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Sample records for word comprehension test

  1. Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.

  2. Video Game Vocabulary : The effect of video games on Swedish learners‟ word comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Laveborn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Video games are very popular among children in the Western world. This study was done in order to investigate if video games had an effect on 49 Swedish students‟ comprehension of English words (grades 7-8). The investigation was based on questionnaire and word test data. The questionnaire aimed to measure with which frequency students were playing video games, and the word test aimed to measure their word comprehension in general. In addition, data from the word test were used to investigate...

  3. The Word Accentuation Test - Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kristin R; Lam, Chow S; Wilson, Robert S

    2006-10-01

    A reading test for Spanish speakers in the United States was developed called the Word Accentuation Test-Chicago. The construction and validation of this 40 item test was modeled after reading tests developed in Spain and Argentina, and is based on irregular accentuation of words. The Word Accentuation Test-Chicago was validated on 45 community participants using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Spanish. Better reading performance was associated with higher intelligence test performance, with an additional 5% of the variation in intelligence score accounted for by reading performance after controlling for age and education. These results indicate that the Word Accentuation Test-Chicago is a psychometrically sound measure of Spanish reading ability that is robustly related to general cognitive ability.

  4. Comprehension of concrete and abstract words in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, G A; Bryson, S E; McCormick, T A

    1990-03-01

    This study employed the Stroop paradigm to examine comprehension of single words in autistic children. The words of interest varied along a concrete-abstract dimension. In the Stroop paradigm, subjects are asked to name the color of ink in which color words are printed. Comprehension is indexed by the degree to which the automatic processing of words interferes with the color-naming task. For both concrete and abstract words, autistic children showed the same degree of interference as reading-matched controls. The findings corroborate and extend previous work suggesting that autistic children understand, and by implication, can mentally represent, at least some word meanings.

  5. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton eBoonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  6. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  7. Processing Unfamiliar Words: Strategies, Knowledge Sources, and the Relationship to Text and Word Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Lee, Benny P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines strategies (inferencing and ignoring) and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, paralinguistics, etc.) that second language learners of English use to process unfamiliar words in listening comprehension and whether the use of strategies or knowledge sources relates to successful text comprehension or word comprehension.…

  8. Russian Basic Course: Aural Comprehension Enrichment Word Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Several hundred military terms in Russian are contained in this pamphlet. Terms pertaining to army, navy, and air force weaponry and procedures are presented on aural comprehension enrichment word cards with English translations on the reverse side. (RL)

  9. Semantic Variability and Word Comprehension. Educational Reports Umea, No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Jarl

    Swedes in four different age groups (9, 12, 15 and 18 years) judged written words which varied in three dimensions: syntactic category, objective frequency, and polysemy (multiple meaning). The subjects judged ease of comprehension of 24 words in a factorial arrangement. The method used was Thurstone's paired comparisons. A predicted complex…

  10. Prediction in Language Comprehension beyond Specific Words: An ERP Study on Sentence Comprehension in Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Jakub M.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we address the question of whether readers predict…

  11. Prediction in language comprehension beyond specific words: An ERP study on sentence comprehension in Polish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szewczyk, J.M.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several ERP studies have shown that the human language comprehension system anticipates words that are highly likely continuations of a given text. However, it remains an open issue whether the language comprehension system can also make predictions that go beyond a specific word. Here, we

  12. Comprehensive test ban negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, G. Allen; Heckrotte, Warren

    1983-10-01

    Although it has been a stated policy goal of American and Soviet leaders since 1958 (with the exception of Ronald Reagan), the world today is still without a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Throughout their history, test an negotiatins have been plagued by a number of persistent problems. Chief among these is East-West differences on the verification question, with the United States concerned about the problem of possible Soviet cheating and the USSR concerned about the protection of its national sovereignty. In addition, internal bureaucratic politics have played a major role in preventing the successful conclusion of an agreement. Despite these problems, the superpowers have concluded several significant partial meausres: a brief (1958-1961) total moratorium on nuclear weapons tests; the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, banning tests in the air, water and outer space; the Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (150 KT limit on underground explosions); and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty of 1976 (150 KT limit on individal PNEs). Today, the main U.S. objections to a CTBT center is the nuclear weapons laboratories, the Department of Energy, and the Pentagon, who all stress the issues of stockpile reliability and verification. Those who remain committed to a CTBT emphasize and the potential political leverage it offers in checking both horizontal and vertical proliferation.

  13. Sentence comprehension and word repetition : A positron emission tomography investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Paans, A.M.J.; Wijers, A.A.; Zwarts, F.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography, visual presentation of sentences was shown to cause increased regional cerebral blood flow relative to word Lists in the left lateral anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, attributable to cognitive processes that occur during sentence comprehension in

  14. Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

  15. Morphological Instructional Packages as Determinants of Inferring Word Meanings in Reading Comprehension among Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwumi, Julius Olaitan; Olubunmi, Olagundoye Christanah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of morphological instructional packages as determinants of inferring word meanings in reading comprehension among secondary school students in Ekiti State. The study adopted pre-test, post-test and control quasi-experimental research using two experimental groups and one control group with a sample of 270 Senior…

  16. Young toddlers' word comprehension is flexible and efficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elika Bergelson

    Full Text Available Much of what is known about word recognition in toddlers comes from eyetracking studies. Here we show that the speed and facility with which children recognize words, as revealed in such studies, cannot be attributed to a task-specific, closed-set strategy; rather, children's gaze to referents of spoken nouns reflects successful search of the lexicon. Toddlers' spoken word comprehension was examined in the context of pictures that had two possible names (such as a cup of juice which could be called "cup" or "juice" and pictures that had only one likely name for toddlers (such as "apple", using a visual world eye-tracking task and a picture-labeling task (n = 77, mean age, 21 months. Toddlers were just as fast and accurate in fixating named pictures with two likely names as pictures with one. If toddlers do name pictures to themselves, the name provides no apparent benefit in word recognition, because there is no cost to understanding an alternative lexical construal of the picture. In toddlers, as in adults, spoken words rapidly evoke their referents.

  17. Schemata-Building Role of Teaching Word History in Developing Reading Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-reza Abbasian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Methodologically, vocabulary instruction has faced significant ups and downs during the history of language education; sometimes integrated with the other elements of language network, other times tackled as a separate component. Among many variables supposedly affecting vocabulary achievement, the role of teaching word history, as a schemata-building strategy, in developing reading comprehension has received the least, if not any, attention. This study was an attempt, in fact, to explore the possibility of an integration of word history and reading comprehension ability of a group (No=100 of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To conduct the study, 60/100 participants, identified as homogeneous members based on the Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT, were randomly divided them into two groups; an experimental and a control group. They were exposed to a teacher-made pretest and a post-test to check the participants' knowledge of word history and reading comprehension ability prior and posterior to the experiment. Pertinent statistical analyses proved that teaching word history plays both statistically and affectively, through enhancing motivation and attitude, meaningful schemata-building role in developing reading ability. Pedagogically, resort to word history may then be suggested as an effective and affective mechanism as far as teaching language skills, in particular reading, is concerned.

  18. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  19. Word Knowledge and Its Relation to Text Comprehension: A Comparative Study of Chinese- and Korean-Speaking L2 Learners and L1 Speakers of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, word knowledge and its relation to text comprehension was examined with 50 Chinese- and 20 Korean-speaking second language (L2) learners and 40 first language (L1) speakers of Japanese. Breadth and depth of word knowledge were assessed by a word-definition matching test and a word-associates selection test, respectively. Text…

  20. The Effect of Orthographic Knowledge on Word Identification and Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to employ orthographic knowledge enhancement as a tool in order to determine its efficiency in improving Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Orthographic knowledge can be defined as one’s familiarity with the general spelling rules of a language, or the ability to defer those letter combinations that are permissible form those that are not, which makes it an exceptional requirement for effective word identification and as a result successful reading comprehension skill. In doing so, 55 male and female students learning English at pre-intermediate level in a language institute in Astaneh, Guilan, Iran were randomly selected and were equally divided into an experimental and a control group. A researcher-made reading comprehension test followed by multiple-choice items as well as a word identification measure was given to both groups as a pre-test, and then the experimental group received the treatment in eighteen 30-minute sessions, in which the instructor taught skills to enhance students’ orthographic knowledge. Meanwhile, the control group did not receive any specific treatment. Finally the post-test, which was the same as the pre-test was administered. Their scores were calculated through computer softwares. The results indicated that raising orthographic knowledge results in significant improvement in both word identification and reading comprehension. The findings of this study can benefit EFL learners in improving their reading comprehension skill.

  1. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  2. THE EFFECT OF TEACHING WITHIN-TEXT KEY WORDS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khodasenas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words on students’ performance on reading comprehension of TOEFL among Iranian EFL learners. To carry out the research, 60 Iranian EFL learners, who participated in a TOEFL preparation course, were selected as the participants of the study. Afterward they were randomly assigned into experimental and comparison groups. The experimental group was given a treatment including within-text key word synonyms, opposites and their translations, while the comparison group was given a placebo. To collect the required data, two instruments (a pre-test, and a post-test were administered to both groups during the experimentation. Subsequently, students’ scores were collected through the administration of different tests and the results were statistically analyzed. The results of these analyses revealed that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group and thus, it was concluded that teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words can improve the reading comprehension ability and general proficiency of EFL language learners.

