    First-principles density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effect of Li adsorption on the structural and electronic properties, particularly the work function, of boron α-sheet. The calculated binding energies indicated that boron α-sheet could be well stabilized by the adsorption of Li atoms. Furthermore, the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron α-sheets were observed to decrease drastically with increasing Li coverage. The work functions are lower than that of Mg and even, for some of them, lower than that of Ca, indicating a considerable potential application of Li-adsorbed boron α-sheets as field-emission and electrode materials. Based on the calculated geometric and electronic structures, we discuss in details some possible aspects affecting the work function. The Li coverage dependence of the work functions of Li-adsorbed boron α-sheets was further confirmed by electrostatic potential analyses. The relationship between the work function variation and the Fermi and vacuum energy level shifts was also discussed, and we observed that the variation of the work function is primarily associated with the shift of the Fermi energy level. It is the surface dipole formed by the interaction between adatoms and substrate that should be responsible for the observed variation of the work function, whereas the increasing negative charge and rumpling for boron α-sheet only play minor roles. Additionally, the effect of Li adatoms on the work function of boron α-sheet was confirmed to be much stronger than that of graphene or a graphene double layer.

  5. Engineering the work function of armchair graphene nanoribbons using strain and functional species: a first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xihong; Tang Fu; Copple, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    First principles density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effects of strain, edge passivation, and surface functional species on the structural and electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs), with a particular focus on the work function. The work function was found to increase with uniaxial tensile strain and decrease with compression. The variation of the work function under strain is primarily due to the shift of the Fermi energy with strain. In addition, the relationship between the work function variation and the core level shift with strain is discussed. Distinct trends of the core level shift under tensile and compressive strain were discovered. For AGNRs with the edge carbon atoms passivated by oxygen, the work function is higher than for nanoribbons with the edge passivated by hydrogen under a moderate strain. The difference between the work functions in these two edge passivations is enlarged (reduced) under a sufficient tensile (compressive) strain. This has been correlated to a direct-indirect bandgap transition for tensile strains of about 4% and to a structural transformation for large compressive strains at about - 12%. Furthermore, the effect of the surface species decoration, such as H, F, or OH with different covering density, was investigated. It was found that the work function varies with the type and coverage of surface functional species. Decoration with F and OH increases the work function while H decreases it. The surface functional species were decorated on either one side or both sides of AGNRs. The difference in the work functions between one-sided and two-sided decorations was found to be relatively small, which may suggest an introduced surface dipole plays a minor role. (paper)

  6. THE GOSPEL TEXT IN DOSTOYEVSKY'S WORKS IN THE LIGHT OF GENERAL FORM-PRODUCING PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Syzranov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The artistic functions of the Gospel text in Dostoyevsky’s Th e Double, Notes from the Underground and The Idiot" are examined in the light of Losev’s aesthetic theory. The focus is on the fact that the categories of Prime-image, Myth, Name take important place both in Losev’s aesthetics and Dostoyevsky’s poetics. Dynamics of the form-producing process is described by Losev as a dialectical way of the movement of Image towards Prime-image, its purpose is their complete equation. In Dostoyevsky’s works this dynamics is already apparent at onomapoetics: hero’s name actualizes dialectical relations between the character and its ideal prototype. These relations are materialized in diverse interactions of the artistic and the Gospel texts. Gospel text is actively involved in the process of formation; it carries interpenetration of architectonics and of composition aspects of artistic form, organizes artistic teleology of the writer’s works. Teleological direction of artistic myth created by Dostoyevsky embodies teleology of Absolute Myth of Sacred history.

  7. General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pedro, Victoria; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Arsyad, Waode-Sukmawati; Barea, Eva M; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bisquert, Juan

    2014-02-12

    Organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells have recently realized large conversion efficiency over 15% showing great promise for a new large scale cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. Using impedance spectroscopy measurements we are able to separate the physical parameters of carrier transport and recombination in working devices of the two principal morphologies and compositions of perovskite solar cells, viz. compact thin films of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx and CH3NH3PbI3 infiltrated on nanostructured TiO2. The results show nearly identical spectral characteristics indicating a unique photovoltaic operating mechanism that provides long diffusion lengths (1 μm). Carrier conductivity in both devices is closely matched, so that the most significant differences in performance are attributed to recombination rates. These results highlight the central role of the CH3NH3PbX3 semiconductor absorber in carrier collection and provide a new tool for improved optimization of perovskite solar cells. We report for the first time a measurement of the diffusion length in a nanostructured perovskite solar cell.

  8. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  9. The death instinct and the mental dimension beyond the pleasure principle in the works of Spielrein and Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caropreso, Fátima

    2017-12-01

    In 'Destruction as Cause of Come-into-being', Spielrein argues for the need of postulating the existence of a death instinct in mental functioning. The idea that she thus anticipated the concept of death instinct Freud introduced in 1920 is often found in psychoanalytic literature. But the specific meaning of Spielrein's hypothesis is seldom discussed, as well as the extent to which she anticipated Freud's concept. In fact, there are important differences between their views. Besides, a closer analysis of Spielrein's text reveals other ideas that come close to fundamental aspects of Freud's theories from 1920 onwards, particularly the assumption of a more primordial mental functioning than the one regulated by the pleasure principle. But also here there are important differences between the views sustained by both authors. With this in view, the objective of this paper is firstly to discuss some hypotheses formulated by Spielrein in her 1912 work in order to elucidate her concept of death instinct as well as her hypothesis of the existence of a more primitive mental functioning than the one governed by the pleasure principle. Next, the question of the possible similarities and differences with regard to Freud's concepts is also addressed. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  10. Observer-Based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control with Input Constraints for Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2017-05-08

    An Observer-based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control (PESC) is proposed for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D Advection-Diffusion Equation (ADE) model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimize the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analyzed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.

  11. Observer-based perturbation extremum seeking control with input constraints for direct-contact membrane distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleiwi, Fadi; Laleg-Kirati, Taous Meriem

    2018-06-01

    An observer-based perturbation extremum seeking control is proposed for a direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D advection-diffusion equation model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimise the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analysed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.

  12. First-principles study of structural and work function properties for nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Xiji; Li, Detian; Cai, Jianqiu; Luo, Haijun; Dong, Changkun

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Substitutional nitrogen atom doping in capped (5, 5) SWNT is investigated. • Serious defects appear from breaks of C−N bonds with N contents of above 23.3 at.%. • Work function drops after N doping and may reach 4.1 eV. - Abstract: The structural and electronic properties of the capped (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), including the structural stability, the work function, and the charge transfer performance, are investigated for the substitutional nitrogen atom doping under different concentrations by first-principles density functional theory. The geometrical structure keeps almost intact with single or two N atom doping, while C−N bonds may break up with serious defects for N concentrations of 23.3 at.% and above. The SWNT remains metallic and the work function drops after doping due to the upward shift of Fermi level, leading to the increase of the electrical conductivity. N doping enhances the oxygen reduction activity stronger than N adsorption because of higher charge transfers.

  13. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION IN THE EARLY WORK OF NIKOLAY BERDYAEV (1900–1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Boldareva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the anthropological principles of the philosophy of religion which served as the basis of the early thought of N. A. Berdyaev. The author’s aim is to investigate this little known period in the work of Berdyaev during the decade from 1900 to 1910. Several problems are resolved through a study of the source material examined by the author of this article: 1 The principle phases of the evolution of Berdyaev’s thought are traced which brought the philosopher from Marxism to becoming a follower of Kant, and from idealistic metaphysics to religious philosophy; 2 This early period is examined to determine its importance in the formation of Berdyaev as an independent and original thinker; 3 The problem of the rapport between universality and individuality is studied in all of its aspects (both social and aesthetic in the early thought of Berdyaev as well as Berdyaev’s understanding of the chuvstvo lichnosti (sense of personality?. As a result we can demarcate several phases of the thought of Berdyaev during his early period which differ from one another in their thematic outlook: an enthusiasm for Marxism and later Neo-Kantism, a transition to spiritualism, a conversion to a new religious consciousness, and a finally a more moderate view of all these perceptions. The author concludes that it is necessary to question the accepted theses of the relevant literature which irrevocably claims that Berdyaev rejected Orthodox asceticism and was thus the creator of an anthropocentric and amoral philosophy

  14. Potential thermoelectric material open framework Si24 from a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Tao; Zhang, Pei; Xiao, Huaping; Tang, Chao; Li, Jin; He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Open framework Si 24 is a new synthesis cage-like silicon allotrope with a quasi-direct bandgap and predicted to exhibit outstanding adsorption efficiency, foreshowing the potential applications in the photovoltaic community. In this paper, the thermoelectric property of such new Si structures is investigated by combining first-principles calculation and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. The calculations show that the Si 24 possesses a superb Seebeck coefficient, and obviously anisotropic electronic conductivity. Owing to more energy extremums existing in the conduction band region, the power factor of Si 24 in the n-type doping is always better than that in p-type samples. Anisotropic phonon transport property is observed as well in Si 24 with average lattice thermal conductivity of 45.35 W m −1 K −1 at room temperature. Based on the electron relaxation time estimated from the experiment, the thermoelectric figure of merit of Si 24 is found to be as high as 0.69 (n-type doping at 700 K) and 0.51 (p-type doping at 700 K) along the xx crystal direction, which is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of diamond Si ( d -Si). The findings presented in this work shed light on the thermoelectric performance of Si 24 and qualify that such new Si allotrope is a promising platform for achieving the recombination of photovoltaic and thermoelectric technologies together. (paper)

  15. Principles for a Code of Conduct for the Sustainable Management of Mangrove Ecosystems: A Work in Progress for Public Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas

    The Principles for a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Management of Mangrove Ecosystems is a guide to assist states, local and national non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to develop cooperatively local codes, laws and/or regulations to protect mangroves and the critical functions......, grassroots organizations and other interested individuals and groups. The Principles were formulated based on a review of global mangrove management experience, about fifteen country case studies, including Auastralia, from all regions where mangroves exist, and seven regional workshops to date. The purpose...... of making a presentation on the Mangrove Principles at IMPAC is to gain additional feedback from interested stakeholders and experts, in particular, to provide inputs to the content of the Principles and recommendations for activities to promote their use as a management tool. The Principles and many...

  16. O trabalho como princípio educativo: algumas reflexões Work as educational principle: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Após algumas reflexões sobre o conceito de trabalho e formação, este artigo aborda algumas orientações, ou princípios, que podem contribuir para a organização de programas de formação de adultos. Ao trabalhar em programas de formação dessa natureza, devemos ter em mente que trabalhamos com indivíduos que já possuem conhecimentos elaborados, experiências práticas e vivências que devem ser consideradas como ponto de partida. Assim, devemos considerar que a aprendizagem acontece ao longo da vida, e que um curso é apenas parte do percurso de aprendizagem. Outro aspecto importante é que programas de formação para adultos, especialmente aqueles desenvolvidos em situação de trabalho, devem ter sentido para aqueles que irão participar. Os participantes devem, portanto, aderir voluntariamente à proposta; caso contrário, ela poderá ser entendida apenas como algo imposto, e não como um ganho profissional efetivo. Nas situações de formação em situações de trabalho, é também fundamental que os programas sejam elaborados a partir de um apurado conhecimento da realidade daqueles que irão participar. Avaliar e preservar a memória do que foi realizado evita que ocorram eternos recomeços. Por fim, é fundamental que os programas de formação contem também com um programa de apoio aos participantes, de tal forma que eles se sintam mais seguros no trilhar os caminhos das mudanças, quando retornarem aos seus respectivos espaços de trabalho.After a glance at concepts such as work and education, this article approaches some orientations or principles that can contribute to the organization of adult education courses. When we work in education programs of this nature, we must always have in mind that we are working with individuals who already have theoretical knowledge and practical experiences that must be considered as starting points. We have to consider that learning happens throughout one's life and a course is no more

  17. Principles for a code of conduct for the sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems: a work in progress for public discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas

    The Principles for a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Management of Mangrove Ecosystems is a guide to assist states, local and national non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to develop cooperatively local codes, laws and/or regulations to protect mangroves and the critical functions...... they serve with regard to contributions to local livelihood, biodiversity conservation and coastal protection though sustainable management. The objective is to help bring attention to the importance of mangrove ecosystems, particularly to policy makers, to help arrest and reverse their loss. The Principles...... mangrove management experience, about fifteen country case studies from all regions where mangroves exist, and seven regional workshops to date. The purpose of the presentation at this ReNED forum is gain additional feedback from researchers, in particular, to provide input on the content of the Principles...

  18. Practices and Processes Used in the Return to Work of Injured New South Wales nurses: Are These Consistent With RTW Best Practice Principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carole; Antoine, Michelle; Guest, Maya; Rivett, Darren; Kable, Ashley

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Workplace injury and illness rates are high within the nursing profession, and in conjunction with current nursing shortages, low retention rates, and the high cost of workplace injury, the need for effective return to work (RTW) for injured nurses is highlighted. This study aimed to identify current practices and processes used in the RTW of injured nurses, and determine if these are consistent with the seven principles for successful RTW as described by the Canadian Institute for Work & Health. Method As part of a larger cross-sectional study, survey data were collected from New South Wales nurses who had sustained a major workplace injury or illness. Survey questions were coded and matched to the seven principles for successful RTW. Results Of the 484 surveys eligible for analysis, most were from Registered Nurses (52%) in the Public Hospital Sector (48%). Responses indicated four main areas of concern: a commitment to health and safety by the workplace; early and considerate employer contact; provision of modified work; and individual knowledge of and involvement in the RTW process. Positive participant responses to co-worker and supervisor involvement were identified as areas consistent with best practice principles. Conclusions These findings suggest the practices and processes involved in the RTW of injured nurses are inconsistent with best practice principles for RTW, highlighting the need for interventions such as targeted employer education and training for improved industry RTW outcomes.

  19. The Syndrome Burnout as Deterioration of Work Environment and the TST Position of the Use of the Principles And Concepts Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Fabiola Brito Tuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the applicability of environmental principles in cases of syndrome of "burnout". For this, it will analyze the concepts of general environment and its categories, highlighting the working environment in which the characteristics of its healthiness will be appointed. They will be treated also the concepts of degradation of environmental quality and pollution, and how they occur in the middle working environment, emphasizing the protection of quality of life and health of workers. So relate the "burnout" syndrome as the middle work environment degradation factor, and discussed the consequences of this framework. Finally, recent decisions will be presented the Superior Labor Court (TST about this psychological pathology.