  3. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel ( ... or kidneys) is working. What Is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)? The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a ...

  4. Emotion Word Comprehension from 4 to 16 Years Old: A Developmental Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Ofer; Wheelwright, Sally; Granader, Yael; Hill, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whilst previous studies have examined comprehension of the emotional lexicon at different ages in typically developing children, no survey has been conducted looking at this across different ages from childhood to adolescence. Purpose: To report how the emotion lexicon grows with age. Method: Comprehension of 336 emotion words was tested in n = 377 children and adolescents, aged 4–16 years old, divided into 6 age-bands. Parents or teachers of children under 12, or adolescents themselves, were asked to indicate which words they knew the meaning of. Results: Between 4 and 11 years old, the size of the emotional lexicon doubled every 2 years, but between 12 and 16 years old, developmental rate of growth of the emotional lexicon leveled off. This survey also allows emotion words to be ordered in terms of difficulty. Conclusions: Studies using emotion terms in English need to be developmentally sensitive, since during childhood there is considerable change. The absence of change after adolescence may be an artifact of the words included in this study. This normative developmental data-set for emotion vocabulary comprehension may be useful when testing for delays in this ability, as might arise for environmental or neurodevelopmental reasons. PMID:21151378

  5. Emotion word comprehension from 4 to 16 years old: a developmental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Ofer; Wheelwright, Sally; Granader, Yael; Hill, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have examined comprehension of the emotional lexicon at different ages in typically developing children, no survey has been conducted looking at this across different ages from childhood to adolescence. To report how the emotion lexicon grows with age. Comprehension of 336 emotion words was tested in n = 377 children and adolescents, aged 4-16 years old, divided into 6 age-bands. Parents or teachers of children under 12, or adolescents themselves, were asked to indicate which words they knew the meaning of. Between 4 and 11 years old, the size of the emotional lexicon doubled every 2 years, but between 12 and 16 years old, developmental rate of growth of the emotional lexicon leveled off. This survey also allows emotion words to be ordered in terms of difficulty. Studies using emotion terms in English need to be developmentally sensitive, since during childhood there is considerable change. The absence of change after adolescence may be an artifact of the words included in this study. This normative developmental data-set for emotion vocabulary comprehension may be useful when testing for delays in this ability, as might arise for environmental or neurodevelopmental reasons.

  6. The acoustic signature for intelligibility test words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, G; Kent, R D; Hodge, M; Martin, R

    1988-10-01

    As part of a research program that aims to develop an explicit acoustic basis for a single-word intelligibility test, an initial attempt to characterize the formant trajectories and segment durations of seven test words produced by 30 normal speakers is described. These characterizations are referred to as "acoustic signatures." The data indicate that: (1) formant trajectories show two sex effects, namely, that females are more variable as a group than males and tend to have greater slopes for the transitional segment of the second-formant trajectories and that these effects are consistent across words; (2) Bark transformations of the frequency data do not seem to eliminate the interspeaker differences in formant trajectories, nor do they eliminate either of the sex effects described above; and (3) segment durations have different variabilities depending on the syllabic structure of the word; no sex effect was noted here. The discussion focuses on the appropriate form for the acoustic signatures, as well as factors that should be considered in selecting words for signature development. To demonstrate the potential application of these data, formant trajectory and segment duration data from 18 speakers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and varying degrees of dysarthria are compared to the acoustic signature for the word wax.

  7. Processing Unfamiliar Words: Strategies, Knowledge Sources, and the Relationship to Text and Word Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines strategies (inferencing and ignoring and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, paralinguistics, etc. that second language learners of English use to process unfamiliar words in listening comprehension and whether the use of strategies or knowledge sources relates to successful text comprehension or word comprehension. Data were collected using the procedures of immediate retrospection without recall support and of stimulated recall. Twenty participants with Chinese as their first language participated in the procedures. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were made. The results indicate that inferencing is the primary strategy that learners use to process unfamiliar words in listening and that it relates to successful text comprehension. Among the different knowledge sources that learners use, the most frequently used knowledge sources are semantic knowledge of words in the local co-text combined with background knowledge and semantic knowledge of the overall co-text. The finding that the use of most knowledge sources does not relate to the comprehension of the word suggests that no particular knowledge source is universally effective or ineffective and that what is crucial is to use the various knowledge sources flexibly. Résumé Cette étude examine les stratégies (la déduction et l'omission de mots et les sources de connaissances (sémantique, morphologie, connaissance antérieure, etc. utilisées par les étudiants d’anglais langue seconde (ALS pour comprendre les mots inconnus à l'oral, et s'interroge sur les liens entre l’emploi des stratégies ou sources de connaissances et la bonne compréhension des textes et des mots. Les données ont été recueillies immédiatement après observation, sans rappel ni simulation ultérieure. Vingt locuteurs de langue maternelle chinoise ont participé à l’étude. Des approches qualitative et quantitative ont été utilisées. Les résultats indiquent

  8. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their

  9. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear.

  10. Young Infants' Word Comprehension Given An Unfamiliar Talker or Altered Pronunciations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2017-06-22

    To understand spoken words, listeners must appropriately interpret co-occurring talker characteristics and speech sound content. This ability was tested in 6- to 14-months-olds by measuring their looking to named food and body part images. In the new talker condition (n = 90), pictures were named by an unfamiliar voice; in the mispronunciation condition (n = 98), infants' mothers "mispronounced" the words (e.g., nazz for nose). Six- to 7-month-olds fixated target images above chance across conditions, understanding novel talkers, and mothers' phonologically deviant speech equally. Eleven- to 14-months-olds also understood new talkers, but performed poorly with mispronounced speech, indicating sensitivity to phonological deviation. Between these ages, performance was mixed. These findings highlight the changing roles of acoustic and phonetic variability in early word comprehension, as infants learn which variations alter meaning. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  12. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  13. Study on Morphological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming through Word Reading and Comprehension in Normal and Disabled Reading Arabic-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the role and extent of the involvement of morphological awareness (MA) in contrast to rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading and comprehension of Arabic as a morphologically based orthography. We gave measures of word reading, reading comprehension, MA, and RAN in addition to a nonverbal mental ability test to 3 groups…

  14. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that ...

  15. Predicting Word Reading and Comprehension with Executive Function and Speed Measures Across Development: A Latent Variable Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Micaela E.; Miyake, Akira; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether different executive control and speed measures (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) independently predict individual differences in word reading and reading comprehension. Although previous studies suggest these cognitive constructs are important for reading, we analyze the constructs simultaneously to test whether each is a unique predictor. We used latent variables from 483 participants (ages 8 to 16) to portion each cognitive and reading construct into its unique and shared variance. In these models we address two specific issues: (a) given that our wide age range may span the theoretical transition from “learning to read” to “reading to learn,” we first test whether the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is stable across two age groups (ages 8 to 10 and 11 to 16); and (b) the main theoretical question of interest: whether what is shared and what is separable for word reading and reading comprehension are associated with individual differences in working memory, inhibition, and measures of processing and naming speed. The results indicated that: (a) the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is largely invariant across the age groups; (b) working memory and general processing speed, but not inhibition or the speeded naming of non-alphanumeric stimuli, are unique predictors of both word reading and comprehension, with working memory equally important for both reading abilities and processing speed more important for word reading. These results have implications for understanding why reading comprehension and word reading are highly correlated yet separable. PMID:22352396

  16. Predicting word reading and comprehension with executive function and speed measures across development: a latent variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Micaela E; Miyake, Akira; Keenan, Janice M; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K

    2012-08-01

    The present study explored whether different executive control and speed measures (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) independently predict individual differences in word reading and reading comprehension. Although previous studies suggest these cognitive constructs are important for reading, the authors analyze the constructs simultaneously to test whether each is a unique predictor. Latent variables from 483 participants (ages 8-16 years) were used to portion each cognitive and reading construct into its unique and shared variance. In these models 2 specific issues are addressed: (a) Given that the wide age range may span the theoretical transition from "learning to read" to "reading to learn," the authors first test whether the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is stable across 2 age groups (ages 8-10 and 11-16); and (b) the main theoretical question of interest: whether what is shared and what is separable for word reading and reading comprehension are associated with individual differences in working memory, inhibition, and measures of processing and naming speed. The results indicated that (a) the relation between word reading and reading comprehension is largely invariant across the age groups, and (b) working memory and general processing speed, but not inhibition or the speeded naming of non-alphanumeric stimuli, are unique predictors of both word reading and comprehension, with working memory equally important for both reading abilities and processing speed more important for word reading. These results have implications for understanding why reading comprehension and word reading are highly correlated yet separable . (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Multisyllabic Word Reading as a Moderator of Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007), it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words), but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007). Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers. PMID:24219914

  18. Multisyllabic word reading as a moderator of morphological awareness and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P; Compton, Donald L; Kearns, Devin M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth-grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis, it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis. Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers.

  19. The Effects of Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction on Title I Students' Metacognitive Word-Learning Skills and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubliner, Shira; Smetana, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multifaceted, metacognitive vocabulary intervention on the reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of fifth-grade children in one of California's lowest performing Title I schools. Instruction was comprehensive, designed to facilitate encoding of student-selected words, mastery of clarifying…

  20. Important considerations in lesion-symptom mapping: Illustrations from studies of word comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Hinna; Sebastian, Rajani; Schnur, Tatiana T; Hanayik, Taylor; Wright, Amy; Tippett, Donna C; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Hillis, Argye E

    2017-06-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping is an important method of identifying networks of brain regions critical for functions. However, results might be influenced substantially by the imaging modality and timing of assessment. We tested the hypothesis that brain regions found to be associated with acute language deficits depend on (1) timing of behavioral measurement, (2) imaging sequences utilized to define the "lesion" (structural abnormality only or structural plus perfusion abnormality), and (3) power of the study. We studied 191 individuals with acute left hemisphere stroke with MRI and language testing to identify areas critical for spoken word comprehension. We use the data from this study to examine the potential impact of these three variables on lesion-symptom mapping. We found that only the combination of structural and perfusion imaging within 48 h of onset identified areas where more abnormal voxels was associated with more severe acute deficits, after controlling for lesion volume and multiple comparisons. The critical area identified with this methodology was the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, consistent with other methods that have identified an important role of this area in spoken word comprehension. Results have implications for interpretation of other lesion-symptom mapping studies, as well as for understanding areas critical for auditory word comprehension in the healthy brain. We propose that lesion-symptom mapping at the acute stage of stroke addresses a different sort of question about brain-behavior relationships than lesion-symptom mapping at the chronic stage, but that timing of behavioral measurement and imaging modalities should be considered in either case. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2990-3000, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Staggered spondaic word test in epileptic patients

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    Karin Zazo Ortiz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Auditory processing during childhood may be altered if there is any predisposing factor during the course of development. Neurological disorders are among the risk factors for auditory processing impairment. From this perspective, epileptic children present such a risk factor and could present auditory processing dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate central auditory processing in epileptic patients using the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW in order to verify whether these patients presented auditory disorders and whether the type of crisis partial or generalized played a role in the occurrence and type of disorder. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. SAMPLE: Thirty-eight children and adolescents, ranging from 7 to 16 years old, with a diagnosis of epilepsy divided into two groups: 23 patients with partial crisis and 15 patients with generalized crisis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Performance in the Staggered Spondaic Word Test versus epileptic crisis type (partial or generalized. RESULTS: The majority of epileptic patients showed central auditory processing disorders. There were no differences in relation to crisis type. Both groups showed similar performance, although the results observed for these patients differ from what is obtained with normal populations. With regard to response bias, there were also no differences in performance between subjects with partial or generalized seizures. All possible disorders were found in both groups, without the prevalence of one specific disorder over the other. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high prevalence of disorders among epileptic patients in relation to processing partially overlapped verbal sounds in a dichotic paradigm.

  2. Short Vowels Versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue

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    Abdullah M. SERAYE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different results emerged, revealing that the only variable that affected the reading process of Arab adult skilled readers was word frequency, and its effect was limited to the time load of the reading process; this result raised the question of whether the neutral role of short vowels in the text reading process of experienced Arab readers would be maintained for less experienced readers, as represented by fourth graders, or whether word frequency would be the only variable that plays a role in their reading process. In experiment, 1,141 fourth-grade students were randomly assigned to 5 reading conditions: plain, only shaddah, short vowels plus shaddah, only short vowels, and finally the wrong short vowels plus shaddah. In experiment 2, 38 participants from the same population were assigned to a fully vowelized and diacriticized reading condition. Each participant was asked to read two texts, of high and low frequency words and then given recall and multiple-choice tests. In general, the multivariate analysis showed that the only manipulated variable that was found to affect their reading process in terms of reading time load and, to some degree, reading comprehension was word frequency, although its effect was marginal. Accordingly, pedagogical recommendations and future research were proposed.

  3. Category and modality specific dissociations in word comprehension and concurrent phonological dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodglass, H; Budin, C

    1988-01-01

    A 62-yr-old aphasic patient was found to have a marked auditory comprehension deficit for body parts, colors, numbers and letters in the face of excellent comprehension for all other word categories and virtually intact reading comprehension for all word categories, including those affected by the auditory dissociation. A severe impairment in the graphophonemic route for reading was also discovered. The case is discussed in the context of category-specific dissociations after brain injury and the possible mechanism for failures of body part comprehension.

  4. Comprehension of derivational morphemes in words and pseudo-words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia

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    Noémie Auclair-Ouellet

    2014-04-01

    The results of the word condition alone cannot rule out the possibility that errors in the svPPA group were caused by difficulty in understanding words rather than in processing derivational morphemes. However, the lexical context provided in this condition did not speed-up the performance of svPPA individuals as it did in the control group. Most importantly, results from the pseudo-word condition showed that in the svPPA group, the association between the morpheme and its meaning was not performed as readily and reliably as in the control group. These results support the involvement of semantic memory in morphological processing.

  5. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

    OpenAIRE

    Anton eBoonen; Björn ede Koning; Jelle eJolles; Menno evan der Schoot

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under ...

  6. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  7. Cross-Language Priming of Word Meaning during Second Language Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanli; Woltz, Dan; Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The experiment investigated the benefit to second language (L2) sentence comprehension of priming word meanings with brief visual exposure to first language (L1) translation equivalents. Native English speakers learning Mandarin evaluated the validity of aurally presented Mandarin sentences. For selected words in half of the sentences there was…

  8. Mathematics Is Differentially Related to Reading Comprehension and Word Decoding: Evidence from a Genetically Sensitive Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that individual differences in reading and mathematics skills are correlated, this relationship has typically only been studied in relation to word decoding or global measures of reading. It is unclear whether mathematics is differentially related to word decoding and reading comprehension. In the current study, the…

  9. Test Anxiety and a High-Stakes Standardized Reading Comprehension Test: A Behavioral Genetics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sarah G.; Hart, Sara A.; Little, Callie W.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that reading comprehension test performance does not rely solely on targeted cognitive processes such as word reading, but also on other nontarget aspects such as test anxiety. Using a genetically sensitive design, we sought to understand the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between test anxiety and…

  10. The filtered words test and the influence of lexicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Wendy; Goli, Tara; Bradley, Andrew; Smith, Andrew; Wilson, Wayne

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the authors aimed to investigate the language confounds of filtered words tests by examining the repetition of real words versus nonsense words as a function of level of filtering. Fifty-five young, native-English-speaking women with normal hearing were required to repeat 80 real-word and 80 nonsense-word monosyllables that were matched for phonemic content and low-pass filtered. Thirty participants were tested using a harsher filter range of 2000 to 500 Hz, and 25 participants were tested using a milder filter range of 3000 to 1500 Hz. Paired-sample t tests compared accuracy (percentage of phonemes correct) for word and nonsense-word stimuli at each filter level. At filter levels between 3000 and 1750 Hz, performance for word stimuli was significantly better than for nonsense-word stimuli. Conversely, at filter levels between 500 and 1250 Hz, performance was significantly better for nonsense words. The linguistic content of real-word stimuli benefits performance on low-pass filtered speech tests at filter levels above 1500 Hz. Caution must be taken when using real-word stimuli in low-pass filtered speech tests as part of an auditory processing diagnostic test battery, because language ability will impact on performance.

  11. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Crosson, Amy C.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed…

  12. Auditory comprehension: from the voice up to the single word level

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Anna Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Auditory comprehension, the ability to understand spoken language, consists of a number of different auditory processing skills. In the five studies presented in this thesis I investigated both intact and impaired auditory comprehension at different levels: voice versus phoneme perception, as well as single word auditory comprehension in terms of phonemic and semantic content. In the first study, using sounds from different continua of ‘male’-/pæ/ to ‘female’-/tæ/ and ‘male’...

  13. Adapting the Freiburg monosyllabic word test for Slovenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Marvin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech audiometry is one of the standard methods used to diagnose the type of hearing loss and to assess the communication function of the patient by determining the level of the patient’s ability to understand and repeat words presented to him or her in a hearing test. For this purpose, the Slovenian adaptation of the German tests developed by Hahlbrock (1953, 1960 – the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test and the Freiburg Number Test – are used in Slovenia (adapted in 1968 by Pompe. In this paper we focus on the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test for Slovenian, which has been criticized by patients as well as in the literature for the unequal difficulty and frequency of the words, with many of these being extremely rare or even obsolete. As part of the patient’s communication function is retrieving the meaning of individual words by guessing, the less frequent and consequently less familiar words do not contribute to reliable testing results. We therefore adapt the test by identifying and removing such words and supplement them with phonetically similar words to preserve the phonetic balance of the list. The words used for replacement are extracted from the written corpus of Slovenian Gigafida and the spoken corpus of Slovenian GOS, while the optimal combinations of words are established by using computational algorithms.