  20. Shaped by asymmetrical interdependence: a qualitative case study of the external influences on international non-governmental organizations' implementation of equity principles in HIV/AIDS work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Elizabeth; Edwards, Nancy; McDowell, Ian; Muga, Richard; Brown, Stephen

    2014-10-08

    Addressing inequities is a key role for international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) working in health and development. Yet, putting equity principles into practice can prove challenging. In-depth empirical research examining what influences INGOs' implementation of equity principles is limited. This study examined the influences on one INGO's implementation of equity principles in its HIV/AIDS programs. This research employed a case study with nested components (an INGO operating in Kenya, with offices in North America). We used multiple data collection methods, including document reviews, interviews (with staff, partners and clients of the INGO in Kenya), and participant observation (with Kenyan INGO staff). Participant observation was conducted with 10 people over three months. Forty-one interviews were completed, and 127 documents analyzed. Data analysis followed Auerbach and Silverstein's analytic process (2003), with qualitative coding conducted in multiple stages, using descriptive matrices, visual displays and networks (Miles and Huberman, 1994). There was a gap between the INGO's intent to implement equity principles and actual practice due to multiple influences from various players, including donors and country governments. The INGO was reliant on donor funding and needed permission from the Kenyan government to work in-country. Major influences included donor agendas and funding, donor country policies, and Southern country government priorities and legislation. The INGO privileged particular vulnerable populations (based on its reputation, its history, and the priorities of the Kenyan government and the donors). To balance its equity commitment with the influences from other players, the INGO aligned with the system as well as pushed back incrementally on the donors and the Kenyan government to influence these organizations' equity agendas. By moving its equity agenda forward incrementally and using its reputational advantage, the INGO avoided

  1. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  2. Testing and extending the triple match principle in the nursing profession: a generational perspective on job demands, job resources and strain at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle

    2014-02-01

    The Triple Match Principle offers insight into the interactive interplay between job demands and job resources in the prediction of work-related strain. The aim of this article was to examine the interplay among job demands, job resources and strain in the nursing profession (the Triple Match Principle) and to gain insight into potential generational differences by investigating generation as a moderator of that interplay. No research has been done to evaluate generational differences in the Triple Match Principle. In a context of nursing shortages, it seems important to examine the relevance of the Triple Match Principle with respect to different generations of nurses. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1254 public healthcare sector nurses in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire in the autumn of 2010. The questionnaire was used to assess cognitive, emotional and physical job demands and resources; psychological distress; psychosomatic complaints; and turnover intention. The results supported the Triple Match Principle and showed that job resources were more likely to buffer the effect of job demands on strain as the degree of match in qualitative dimension among demands, resources and strain increased (33·3% of triple-match interactions, 22·22% of double-match interactions and 16·67% non-match interactions were significant). Moreover, generation played a key role in this interplay, as it increased the number of significant qualitative interactions among job demands, job resources and strain. The results underscore the necessity of providing adequate job resources tailored to the specific job demands nurses face, to counteract the negative effects of those demands. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Design and application of air-conditioning suit based on eddy current cooling principle for distribution network working with power uninterrupted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Liu, Lanlan; Niu, Jie; Tang, Li; Li, Jinliang; Zhou, Zhanfan; Long, Chenhai; Yang, Qi; Yi, Ziqi; Guo, Hao; Long, Yang; Fu, Yanyi

    2017-05-01

    As social requirement of power supply reliability keeps rising, distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been widely carried out, while the high - temperature operating environment in summer can easily lead to physical discomfort for the operators, and then lead to safety incidents. Aiming at above problem, air-conditioning suit for distribution network working with power uninterrupted has been putted forward in this paper, and the structure composition and cooling principle of which has been explained, and it has been ultimately put to on-site application. The results showed that, cooling effect of air-conditioning suits was remarkable, and improved the working environment for the operators effectively, which is of great significance to improve Chinese level of working with power uninterrupted, reduce the probability of accidents and enhance the reliability of power supply.

  4. Ranking and analysis administrative barriers of fundamental principles and rights at work from the perspective of employers by using parametrical analysis and the TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Bordbar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ILO, adopted and communicated several types of document which include Conventions, recommendations, resolutions and statements etc.among all of them, convention has a special place because the members states accept duties and obligations. Among these conventions, those conventions that are related to the fundamental rights of labor had special importance and prestige. Member countries of the Organization like Iran are required to implement the relevant commitments. this study aimed to analyze administrative obstacles of the Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work by getting weight to problems and ranking them. The result of study show that Prohibition of child labor is more important than other aspects of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. in aspect of child labor most important obstacle was "red tape" ,in others categories result was as follow: in lack of collective bargaining most important obstacle was made emotional decisions, in forced labor most important obstacle was distrust of other workers, in gender discrimination most important obstacle was Working environment, in people inequality most important obstacle was Subjective judgments manager.

  5. Interviews for the assessment of long-term incapacity for work: a study on adherence to protocols and principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Wout E. L.; Wind, Haije; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Willems, Han H. B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Social insurance assessments for long-term incapacity for work are performed by Social Insurance Physicians (SIPs) who rely on interviews with claimants as an important part of the process. These interviews, however, are susceptible to bias. For that reason, in the Netherlands

  6. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  7. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver tumors. Principles and practical guidelines of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzing, Florian; Brunner, Thomas B.; Ernst, Iris; Greve, Burkhard; Baus, Wolfgang W.; Herfarth, Klaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a practical guideline for safe and effective stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver tumors. The literature on the clinical evidence of SBRT for both primary liver tumors and liver metastases was reviewed and analyzed focusing on both physical requirements and special biological characteristics. Recommendations were developed for patient selection, imaging, planning, treatment delivery, motion management, dose reporting, and follow-up. Radiation dose constraints to critical organs at risk are provided. SBRT is a well-established treatment option for primary and secondary liver tumors associated with low morbidity. (orig.) [de

  8. Closed-form dynamics of a hexarot parallel manipulator by means of the principle of virtual work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrammehr, Siamak; Nahavandi, Saeid; Abdi, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    In this research, a systematic approach to solving the inverse dynamics of hexarot manipulators is addressed using the methodology of virtual work. For the first time, a closed form of the mathematical formulation of the standard dynamic model is presented for this class of mechanisms. An efficient algorithm for solving this closed-form dynamic model of the mechanism is developed and it is used to simulate the dynamics of the system for different trajectories. Validation of the proposed model is performed using SimMechanics and it is shown that the results of the proposed mathematical model match with the results obtained by the SimMechanics model.

  9. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver tumors. Principles and practical guidelines of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzing, Florian [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Klinische Kooperationseinheit Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Brunner, Thomas B. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Radiologische Klinik, Freiburg (Germany); Ernst, Iris; Greve, Burkhard [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Baus, Wolfgang W. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Koeln (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias [UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich, Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a practical guideline for safe and effective stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver tumors. The literature on the clinical evidence of SBRT for both primary liver tumors and liver metastases was reviewed and analyzed focusing on both physical requirements and special biological characteristics. Recommendations were developed for patient selection, imaging, planning, treatment delivery, motion management, dose reporting, and follow-up. Radiation dose constraints to critical organs at risk are provided. SBRT is a well-established treatment option for primary and secondary liver tumors associated with low morbidity. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe Stereotaxie der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie (DEGRO) legt hier eine Empfehlung zur sicheren und effektiven Durchfuehrung der SBRT von Lebertumoren vor. Eine Literaturrecherche zur Untersuchung der Evidenz der SBRT sowohl fuer primaere Lebertumore als auch fuer Lebermetastasen wurde durchgefuehrt. Auf dieser Basis werden Empfehlungen fuer technisch-physikalische Voraussetzungen wie auch fuer die taegliche Praxis der Leber-SBRT gegeben. Weiterhin werden radiobiologische Besonderheiten dieses Verfahrens dargestellt. Praktische Vorgaben werden fuer Patientenselektion, Bildgebung, Planung, Applikation, Bewegungsmanagement, Dosisdokumentation und Follow-up gegeben. Dosisempfehlungen fuer die kritischen Risikoorgane werden dargestellt. Die SBRT stellt eine etablierte Behandlungsmethode fuer primaere und sekundaere Lebertumore dar und ist mit niedriger Morbiditaet assoziiert. (orig.)

  11. A new computing principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, H.A.; Resconi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle

  12. Tuning the work function of VO_2(1 0 0) surface by Ag adsorption and incorporation: Insights from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lanli; Wang, Xiaofang; Shi, Siqi; Cui, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hongjie; Gao, Yanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • After adsorption, there is a charge transfer from Ag to VO_2(1 0 0) surface, which thus increases the electron concentration in VO_2 thin film. • Ag adsorption on VO_2(1 0 0) surface process is an exothermic chemical process, and the adsorption system is stable. • The work function can be tuned by Ag adsorption on and incorporation into the VO_2(1 0 0) surface, which in turn regulates the phase transition temperature of VO_2. - Abstract: VO_2 is an attractive material for application to thermochromic optoelectronic devices such as smart windows, and Ag/VO_2 double-layered structure can effectively decrease the phase transition temperature (T_c) of VO_2 thin film, which is very important for practical application of VO_2. Previous works has shown that the decrease in phase transition temperature (T_c) seems to be relevant with the work function of VO_2 in Ag/VO_2 double-layered thin film, although the underlying mechanism of tuning its T_c by Ag incorporation and adsorption on the VO_2(1 0 0) surface has been rarely investigated. Our first-principles calculations reveal that the adsorption of Ag atoms on the VO_2(1 0 0) surface rather than incorporation of Ag exhibits a lower work function, which is ascribed to an integrated effect of charge transfer from Ag to VO_2(1 0 0) surface and enhanced surface dipole moment. The results suggest that the decrease in work function of VO_2 with Ag adsorption favors the reduction in T_c. The current findings are helpful to understand the fundamental mechanism for yielding high-efficiency VO_2-based optoelectronic devices.

  13. Tuning the work function of VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface by Ag adsorption and incorporation: Insights from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lanli; Wang, Xiaofang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shi, Siqi, E-mail: sqshi@shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Luo, Hongjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Gao, Yanfeng, E-mail: yfgao@shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • After adsorption, there is a charge transfer from Ag to VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface, which thus increases the electron concentration in VO{sub 2} thin film. • Ag adsorption on VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface process is an exothermic chemical process, and the adsorption system is stable. • The work function can be tuned by Ag adsorption on and incorporation into the VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface, which in turn regulates the phase transition temperature of VO{sub 2}. - Abstract: VO{sub 2} is an attractive material for application to thermochromic optoelectronic devices such as smart windows, and Ag/VO{sub 2} double-layered structure can effectively decrease the phase transition temperature (T{sub c}) of VO{sub 2} thin film, which is very important for practical application of VO{sub 2}. Previous works has shown that the decrease in phase transition temperature (T{sub c}) seems to be relevant with the work function of VO{sub 2} in Ag/VO{sub 2} double-layered thin film, although the underlying mechanism of tuning its T{sub c} by Ag incorporation and adsorption on the VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface has been rarely investigated. Our first-principles calculations reveal that the adsorption of Ag atoms on the VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface rather than incorporation of Ag exhibits a lower work function, which is ascribed to an integrated effect of charge transfer from Ag to VO{sub 2}(1 0 0) surface and enhanced surface dipole moment. The results suggest that the decrease in work function of VO{sub 2} with Ag adsorption favors the reduction in T{sub c}. The current findings are helpful to understand the fundamental mechanism for yielding high-efficiency VO{sub 2}-based optoelectronic devices.

  14. The principle of finiteness – a guideline for physical laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternlieb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    I propose a new principle in physics-the principle of finiteness (FP). It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results including their errors, are always finite, FP postulates that the mathematical formulation of legitimate laws in physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. I propose finiteness as a postulate, as opposed to a statement whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories or principles. Some consequences of FP are discussed, first in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The corrected Lorentz transformations include an additional translation term depending on the minimum length epsilon. The relativistic gamma is replaced by a corrected gamma, that is finite for v=c. To comply with FP, physical laws should include the relevant extremum finite values in their mathematical formulation. An important prediction of FP is that there is a maximum attainable relativistic mass/energy which is the same for all subatomic particles, meaning that there is a maximum theoretical value for cosmic rays energy. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle required by Quantum Gravity is actually a necessary consequence of FP at Planck's scale. Therefore, FP may possibly contribute to the axiomatic foundation of Quantum Gravity.

  15. Towards open collaborative health informatics - The Role of free/libre open source principles. Contribution of the IMIA Open Source Health Informatics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karopka, T; Schmuhl, H; Marcelo, A; Molin, J Dal; Wright, G

    2011-01-01

    : To analyze the contribution of Free/Libre Open Source Software in health care (FLOSS-HC) and to give perspectives for future developments. The paper summarizes FLOSS-related trends in health care as anticipated by members of the IMIA Open Source Working Group. Data were obtained through literature review and personal experience and observations of the authors in the last two decades. A status quo is given by a frequency analysis of the database of Medfloss.org, one of the world's largest platforms dedicated to FLOSS-HC. The authors discuss current problems in the field of health care and finally give a prospective roadmap, a projection of the potential influences of FLOSS in health care. FLOSS-HC already exists for more than 2 decades. Several projects have shown that FLOSS may produce highly competitive alternatives to proprietary solutions that are at least equivalent in usability and have a better total cost of ownership ratio. The Medfloss.org database currently lists 221 projects of diverse application types. FLOSS principles hold a great potential for addressing several of the most critical problems in health care IT. The authors argue that an ecosystem perspective is relevant and that FLOSS principles are best suited to create health IT systems that are able to evolve over time as medical knowledge, technologies, insights, workflows etc. continuously change. All these factors that inherently influence the development of health IT systems are changing at an ever growing pace. Traditional models of software engineering are not able to follow these changes and provide up-to-date systems for an acceptable cost/value ratio. To allow FLOSS to positively influence Health IT in the future a "FLOSS-friendly" environment has to be provided. Policy makers should resolve uncertainties in the legal framework that disfavor FLOSS. Certification procedures should be specified in a way that they do not raise additional barriers for FLOSS.

  16. Reducing repeat pregnancies in adolescence: applying realist principles as part of a mixed-methods systematic review to explore what works, for whom, how and under what circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Joanna M; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Aslam, Rabeea'h; Hendry, Maggie; Pasterfield, Diana; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2016-09-20

    Previous research has demonstrated emotional, psychological and educational harm to young mothers following unintended conceptions. The UK has one of the highest rates of pregnancies in adolescence in Western Europe with a high proportion of these being repeat pregnancies, making it a topic of interest for public health policy makers, and health and social care practitioners. As part of a wider mixed-methods systematic review, realist principles were applied to synthesise evidence about interventions aiming to reduce repeat pregnancies in adolescence. A multi-streamed, mixed-methods systematic review was conducted searching 11 major electronic databases and 9 additional databases from 1995 onwards, using key terms such as pregnancy, teen or adolescent. The principles of realist synthesis were applied to all included literature to uncover theories about what works, for whom, how and in what context. Initial theory areas were developed through evidence scoping, group discussion by the authors and stakeholder engagement to uncover context + mechanism = outcome (CMO) configurations and related narratives. The searches identified 8,664 documents initially, and 403 in repeat searches, filtering to 81 included studies, including qualitative studies, randomised controlled trials, quantitative studies and grey literature. Three CMO configurations were developed. The individual experiences of young mothers' triggered self-efficacy, notions of perceived risks, susceptibility and benefits of pregnancy, resulting in the adolescent taking control of their fertility and sexual encounters. The choice between motherhood and other goals triggered notions of motivations, resulting in the adolescent managing their expectations of motherhood and controlling their fertility and sexual encounters. Barriers and facilitators to accessing services triggered notions of connectedness and self-determination; resulting in interventions that are tailored so they are relevant to young

  17. First-Principles Investigations of the Working Mechanism of 2D h-BN as an Interfacial Layer for the Anode of Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Le; Xu, Ao; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-18

    An issue with the use of metallic lithium as an anode material for lithium-based batteries is dendrite growth, causing a periodic breaking and repair of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Adding 2D atomic crystals, such as h-BN, as an interfacial layer between the lithium metal anode and liquid electrolyte has been demonstrated to be effective to mitigate dendrite growth, thereby enhancing the Columbic efficiency of lithium metal batteries. But the underlying mechanism leading to the reduced dendrite growth remains unknown. In this work, with the aid of first-principle calculations, we find that the interaction between the h-BN and lithium metal layers is a weak van der Waals force, and two atomic layers of h-BN are thick enough to block the electron tunneling from lithium metal to electrolyte, thus prohibiting the decomposition of electrolyte. The interlayer spacing between the h-BN and lithium metal layers can provide larger adsorption energies toward lithium atoms than that provided by bare lithium or h-BN, making lithium atoms prefer to intercalate under the cover of h-BN during the plating process. The combined high stiffness of h-BN and the low diffusion energy barriers of lithium at the Li/h-BN interfaces induce a uniform distribution of lithium under h-BN, therefore effectively suppressing dendrite growth.

  18. Developing of students diagnostic skills for working with adolescents with deviant behavior as a factor in the ethical principle of objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busarova O.R.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article was to study the question of do special exercises for the formation of students-psychologists skills determine the causes of deviant behavior of adolescents, based on the provisions of the causal approach in psycho-diagnostics A. F. Anufrieva, the principle of objectivity. The study involved 30 future psychologists. After performing the exercises in the course "Psychodiagnostics" the students solved the task, which simulates diagnostic work of the psychologist with decriminalised teenager with deviant behavior. Students were asked to solve a problem in professional discourse – to put forward hypotheses about the causes of deviant behavior in everyday life is to point out the culprits of the situation. Additionally, students assessed their similarity with the hero of the diagnostic event. The results show that students who have managed to build up diagnostic skills to identify psychological causes of deviant behavior, both professionally and in everyday discourse grappled with the task model, regardless of the number of subjective similarities with her character. Students who have not sufficiently developed diagnostic skills, to avoid bias failed.

  19. A shared statement of ethical principles for those who shape and give health care: a working draft from the Tavistock group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R; Hiatt, H; Berwick, D

    1999-01-19

    Health care delivery in many countries has expanded over the past 150 years from a largely social service delivered by individual practitioners to an intricate network of services provided by teams of professionals. The problems of increasing resource consumption, financial constraints, complexity, and poor system design that have emerged as consequences of these changes have exacerbated many of the ethical tensions inherent in health care and have created new ones. Many groups of professionals that give and affect health care have established separate codes of ethics for their own disciplines, but no shared code exists that might bring all stakeholders in health care into a more consistent moral framework. A multidisciplinary group therefore recently met at Tavistock Square in London in an effort to prepare such a shared code. The result was not a code but a more basic and generic statement of ethical principles. The intent and hope is that it will offer clear guidance for tough calls in real world settings. It is presented here not as a finished work, but as a draft to elicit comment, critique, suggestions for revision, and, especially, ideas for implementation.

  20. Accountability Principles for Research Organizations | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-28

    Oct 28, 2011 ... Accountability Principles of Research Organisations provides a ... good practices and principles for policy-oriented research organizations working in developing countries. ... Image. IDRC. Accountability Principles of Research Organisations ... The Association for Progressive Communications Women's ...

  1. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  2. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  3. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M.; Limbergen, Erik van; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy (“Pre-RT-MRI examination”) and at the time of BT (“BT MRI examination”) with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  4. Regulatory decision making in the presence of uncertainty in the context of the disposal of long lived radioactive wastes. Third report of the Working group on principles and criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Plans for disposing of radioactive wastes have raised a number of unique and mostly philosophical problems, mainly due to the very long time-scales which have to be considered. While there is general agreement on disposal concepts and on many aspects of a safety philosophy, consensus on a number of issues remains to be achieved. The IAEA established a subgroup under the International Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (INWAC). The subgroup started its work in 1991 as the ''INWAC Subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal''. With the reorganization in 1995 of IAEA senior advisory committees in the nuclear safety area, the title of the group was changed to ''Working Group on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal''. The working group is intended to provide an open forum for: (1) the discussion and resolution of contentious issues, especially those with an international component, in the area of principles and criteria for safe disposal of waste; (2) the review and analysis of new ideas and concepts in the subject area; (3) establishing areas of consensus; (4) the consideration of issues related to safety principles and criteria in the IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme; (5) the exchange of information on national safety criteria and policies for radioactive waste disposal. This is the third report of the working group and it deals with the subject of regulatory decision making under conditions of uncertainty which is a matter of concern with respect to disposal of radioactive wastes underground. 14 refs

  5. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  6. Balance equations for a viscous fluid from a Hamilton type variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierros Palacios, A.

    1992-01-01

    The partial differential field equations for any viscous fluid are obtained from the Lagrangian formalism as in classical field theory. An action functional is introduced as a space-time integral over a region of three-dimensional Euclidean space, of a Lagrangian density function of certain field variables. A Hamilton type extremum action principle is postulated with adequate boundary conditions, and a set of differential field equations is derived. With an appropriate Lagrangian density of the T-V type, the equation of motion for any viscous fluid is reproduced. A theorem referring to the invariance of the action under time variations lead to the generalized energy balance equation for the viscous fluid and to the energy balance equation proper. The same theoretical approach can be used to solve the problem of potential flow. (Author)

  7. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  8. Maquet principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-04-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.

  9. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  10. Approaching transdisciplinarity: some historical lines, foundations and applied principles to team work / Aproximações sobre a transdisciplinaridade: algumas linhas históricas, fundamentos e princípios aplicados ao trabalho de equipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Nikos Iribarry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting some conceptual and practical approaches on transdisciplinarity. At first, all the made approaches will be presented in an alterned way with the theorical presentation of themes related to transdisciplinarity. Some practical illustrations of those concepts will be presented as well. The concept of disciplinarity and its derivations – multidisciplinarity, pluridisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity – are examined in their differences, as well as in their consequences for establishing a relationship between different areas. Following that, some historical origins and foundations of transdisciplinarity will be presented. In the last part of this paper, the practical principles of team work in a case of transdisciplinarity will be discussed. Those principles are organized from the work carried out by the team work, the generation of new devices to foster familiarising of professionals from different areas, the readability and sharing of discourses, as well as horizontal decision making.

  11. The Bohr Correspondence Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Correspondence principle, hy- drogen atom, Kepler orbit. Deepak Dhar works at the. Tata Institute of Funda- mental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of statistical physics. We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relati- vistic hydrogen atom. We show that for bound.

  12. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Tarek A., E-mail: T.Elsayed@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Introduces a generalized Fermat principle for many-dimensional dynamical systems. • Deals with the time taken by the system between given initial and final states. • Proposes that if the speed of the system point is constant, the time is an extremum. • Justified for the phase space of harmonic oscillators and the projective Hilbert space. • A counterexample for the motion of a charge in a magnetic field is discussed. - Abstract: The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.

  13. A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduces a generalized Fermat principle for many-dimensional dynamical systems. • Deals with the time taken by the system between given initial and final states. • Proposes that if the speed of the system point is constant, the time is an extremum. • Justified for the phase space of harmonic oscillators and the projective Hilbert space. • A counterexample for the motion of a charge in a magnetic field is discussed. - Abstract: The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame

  14. The uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the uncertainty principle (UP). The UP is one of the most characteristic points of differences between quantum and classical mechanics. The starting point of this thesis is the work of Niels Bohr. Besides the discussion the work is also analyzed. For the discussion of the different aspects of the UP the formalism of Davies and Ludwig is used instead of the more commonly used formalism of Neumann and Dirac. (author). 214 refs.; 23 figs

  15. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  16. Principles of Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  17. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  18. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  19. Applying core principles to the design and evaluation of the 'Take Charge. Take the Test' campaign: what worked and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, J L; Uhrig, J D; Davis, K C; Taylor, M K; Lee, N R; Spoeth, S; Robinson, A; Smith, K; Johnston, J; McElroy, L

    2009-09-01

    To describe the application of seven core principles to the design and evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing social marketing campaign as a case study example. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) used a structured social marketing approach, informed by the Ecological Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Belief Model, to develop and evaluate a two-city campaign with print, radio and outdoor advertising; HIV telephone hotlines; an HIV website; community partnerships; and events to promote information seeking and HIV testing. The CDC applied seven core principles to design and evaluate the campaign, including formative research, the use of behavioural theories, audience segmentation, message design and pretesting, channel selection, process evaluation and outcome evaluation. Over 200 partners in both cities contributed significantly to campaign efforts. Key informant interviews indicated that, due to increased coordination, city infrastructures for HIV testing improved. More than 9600 individuals attended campaign events in both cities, with 1492 rapid HIV tests administered and 14 newly-identified HIV individuals. Overall, event attendees responded positively to campaign materials and events, and free HIV testing opportunities. The campaign significantly increased information-seeking behaviours in the form of hotline calls and web searches. Audience reaction and receptivity to the final campaign materials was very high. Exposure to campaign messages was associated with increases in key knowledge items, intentions to get tested, and peer-to-peer communication. The seven core principles, including formative research, behavioural theories and extensive partnerships, acted synergistically to help a campaign reach its target audience with compelling, relevant messages and motivate them to seek information and get an HIV test. Rapid testing removes many barriers by providing a testing process that can be accessed and

  20. Applying principles of self-management to facilitate workers to return to or remain at work with a chronic musculoskeletal condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Venerina; Jull, Gwendolen; Sheppard, Dianne M; Ellis, Niki

    2013-08-01

    It is incumbent on health care professionals to support patients with chronic musculoskeletal conditions to manage the impact of the condition on their life. Work is a positive health behaviour for which self-management skills are essential. In this paper, self-management is defined and the role of clinicians in promoting self-management for return to work is outlined with examples and tips on how the clinician can incorporate self-management into practice. The clinician is ideally placed to assist individuals with chronic musculoskeletal conditions manage to remain at work or return to work. This can be achieved through such activities as the promotion of the core self-management skills of problem-solving, decision making, resource utilisation, developing a cooperative partnership between clinician and patient and making an action plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  2. 5. The Basic Principles of The Working Process From Nature and the Role of Composition in Creating Landscape in Terms of Plein-Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savițkaia-Baraghin Iarîna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Principles of possession of the landscape painting, applied by masters of the past, as well as theoretical elaborations of scientists in the field of chromatics, psychology and pedagogy of arts, become important components in improving training methods of artists in plein-air in contemporary conditions. The skills and knowledge gained in the process of pleinair studies form professional skills and improve the properties of painting and composition within the workshop. This studying outlines the stringency of training and development methods of creative individuality, especially in plein-air, where the principal teacher is the nature. The plein-air enriches color perception of the real world, located in the air, and mutual relationship of landscape with architecture and space determines knowledge of the issues of proportionality and subordination in compositions, educates sense of proportion and artistic taste. Improving visual mastery into the natural environment contributes to the formation to painters of the necessity to create outside the workshop, which is a necessary condition for the development of individuality and professional skills of the painter.

  3. Communication of 12 June 2009 received from the Permanent Missions of Germany and the Russian Federation with regard to a working paper 'Principles of fuel supply guarantees and the multilateralization of fuel cycle activities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 12 June 2009 from the Permanent Missions of Germany and the Russian Federation, transmitting the text of the working paper 'Principles of fuel supply guarantees and the multilateralization of fuel cycle activities' submitted by Germany and the Russian Federation to the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned paper is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  4. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  5. What works for wellbeing in culture and sport? Report of a DELPHI process to support coproduction and establish principles and parameters of an evidence review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; Mansfield, Louise; Payne, Annette; Kay, Tess; Meads, Catherine; D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Burnett, Adele; Dolan, Paul; Julier, Guy; Longworth, Louise; Tomlinson, Alan; Testoni, Stefano; Victor, Christina

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing recognition of the ways in which culture and sport can contribute to wellbeing. A strong evidence base is needed to support innovative service development and a 3-year research programme is being undertaken to capture best evidence of wellbeing impacts and outcomes of cultural and sporting activities in order to inform UK policy and practice. This article provides an overview of methods and findings from an initial coproduction process with key stakeholders that sought to explore and agree principles and parameters of the evidence review for culture, sport and wellbeing (CSW). A two-stage DELPHI process was conducted with a purposeful sample of 57 stakeholders between August and December 2015. Participants were drawn from a range of culture and sport organisations and included commissioners and managers, policy makers, representatives of service delivery organisations (SDOs) and scholars. The DELPHI 1 questionnaire was developed from extensive consultation in July and August 2015. It explored definitions of wellbeing, the role of evidence, quality assessment, and the culture and sport populations, settings and interventions that are most likely to deliver wellbeing outcomes. Following further consultation, the results, presented as a series of ranked statements, were sent back to participants (DELPHI 2), which allowed them to reflect on and, if they wished, express agreement or disagreement with the emerging consensus. A total of 40 stakeholders (70.02%) responded to the DELPHI questionnaires. DELPHI 1 mapped areas of agreement and disagreement, confirmed in DELPHI 2. The exercise drew together the key priorities for the CSW evidence review. The DELPHI process, in combination with face-to-face deliberation, enabled stakeholders to engage in complex discussion and express nuanced priorities while also allowing the group to come to an overall consensus and agree outcomes. The results will inform the CSW evidence review programme until its

  6. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared…

  7. Cooperative Learning Principles Enhance Online Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Seow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes eight principles that can be used to promote cooperative interactions among students working in online environments. The principles derive from a well-established approach to education, known variously as cooperative learning and collaborative learning. Each principle is explained as to what it means, why it is important and…

  8. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  9. [A qualitative study to validate the Work and Career (Santé et Itinéraire Professionnel) statistical survey: principles and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiho-Bailly, Marie-Pierre; Roquelaure, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The population-based survey "Santé et itinéraire professionnel" (SIP) aims to investigate the relationship between health and career. A qualitative study was conducted to identify potential biases in the design of the questionnaire. The Laboratoire d'ergonomie et d'épidémiologie en santé au travail (research center on "Ergonomics and Epidemiology in Occupational Health" based at the University of Angers, France) recently conducted a study entitled "Rapport subjectif au travail, sens des trajets professionnels et construction de la santé" ("The subjective perception of work, career paths and the construction of health"). Individual interviews were conducted with thirty survey respondents (irrespective of whether they had reported any health problems or established a link between a health event and their career path) by two experts in the psychodynamics of work. The analysis of the clinical and statistical data involved four stages: a study of an initial test case, a comparison of monographs and reports drawn up by the DREES/DARES, an analysis of questionnaire responses, and an analysis of thirty monographs. MAIN RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: After an examination of the results in relation to sample composition and the method used, the study shows that the relationship between health and career is not overestimated, but also indicates that psychological and musculoskeletal disorders and "minor" work accidents tend to be underreported. The study also found a loss of information about professional mobility as a way of maintaining health. Based on a qualitative approach to validation, the proposed method provides a basis for assessing the design of the questionnaire and provides reference points for data interpretation and the direction of future research.

  10. Gesture & Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2017-01-01

    The development of architecture is governed by an increasing gap between the experienced quality of architectural space, manifest as a sense of interiority on behalf of the user, and the means applied in its realization. Between means and ends, one could say, which calls for a continuous...... and critical development of architectural method. By method, I mean a systematic series of steps taken to acquire knowledge about an architectural problem. As the building industry and the actual construction of architecture is becoming ever more complex moving from craft over industrialization through...... to integration of digital technologies, the mentioned gap is becoming present in the processes and models of collaborations between the multiple parties involved in the realization of architecture, as well as in the work itself. This, as an increase of construction layers, installations and equipment tending...

  11. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  12. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  13. Bioreactor principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  15. The several faces of the cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisbart, Claus [TU Dortmund (Germany). Fakultaet 14, Institut fuer Philosophie und Politikwissenschaft

    2010-07-01

    Much work in relativistic cosmology relies upon the cosmological principle. Very roughly, this principle has it hat the universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic. However, if the principle is to do some work, it has to be rendered more precise. The aim of this talk is to show that such a precification significantly depends on the theoretical framework adopted and on its ontology. Moreover, it is shown that present-day cosmology uses the principle in different versions that do not fit together nicely. Whereas, in theoretical cosmology, the principle is spelt out as a requirement on space-time manifolds, observational cosmology cashes out the principle using the notion of a random process. I point out some philosophical problems that arise in this context. My conclusion is that the cosmological principle is not a very precise hypothesis, but rather a rough idea that has several faces in contemporary cosmology.