  14. The development of word recognition, sentence comprehension, word spelling, and vocabulary in children with deafness: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, S; Leybaert, J; Ecalle, J; Magnan, A

    2013-05-01

    Only a small number of longitudinal studies have been conducted to assess the literacy skills of children with hearing impairment. The results of these studies are inconsistent with regard to the importance of phonology in reading acquisition as is the case in studies with hearing children. Colin, Magnan, Ecalle, and Leybaert (2007) revealed the important role of early phonological skills and the contribution of the factor of age of exposure to Cued Speech (CS: a manual system intended to resolve the ambiguities inherent to speechreading) to subsequent reading acquisition (from kindergarten to first grade) in children with deafness. The aim of the present paper is twofold: (1) to confirm the role of early exposure to CS in the development of the linguistic skills necessary in order to learn reading and writing in second grade; (2) to reveal the possible existence of common factors other than CS that may influence literacy performances and explain the inter-individual difference within groups of children with hearing impairment. Eighteen 6-year-old hearing-impaired and 18 hearing children of the same chronological age were tested from kindergarten to second grade. The children with deafness had either been exposed to CS at an early age, at home and before kindergarten (early-CS group), or had first been exposed to it when they entered kindergarten (late-CS group) or first grade (beginner-CS group). Children were given implicit and explicit phonological tasks, silent reading tasks (word recognition and sentence comprehension), word spelling, and vocabulary tasks. Children in the early-CS group outperformed those of the late-CS and beginner-CS groups in phonological tasks from first grade to second grade. They became better readers and better spellers than those from the late-CS group and the beginner-CS group. Their performances did not differ from those of hearing children in any of the tasks except for the receptive vocabulary test. Thus early exposure to CS seems

  15. Computerized trainings in four groups of struggling readers: Specific effects on word reading and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocki, Anna; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of poor readers were identified among a population of students with learning disabilities attending a special class in secondary school: normal readers; specific poor decoders; specific poor comprehenders, and general poor readers (deficits in both decoding and comprehension). These students were then trained with a software program designed to encourage either their word decoding skills or their text comprehension skills. After 5 weeks of training, we observed that the students experiencing word reading deficits and trained with the decoding software improved primarily in the reading fluency task while those exhibiting comprehension deficits and trained with the comprehension software showed improved performance in listening and reading comprehension. But interestingly, the latter software also led to improved performance on the word recognition task. This result suggests that, for these students, training interventions focused at the text level and its comprehension might be more beneficial for reading in general (i.e., for the two components of reading) than word-level decoding trainings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A test of interlingual interaction in comprehension by bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, D; Harris, R J

    1981-07-01

    This study tested bilingual subjects' interaction of knowledge of both languages in comprehension. Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals heard 36 sentences, all spoken in English. Twelve were normal English sentences, 12 contained Spanish word order, and 12 contained word-for-word translations of Spanish idioms. The dependent measures was performance on a phoneme-monitoring task; subjects pressed a button when they heard a particular phoneme within each sentence. Immediately following each sentence, subjects wrote down as much of that sentence as they could recall. Results showed that bilingual subjects pressed the button equally quickly for all sentences, but monolinguals were faster for control sentences than for idiom-translations, which was interpreted to mean that a knowledge of Spanish helped the bilinguals in processing the test items semantically.

  17. Comparing different kinds of words and word-word relations to test an habituation model of priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

    2017-06-01

    Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer. The predicted effect of prime duration depends both on this assumed representational hierarchy and the assumption that synaptic depression underlies habituation. The current study tested these assumptions by comparing different kinds of words (e.g., words versus non-words) and different kinds of word-word relations (e.g., associative versus repetition). For each experiment, the predictions of the original model were compared to an alternative model with different representational assumptions. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that non-words and inverted words require longer prime durations to eliminate positive repetition priming (i.e., a slower transition from positive to negative priming). Experiment 2 confirmed the prediction that associative priming increases and then decreases with increasing prime duration, but remains positive even with long duration primes. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of repetition and associative priming using a within-subjects design and combined these effects by examining target words that were expected to repeat (e.g., viewing the target word 'BACK' after the prime phrase 'back to'). These results support the originally assumed representational hierarchy and more generally the role of habituation in temporal parsing and priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloze tests and word reading tests: Enabling teachers to measure learners' reading-related abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapwijk, Nanda M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘How can I measure my learners’ reading ability in order to manage my instruction more effectively?’ This seems to be the refrain of many teachers these days. However, while teachers are taught new methods of instruction and new reading methods, they do not seem to be taught about reliable ways to measure their learners’ reading-related ability independently. In this article, a recommendation is made for the use of two measurements by teachers: a word reading test (which measures word recognition and Cloze tests (which measure a reader’s ability to comprehend at more than word level. While acknowledging the difficulties related to measuring reading ability, in particular comprehension, the author of this article provides evidence that, when combined, a word reading test and a Cloze test can provide teachers with a reliable indicator of their learners’ reading-related abilities. The article concludes with a list of benefits that can be gained from obtaining such measurements.

  19. Comprehension of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: A behavioral and neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Montembeault, Maxime; Boukadi, Mariem; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Laforce, Robert Jr; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between. VBM analyses showed that comprehension of concrete words relative to abstract words was significantly correlated with atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe. These results support the view that concrete words are disproportionately impaired in svPPA, and that concrete and abstract words may rely upon partly dissociable brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the cognitive structures of science teacher candidates on “evolution” through word association test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖNEL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to determine the conceptual comprehension of science teacher candidates on evolution. As part of this target, the Word Association Test was applied. This study was conducted with the participation of 146 teacher candidates studying in the Department of Science Education. Of the 146 teacher candidates, 89 mostly wrote the words; “evolution” (f=43, “Darwin” (f=36, and “ape” (f=10 as primary concepts in the word association test. This result illustrated that when the word “evolution” was pronounced, 61% of teacher candidates firstly remembered these three words as primary concepts. This study has demonstrated once more that there are misunderstandings and missing data on the evolutionary theory despite the past 156 years from the emergence of this theory.

  1. Exploring EFL Students’ Reading Comprehension Process through Their Life Experiences and the Sight Word Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Camargo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the role language and literature play in the construction of social, economic and cultural systems, reading comprehension has become a growing challenge. This study examined how the relationship between English as a foreign language reading comprehension and life experiences while using the Sight Word Strategy could prove significant. Fifth graders at a public school in Bogotá participated in this study. Data were collected using tape recordings, field notes, archival data and students’ reflections. Analysis indicated that comprehension and construction of meaning were generated by sharing life experiences and through the interaction produced in each one of the Sight Word Strategy stages. The study suggested further research into a more encompassing definition of reading comprehension and life experiences correlation as an appropriate goal for English as a foreign language.

  2. What Type of Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Reading Comprehension: Word Meaning Recall or Word Meaning Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Aviad-Levitzky, Tami

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how well second language (L2) recall and recognition vocabulary tests correlated with a reading test, how well each vocabulary test discriminated between reading proficiency levels, and how accurate each test was in predicting reading proficiency when compared with corpus studies. A total of 116 college-level learners of…

  3. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Word Fluency and Auditory Comprehension Among Persons With Poststroke Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charles; Peach, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    To examine aphasia outcomes and to determine whether the observed language profiles vary by race-ethnicity. Retrospective cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of persons of with aphasia (PWA) obtained from AphasiaBank, a database designed for the study of aphasia outcomes. Aphasia research laboratories. PWA (N=381; 339 white and 42 black individuals). Not applicable. Western Aphasia Battery-Revised (WAB-R) total scale score (Aphasia Quotient) and subtest scores were analyzed for racial-ethnic differences. The WAB-R is a comprehensive assessment of communication function designed to evaluate PWA in the areas of spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, and naming in addition to reading, writing, apraxia, and constructional, visuospatial, and calculation skills. In univariate comparisons, black PWA exhibited lower word fluency (5.7 vs 7.6; P=.004), auditory word comprehension (49.0 vs 53.0; P=.021), and comprehension of sequential commands (44.2 vs 52.2; P=.012) when compared with white PWA. In multivariate comparisons, adjusted for age and years of education, black PWA exhibited lower word fluency (5.5 vs 7.6; P=.015), auditory word recognition (49.3 vs 53.3; P=.02), and comprehension of sequential commands (43.7 vs 53.2; P=.017) when compared with white PWA. This study identified racial-ethnic differences in word fluency and auditory comprehension ability among PWA. Both skills are critical to effective communication, and racial-ethnic differences in outcomes must be considered in treatment approaches designed to improve overall communication ability. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Segmenting Texts into Meaningful Word Groups: Beginning Readers' Prosody and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Marie-Soleil; Dion, Eric; Lemire-Théberge, Léonie; Guay, Marie-Hélène; Barrette, Anne; Gagnon, Vickie; Caron, Pier-Olivier; Fuchs, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that prosodic reading facilitates beginning readers' comprehension by allowing them to segment the text into meaningful word groups. Two prosodic features of the oral reading of second-grade students were considered: lack of inappropriate pauses and attention to punctuation. To examine the unique contribution of these features…

  5. Mathematics is differentially related to reading comprehension and word decoding: Evidence from a genetically-sensitive design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that individual differences in reading and mathematics skills are correlated, this relationship has typically only been studied in relation to word decoding or global measures of reading. It is unclear whether mathematics is differentially related to word decoding and reading comprehension. The current study examined these relationships at both a phenotypic and etiological level in a population-based cohort of 5162 twin pairs at age 12. Multivariate genetic analyses of latent phenotypic factors of mathematics, word decoding and reading comprehension revealed substantial genetic and shared environmental correlations among all three domains. However, the phenotypic and genetic correlations between mathematics and reading comprehension were significantly greater than between mathematics and word decoding. Independent of mathematics, there was also evidence for genetic and nonshared environmental links between word decoding and reading comprehension. These findings indicate that word decoding and reading comprehension have partly distinct relationships with mathematics in the middle school years. PMID:24319294

  6. Convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX, a word and pseudoword spelling test for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Per; Backlund, Charlotte; Lindström, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Few comprehensive spelling tests are available in Swedish, and none have been validated in adults with reading and writing disorders. The recently developed STAVUX test includes word and pseudoword spelling subtests with high internal consistency and adult norms stratified by education. This study evaluated the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX in adults with dyslexia. Forty-six adults, 23 with dyslexia and 23 controls, took STAVUX together with a standard word-decoding test and a self-rated measure of spelling skills. STAVUX subtest scores showed moderate to strong correlations with word-decoding scores and predicted self-rated spelling skills. Word and pseudoword subtest scores both predicted dyslexia status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed excellent diagnostic discriminability. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity 96%. In conclusion, the results of this study support the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX.

  7. Bi-syllabic, modern Greek word lists for use in word recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Fourakis, Marios; Vakalos, Angelos; Hawks, John W; Kaprinis, George

    2006-02-01

    The development of a word recognition test for Modern Greek, which is comprised of three fifty-word lists, is described herein. The development was guided by four principles: (1) use of the shortest words possible (two syllables for Greek) (2) use of highly frequent words (3) phonetic balance and (4) appropriate balance of first and second syllable stress. The lists were recorded by one male and one female native speakers. Thirty-seven native speakers of Greek listened to all words by both speakers. Across lists, the mean correct identification score was 97.9% for the female voice (95% confidence interval 96.97 to 98.84) and 96.5% (95% confidence interval 95.31 to 97.77) for the male voice. This small difference was statistically significant (p < .01) and concentrated on words with first syllable stress. In future work, these recordings can be used in adult tests of speech perception and can be modified for tests of central auditory processing.

  8. Investigating the Effect of Contextual Clues on the Processing of Unfamiliar Words in Second Language Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Lee, Benny P. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of contextual clues on the use of strategies (inferencing and ignoring) and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, world knowledge, and others) for processing unfamiliar words in listening comprehension. Three types of words were investigated: words with local co-text clues, global co-text clues and extra-textual…

  9. Neural signatures of language co-activation and control in bilingual spoken word comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiyao; Bobb, Susan C; Hoshino, Noriko; Marian, Viorica

    2017-06-15

    To examine the neural signatures of language co-activation and control during bilingual spoken word comprehension, Korean-English bilinguals and English monolinguals were asked to make overt or covert semantic relatedness judgments on auditorily-presented English word pairs. In two critical conditions, participants heard word pairs consisting of an English-Korean interlingual homophone (e.g., the sound /mu:n/ means "moon" in English and "door" in Korean) as the prime and an English word as the target. In the homophone-related condition, the target (e.g., "lock") was related to the homophone's Korean meaning, but not related to the homophone's English meaning. In the homophone-unrelated condition, the target was unrelated to either the homophone's Korean meaning or the homophone's English meaning. In overtly responded situations, ERP results revealed that the reduced N400 effect in bilinguals for homophone-related word pairs correlated positively with the amount of their daily exposure to Korean. In covertly responded situations, ERP results showed a reduced late positive component for homophone-related word pairs in the right hemisphere, and this late positive effect was related to the neural efficiency of suppressing interference in a non-linguistic task. Together, these findings suggest 1) that the degree of language co-activation in bilingual spoken word comprehension is modulated by the amount of daily exposure to the non-target language; and 2) that bilinguals who are less influenced by cross-language activation may also have greater efficiency in suppressing interference in a non-linguistic task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kostova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

  11. Correlations for the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, J Patrick; Lassiter, Kerry S; Buchanan, Gray M

    2002-04-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships for scores on the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement within an adult population. The Stroop Color and Word Test, Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, and Wide Range Achievement Test-3 were administered to 99 men ranging in age from 18 to 27 years. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that the Stroop Word task was positively associated with scores on the WRAT-3 Spelling task, the Woodcock-Johnson Basic and Broad Reading tasks, and the Nelson-Denny Rcading Rate and Comprehension tasks. These and other significant relationships were discussed in terms of possible implications regarding the assessment of reading achievement.

  12. The Impact of Word-Recognition Practice on the Development of the Listening Comprehension of Intermediate-Level EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Navidinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the effect of word-recognition practice on EFL students’ listening comprehension. The participants consisted of 30 intermediate EFL learners studying in a language institute in Birjand City, Iran. They were assigned randomly to two equal groups, control and experimental. Before starting the experiment, the listening section of IELTS was given to all of the students as the pretest. Then, during the experiment, the experimental group was asked to transcribe the listening sections of their course book while in the control group, the students did not transcribe. After 25 sessions (2 hours each of instruction, another test of listening (IELTS proficiency test was given to both groups as the post-test. The results of the two tests were then analyzed and compared using one way ANCOVA test. The results indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group (p<0.05. Therefore, it was concluded that word-recognition practice is an effective way for the improvement of EFL learners’ listening comprehension. The overall results of the study are discussed and the implications for further research and practitioners are made.

  13. Challenges of Testing Deep Word Knowledge of Vocabulary: Which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research explores the challenges of testing deep word knowledge of the vocabulary of students of English as a Foreign/Second Language (EFL/ESL) at higher education. A productive test modelled on the Lex30 test developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick (2000) was presented to the participants. Results indicate ...

  14. The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test: Pictures vs. Words

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Annabel

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a group of young (18-25) and old (>60) healthy adults to examine whether a pictorial superiority effect influences performance in the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT). 81 participants were recruited and performed the ACE-R, TOPF and FCSRT. Stimulus items for the FCSRT consisted of either 16 line drawings (in the picture form) or 16 written words (in the word form). The design was completely-between subjects and the form of test was fully counterbalanced...

  15. The dynamic influence of emotional words on sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinfeng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we explored the influence of emotional words on the semantic integration of their following neutral nouns during sentence comprehension. We manipulated the emotionality of verbs and the semantic congruity of their following (neutral) object nouns in sentences. Event-related potentials were recorded to the verbs, which were either negative or neutral, and to the object nouns, which were either semantically congruent or incongruent relative to the preceding contexts. We found an N400 and a P600 effect in response to the semantic congruity of the nouns when they followed the neutral verbs. However, the P600 (but not the N400) semantic congruity effect may have been attenuated when the nouns followed the negative verbs. Meanwhile, the negative verbs elicited a larger P2 and N400 than did the neutral verbs. The results indicate that the attention captured by emotional words impaired reanalysis of the following incongruent information, demonstrating a dynamic influence of emotional words on the semantic processing of following information during sentence comprehension.

  16. Neural dynamics of morphological processing in spoken word comprehension: Laterality and automaticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Whiting

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and automatic processing of grammatical complexity is argued to take place during speech comprehension, engaging a left-lateralised fronto-temporal language network. Here we address how neural activity in these regions is modulated by the grammatical properties of spoken words. We used combined magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG, EEG to delineate the spatiotemporal patterns of activity that support the recognition of morphologically complex words in English with inflectional (-s and derivational (-er affixes (e.g. bakes, baker. The mismatch negativity (MMN, an index of linguistic memory traces elicited in a passive listening paradigm, was used to examine the neural dynamics elicited by morphologically complex words. Results revealed an initial peak 130-180 ms after the deviation point with a major source in left superior temporal cortex. The localisation of this early activation showed a sensitivity to two grammatical properties of the stimuli: 1 the presence of morphological complexity, with affixed words showing increased left-laterality compared to non-affixed words; and 2 the grammatical category, with affixed verbs showing greater left-lateralisation in inferior frontal gyrus compared to affixed nouns (bakes vs. beaks. This automatic brain response was additionally sensitive to semantic coherence (the meaning of the stem vs. the meaning of the whole form in fronto-temporal regions. These results demonstrate that the spatiotemporal pattern of neural activity in spoken word processing is modulated by the presence of morphological structure, predominantly engaging the left-hemisphere’s fronto-temporal language network, and does not require focused attention on the linguistic input.