  16. Aproximações sobre a transdisciplinaridade: algumas linhas históricas, fundamentos e princípios aplicados ao trabalho de equipe Approaching transdisciplinarity: some historical lines, foundations and applied principles to team work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Nikos Iribarry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é o de apresentar algumas aproximações conceituais e práticas sobre o tema da transdisciplinaridade. Em um primeiro momento, as aproximações realizadas serão alternadas pela exposição teórica dos temas relacionados à transdisciplinaridade e por algumas ilustrações práticas dos conceitos. O conceito de disciplina e suas derivações - multidisciplinaridade, pluridisciplinaridade, interdisciplinaridade e transdisciplinaridade - serão examinados em suas diferenças e conseqüências para o estabelecimento de relações entre diferentes disciplinas. Em seguida, serão apresentadas algumas origens históricas e alguns fundamentos da transdisciplinaridade. Na etapa final do trabalho, serão examinados os princípios práticos do trabalho de equipe em uma situação de transdisciplinaridade. Tais princípios estão organizados a partir do trabalho em equipe, da geração de novos dispositivos, da familiarização dos profissionais com cada área diferente da sua, da legibilidade e compartilhamento dos discursos e da tomada de decisão horizontal.This article aims at presenting some conceptual and practical approaches on transdisciplinarity. At first, all the made approaches will be presented in an alterned way with the theorical presentation of themes related to transdisciplinarity. Some practical illustrations of those concepts will be presented as well. The concept of disciplinarity and its derivations - multidisciplinarity, pluridisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity - are examined in their differences, as well as in their consequences for establishing a relationship between different areas. Following that, some historical origins and foundations of transdisciplinarity will be presented. In the last part of this paper, the practical principles of team work in a case of transdisciplinarity will be discussed. Those principles are organized from the work carried out by the team work, the generation of new devices

  17. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  18. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  19. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  20. The certainty principle (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.

  1. Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

  2. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  3. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  4. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time...

  5. Making Benefit Transfers Work: Deriving and Testing Principles for Value Transfers for Similar and Dissimilar Sites Using a Case Study of the Non-Market Benefits of Water Quality Improvements Across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, Ian; Brouwer, Roy; Ferreri, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We implement a controlled, multi-site experiment to develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function...... transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical approaches. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water...... quality improvements across five countries. While this provides an idealised tested, results support the above principles and suggest directions for future transfer studies....

  6. Quantum correlations are tightly bound by the exclusivity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin

    2013-06-28

    It is a fundamental problem in physics of what principle limits the correlations as predicted by our current description of nature, based on quantum mechanics. One possible explanation is the "global exclusivity" principle recently discussed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060402 (2013). In this work we show that this principle actually has a much stronger restriction on the probability distribution. We provide a tight constraint inequality imposed by this principle and prove that this principle singles out quantum correlations in scenarios represented by any graph. Our result implies that the exclusivity principle might be one of the fundamental principles of nature.

  7. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    ... with additional worked problems and new treatment approaches. It covers both the principles and theory of water treatment as well as the practical considerations of plant design and distribution...

  8. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  9. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  10. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  11. Theoretical Analysis for Heat Transfer Optimization in Subcritical Electrothermal Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrothermal energy storage (ETES provides bulk electricity storage based on heat pump and heat engine technologies. A subcritical ETES is described in this paper. Based on the extremum principle of entransy dissipation, a geometry model is developed for heat transfer optimization for subcritical ETES. The exergy during the heat transfer process is deduced in terms of entropy production. The geometry model is validated by the extremum principle of entropy production. The theoretical analysis results show that the extremum principle of entransy dissipation is an effective criterion for the optimization, and the optimum heat transfer for different cases with the same mass flux or pressure has been discussed. The optimum heat transfer can be achieved by adjusting the mass flux and pressure of the working fluid. It also reveals that with the increase of mass flux, there is a minimum exergy in the range under consideration, and the exergy decreases with the increase of the pressure.

  12. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  13. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  14. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA; SABĂU CRĂCIUN; ”Tibiscus” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Economic Science

    2015-01-01

    The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance) to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principl...

  15. ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES: EVOLUTION, CONTENT, CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana LAZARI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accounting principles are rules that help producers of financial information to recognize, evaluate, classify and present information. At the same time, they are very general rules, which can be implemented in several ways, generating more accounting treatments. Although the foreign literature presents numerous classifications of the principles in terms of the given research, we will continue to deal with the terms that have the value of accounting principles, their evolution in the Republic of Moldova, but also the influence on keeping the accounting and financial reporting. In the research, we used the method of comparison, analysis, deduction, but also the historical method. The results of the research on accounting principles will contribute to the development of their applicability both for those studying and researching the field of accounting, as well as for those who apply in practice the keeping of accounting in all stages of work: elaboration of accounting policies, recognition, evaluation and accounting for economic transactions and preparing the financial statements of the entity.

  16. The genetic difference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.

  17. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  18. The Dutch premium principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.

    1992-01-01

    A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.

  19. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  20. The precautionary principle: is it safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignon, Maxime; Ganry, Olivier; Jardé, Olivier; Manaouil, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    The precautionary principle is generally acknowledged to be a powerful tool for protecting health but it was originally invoked by policy makers for dealing with environmental issues. In the 1990s, the principle was incorporated into many legislative and regulatory texts in international law. One can consider that the precautionary principle has turned into "precautionism" necessary to prove to the people, taking account of risk in decisions. There is now a risk that these abuses will deprive the principle of its meaning and value. When pushed to its limits, the precautionary principle can even be dangerous when applied to the healthcare field. This is why a critical analysis of the principle is necessary. Through the literature, it sometimes seems to deviate somehow from the essence of the precautionary principle as it is commonly used in relation to health. We believe that educational work is necessary to familiarize professionals, policy makers and public opinion of the precautionary principle and avoid confusion. We propose a critical analysis of the use and misuse of the precautionary principle.

  1. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  2. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  3. The validity of the extended energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, M.S.; Johnson, J.L.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1994-04-01

    A recent analysis of plasma stability based on modifications of the extended energy principle for magnetohydrodynamic stability led to conclusions that are too optimistic. The original interpretation of this principle is indeed applicable. The present analysis demonstrates explicitly the fallacy of using the wrong functional for δW in the extended energy principle. It then shows that the original energy principle functional δW B is also obtained for a model in which a surface mass is incorporated to provide pressure balance. This work therefore indicates, but does not prove, that the eigenfunctions that are obtained from a minimization of the extended energy principle with the proper kinetic energy norm provide a good representation of what would be achieved with an exact treatment

  4. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  5. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  6. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  7. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  8. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  9. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  10. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  11. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  12. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  13. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  14. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  15. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  16. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  17. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  18. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  19. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  20. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  1. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  2. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  3. Rotating detectors and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola, R.D.M. de; Svaiter, N.F.

    2000-08-01

    In this work we consider a quantum version of Newton s bucket experiment in a fl;at spacetime: we take an Unruh-DeWitt detector in interaction with a real massless scalar field. We calculate the detector's excitation rate when it is uniformly rotating around some fixed point and the field is prepared in the Minkowski vacuum and also when the detector is inertial and the field is in the Trocheries-Takeno vacuum state. These results are compared and the relations with Mach's principle are discussed. (author)

  4. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  5. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  6. The traveltime holographic principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  7. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  8. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  9. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  10. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  12. Application of the maximum entropy production principle to electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    For a simple class of electrical systems, the principle of the maximum entropy production rate (MaxEP) is discussed. First, we compare the MaxEP principle and the principle of the minimum entropy production rate and illustrate the superiority of the MaxEP principle for the example of two parallel constant resistors. Secondly, we show that the Steenbeck principle for the electric arc as well as the ohmic contact behaviour of space-charge limited conductors follow from the MaxEP principle. In line with work by Dewar, the investigations seem to suggest that the MaxEP principle can also be applied to systems far from equilibrium, provided appropriate information is available that enters the constraints of the optimization problem. Finally, we apply the MaxEP principle to a mesoscopic system and show that the universal conductance quantum, e 2 /h, of a one-dimensional ballistic conductor can be estimated

  13. Principles of Good Practice in SoTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, Peter

    2013-01-01

    For the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) to be understood as significant intellectual work in the academy, SoTL practitioners need to identify shared principles of good practice. While honoring the diversity of SoTL in its many forms across the globe, such principles can serve as a heuristic for assessing work in our field. These…

  14. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Okon, E.

    2013-01-01

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule

  15. The Principles of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…

  16. Principles of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Melvin

    1972-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.

  17. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  18. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  19. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  20. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  1. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  2. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  3. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  4. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  5. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Methods Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. Results We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. Conclusion This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of

  6. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-10-24

    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health

  7. Madrid principles of Nagorno-Karabakh settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Babayan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of this work presents the analysis of the basic document and the legal framework of the peace settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict on the modern stage - «Madrid or Basic principles», presented to the sides of the negotiations at the OSCE ministerial conference in the Spanish capital Madrid in November 2007. The both side’s statements, international mediators and institutes form a legal background of the vector and the framework of the negotiation process. There are the fundamental differences and contradictions in the approaches of the sides of the negotiations to the «Basic principles» of the settlement in this article. The work contains a comparison of the various items and elements of the Madrid document both in relation to each other, and to the principles of international law.

  8. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  9. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  10. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  11. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  12. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  13. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  14. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  15. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  16. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  17. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; John A. List

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  18. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  19. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  20. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  1. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  2. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  3. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Con...

  4. The Maquet principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-01-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications. (orig.)

  5. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  6. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  7. Economic uncertainty principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Harin

    2006-01-01

    The economic principle of (hidden) uncertainty is presented. New probability formulas are offered. Examples of solutions of three types of fundamental problems are reviewed.; Principe d'incertitude économique? Le principe économique d'incertitude (cachée) est présenté. De nouvelles formules de chances sont offertes. Les exemples de solutions des trois types de problèmes fondamentaux sont reconsidérés.

  8. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  9. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  10. XAFS Spectroscopy : Fundamental Principles and Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Mojet, B.L.; Dorssen, G.E. van; Ramaker, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The physical principles of XAFS spectroscopy are given at a sufficiently basic level to enable scientists working in the field of catalysis to critically evaluate articles dealing with XAFS studies on catalytic materials. The described data-analysis methods provide the basic tools for studying the

  11. Generalized field quantization and the Pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The work is an attempt to prove that the generalized Pauli principle (i.e. Fermi statistics) for the half-integer spin fields and the Bose statistics for the integer spin fields with allowance for the existence of internal gauge symmetries are consequences of more general assumptions of the local quantum field theory. 32 refs.; 1 tab

  12. THE PRINCIPLES OF LAW. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  13. Variational principles in terms of entransy for heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Mingtian

    2012-01-01

    A variational principle for heat conduction is formulated which results in the steady state heat conduction equation established from the Fourier law. Furthermore based on the thermodynamics in terms of entransy a more general functional is defined for incompressible fluids. We show that extremizing this functional gives rise to the state described by the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with vanishing substantive derivatives of the temperature and velocity field. In this sense one may conclude that this variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. Therefore the variational principle developed in the present work demonstrates a great advantage over the minimum entropy production principle. -- Highlights: ► A variational principle for heat transfer of incompressible fluid is established in terms of entransy. ► For pure heat conduction the variational principle leads to the classical steady state heat conduction equation. ► For heat convection the variational principle is consistent with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations.

  14. Technology guide. Principles - applications - trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullinger, Hans-Joerg (ed.) [Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Use this TECHNOLOGY GUIDE to - find descriptions of today's most essential global technologies, clearly structured and simply explained in over 100 expert contributions; - gain an understanding of the principles behind each technology, - the latest applications, the challenges ahead, and future trends; - see how and where technologies and topics are interlinked, with cross-references and further sources of information; - broaden your general knowledge of technology, presented in a comprehensive reference format that invites even the casual reader to explore the stimulating innovative ideas it contains. This guide is a useful companion for readers with a lively interest in technology. It serves as a reference work for corporate and public-sector decision makers, as well as those involved in media and government. (orig.)

  15. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  16. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  17. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  18. Electrical principles and technology for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to introduce students to the basic electrical and electronic principles needed by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of the subject, and the author has followed his usual successful formula, incorporating many worked examples and problems (answers supplied) into the learning process.Electrical Principles and Technology for Engineering is John Bird's core text for Further Education courses at BTEC levels N11 and N111 and Advanced GNVQ. It is also designed to provide a comprehe

  19. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  20. Hamilton principle for the dual electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Silva, Saulo Carneiro de

    1995-01-01

    The present work discusses the classical electromagnetic theory in the presence of magnetic monopoles. We review the connection between such objects and the long standing problem of charge quantization and the main theoretical difficulties in formulating the classical dual electromagnetic theory in terms of an action principle. We show that a deeper understanding of the source of such difficulties leads naturally to the construction of a variational principle for a non-local Lagrangian from which all the (local) dynamical equations for electric, magnetic charges and fields can be obtained. (author)

  1. The Playtime Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, Christian; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    be derived from this large-scale analysis, notably that playtime as a function of time, across the thousands of games in the dataset, and irrespective of local differences in the playtime frequency distribution, can be modeled using the same model: the Wei bull distribution. This suggests...... that there are fundamental properties governing player engagement as it evolves over time, which we here refer to as the Playtime Principle. Additionally, the analysis shows that there are distinct clusters, or archetypes, in the playtime frequency distributions of the investigated games. These archetypal groups correspond...

  2. Complex Correspondence Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  3. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  4. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  5. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  6. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  7. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  8. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  9. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  10. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  11. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  12. The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lena; Letterstål, Anna; Engström, Marie-Louise; Berglund, Anders; Enlund, Mats

    2014-07-09

    Patient safety is of the utmost importance in health care. The patient safety culture in an institution has great impact on patient safety. To enhance patient safety and to design strategies to reduce medical injuries, there is a current focus on measuring the patient safety culture. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient safety culture in an ED at two different hospitals before and after a Quality improvement (QI) project that was aimed to enhance patient safety. A repeated cross-sectional design, using the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture questionnaire before and after a quality improvement project in two emergency departments at a county hospital and a university hospital. The questionnaire was developed to obtain a better understanding of the patient safety culture of an entire hospital or of specific departments. The Swedish version has 51 questions and 15 dimensions. At the county hospital, a difference between baseline and follow-up was observed in three dimensions. For two of these dimensions, Team-work within hospital and Communication openness, a higher score was measured at the follow-up. At the university hospital, a higher score was measured at follow-up for the two dimensions Team-work across hospital units and Team-work within hospital. The result showed changes in the self-estimated patient safety culture, mainly regarding team-work and communication openness. Most of the improvements at follow-up were seen by physicians, and mainly at the county hospital.

  13. The principle of general tovariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.

    2008-01-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance

  14. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  15. Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.

  16. Principles for School Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lois

    2004-01-01

    This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…

  17. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  18. THE RESPONSIBILITY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available "I'm wishing Law this: all legal obligations sholud be executed with the scrupulosity with which moral obligations are being performed by those people who feel bound by them ...", so beautifully portraited by Nicolae Titulescu`s words1. Life in the society means more than a simple coexistence of human beings, it actually means living together, collaborating and cooperating; that is why I always have to relate to other people and to be aware that only by limiting my freedom of action, the others freedom is feasible. Neminem laedere should be a principle of life for each of us. The individual is a responsible being. But responsibility exceeds legal prescriptions. Romanian Constitution underlines that I have to exercise my rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing the rights and freedoms of others. The legal norm, developer of the constitutional principles, is endowed with sanction, which grants it exigibility. But I wonder: If I choose to obey the law, is my decision essentially determined only due of the fear of punishment? Is it not because I am a rational being, who developed during its life a conscience towards values, and thus I understand that I have to respect the law and I choose to comply with it?