  17. The role of visual representation type, spatial ability, and reading comprehension in word problem solving: An item-level analysis in elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, A.J.H.; van Wesel, F.; Jolles, J.; van der Schoot, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of visual representation type, spatial ability, and reading comprehension in word problem solving in 128 sixth-grade students by using primarily an item-level approach rather than a test-level approach. We revealed that compared to students who did not make a visual

  18. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  19. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Word Reading and Vocabulary on Adolescents' Reading Comprehension: Comparing Struggling and Adequate Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslund, Eric L.; Clemens, Nathan H.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Simmons, Leslie E.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined statistically significant differences between struggling and adequate readers using a multicomponent model of reading comprehension in 796 sixth through eighth graders, with a primary focus on word reading and vocabulary. Path analyses and Wald tests were used to investigate the direct and indirect relations of word…

  20. The Role of Word Difficulty and Sentence Length in Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    of reading passages. Reading Research Quarterly , 1972, 8, 62- 71. Rankin, E. F. & Culhane, 3. W. Comparable cloze and multiple-choice comprehension...3. 3. Determining the passage dependency of comprehension questions in five major tests. Reading Research Quarterly , 1973-1974, 9, 206-223. Tuinman, 3

  1. Word comprehension facilitates object individuation in 10- and 11-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Susan M; Zawaydeh, Aseen Nancie

    2007-05-18

    The present study investigated the role that comprehending words for objects plays in 10- and 11-month-old infants' ability to individuate those objects in a spatiotemporally ambiguous event. To do this, we employed an object individuation task in which infants were familiarized to two objects coming in and out from behind a screen in alternation, and then the screen was removed to reveal either both or only one of the objects. Results show that only when 10- and 11-month-olds comprehend words for both objects seen do they exhibit looking behavior that is consistent with object individuation (i.e., looking longer when one of the objects is surreptitiously removed). Neither level of object permanence reasoning nor overall receptive vocabulary had an effect on performance in the object individuation task, indicating that the effect was specific to the immediate parameters of the situation, and not a function of overall precocity on the part of the succeeding infants. These results suggest that comprehending the words for occluded/disoccluded objects provides a kind of "glue" which allows infants to bind the mental index of an object with its perceptual features (thus precipitating the formation of two mental indexes, rather than one). They further suggest that a shift from object indexing driven by the where (dorsal) system to one which is driven by integration of the ventral and dorsal neural systems, usually not observed until 12 months of age, can be facilitated by word comprehension in 10- and 11-month-old infants.

  2. CMS Security Handbook The Comprehensive Guide for WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, and Plone

    CERN Document Server

    Canavan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Learn to secure Web sites built on open source CMSs Web sites built on Joomla!, WordPress, Drupal, or Plone face some unique security threats. If you're responsible for one of them, this comprehensive security guide, the first of its kind, offers detailed guidance to help you prevent attacks, develop secure CMS-site operations, and restore your site if an attack does occur. You'll learn a strong, foundational approach to CMS operations and security from an expert in the field.More and more Web sites are being built on open source CMSs, making them a popular target, thus making you vulnerable t

  3. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  4. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., non-conscious preferences for specific classes of incentives) are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in the frequencies of specific words. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2001), Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achi...

  5. An Initial Facet Analysis of the FYCSP Word Attack Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besel, Ronald

    The concepts "facet analysis,""facet design," and "facet structure" are defined. The FYCSP (First Year Communication Skills Program) Word Attack Test is analyzed in terms of two related facet structures. Stepwise linear regression is used to predict distractor attractiveness. Hypotheses suggested by Guttman relating…

  6. Testing the associative-link hypothesis in immediate serial recall: Evidence from word frequency and word imageability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2007-08-01

    Two immediate serial recall experiments were conducted to test the associative-link hypothesis (Stuart & Hulme, 2000). We manipulated interitem association by varying the intralist latent semantic analysis (LSA) cosines in our 7-item study word lists, each of which consists of high- or low-frequency words in Experiment 1 and high- or low-imageability words in Experiment 2. Whether item recall performance was scored by a serial-recall or free-recall criterion, we found main effects of interitem association, word imageability, and word frequency. The effect of interitem association also interacted with the word frequency effect, but not with the word imageability effect. The LSA-cosinexword frequency interaction occurred in the recency, but not primacy, portion of the serial position curve. The present findings set explanatory boundaries for the associative-link hypothesis and we argue that both item- and associative-based mechanisms are necessary to account for the word frequency effect in immediate serial recall.

  7. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D; Fayol, Michel; Zorman, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W

    2016-12-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies-French (Study 1, n=1313) or English (Study 2, n=114) in early childhood (grade 2) and middle childhood (grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships among these literacy skills occurred in grades 2 and 5, and longitudinal relationships for each skill with itself from grade 2 to 5; but concurrent relationships were more sizable and longitudinal relationships more variable for English than French especially for word reading to reading comprehension. Results show that, for both morphophonemic orthographies, assessment and instructional practices should be tailored to early or middle childhood, and early childhood reading comprehension may not be related to middle childhood spelling. Also discussed are findings applying only to English, for which word origin is primarily Anglo-Saxon in early childhood, but increasingly French in middle childhood.

  8. Putting words into action: A simple focused education improves prescription label comprehension and functional health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bik-Wai Bilvick; Bae, Yuna H; LaRue, Charles E; Law, Anandi V

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on prescription (Rx) label comprehension and functional health literacy (FHL) in older adults. Outcomes were compared between current and redesigned Rx labels. Additional objectives were to examine the correlation between 2 outcome measures and to determine the characterizing variables that are predictors for the outcome measures. Southern California, January 2013 to March 2015. Older adults (>55 y) taking 2 or more Rx medications daily were recruited at senior and community centers by a trained data collection team. The validated Modified LaRue Tool (MLT) tested Rx label comprehension before and after a short, focused educational intervention and correlated it with FHL. A simple one-on-one education provided by student pharmacists that was focused on critical elements of an Rx label. Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA) and MLT scores of all current and redesigned label participants at baseline and follow-up. Participants using redesigned Rx labels (n = 90) showed significantly higher MLT scores than with current Rx labels (n = 28) both before (23.0 ± 2.3 vs. 21.0 ± 2.4; P educational intervention (23.8 ± 1.7 vs. 22.1 ± 3.1; P education level were common significant predictors for both outcomes. Older adults using redesigned Rx labels showed improved Rx label comprehension and FHL after educational intervention, as well as higher comprehension compared with those using current Rx labels. Use of a redesigned Rx label and a simple educational intervention should be encouraged to improve Rx label comprehension and FHL. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Language Comprehension and Computation in Mathematical Word Problem Solving among Students with Different Levels of Computation Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Tara Stringer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how selected linguistic components (including consistency of relational terms and extraneous information) impact performance at each stage of mathematical word problem solving (comprehension, equation construction, and computation accuracy) among students with different levels of computation achievement. …

  10. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D.; Fayol, Michel; Zorman, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies--French (Study 1, n = 1,313) or English (Study 2, n = 114) in early childhood (Grade 2)and middle childhood (Grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships…

  11. The in-comprehensive test ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

  12. The Influence of Child-Directed Speech on Word Learning and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foursha-Stevenson, Cassandra; Schembri, Taylor; Nicoladis, Elena; Eriksen, Cody

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the function of child-directed speech (CDS) across development. In the first experiment, 10-21-month-olds were presented with familiar words in CDS and trained on novel words in CDS or adult-directed speech (ADS). All children preferred the matching display for familiar words. However, only older toddlers…

  13. A comprehensive ban on nuclear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, R; Ruina, J P

    1972-01-14

    Our foregoing analysis of the role of a comprehensive test ban leads us to the following conclusions. 1) A CTB by itself will have little direct effect on the arms race between the superpowers. It would not hinder their nuclear arms production and deployment nor would it necessarily present a significant obstacle to the development of new nuclear weapons systems, despite limiting the development of new nuclear warhead designs. It can hardly make a dent in the destructive capability of the superpowers or in their ability to step up the pace of the arms race. 2) The chief merits of a CTB reside in the political sphere. It would help promote detente and could help to escalate interest in arms control agreements of broader scope. But in neither of these effects would it be as significant as a successful SALT (strategic arms limitation talks) agreement. The CTB also lingers as a piece of unfinished business since the signing of the LTB in 1963. The question can be and has been raised, "If the superpowers are serious about arms control, why have they not accepted the CTB, which is simple in concept and in form and is also free of serious military risks?" Such doubts about the sincerity of the superpowers' willingness to limit their own arms development will persist as long as there is no CTB. Substantial agreement at SALT would lessen some of this effect too, but would not eliminate it completely. 3) Recent progress in seismic identification has been impressive, and other means of obtaining technical intelligence about nuclear testing have probably also improved greatly. In addition, research on the technical means of on-site inspection has demonstrated its limited effectiveness. Therefore, the role of on-site inspections as an added deterrent to cheating on a CTB has diminished substantially. This is not to say that detection and identification of all nuclear tests is possible now, or ever, but only that on-site inspection would add very little to the other technical

  14. A Comparison of Cloze and Multiple Choice Tests for Measuring the English Reading Comprehension of Southeast Asian Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Milagros D.

    1975-01-01

    This investigation seeks to determine: the validity and reliability of cloze tests for measuring reading comprehension; the relation of cloze scores to difficulty levels of reading passages; the relation of cloze test performance to length of English training; and the merits of judgmental vs. random word deletion in test construction. (DB)

  15. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  16. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  17. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  18. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  19. Word Association Test and psychosexual cues in assessing persons with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, E M; Kelly, D; Canetti, L; Bachar, E

    1998-02-01

    The present study aimed to detect psychosexual conflicts in patients with eating disorders using the Word Association Test which tests the perceptual sensitivity of the subject to conflictual words. We also expected patients to show concern about food and eating. 19 anorexic patients, 21 bulimic patients, and 20 control subjects without eating disorders provided associations to four groups of words: psychosexual words, food words, emotionally loaded words, and neutral words. Reaction times were recorded. Analysis showed that anorexic patients were slower than controls in responding to food-related words but bulimic patients were not significantly different from controls. Anorexic patients reacted more slowly than controls to psychosexual words. Bulimic patients were also somewhat slower than controls but faster than anorexic patients; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Results are congruent with research that points to sexual problems and delays in the psychosexual development of anorexic patients and to a lesser extent of bulimic patients.

  20. Performance of younger and older adults on tests of word knowledge and word retrieval: independence or interdependence of skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Yafé, Ronit

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between vocabulary knowledge and word retrieval in younger and older adults. Three tests of word retrieval and 2 tests of word knowledge were administered to 140 Hebrew-speaking adults, half of whom were younger (M(age) = 24.20 years) and half of whom were older (M(age) = 74.83 years). Younger adults outperformed older adults on tests of retrieval, whereas older adults outperformed younger adults on tests of vocabulary, and no association was found between the 2 skills across the entire sample. Once age and education were taken into account, both skills contributed to the prediction of each other and were similarly related within each group. Older adults performed equally well when required to produce and recognize word meanings, whereas younger adults were better at recognition than at production. Older age is associated with better knowledge and with retrieval difficulties, yet individual differences in vocabulary within each age group affect level of retrieval, and variability in search skills affects performance on vocabulary tests. Although the assessment of vocabulary is not free of retrieval demands, older adults as a group are more successful than are younger adults at producing word definitions, most likely because their knowledge is more complete.

  1. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., nonconscious preferences for specific classes of incentives are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in word frequencies. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Francis, & Booth, 2001, Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, showed discriminant validity with self-reported motives, and predicted well-validated criteria of implicit motives (gender difference for the affiliation motive; in interaction with personal-goal progress: emotional well-being. Study 2 demonstrated LIWC-based motive scores’ causal validity by documenting their sensitivity to motive arousal.

  2. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., non-conscious preferences for specific classes of incentives) are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in the frequencies of specific words. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2001), Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, showed discriminant validity with self-reported motives, and predicted well-validated criteria of implicit motives (gender difference for the affiliation motive; in interaction with personal-goal progress: emotional well-being). Study 2 demonstrated LIWC-based motive scores' causal validity by documenting their sensitivity to motive arousal.

  3. Neurobiological bases of reading comprehension: Insights from neuroimaging studies of word level and text level processing in skilled and impaired readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J; Menc, W Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2013-04-01

    For accurate reading comprehension, readers must first learn to map letters to their corresponding speech sounds and meaning and then they must string the meanings of many words together to form a representation of the text. Furthermore, readers must master the complexities involved in parsing the relevant syntactic and pragmatic information necessary for accurate interpretation. Failure in this process can occur at multiple levels and cognitive neuroscience has been helpful in identifying the underlying causes of success and failure in reading single words and in reading comprehension. In general, neurobiological studies of skilled reading comprehension indicate a highly overlapping language circuit for single word reading, reading comprehension and listening comprehension with largely quantitative differences in a number of reading and language related areas. This paper reviews relevant research from studies employing neuroimaging techniques to study reading with a focus on the relationship between reading skill, single word reading, and text comprehension.

  4. Reading comprehension, word decoding and spelling in girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD): performance and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties with aspects of literacy are often seen in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). The bases of the connections between these disorders and literacy difficulties are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is not clear if existing research is representative for girls. There were three aims: (1) to compare performance in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling in girls with ASD (n = 20), AD/ HD (n = 36), and community girls with typical developing (girls; n = 54); (2) to assess rates of reading and writing disorders within groups; and (3) to examine the predictive value of measures of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology to reading comprehension in the whole girl sample. Participants were aged between 8 and 17 years, and had a full scale IQ>70. Standardized tests of literacy, oral vocabulary, and non-verbal ability were administered. Parent ratings of degree of autistic symptomatology and both parent and teacher ratings of AD/HD symptomatology were collected for all girls. Girls with diagnosed ASD could not be separated significantly from typically developing girls or girls with AD/HD on average performance on any literacy test. However, among girls with ASD, 40% had at least one reading and writing disorder. Girls with AD/HD performed lower than typically developing girls in reading comprehension, word decoding, and spelling, and 56% had at least one reading and writing disorder. In regression analysis, using the total sample, both degrees of autistic and AD/HD symptomatology negatively contributed to the variance in reading comprehension after controlling for oral vocabulary, word decoding, and non-verbal ability. Whereas AD/HD contributed to the variance in reading comprehension once autistic symptomatology was controlled for, the opposite was not true. However, a large bivariate correlation between autistic and AD/HD symptomatology somewhat complicates the interpretation of that result

  5. The Impact of Word-Recognition Practice on the Development of the Listening Comprehension of Intermediate-Level EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Navidinia; Mohammad Mehdi Alidoost; Nargess Hekmati; Mohsen Shirazizadeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at examining the effect of word-recognition practice on EFL students’ listening comprehension. The participants consisted of 30 intermediate EFL learners studying in a language institute in Birjand City, Iran. They were assigned randomly to two equal groups, control and experimental. Before starting the experiment, the listening section of IELTS was given to all of the students as the pretest. Then, during the experiment, the experimental group was asked to transcribe t...

  6. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Robert D.; Fayol, Michel; Zorman, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies—French (Study 1, n=1313) or English (Study 2, n=114) in early childhood (grade 2) and middle childhood (grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships among these literacy skills occurred in grades 2 and 5, and longitudinal relationships for each skill with itself from grade 2 to 5; but concurrent relations...

  7. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models.

  8. How Are Pronunciation Variants of Spoken Words Recognized? A Test of Generalization to Newly Learned Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments [Gaskell, G., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1998). Mechanisms of phonological inference in speech perception.…

  9. Student evaluation of a standardized comprehensive testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Stone, Cynthia L

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based, standardized, comprehensive testing is becoming a popular assessment tool in nursing education.This study sought to determine student response and satisfaction regarding such testing at a large state nursing school. Surveys that reviewed the entire testing process were provided to all students taking the computerized testing. Student feedback led to revisions for future testing.

  10. Flow and Reading Comprehension: Testing the Mediating Role of Emotioncy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahian, Leila; Pishghadam, Reza; Khajavy, Gholam Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Considering the importance of psychological factors in learners' reading abilities, this study examines the relationship between flow, emotioncy, and reading comprehension. To this end, 238 upper-intermediate and advanced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners were asked to take four tests of reading comprehension along with flow and…

  11. [Reliability and applications of a grammar comprehension assessment test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Higes, Ramón; Martín-Aragoneses, M Teresa; Rubio-Valdehita, Susana

    2010-04-01

    The sentence comprehension test from the sentence comprehension cognitive examination (ECCO) battery can be used to assess children and adults with grammar comprehension disorders by means of a simple verification procedure that requires few memory resources. AIM. To present a psychometric analysis of the sentence comprehension test based on the classical theory of tests and on item response theory, as well as several studies that show its usefulness for assessing grammar comprehension in different populations. The test was applied to 2238 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 85 years. The analysis shows that the test has a high overall reliability and, through the age groups that were considered, it includes elements that are especially discriminating or informative (lexical and syntactic distractors) and is biased towards medium-low levels of the trait. In view of the results, the sentence comprehension test from the ECCO battery provides a reliable measure of grammar comprehension through a wide variety of constructions and has great potential value for use in the clinical and research domains.

  12. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

  13. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  14. Strengthening Academic Vocabulary with Word Generation® Helps Sixth-Grade Students Improve Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Velten, Justin

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, we assessed the promise of Word Generation, a research-based academic vocabulary program, on improving the reading achievement outcomes of struggling sixth-grade readers in an after-school small group instructional setting. After 34 hours of academic vocabulary instruction, we compared the performance of a…

  15. Word Learning and Story Comprehension from Digital Storybooks: Does Interaction Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Kinney, Kara

    2017-01-01

    An emerging body of research examines language learning of young children from experiences with digital storybooks, but little is known about the ways in which specific components of digital storybooks, including interactive elements, may influence language learning. The purpose of the study was to examine the incidental word learning and story…

  16. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2003-04-01

    After an effort of nearly a half century the CTBT was approved by the U.N. on September 10, 1996. Out of 185 member nations (at the time), 158 voted in favor, 3 against, and the remaining either abstained or were diplomatically absent. In spite of such an overwhelming support of the international community, the CTBT may well remain on paper. The reason being that one of the opposing nations, India, is considered a "threshold Nuclear Nation" and must approve the treaty to enter into force according to the rules of Conference of Disarmament (CD). India's U.N. representative said that her country would "never sign this unequal treaty, not now, not later." "Unequal" because it does not provide a time table for elimination of the existing nuclear weapons, testing of weapons, etc., which favor nuclear states. This paper will provide details of the above issues and the current status of the CTBT.