  19. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  20. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)

  1. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  2. Coverage of Entrepreneurship in Principles of Economics Textbooks: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin A.; Rushing, Francis W.

    1999-01-01

    Updates a study of the coverage of entrepreneurship contained in principles of economics textbooks originally carried out in the mid-1980s. Analyzes coverage of the same topics in 14 popular introductory texts. Concludes that entrepreneurship still has not worked its way into economics-principles texts. (DSK)

  3. Sources of Funding and Academic Performance in Economics Principles Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Dagney; Srinivasan, Arun K.; Bingham, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine two factors that may affect student achievement in economics principles courses: working for pay and the primary source of funds (employer tuition reimbursement, loans, scholarships, financial aid, self-financing, parental transfers, other) used to pay for college for a sample of students in economics principles classes at a…

  4. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Merit personnel systems are based on the principle that an organization is best served by... embody the following merit system principles: (1) Recruitment should be from qualified individuals from...) Equal pay should be provided for work of substantially equal value, with appropriate consideration of...

  5. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For purposes of this work, this paper examines the principle of beneficence in biomedicine. Using both hypothetical cases and others in real life situations, the paper reflects on the implications of beneficence in biomedicine. It argues that the principle of beneficence is a prima facie obligation that should “always be acted ...

  6. The Alara principle in backfitting Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurs, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive backfitting program, the Modifications Project, was carried out at the Borssele Nuclear Power Station. It involved sixteen modifications to technical systems. The scope of activities, and the dose rates encountered in places where work was to be performed, made it obvious from the outset that a high collective dose had to be anticipated. As a consequence, radiation protection within the project was organized in such a way that applicable radiation protection principles were applied in all phases of the project. From the point of view of radiation protection, the Modifications Project had to be subdivided into three phases, i.e., a conceptual design phase in which mainly the justification principle was applied; the engineering phase in which the Alara principle was employed; the execution phase in which management of the (internal) dose limits had to be observed in addition to the Alara principle. Throughout all project phases, radiation protection considerations and results were documented in so-called Alara reports and radiation protection checklists. As a result of the strictest possible observance of radiation protection principles in all phases of the project, a collective dose of 2505 mSv was achieved, which stands for a reduction by a factor of 4 compared to the very first estimate. In view of the scope and complex nature of the activities involved, and the radiation levels in the Borssele Nuclear Power Station, this is an excellent result. (orig.) [de

  7. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  8. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  9. No-Hypersignaling Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Tosini, Alessandro; Buscemi, Francesco; Vedral, Vlatko

    2017-07-01

    A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena. We hence conclude that the "principle of quantumness," if it exists, cannot be found in spacelike correlations alone: nontrivial constraints need to be imposed also on timelike correlations, in order to exclude hypersignaling theories.

  10. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  11. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  12. Principles of asymmetric synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...

  13. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  14. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  15. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  16. Principles of Bioenergetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  17. Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.

  18. Connection of scattering principles: a visual and mathematical tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggini, Filippo; Snieder, Roel

    2012-01-01

    Inverse scattering, Green's function reconstruction, focusing, imaging and the optical theorem are subjects usually studied as separate problems in different research areas. We show a physical connection between the principles because the equations that rule these scattering principles have a similar functional form. We first lead the reader through a visual explanation of the relationship between these principles and then present the mathematics that illustrates the link between the governing equations of these principles. Throughout this work, we describe the importance of the interaction between the causal and anti-causal Green's functions. (paper)

  19. Is weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, A.Yu.; Kuz'min, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The question considered in the work is whether there are models which can account for small violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra is constructed for the creation-annihilation operators, which contains a parameter β and describe small violation of the Pauli principle (the Pauli principle is valid exactly for β=0). The commutation relations in this algebra are trilinear. A model is presented, basing upon this commutator algebra, which allows transitions violating the Pauli principle, their probability being suppressed by a factor of β 2 (even though the Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)

  20. Variational principle for nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2000-01-01

    A new variational principle for the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations is presented. This Eulerian variational principle uses constrained variations for the gyrocenter Vlasov distribution in eight-dimensional extended phase space and turns out to be simpler than the Lagrangian variational principle recently presented by H. Sugama [Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. A local energy conservation law is then derived explicitly by the Noether method. In future work, this new variational principle will be used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear, low-frequency Vlasov--Maxwell bounce-gyrokinetic equations, in which the fast gyromotion and bounce-motion time scales have been eliminated

  1. The nonholonomic variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupkova, Olga [Department of Algebra and Geometry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Tomkova 40, 779 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: krupkova@inf.upol.cz

    2009-05-08

    A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic

  2. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  3. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  4. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  5. Design principles for precision mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The successful design of mechanisms for products, tools and equipment relies on excellent concepts and properly designed details. Both are covered in this book. Many of the examples presented have been realised in practice and properly evaluated, giving the reader/designer a high level of confidence. Every example comes with the considerations underlying the application and the limitations of the particular idea. This book is based on the work started in the 1960s by W. van der Hoek at Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and subsequently continued by M.P. Koster, culminating in the Dutch-language book “Constructieprincipes” [Design principles for accurate movement and positioning]. The core of their design approach has been preserved, while theory and examples were updated and the English language was adopted to reach a broad audience within the Netherlands as well as abroad. Herman (H.M.J.R.) Soemers is associated with the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. He also works as a technolog...

  6. Principles of radiological protection: new paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir; Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The relationships of workers, patients and physicians to the basic principles of radiological protection were given in this work an historical introduction that emphasizes their development from their beginnings to the current period. The evolution of scientific knowledge as regards the benefits and injuries resulting from the use of the ionizing radiation in human activities is the main focus of the work. These principles (justification, optimization and limitation) are presented in order to offer a broader view of their application fields. The principle of the optimization receives the contribution of techniques aimed to help the decision used in radiological protection. The principle of the limitation of doses is helped by the concept of limit specifically linked to a given segment of the population or a given human activity. Regarding the current relationship between physicians and patients a change of philosophy is discussed in what concerns the radiation dose supplied that should be the minimum one in relation to the diagnosis or cure objectives. The administration of radiation must follow the recommendations of ICRP - International Commission on Radiological Protection. The radiation can bring benefits if used with rationality, efficacy and care. The radiation should not be feared, but respected. (author)

  7. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  8. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  9. Conservation and balance principles approach in NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1997-01-01

    In this work some principles of mass, energy, activity level conservation are formulated. When some conditioning or treatment procedures for High Level Waste (HLW) are applied then the corresponding balance principles operate. It is important to note that in AECL computing code DECOM an analysis of different versions of decommissioning based on cost consideration is given.. Our approach pointed out many possibilities which are to be taken into account in the NPP decommissioning, besides the minimum cost principle. We also remarked other circumstances pointing to other conservation principles and to the corresponding balance principles. In our opinion this is the first approach of this kind in international literature. With the progress which is expected in decommissioning techniques some of the considerations presented in this work have to be developed and detailed. (author)

  10. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  11. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  12. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.

  13. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  14. Quantum principles and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Walter

    2012-01-01

    QUANTUM PRINCIPLESPerspective and PrinciplesPrelude to Quantum MechanicsStern-Gerlach Experiment Idealized Stern-Gerlach ResultsClassical Model AttemptsWave Functions for Two Physical-Outcome CaseProcess Diagrams, Operators, and Completeness Further Properties of Operators/ModulationOperator ReformulationOperator RotationBra-Ket Notation/Basis StatesTransition AmplitudesThree-Magnet Setup Example-CoherenceHermitian ConjugationUnitary OperatorsA Very Special OperatorMatrix RepresentationsMatrix Wave Function RecoveryExpectation ValuesWrap Up ProblemsFree Particles in One DimensionPhotoelectric EffectCompton EffectUncertainty Relation for PhotonsStability of Ground StatesBohr ModelFourier Transform and Uncertainty RelationsSchrödinger EquationSchrödinger Equation ExampleDirac Delta FunctionsWave Functions and ProbabilityProbability CurrentTime Separable SolutionsCompleteness for Particle StatesParticle Operator PropertiesOperator RulesTime Evolution and Expectation ValuesWrap-UpProblemsSome One-Dimensional So...

  15. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  16. Principles of alternative gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907

  17. Experimental toxicology: the basic principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Diana; Conning, D. M

    1988-01-01

    Principles and methods are discussed in detail, covering experimental design, biochemical issues, animal husbandry, species differences, immunological issues, carcinogenesis, reproductive approaches...

  18. The Principle of General Tovariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  19. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  20. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  1. Design principles for a large RFP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillpott, J.; Rostagni, G.; Di Marco, J.

    1981-01-01

    An RFP experiment (RFX) has been designed by an International Design Team, by groups of collaborating physicists and engineers working in their home laboratories. This international collaborative project has been brought to an advanced stage of system and component design by the co-operation of three design teams under the co-ordination of a Design Manager, based at Culham Laboratory. The paper summaries the important design principles for an RFP device, based on the outcome of this collaborative design project

  2. The system of the didactic principles with applicability in teaching economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliana Ecaterina TASCOVICI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the system of didactic principles and  offer several models of  didactic tasks  used in teaching Economic objects, but they can be broaden to any other school objects,  in accordance with the presented approaches and their specific features. Thus, we presented the following principles: the principle of the active and conscious appropriation of the knowledge and skills; the intuition principle or of the unity between real and abstract, between rational and sensorial; the principle of accessibility and of respecting the students’ age and individual particularities; the principle of connecting theory with practice; the principle of knowledge systematization and continuity; the principle of the rigorous and durable appropriation of the knowledge, abilities and skills; the principle of assuring the feed-back within the system of learning. The didactic tasks are found after every above mentioned principle. The work is suitable for mainly probationer students and for teachers.

  3. The inconstant "principle of constancy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzer, M

    1983-01-01

    A review of the principle of constancy, as it appeared in Freud's writings, shows that it was inspired by his clinical observations, first with Breuer in the field of cathartic therapy and then through experiences in the early usage of psychoanalysis. The recognition that memories repressed in the unconscious created increasing tension, and that this was relieved with dischargelike phenomena when the unconscious was made conscious, was the basis for his claim to originality in this area. The two principles of "neuronic inertia" Freud expounded in the Project (1895), are found to offer the key to the ambiguous definition of the principle of constancy he was to offer in later years. The "original" principle, which sought the complete discharge of energy (or elimination of stimuli), became the forerunner of the death drive; the "extended" principle achieved balances that were relatively constant, but succumbed in the end to complete discharge. This was the predecessor of the life drives. The relation between the constancy and pleasure-unpleasure principles was maintained for twenty-five years largely on an empirical basis which invoked the concept of psychophysical parallelism between "quantity" and "quality." As the links between the two principles were weakened by clinical experiences attendant upon the growth of ego psychology, a revision of the principle of constancy was suggested, and it was renamed the Nirvana principle. Actually it was shifted from alignment with the "extended" principle of inertia to the original, so that "constancy" was incongruously identified with self-extinction. The former basis for the constancy principle, the extended principle of inertia, became identified with Eros. Only a few commentators seem aware of this radical transformation, which has been overlooked in the Standard Edition of Freud's writings. Physiological biases in the history and conception of the principle of constancy are noted in the Standard Edition. The historical

  4. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  5. The Dandelion Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Sonne, Thorkil

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses modifying the work environment for unconventional employees who nonetheless have valuable skills to contribute. An example cited is software company Specialisterne, which discovered people with autism were well-suited to the repetitive and exacting nature of software testing...

  6. Design principles for riboswitch function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase L Beisel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.

  7. Overview of the fundamental safety principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishinga, Milton Mulenga

    2015-02-01

    The primary objective of this work was to provide an overview of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) document; 'Fundamental Safety principles, SF.1'. The document outlines ten (10) fundamental principles which provide the basis for an effective the radiation protection framework. The document is the topmost in the hierarchy of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. These principles are the foundation of the nuclear safety put stringent obligations on Parties under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The fundamental Safety objective of protecting people individually and collectively and the environment has to be achieved without unduly limiting the operation of facilities or the conduct of activities that give rise to risks. The thematic areas covered are; responsibility for safety, role of government, leadership and management for safety, justification of facilities and activities, optimization of protection, limitation of risks to individuals, protection of present and future generations, prevention of accidents, emergency preparedness and response and protective actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. Appropriate recommendations have been provided for effective application of the principles by Governments, Regulatory Bodies and Operating Organizations of facilities and Nuclear Installations the give rise to radiation risks. (au)

  8. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  9. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  10. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  11. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  12. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  13. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  14. Electrical and electronic principles and technology

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2013-01-01

    This much-loved textbook introduces electrical and electronic principles and technology to students who are new to the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions really help aid your understanding and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have mastered each subject. In total the books contains 410 worked problems, 540 further problems, 340 multiple-choice questions, 455 short-answer questions, and 7 revision tests with answers online.This an ideal text for vocational courses enabling a s

  15. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  16. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  17. Quantum principles in field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of quantum principle is intruduced as a principle whosee formulation is based on specific quantum ideas and notions. We consider three such principles, viz. those of quantizability, local gauge symmetry, and supersymmetry, and their role in the development of the quantum field theory (QFT). Concerning the first of these, we analyze the formal aspects and physical contents of the renormalization procedure in QFT and its relation to ultraviolet divergences and the renorm group. The quantizability principle is formulated as an existence condition of a self-consistent quantum version with a given mechanism of the field interaction. It is shown that the consecutive (from a historial point of view) use of these quantum principles puts still larger limitations on possible forms of field interactions

  18. Objective Principles of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2014-01-01

    Economists have the habit of solving the wrong problems. They speculate circumstantially about the behavior of agents and do not come to grips with the behavior of the monetary economy. This is the consequence of the methodological imperative that all explanations must run in terms of the actions and reactions of individuals. The critical point is that no way leads from the understanding of the interaction of the individuals to the understanding of the working of the economy as a whole. The s...

  19. Economic principles motivating social attention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Parikh, Purak C; Deaner, Robert O; Platt, Michael L

    2007-07-22

    We know little about the processes by which we evaluate the opportunity to look at another person. We propose that behavioural economics provides a powerful approach to understanding this basic aspect of social attention. We hypothesized that the decision process culminating in attention to another person follows the same economic principles that govern choices about rewards such as food, drinks and money. Specifically, such rewards are discounted as a function of time, are tradable for other rewards, and reinforce work. Behavioural and neurobiological evidence suggests that looking at other people can also be described as rewarding, but to what extent these economic principles apply to social orienting remains unknown. Here, we show that the opportunity to view pictures of the opposite sex is discounted by delay to viewing, substitutes for money and reinforces work. The reward value of photos of the opposite sex varied with physical attractiveness and was greater in men, suggesting differential utility of acquiring visual information about the opposite sex in men and women. Together, these results demonstrate that choosing whom to look at follows a general set of economic principles, implicating shared neural mechanisms in both social and non-social decision making.

  20. The precautionary principle in environmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

    2001-01-01

    Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy. PMID:11673114

  1. Principles of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive, self-contained treatment presenting general results of the theory. Establishes a geometric intuition and a working facility with specific geometric practices. Emphasizes applications through the study of interesting examples and the development of computational tools. Coverage ranges from analytic to geometric. Treats basic techniques and results of complex manifold theory, focusing on results applicable to projective varieties, and includes discussion of the theory of Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, algebraic surfaces and the quadric line complex as well as special top

  2. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  3. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  4. Static Characteristic of Actuator Working on Principle of Thermoelasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, K.; Doležel, Ivo; Dvořák, P.; Ulrych, B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 339-347 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : actuators * thermoelasticity * coupled problems Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Organic and perovskite solar cells: Working principles, materials and interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Nevena; Valero, Silvia; Delgado, Juan Luis

    2017-02-15

    In the last decades organic solar cells (OSCs) have been considered as a promising photovoltaic technology with the potential to provide reasonable power conversion efficiencies combined with low cost and easy processability. Unexpectedly, Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) have experienced unprecedented rise in Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) thus emerging as a highly efficient photovoltaic technology. OSCs and PSCs are two different kind of devices with distinct charge generation mechanism, which however share some similarities in the materials processing, thus standard strategies developed for OSCs are currently being employed in PSCs. In this article, we recapitulate the main processes in these two types of photovoltaic technologies with an emphasis on interfacial processes and interfacial modification, spotlighting the materials and newest approaches in the interfacial engineering. We discuss on the relevance of well-known materials coming from the OSCs field, which are now being tested in the PSCs field, while maintaining a focus on the importance of the material design for highly efficient, stable and accessible solar cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinburn, B.; Sacks, G.; Lobstein, T.; Rigby, N.; Baur, L.A.; Brownell, K.D.; Gill, T.; Seidell, J.C.; Kumanyika, S.

    2008-01-01

    A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to present the Sydney Principles and report on

  7. Principles of Burn Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On the superposition principle in interference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aninda; H Vijay, Aravind; Sinha, Urbasi

    2015-05-14

    The superposition principle is usually incorrectly applied in interference experiments. This has recently been investigated through numerics based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods as well as the Feynman path integral formalism. In the current work, we have derived an analytic formula for the Sorkin parameter which can be used to determine the deviation from the application of the principle. We have found excellent agreement between the analytic distribution and those that have been earlier estimated by numerical integration as well as resource intensive FDTD simulations. The analytic handle would be useful for comparing theory with future experiments. It is applicable both to physics based on classical wave equations as well as the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.

  9. NanoBiosensing Principles, Development and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Huangxian; Wang, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This book will cover the full scope of nanobiosensing, which combines the newest research results in the cross-disciplines of chemistry, biology, and materials science with biosensing and bioanalysis to develop novel detection principles, sensing mechanisms, and device engineering methods. It not only covers the important types of nanomaterials for biosensing applications, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofiber, quantum dots, fullerenes, fluorescent and biological molecules, etc., but also illustrates a wide range of sensing principles, including electrochemical detection, fluorescence, chemiluminesence, antibody-antigen interactions, and magnetic detection. The book details novel developments in the methodology and devices of biosensing and bioanalysis combined with nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as their applications in biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Furthermore, the reported works on the application and biofunction of nanoparticles have attracted extensive attention and interest, ...

  10. Soft magnetic tweezers: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Francesco; Allemand, Jean François; Croquette, Vincent

    2011-03-01

    We present here the principle of soft magnetic tweezers which improve the traditional magnetic tweezers allowing the simultaneous application and measurement of an arbitrary torque to a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. They take advantage of a nonlinear coupling regime that appears when a fast rotating magnetic field is applied to a superparamagnetic bead immersed in a viscous fluid. In this work, we present the development of the technique and we compare it with other techniques capable of measuring the torque applied to the DNA molecule. In this proof of principle, we use standard electromagnets to achieve our experiments. Despite technical difficulties related to the present implementation of these electromagnets, the agreement of measurements with previous experiments is remarkable. Finally, we propose a simple way to modify the experimental design of electromagnets that should bring the performances of the device to a competitive level.

  11. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  12. Principles and practice of psychopharmacotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janicak, Philip G; Marder, Stephen R; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2011-01-01

    "Fully updated for its Fifth Edition, Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy summarizes the latest data on hundreds of drug and device-based therapies and offers practical, evidence-based...

  13. Radiation chemistry; principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, F.; Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The book attempts to present those fields of radiation chemistry which depend on the principles of radiation chemistry. The first four chapters are some prelude about radiation chemistry principles with respect to how ionizing radiation interacts with matter, and primary results from these interactions and, which kinetic laws are followed by these primary interactions and which equipment for qualitative studies is necessary. Following chapters included principles fields of radiation chemistry. The last six chapters discussed of principle of chemistry from physical and chemical point of view. In this connection the fundamentals of radiation on biological system is emphasised. On one hand, the importance of it for hygiene and safety as neoplasms therapy is discussed. on the other hand, its industrial importance is presented

  14. Guiding Principles for Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principles in the document are intended to help guide the identification of data needs, promote and optimize full use of existing knowledge, provide consistency in the data request process across all scientific disciplines for pesticide review.

  15. Quantum mechanics principles and formalism

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on main principles of quantum mechanics and their immediate consequences, this graduate student-oriented volume develops the subject as a fundamental discipline, opening with review of origins of Schrödinger's equations and vector spaces.

  16. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics as a scholarly discipline and a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, anthropology and sociology. As such there are a number of values in medical ethics such as autonomy, non-maleficence, confidentiality, dignity, honesty, justice and beneficence, among others. These values act as guidelines for professionals in the medical fraternity and are therefore used to judge different cases in the fraternity. For purposes of this work, this paper examines the principle of beneficence in biomedicine. Using both hypothetical cases and others in real life situations, the paper reflects on the implications of beneficence in biomedicine. It argues that the principle of beneficence is a prima facie obligation that should "always be acted upon unless it conflicts on a particular occasion with an equal or stronger principle".

  17. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  18. Gyro precession and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, P.

    1979-01-01

    The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)

  19. Teaching the Principles of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gregory Mankiw

    1998-01-01

    In this brief essay, I describe my approach to the principles course. I emphasize three themes. First, in teaching microeconomics, the tools of welfare economics should play a larger role than they have in the past. Second, in teaching macroeconomics, classical ideas should play a larger role than they have in the past. Third, in teaching all parts of the course, we instructors should be sure to stress the important principles and be careful not to overwhelm students with an excess of details.

  20. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  1. Does the relativity principle violate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental data about a possible existence in Nature of some preferred reference frame with a violation of the principle of relativity are considered. The Einstein's and Lorentz's points of view are compared. Although some experiments are known which, in opinion of their authors, indicate the relativity principle violation persuasive evidences supporting this conclusion are absent for the present. The proposals of new experiments in this region, particularly with electron spin precession, are discussed. 55 refs., 4 figs

  2. A possible human counterpart of the principle of increasing entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K.N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the principle of increasing entropy holds for isolated natural systems that contain non-adaptive molecules. Here we present, for the first time, an experimental evidence for a possible human counterpart of the principle in an isolated social system that involves adaptive humans. Our work shows that the human counterpart is valid even though interactions among humans in social systems are distinctly different from those among molecules in natural systems. Thus, it becomes possible to understand social systems from this natural principle, at least to some extent.

  3. Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaneyfelt, Wendy

    2006-05-01

    As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

  4. Optimization of large scale food production using Lean Manufacturing principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Breum, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the production principles of Lean Manufacturing (Lean) can be applied in a large-scale meal production. Lean principles are briefly presented, followed by a field study of how a kitchen at a Danish hospital has implemented Lean in the daily production. In the kitchen...... not be negatively affected by the rationalisation of production procedures. The field study shows that Lean principles can be applied in meal production and can result in increased production efficiency and systematic improvement of product quality without negative effects on the working environment. The results...... show that Lean can be applied and used to manage the production of meals in the kitchen....

  5. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  6. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  7. The Maximum Entropy Principle and the Modern Portfolio Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cassetari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a capital allocation methodology base don the Principle of Maximum Entropy was developed. The Shannons entropy is used as a measure, concerning the Modern Portfolio Theory, are also discuted. Particularly, the methodology is tested making a systematic comparison to: 1 the mean-variance (Markovitz approach and 2 the mean VaR approach (capital allocations based on the Value at Risk concept. In principle, such confrontations show the plausibility and effectiveness of the developed method.

  8. EVALUATION OF STREET FURNITURE ACCORDING TO BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

    OpenAIRE

    GHORAB, Peyman; YÜCEL CAYMAZ, Gökçen Firdevs

    2014-01-01

    In the urban context, it is important to create more comfortable and livable environments with proper planning, design and application. Because aesthetic considerations are of more importance today, designing urban furniture to give a more beautiful appearance to cities is of high priority; designers and those working in related disciplines must be careful to observe these principles throughout the design process. This paper describes research conducted to review the aesthetic principles invo...

  9. Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, C.; Arun, Kenath

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have str...

  10. Main reabilitation principles for forest lands, contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodastov, G.V.; Panfilov, A.V.; Ushakov, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    The reabilitation principles of radionuclide contaminated forest lands are proposed, based on the reabilitation experience in the thirty kilometer zone, on materials of researches and design and research, works of the enterprise Vozrozhdenie. The work is oriented on using in the higher and middle links of the organization structure. The feature of the reabilitation system is a complex approach to solution of the problem

  11. Hybrid principle with applications to synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanneh, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of hybrid principles is presented together with the transformation rule for converting odd-parity approximations into even-parity approximations. This rule leads to a method which provides rigorous upper and lower bounds for the disadvantage factor for a reactor lattice cell. With these bounds very precise benchmarks have been constructed for representative lattices. It is found that a combination of even and odd-parity solutions for the neutron flux is much more efficient than solutions based on either the even-parity or odd-parity. This is the basis of one synthesis scheme. In another synthesis method, a hybrid principle with trial functions for both the even- and odd- parity angular flux is used in conjunction with a classical principle with an odd-parity trial function. The synthesis process is efficient because the largest set of equations to be solved, i.e. the frame work, involves as few as one unknown per node of the finite element mesh. The effectiveness of the synthesis method is demonstrated for a thick shield problem. (author)

  12. Principles of network and system administration

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A practical guide for meeting the challenges of planning and designing a networkNetwork design has to be logical and efficient, decisions have to be made about what services are needed, and security concerns must be addressed. Focusing on general principles, this book will help make the process of setting up, configuring, and maintaining a network much easier. It outlines proven procedures for working in a global community of networked machines, and provides practical illustrations of technical specifics. Readers will also find broad coverage of Linux and other Unix versions, Windows(r), Macs,

  13. Thermoelectricity an introduction to the principles

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, D K C

    2006-01-01

    This introductory treatment provides an understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles involved in the study of thermoelectricity in solids and of conduction in general. Aimed at graduate-level students and those interested in basic theory, it will be especially valuable to experimental physicists working in fields connected with electron transport and to theoreticians seeking a survey of thermoelectricity and related questions.Chronicling the early history of thermoelectricity from its discovery to modern times, this text features a considerable amount of experimental data and discu

  14. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  15. Principle of minimum distance in space of states as new principle in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D. B.; Ion, M. L. D.

    2007-01-01

    The mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) appears to have been a philosophical optimist having written: 'Since the fabric of universe is the most perfect and is the work of the most wise Creator, nothing whatsoever take place in this universe in which some relation of maximum or minimum does not appear. Wherefore, there is absolutely no doubt that every effect in universe can be explained as satisfactory from final causes themselves the aid of the method of Maxima and Minima, as can from the effective causes'. Having in mind this kind of optimism in the papers mentioned in this work we introduced and investigated the possibility to construct a predictive analytic theory of the elementary particle interaction based on the principle of minimum distance in the space of quantum states (PMD-SQS). So, choosing the partial transition amplitudes as the system variational variables and the distance in the space of the quantum states as a measure of the system effectiveness, we obtained the results presented in this paper. These results proved that the principle of minimum distance in space of quantum states (PMD-SQS) can be chosen as variational principle by which we can find the analytic expressions of the partial transition amplitudes. In this paper we present a description of hadron-hadron scattering via principle of minimum distance PMD-SQS when the distance in space of states is minimized with two directional constraints: dσ/dΩ(±1) = fixed. Then by using the available experimental (pion-nucleon and kaon-nucleon) phase shifts we obtained not only consistent experimental tests of the PMD-SQS optimality, but also strong experimental evidences for new principles in hadronic physics such as: Principle of nonextensivity conjugation via the Riesz-Thorin relation (1/2p + 1/2q = 1) and a new Principle of limited uncertainty in nonextensive quantum physics. The strong experimental evidence obtained here for the nonextensive statistical behavior of the [J,

  16. On the uncertainty principle. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, O.

    1976-01-01

    The treatment of ideal experiments connected with the uncertainty principle is continued. The author analyzes successively measurements of momentum and position, and discusses the common reason why the results in all cases differ from the conventional ones. A similar difference exists for the measurement of field strengths. The interpretation given by Weizsaecker, who tried to interpret Bohr's complementarity principle by introducing a multi-valued logic is analyzed. The treatment of the uncertainty principle ΔE Δt is deferred to a later paper as is the interpretation of the method of variation of constants. Every ideal experiment discussed shows various lower limits for the value of the uncertainty product which limits depend on the experimental arrangement and are always (considerably) larger than h. (Auth.)

  17. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible

  18. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  19. General principles of radiation protection in hospital media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteur, J.

    1993-01-01

    Principles of radiation protection given by ICRP in term of justification, optimization, limitation are applicable in hospital media. The medical act has to be justified and, in France, it is not possible to use ionizing radiations without a prescription from a doctor. The acceleration of technologies development make non radiological techniques more employed than radiologic ones, in an aim of efficiency more than an aim radiation protection. The second principle of optimization means to give medical care with the minimum of ionizing radiations for the patients as well the operators. For the principle of limitation which applied only for operators, we have the new recommends of ICRP, but it would be reasonable to give the most part of decision to the works doctor to decide if somebody has the aptitude to work at an exposed place. The last points concern the quality of equipment, the safety of installations, the organization of works which are under laws and regulations. 3 tabs

  20. Basic principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Khodyreva Viktoriia Andreevna

    2015-01-01

    This research is devoted to general principles of taxation of small-scale enterprises. Development of small-scale enterprises is one of the most important lines of tax policy in Russian Federation. The development of principles of taxation is important while forming a strong state system of taxation. In this work basic principles and some specific are provided. This work is of great scientific interest to law students, graduates, teachers and other persons interested in law and particularly i...

  1. Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

  2. Principles and applications of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Desmond F

    1975-01-01

    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  3. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  4. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  5. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  6. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae; Brenner, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications presents analytical and numerical methods for describing motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. The text first covers the fundamental principles of low-Reynolds-number flow, including the governing equations and fundamental theorems; the dynamics of a single particle in a flow field; and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. Next, the book deals with the advances in the mathematical and computational aspects of viscous particulate flows that point to innovations for large-scale simulations on parallel co

  7. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae

    2005-01-01

    ""This book is well organized and comprehensive . . . an eloquent and enduring statement of significant hydrodynamic principles."" - AIChE JournalMicrohydrodynamics concerns the flow and related phenomena pertinent to the motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. This text focuses on determining the motion of a particle or particles through a viscous fluid in bounded and unbounded flow. Its central theme is the mobility relation between particle motion and forces.Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications functions as a manual that explains methods for solving partic

  8. General principles of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a textbook for a course in quantum mechanics. Starting from the complementarity and the uncertainty principle Schroedingers equation is introduced together with the operator calculus. Then stationary states are treated as eigenvalue problems. Furthermore matrix mechanics are briefly discussed. Thereafter the theory of measurements is considered. Then as approximation methods perturbation theory and the WKB approximation are introduced. Then identical particles, spin, and the exclusion principle are discussed. There after the semiclassical theory of radiation and the relativistic one-particle problem are discussed. Finally an introduction is given into quantum electrodynamics. (HSI)

  9. Protecting the principles during progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.K.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss the importance in recognizing the unique aspects of nuclear power generation in an industry facing deregulation, competitiveness, and commercialization. While exciting times of opportunity are again ahead for the nuclear industry, the excitement has to consider that there are differences between general nuclear and general commerce. These differences are driven by some fundamental principles that impact nuclear reactor operation and examples are given of how these principles must be protected to ensure that nuclear generation can be of continued benefit to the public. (author)

  10. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us...

  11. Principlism and its alleged competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1995-09-01

    Principles that provide general normative frameworks in bioethics have been criticized since the late 1980s, when several different methods and types of moral philosophy began to be proposed as alternatives or substitutes. Several accounts have emerged in recent years, including: (1) Impartial Rule Theory (supported in this issue by K. Danner Clouser), (2) Casuistry (supported in this issue by Albert Jonsen), and (3) Virtue Ethics (supported in this issue by Edmund D. Pellegrino). Although often presented as rival methods or theories, these approaches are consistent with and should not be considered adversaries of a principle-based account.

  12. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  13. Variational principles of continuum mechanics. Vol. 1. Fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevsky, Victor L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The book reviews the two features of the variational approach: its use as a universal tool to describe physical phenomena and as a source for qualitative and quantitative methods of studying particular problems. Berdichevsky's work differs from other books on the subject in focusing mostly on the physical origin of variational principles as well as establishing their interrelations. For example, the Gibbs principles appear as a consequence of the Einstein formula for thermodynamic fluctuations rather than as the first principles of the theory of thermodynamic equilibrium. Mathematical issues are considered as long as they shed light on the physical outcomes and/or provide a useful technique for the direct study of variational problems. In addition, a thorough account of variational principles discovered in various branches of continuum mechanics is given. In this book, the first volume, the author covers the variational principles for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom; the variational principles of thermodynamics; the basics of continuum mechanics; the variational principles for classical models of continuum mechanics, such as elastic and plastic bodies, and ideal and viscous fluids; and direct methods of calculus of variations. (orig.)

  14. Ethical aspects of limiting residents' work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesing, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The regulation of residents' work hours involves several ethical conflicts which need to be systematically analysed and evaluated. ARGUMENTS AND CONCLUSION: The most important ethical principle when regulating work hours is to avoid the harm resulting from the over-work of physicians and from an excessive division of labour. Additionally, other ethical principles have to be taken into account, in particular the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence for future patients and for physicians. The article presents arguments for balancing the relevant ethical principles and analyses the structural difficulties that occur unavoidably in any regulation of the complex activities of physicians.

  15. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Darooneh

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  16. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2005-03-01

    In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical) definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  17. Curvature constraints from the causal entropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, Brandon; Albrecht, Andreas; Phillips, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Current cosmological observations indicate a preference for a cosmological constant that is drastically smaller than what can be explained by conventional particle physics. The causal entropic principle (Bousso et al.) provides an alternative approach to anthropic attempts to predict our observed value of the cosmological constant by calculating the entropy created within a causal diamond. We have extended this work to use the causal entropic principle to predict the preferred curvature within the 'multiverse'. We have found that values larger than ρ k =40ρ m are disfavored by more than 99.99% peak value at ρ Λ =7.9x10 -123 and ρ k =4.3ρ m for open universes. For universes that allow only positive curvature or both positive and negative curvature, we find a correlation between curvature and dark energy that leads to an extended region of preferred values. Our universe is found to be disfavored to an extent depending on the priors on curvature. We also provide a comparison to previous anthropic constraints on open universes and discuss future directions for this work.

  18. Principles and practice of sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, A.C.; James, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a text of sonographic technique, emphasizing clinical and diagnostic procedures. Ultrasound images and explanatory line drawings are placed side-by-side to facilitate interpretation. This book covers instrumentation and scanning principles, obstetric, gynecologic, abdominal, renal and urologic, pediatric, plus superficial structure sonography

  19. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  20. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  1. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  2. The precautionary principle is incoherent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that no version of the precautionary principle can be reasonably applied to decisions that may lead to fatal outcomes. In support of this strong claim, a number of desiderata are proposed, which reasonable rules for rational decision making ought to satisfy. Thereafter, two

  3. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erp, J.B. van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report).

  4. The Principle of Structural Reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spannin...

  5. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles. Bhaskar G Maiya. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0006-0018 ...

  6. The Principle of Least Action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    Reproduced from the book A Survey of Physical Theory (formerly titled: A Survey ... The dynamical laws for physical systems are usually expressed in the form of ... The reason for the difference in the results derived from the two principles lies ...

  7. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  8. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1997-01-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  9. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  10. The Oscillator Principle of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...

  11. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, R.; Kersten, H.; Vinkka-Puhakka, H.; Alpaslan, G.; Bearn, D.; Cema, I.; Delap, E.; Dummer, P.; Goulet, J.P.; Gugushe, T.; Jeniati, E.; Jerolimov, V.; Kotsanos, N.; Krifka, S.; Levy, G.; Neway, M.; Ogawa, T.; Saag, M.; Sidlauskas, A.; Skaleric, U.; Vervoorn, M.; White, D.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and

  12. GM Food. Fundamental safety principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena GALLARDO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a concise exposition of some of the most basic legal principles linked to the process of evaluation of genetically modified food safety, revealing their most salient features and also highlighting the deficiencies that some of them bring along in their application to the products under study.

  13. IFA proof of principle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    IFA proof of principle experiments is discussed. Controlled beam front motion experiments are reported, which demonstrate that accurate IFA programming of the motion of the potential well at the head of an IREB has been achieved. The status of IFA ion experiments is also discussed

  14. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  15. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  16. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...

  17. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  18. An extension of Babinet's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Silveira, R.

    1990-07-01

    It is shown that the diffraction pattern produced by any of two complementary screens and the one produced by a slit having the shape of their boundary, oscillates in opposite phase. This extension of Babinet's principle is illustrated with examples from nuclear scattering and classical optics

  19. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  20. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the...

  1. 32 CFR 203.6 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost principles. 203.6 Section 203.6 National... Cost principles. (a) Non-profit contractors must comply with the cost principles in OMB Circular A-122...) For-profit contractors and subcontractors must comply with the cost principles in the FAR (48 CFR part...

  2. 32 CFR 776.19 - Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles. 776.19 Section 776.19 National... Professional Conduct § 776.19 Principles. The Rules of this subpart are based on the following principles... exists, this subpart should be interpreted consistent with these general principles. (a) Covered...

  3. Landauer's principle and the conservation of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffertshofer, A.; Plastino, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Erasure of information requires the dissipation of a minimal amount of energy as being formulated in Landauer's principle. This profound concept in information processing has recently been derived by use of basic dynamical principles of statistical mechanics. We present an alternative derivation of Landauer's principle based on dynamical principles and certain properties of the Shannon-Gibbs-Boltzmann entropy, in particular (sub-)additivity

  4. 7 CFR 3015.111 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles. 3015.111 Section 3015.111... § 3015.111 Cost principles. (a) The cost principles prescribed by subpart T of this part require prior... approvals required by the cost principles are in § 3015.196. Procedures for prior approvals required by this...

  5. 36 CFR 219.2 - Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles. 219.2 Section 219... Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Purpose and Principles § 219.2 Principles. The planning regulations in this subpart are based on the following principles: (a) The first priority for...

  6. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  7. Principles of Chemistry (by Michael Munowitz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Reviewed By Jeffrey

    2000-05-01

    At a time when almost all general chemistry textbooks seem to have become commodities designed by marketing departments to offend no one, it is refreshing to find a book with a unique perspective. Michael Munowitz has written what I can only describe as a delightful chemistry book, full of conceptual insight, that uses a novel and interesting pedagogic strategy. This is a book that has much to recommend it. This is the best-written general chemistry book I have ever read. An editor with whom I have worked recently remarked that he felt his job was to help authors make their writing sing. Well, the writing in Principles of Chemistry sings with the full, rich harmonies and creative inventiveness of the King's Singers or Chanticleer. Here is the first sentence of the introduction: "Central to any understanding of the physical world is one discovery of paramount importance, a truth disarmingly simple yet profound in its implications: matter is not continuous." This is prose to be savored and celebrated. Principles of Chemistry has a distinct perspective on chemistry: the perspective of the physical chemist. The focus is on simplicity, what is common about molecules and reactions; begin with the microscopic and build bridges to the macroscopic. The author's perspective is clear from the organization of the book. After three rather broad introductory chapters, there are four chapters that develop the quantum mechanical theory of atoms and molecules, including a strong treatment of molecular orbital theory. Unlike many books, Principles of Chemistry presents the molecular orbital approach first and introduces valence bond theory later only as an approximation for dealing with more complicated molecules. The usual chapters on descriptive inorganic chemistry are absent (though there is an excellent chapter on organic and biological molecules and reactions as well as one on transition metal complexes). Instead, descriptive chemistry is integrated into the development of

  8. Consolidated principles for screening based on a systematic review and consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrow, Mark J; Hagens, Victoria; Chafe, Roger; Sullivan, Terrence; Rabeneck, Linda

    2018-04-09

    In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 principles of screening that often represent the de facto starting point for screening decisions today; 50 years on, are these principles still the right ones? Our objectives were to review published work that presents principles for population-based screening decisions since Wilson and Jungner's seminal publication, and to conduct a Delphi consensus process to assess the review results. We conducted a systematic review and modified Delphi consensus process. We searched multiple databases for articles published in English in 1968 or later that were intended to guide population-based screening decisions, described development and modification of principles, and presented principles as a set or list. Identified sets were compared for basic characteristics (e.g., number, categorization), a citation analysis was conducted, and principles were iteratively synthesized and consolidated into categories to assess evolution. Participants in the consensus process assessed the level of agreement with the importance and interpretability of the consolidated screening principles. We identified 41 sets and 367 unique principles. Each unique principle was coded to 12 consolidated decision principles that were further categorized as disease/condition, test/intervention or program/system principles. Program or system issues were the focus of 3 of Wilson and Jungner's 10 principles, but comprised almost half of all unique principles identified in the review. The 12 consolidated principles were assessed through 2 rounds of the consensus process, leading to specific refinements to improve their relevance and interpretability. No gaps or missing principles were identified. Wilson and Jungner's principles are remarkably enduring, but increasingly reflect a truncated version of contemporary thinking on screening that does not fully capture subsequent focus on program or system principles. Ultimately, this review and consensus process provides a

  9. Consolidated principles for screening based on a systematic review and consensus process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Victoria; Chafe, Roger; Sullivan, Terrence; Rabeneck, Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 principles of screening that often represent the de facto starting point for screening decisions today; 50 years on, are these principles still the right ones? Our objectives were to review published work that presents principles for population-based screening decisions since Wilson and Jungner’s seminal publication, and to conduct a Delphi consensus process to assess the review results. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and modified Delphi consensus process. We searched multiple databases for articles published in English in 1968 or later that were intended to guide population-based screening decisions, described development and modification of principles, and presented principles as a set or list. Identified sets were compared for basic characteristics (e.g., number, categorization), a citation analysis was conducted, and principles were iteratively synthesized and consolidated into categories to assess evolution. Participants in the consensus process assessed the level of agreement with the importance and interpretability of the consolidated screening principles. RESULTS: We identified 41 sets and 367 unique principles. Each unique principle was coded to 12 consolidated decision principles that were further categorized as disease/condition, test/intervention or program/system principles. Program or system issues were the focus of 3 of Wilson and Jungner’s 10 principles, but comprised almost half of all unique principles identified in the review. The 12 consolidated principles were assessed through 2 rounds of the consensus process, leading to specific refinements to improve their relevance and interpretability. No gaps or missing principles were identified. INTERPRETATION: Wilson and Jungner’s principles are remarkably enduring, but increasingly reflect a truncated version of contemporary thinking on screening that does not fully capture subsequent focus on program or system principles

  10. The Legal Principles In The Democratic State Of Law And The Labor Principle Of Protection: An Analysis Of The Informative, Regulatory And Interpretative Functions Of The Principle Of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Feliciano de Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate, from the perspective of the material and effective dimensions of the right to work, addressing the issue of principles and their functions, the comprehensiveness of the principle of protection in labor law. Promoting the deepening of research through a descriptive-explanatory research of the documentary-bibliographic type, is dedicated to analytical-conceptual problems of theories of principles. It reveals that the principles have broad application in labor law and these, especially protection, must be present in the labor system in its informative, interpretative and normative functions in order to ensure the effectiveness of fundamental social rights.

  11. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  12. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Variational principle, brachistochrone, tachystoptota, extremum action, Fermat's principle, Euler–Lagrange equation. Abstract. The brachistochrone problem posed by Bernoulli and its solutionhighlights one of the most famous experiments in physicswhich illustrates the variational principle. This pedagogicalstudy ...

  13. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics as a scholarly discipline and a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, anthropology and sociology. As such there are a number of values in medical ethics such as autonomy, non-maleficence, confidentiality, dignity, honesty, justice and beneficence, among others. These values act as guidelines for professionals in the medical fraternity and are therefore used to judge different cases in the fraternity. For purposes of this work, this paper examines the principle of beneficence in biomedicine. Using both hypothetical cases and others in real life situations, the paper reflects on the implications of beneficence in biomedicine. It argues that the principle of beneficence is a prima facie obligation that should “always be acted upon unless it conflicts on a particular occasion with an equal or stronger principle”. PMID:22514763

  14. Making 'what works' work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2017-01-01

    and a mattress. As such, the paper shows how DR, as an evidence-based method, is established through concrete relations, rather than abstracted and universal principals. It argues that these relations stabilising DR are never enacted once and for all, but require continual work to be held together as a method...... that ‘works’....

  15. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  16. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei

    2017-01-01

    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  17. Track formation. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The principles and technical aspects of track formation in insulating solids are first described. The characteristics of dialectic track detection are discussed from the technical point of view: the nature of the detectors, the chemical treatment, the sensitivity and the environmental conditions of use. The applications are reviewed. The principle of each type of applied research is described and then the applications are listed. When used as a detector, nuclear tracks can provide valuable information in a number of fields: element content determination and wrapping, imaging, radiation dosimetry, environmental studies, technological uses and miscellaneous other applications. The track-formation process can also be used for making well-defined holes; this method allows other applications which are also described. Finally, some possible future applications are mentioned. (author)

  18. On a generalized bootstrap principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Sasaki, R.; Dorey, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The S-matrices for non-simply-laced affine Toda field theories are considered in the context of a generalized bootstrap principle. The S-matrices, and in particular their poles, depend on a parameter whose range lies between the Coxeter numbers of dual pairs of the corresponding non-simply-laced algebras. It is proposed that only odd order poles in the physical strip with positive coefficients throughout this range should participate in the bootstrap. All other singularities have an explanation in principle in terms of a generalized Coleman-Thun mechanism. Besides the S-matrices introduced by Delius, Grisaru and Zanon, the missing case (F 4 (1) , e 6 (2) ), is also considered and provides many interesting examples of pole generation. (author)

  19. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  20. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  1. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  2. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  3. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  4. Graphics and visualization principles & algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Theoharis, T; Platis, Nikolaos; Patrikalakis, Nicholas M

    2008-01-01

    Computer and engineering collections strong in applied graphics and analysis of visual data via computer will find Graphics & Visualization: Principles and Algorithms makes an excellent classroom text as well as supplemental reading. It integrates coverage of computer graphics and other visualization topics, from shadow geneeration and particle tracing to spatial subdivision and vector data visualization, and it provides a thorough review of literature from multiple experts, making for a comprehensive review essential to any advanced computer study.-California Bookw

  5. Principles of digital image synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1995-01-01

    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,

  6. Fractional variational principles in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleanu, Dumitru [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Cankaya University, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Space Sciences, PO Box MG-23, R 76900, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr

    2009-10-15

    The fractional calculus has gained considerable importance in various fields of science and engineering, especially during the last few decades. An open issue in this emerging field is represented by the fractional variational principles area. Therefore, the fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations started to be examined intensely during the last decade. In this paper, we review some new trends in this field and we discuss some of their potential applications.

  7. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  8. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  9. Positron emission tomography. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio

    2001-01-01

    The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose

  10. Principle and use of dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, S.; Ribaud, I.

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear physics of Orsay is accepted by the Ministry of Labour to insure the surveillance of workers individual external exposure against the danger of ionizing radiations and to execute monitoring of radiation protection. The dosemeters studied in this report are the photographic film dosemeters ( for x rays, gamma rays and beta - rays), the trace detectors (fast neutrons) and the radio thermo luminescent dosemeters. For each type, the principle and how to use it are given. (N.C.)

  11. Antinociceptive principle from Curcuma aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Chowdhury Faiz; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Sayem, Abu Sadat Md.; Siragee, Ismail Hossain; Tunan, Asif Mahmud; Hassan, Fahima; Kabir, Md. Mohiuddin; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Background The rhizome of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb (Zingiberaceae) has been used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatic disorders in Bangladesh. The aim of the current study was the bioassay-guided isolation and purification of an antinociceptive principle from the methanol extract of C. aeruginosa rhizomes. Methods The antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced licking in the Swiss albino mice to investigate central a...

  12. Flawed Applications of Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaras, Panagiotis; Primerakis, Georgios

    2018-04-01

    One of the most popular demonstration experiments pertaining to Bernoulli's principle is the production of a water spray by using a vertical plastic straw immersed in a glass of water and a horizontal straw to blow air towards the top edge of the vertical one. A more general version of this phenomenon, appearing also in school physics problems, is the determination of the rise of the water level h in the straw (see Fig. 1).

  13. Principles of nuclear radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.; Poston, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the transistorization of equipment and provides an introduction into practice of semiconductor and thermoluminescent detectors. It discusses the principles of radiation detectors most widely used in nuclear technology, medical practice and radiation protection. It stresses the alternative detectors available and discusses practical considerations in choosing and setting up detector systems for actual use. Traditional materials, including semiconductors, TLD's and modern data handling facilities are covered

  14. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  15. Cognitive Principles in Metonymic Headlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Milkevich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on metonymy as a linguistic device. Traditionally metonymy is considered within the domain of stylistics. However, methods of cognitive linguistics help to penetrate into the essence of language phenomena and explain their nature as part f more general process of human cognition. Cognitive linguistics puts forward the hypothesis that the use of metonymy is governed by cognitive principles. They are based on our experience, perception and culture. The article presents a study of metonymy in political headlines and analyses the application of cognitive principles to metonymy. We analyse the cases of metonymy presented by proper nouns geographical names such as names of countries, capital, continents. We come to the conclusion that the concept «COUNTRY» is the metonymic vehicle in three types of models: most frequent types of metonymy are: «COUNTRY FOR ITS GOVERNMENT», «COUNTRY FOR EVENT» and «COUNTRY FOR ACTION». The concept «COUNTRY» can also be the target in metonymy types «CAPITAL FOR COUNTRY» and «CONTINENT FOR COUNTRIES». The leading cognitive principles in such types of metonymic relationships are: based on human experience «CONCRETE OVER ABSTRACT», «INERACTIONAL OVER NON-INTERACTIONAL»; based on perceptual selectivity «DOMINANT OVER LESS DOMINANT», «MORE OVER LESS»; based on cultural preference «CENTRAL OVER PERIPHERAL», «MORE IMPORTANT OVER LESS IMPORTANT».

  16. The balance principle in scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Wang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles of balance, randomization, control and repetition, which are closely related, constitute the four principles of scientific research. The balance principle is the kernel of the four principles which runs through the other three. However, in scientific research, the balance principle is always overlooked. If the balance principle is not well performed, the research conclusion is easy to be denied, which may lead to the failure of the whole research. Therefore, it is essential to have a good command of the balance principle in scientific research. This article stresses the definition and function of the balance principle, the strategies and detailed measures to improve balance in scientific research, and the analysis of the common mistakes involving the use of the balance principle in scientific research.

  17. The Fundamental Principle of Human Dignity and the Right to Life : Collision Any of These Fundamental Principles The Perspective of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika do Amaral Véras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This legal article works the theme of the collision of the fundamental principles, especially the principle of human dignity and the right to life, abortion perspective. First, we discuss of fundamental rights, bringing its definition, observed the distinction between human rights and fundamental rights. Then the super principle of human dignity is covered and, soon after, the right to life is highlighted through its relevant elements. Finally, talks on a possible collision beween the fundamental right to life and the principle of human dignity, with a special focus on the issue of abortion.

  18. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  19. First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Sharad Babu, E-mail: sbpillai001@gmail.com; Narayan, Som; Jha, Prafulla K. [Department. of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony (Sb) material and its alloy with As (SbAs) using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain.

  20. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atherosclerosis is the most important principle in the management ... Lynne Tudhope is President of the Diabetic Foot Working Group of South Africa and ... functional and physiological status belies ... contrast volume is always of paramount .... the adequacy of blood circulation to ... population costs the health care system of.

  1. Principles for the Conservation and Restoration of Collections in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureau, Jeanne M.

    This statement of principles, which represents a general approach to the nature and objectives of conservation and restoration work rather than a detailed description of methods and practices, is designed to encourage those responsible for the care of library collections to face up to the consequences of neglect and, together with their technical…

  2. The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...

  3. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Exploring the Role of Moral Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    by definition decisions that explicitly involve the welfare of others, invoked the greater use of care-based moral principles (concern for others...the Internet and you find out that the company makes many of its products in sweatshops in a foreign country, where the employees work for very low

  4. Agile and lean principles and systems engineering: a synergy?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph-Malherbe, SM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available not efficient and effective enough to support rapid fielding of products. The objective of this piece of work is multi-fold: (1) to explore and present fundamental Systems Engineering, Agile and Lean principles (2) the evolution or lack of Lean and Agile...

  5. Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... methods provide engineers with valuable tools for limit sta- te analysis, their application becomes difficult with increased structural complexity. The main challenge is to solve the optimization problem posed by the extremum principles. This thesis is a study of how numerical methods can be used to solve...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...

  6. Emergent gravity of fractons: Mach's principle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretko, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Recent work has established the existence of stable quantum phases of matter described by symmetric tensor gauge fields, which naturally couple to particles of restricted mobility, such as fractons. We focus on a minimal toy model of a rank 2 tensor gauge field, consisting of fractons coupled to an emergent graviton (massless spin-2 excitation). We show how to reconcile the immobility of fractons with the expected gravitational behavior of the model. First, we reformulate the fracton phenomenon in terms of an emergent center of mass quantum number, and we show how an effective attraction arises from the principles of locality and conservation of center of mass. This interaction between fractons is always attractive and can be recast in geometric language, with a geodesiclike formulation, thereby satisfying the expected properties of a gravitational force. This force will generically be short-ranged, but we discuss how the power-law behavior of Newtonian gravity can arise under certain conditions. We then show that, while an isolated fracton is immobile, fractons are endowed with finite inertia by the presence of a large-scale distribution of other fractons, in a concrete manifestation of Mach's principle. Our formalism provides suggestive hints that matter plays a fundamental role, not only in perturbing, but in creating the background space in which it propagates.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging principles: The bare necessities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1987-01-01

    The intent of this chapter is to provide the practicing radiologist with a conceptual basis for the underlying principles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The goal of what follows is to provide the reader with a conceptual framework in a relatively facile manner. By design, some repetition and certain oversimplifications will be used, and the experts might argue that accuracy is stretched by this approach. It should be pointed out, however, that even the experts still debate some of the most fundamental aspects of MRI, and that the rapid evolution of knowledge regarding MRI principles, instrumentation, and imaging techniques makes even their most ambitious treatment obsolete by the time it is printed. Nevertheless, the rapid dissemination of this technology in the clinical arena necessitates that most radiologists, need at least a conceptual model of the fundamentals with which to approach MRI, and need eventually to enrich their understanding through hands-on experience and further study. Providing a working conceptual model is the limited goal of this chapter

  8. LAW PRINCIPLES AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY. DOCTRINE OF THE SOCIAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available e, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and application. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  9. The renormalized action principle in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasin, H.

    1990-03-01

    The renormalized action principle holds a central position in field theory, since it offers a variety of applications. The main concern of this work is the proof of the action principle within the so-called BPHZ-scheme of renormalization. Following the classical proof given by Lam and Lowenstein, some loopholes are detected and closed. The second part of the work deals with the application of the action principle to pure Yang-Mills-theories within the axial gauge (n 2 ≠ 0). With the help of the action principle we investigate the decoupling of the Faddeev-Popov-ghost-fields from the gauge field. The consistency of this procedure, suggested by three-graph approximation, is proven to survive quantization. Finally we deal with the breaking of Lorentz-symmetry caused by the presence of the gauge-direction n. Using BRST-like techniques and the semi-simplicity of the Lorentz-group, it is shown that no new breakings arise from quantization. Again the main step of the proof is provided by the action principle. (Author, shortened by G.Q.)

  10. Y-12 Sustainable Design Principles for Building Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. G.

    2008-11-01

    B&W Y-12 is committed to modernizing the Y-12 complex to meet future needs with a sustainable and responsive infrastructure and to integrating sustainability principles and practices into Y-12 work (Y72-001, B&W Y-12 Environmental, Safety and Health Policy). This commitment to sustainability and specifically sustainable design of buildings is also incorporated into Presidential Executive Orders (EO), DOE Orders (DOE O), and goals. Sustainable building design is an approach to design, construct, and operate facilities in an efficient and environmentally sound manner that will produce a healthful, resource-efficient and productive working environment that is inherently protective of the environment. The DOE has established the following 5 Guiding Principles for High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB), and has issued directives that require Y-12 to incorporate the principles and a number of supporting specific practices and techniques into building design, construction and renovation projects: (1) Employ Integrated Design Principles; (2) Optimize Energy Performance; (3) Protect and Conserve Water; (4) Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality; and (5) Reduce Environmental Impact of Materials. The purpose of this document is to present the required sustainable building principles, practices and techniques, summarize the key drivers for incorporating them into Y-12 projects, and present additional recommendations and resources that can be used to support sustainable buildings to enhance the environmental and economic performance of the Y-12 Complex.

  11. European and Czech principles of contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Monika

    2008-01-01

    8 Summary European and Czech Principles of Contract Law This thesis is focused on principles of contract law. In the first instance, it explains the theoretical conception of principles of law and adverts to their status in the Czech legal system. The second Chapter of the thesis dissertates about basic principles of the Czech private law starting with the principle of freedom of contract, ends with the principles of good faith and fair dealing. The main part of the thesis deals with the Euro...

  12. A structured policy review of the principles of professional self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN) has, for many years, based its work on professional self-regulation on a set of 12 principles. These principles are research based and were identified nearly three decades ago. ICN has conducted a number of reviews of the principles; however, changes have been minimal. In the past 5-10 years, a number of authors and governments, often as part of the review of regulatory systems, have started to propose principles to guide the way regulatory frameworks are designed and implemented. These principles vary in number and content. This study examines the current policy literature on principle-based regulation and compares this with the set of principles advocated by the ICN. A systematic search of the literature on principle-based regulation is used as the basis for a qualitative thematic analysis to compare and contrast the 12 principles of self-regulation with more recently published work. A mapping of terms based on a detailed description of the principles used in the various research and policy documents was generated. This mapping forms the basis of a critique of the current ICN principles. A professional self-regulation advocated by the ICN were identified. A revised and extended set of 13 principles is needed if contemporary developments in the field of regulatory frameworks are to be accommodated. These revised principles should be considered for adoption by the ICN to underpin their advocacy work on professional self-regulation. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Personnel Selection Using Fuzzy Axiomatic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant V. Khandekar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overall competency of the working personnel is often observed to ultimately affect the productivity of an organization. The globalised competitive atmosphere coupled with technological improvements demands for efficient and specialized manpower for the industrial operations. A set of typical technological skills and attitudes is thus demanded for every job profile. Most often, these skills and attitudes are expressed imprecisely and hence, necessitating the support of fuzzy sets for their effective understanding and further processing. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy axiomatic design principles is applied for solving the personnel selection problems. Selecting a middle management staff of a service department for a large scale organization is demonstrated here as a real life example. Five shortlisted candidates are assessed with respect to a set of 18 evaluation criteria, and the selection committee with experts from the related fields also realizes the outcome of the adopted approach to be quite appropriate, befitting and in agreement with their expectations.

  14. Environment, health and safety guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) has taken a leadership role in promoting responsible planning, management and work practices that meet the pipeline industry's environment, health and safety objectives. This brochure contains CEPA's environment, health and safety statement. It lists the guiding principles developed and endorsed by CEPA and its member companies in support of protecting the environment and the health and safety of its employees and the public. The 11 CEPA member companies are: Alberta Natural Gas Company Ltd., ATCO Gas Services Ltd., Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., NOVA Gas Transmission Limited, TransGas Limited, Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company Ltd., Trans-Northern Pipelines Inc., Trans Quebec and Maritimes Pipeline Inc., and Westcoast Energy Inc

  15. Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2014-01-01

    “Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.

  16. Book Review: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Liu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin (2007. Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices. Pearson/Prentice Hall. 534 pages, ISBN: 0-13-154727-5 (paper, US$85.33Reviewed by Jigang Liu (Jigang.Liu@metrostate.edu, Department of Information and Computer Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN 55106“Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices” by Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin, published by Pearson/Prentice Hall in 2007 is one of the newest computer forensics textbooks on the market. The goal of the book, as the authors put it, is to teach “students who want to learn about electronic evidence – including what types exist and where it may be found – and the computer forensics methods to investigate it” so that they will be prepared “in a career in information security, criminal justice, accounting, law enforcement, and federal investigations – as well as computer forensics.”Linda, Reynaldo, and Jana are not only experienced college professors, but also industry bounded professionals. All of them have substantial working experience with law firms or law enforcement in dealing with both civil and criminal cases. They are all certified information system security professionals (CISSP. Their teaching experience at the college level and their working experience on real cases make this book a must-read book for a college professor.(see PDF for full review

  17. Application of the Non-Intervention Principle to Low-Intensity Cyber Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Liisi

    2015-01-01

    Present work focuses on the non-intervention principle and low-intensity cyber operations. More specifically, its main question is, whether the principle of non-intervention applies to low-intensity cyber operations and if it does, is the legal framework of non-intervention principle an effective way to regulate peacetime low-intensity cyber operations. Information Age and the rapid development of ICTs have provided hostile actors the opportunity to exploit the advantages cyberspace offe...

  18. A superposition principle in quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmannova, S.

    1976-01-01

    A new definition of the superposition principle in quantum logics is given which enables us to define the sectors. It is shown that the superposition principle holds only in the irreducible quantum logics. (orig.) [de

  19. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  20. Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pykett, I.L.; Newhouse, J.H.; Buonanno, F.S.; Brady, T.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Kistler, J.P.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The physical principles which underlie the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are presented in this primer. The major scanning methods are reviewed, and the principles of technique are discussed. A glossary of NMR terms is included