  17. Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension: An Adapted Version of Lobrot's Lecture 3 Test for Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Vilhena, Douglas; Sucena, Ana; Castro, São Luís; Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural-linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back-translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structural variables, such as frequency of occurrence of the distractors, gender neutrality and position of the target words. The instrument can be used for a collective screening or individual clinical administration purposes to evaluate the reading ability of second-to-fifth-grade and 7-to-11-year-old students. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The CPT Reading Comprehension Test: A Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Anthony R.; Raymond, Lanette A.; Coffey, Cheryl A.; Bosco, Diane M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study done at Suffolk County Community College (New York) that assessed the validity of the College Board's Computerized Placement Test in Reading Comprehension (CPT-R) by comparing test results of 1,154 freshmen with the results of the Degree of Power Reading Test. Results confirmed the CPT-R's reliability in identifying basic…

  19. Naming, word identification and reading comprehension: Why is there a correlation, and what can it be used for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    that 1) what is being named (letters or pictures) is important for the correlation with different reading subskills (word identification or reading comprehension), 2) that naming is particularly useful in the prediction of reading speed, and 3) that naming is important for early identification of reading......There is a well-established correlation between students’ reading skills and how quickly they can name letters and pictures. Naming speed before formal instruction can even predict later reading skills. But the cause of the correlation is unclear. The talk will summarize a series of studies showing...

  20. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  1. Using Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension and Solve a Word Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Djudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes briefly the theories of metacognition and the impacts of metacognitive skills on learning. The differences between cognitive strategy and metacognitive strategy were mentioned. Some strategies to improve students’ meta cognition skills in the classroom explored as well. Based on the theories, two models of metacognitive strategies instruction for deeply understanding in reading textbook and for finding a solution of words physics problem solving were developed. These models will enable students to be independent and strategic learners.

  2. Single-Word Predictions of Upcoming Language During Comprehension: Evidence from the Cumulative Semantic Interference Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Daniel; Runnqvist, Elin; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehenders predict upcoming speech and text on the basis of linguistic input. How many predictions do comprehenders make for an upcoming word? If a listener strongly expects to hear the word “sock”, is the word “shirt” partially expected as well, is it actively inhibited, or is it ignored? The present research addressed these questions by measuring the “downstream” effects of prediction on the processing of subsequently presented stimuli using the cumulative semantic interference paradigm. In three experiments, subjects named pictures (sock) that were presented either in isolation or after strongly constraining sentence frames (“After doing his laundry, Mark always seemed to be missing one…”). Naming sock slowed the subsequent naming of the picture shirt – the standard cumulative semantic interference effect. However, although picture naming was much faster after sentence frames, the interference effect was not modulated by the context (bare vs. sentence) in which either picture was presented. According to the only model of cumulative semantic interference that can account for such a pattern of data, this indicates that comprehenders pre-activated and maintained the pre-activation of best sentence completions (sock) but did not maintain the pre-activation of less likely completions (shirt). Thus, comprehenders predicted only the most probable completion for each sentence. PMID:25917550

  3. The Role of Word Recognition, Oral Reading Fluency and Listening Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: A Study in an Intermediate Depth Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadime, Irene; Rodrigues, Bruna; Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; do Céu Cosme, Maria; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Empirical research has provided evidence for the simple view of reading across a variety of orthographies, but the role of oral reading fluency in the model is unclear. Moreover, the relative weight of listening comprehension, oral reading fluency and word recognition in reading comprehension seems to vary across orthographies and schooling years.…

  4. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  5. Short Vowels versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraye, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different…

  6. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  7. [Predictive power of working memory task for reading comprehension: an investigation using reading span test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Ashida, Kayo; Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the crucial factor mediating a correlation between performance of reading span test (RST) and reading comprehension. In the research literature on this issue, one of the remaining controversial points is whether the similarity of sentence processing between RST and comprehension contributes to the correlation. In this study, four RST conditions were created by the combination of two factors: relatedness of stimulus sentences (related or unrelated with each other) and focus of target words (focus or non-focus with respect to sentence meaning). If the correlation is mediated by the similarity of sentence processing, RST performance of related and focus condition, which was most akin to comprehension, would have higher correlation with reading comprehension than other conditions. However, as a result of correlation analysis based on data from ninety-six participants, no such evidence was obtained. On the other hand, RST performance of unrelated conditions that were supposed to strongly require attention control showed significant correlation with reading comprehension. These findings are discussed in terms of the contribution of attention control and short-term memory to performing RST and reading comprehension.

  8. Perception of patterns of musical beat distribution in phonological developmental dyslexia: significant longitudinal relations with word reading and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Verney, John P

    2013-05-01

    In a recent study, we reported that the accurate perception of beat structure in music ('perception of musical meter') accounted for over 40% of the variance in single word reading in children with and without dyslexia (Huss et al., 2011). Performance in the musical task was most strongly associated with the auditory processing of rise time, even though beat structure was varied by manipulating the duration of the musical notes. Here we administered the same musical task a year later to 88 children with and without dyslexia, and used new auditory processing measures to provide a more comprehensive picture of the auditory correlates of the beat structure task. We also measured reading comprehension and nonword reading in addition to single word reading. One year later, the children with dyslexia performed more poorly in the musical task than younger children reading at the same level, indicating a severe perceptual deficit for musical beat patterns. They now also had significantly poorer perception of sound rise time than younger children. Longitudinal analyses showed that the musical beat structure task was a significant longitudinal predictor of development in reading, accounting for over half of the variance in reading comprehension along with a linguistic measure of phonological awareness. The non-linguistic musical beat structure task is an important independent longitudinal and concurrent predictor of variance in reading attainment by children. The different longitudinal versus concurrent associations between musical beat perception and auditory processing suggest that individual differences in the perception of rhythmic timing are an important shared neural basis for individual differences in children in linguistic and musical processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimal second language exposure, SES, and early word comprehension: New evidence from a direct assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Although the extant literature provides robust evidence of the influence of language exposure and socioeconomic status (SES) on language acquisition, it is unknown how sensitive the early receptive vocabulary system is to these factors. The current study investigates effects of minimal second language exposure and SES on the comprehension vocabulary of 16-month-old children in the language in which they receive the greatest exposure. Study 1 revealed minimal second language exposure and SES exert significant and independent effects on a direct measure of vocabulary comprehension in English-dominant and English monolingual children (N = 72). In Study 2, we replicated the effect of minimal second language exposure in Spanish-dominant and Spanish monolingual children (N = 86), however no effect of SES on vocabulary was obtained. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of the language system to minimal changes in the environment in early development.

  10. Prediction of the difficulty level in a standardized reading comprehension test: contributions from cognitive psychology and psychometrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizuela, Armel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to identify possible predictors of the difficulty level of reading comprehension items used in a standardized psychometric test for university admission. Several potential predictors of difficulty were proposed, namely, propositional density, negations, grammatical structure, vocabulary difficulty, presence of enhancement elements (words highlighted typographically, item abstraction level and degree of similarity between correct option and relevant text to resolve the item. By Linear Logistic Test Model (Fisher, 1973 it was found that the number of propositions, the syntactic structure, and fundamentally, the presence of difficult words contributed to the prediction of the item difficulty level.

  11. Beyond words: comprehension and production of pragmatic prosody in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Julie M; Jungers, Melissa K

    2013-07-01

    Prosody includes suprasegmental components of speech, such as intonation and rate, which add meaning beyond the words being spoken. Sensitivity to pragmatic prosody could improve communication within conversations. These studies investigated adults' and preschoolers' sensitivity to pragmatic prosody. Experiment 1 demonstrated that adults and children comprehend pragmatic prosody; they selected fast actions when descriptions were spoken fast versus when descriptions were spoken slowly. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adults and children spontaneously produce pragmatic prosody-their descriptions of fast actions were faster than their descriptions of slow actions-even when it was not necessary for the task. These studies conclude that children, like adults, are capable of using and producing pragmatic prosody; however, children are less sensitive than adults to subtle prosodic distinctions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validity of a reading comprehension test for Portuguese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadime, Irene; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Santos, Sandra; Prieto, Gerardo; Maia, José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to collect construct and criterion-related evidence of validity for a reading comprehension test (TCL - Teste de Compreensão da Leitura) with three vertically scaled forms, designed to assess students from second, third and fourth grade. Two studies were conducted. In the first (n = 1,229), a confirmatory factor analysis was performed to analyse the test dimensionality. In the second (n= 402), concurrent and predictive evidence of validity was analysed using correlations between TCL, other reading tests and academic achievement. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a one-factor structure. Correlation coefficients with other reading tests were low to moderate and statistically significant. The TCL forms were shown to be good predictors of students' reading comprehension as assessed by teachers and of the National Exams of Portuguese Language results. Present results provide empirical evidence for the validity of the TCL forms.

  13. Word Families and Frequency Bands in Vocabulary Tests: Challenging Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary test development often appears to be based on the design principles of previous tests, without questioning or empirically examining the assumptions underlying those principles. Given the current proliferation of vocabulary tests, it seems timely for the field of vocabulary testing to problematize some of those traditionalised…

  14. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Yu, Dongchuan

    2015-01-01

    Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC) has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words) in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese). Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old). Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i) EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii) EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old); and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii) EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv) EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old), then Chinese

  15. Development of Emotion Word Comprehension in Chinese Children from 2 to 13 Years Old: Relationships with Valence and Empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    Full Text Available Children's emotion word comprehension (EWC has constantly received a great deal of attention in developmental science. However, since previous reports focused on only English emotion vocabulary, researchers thus far remained unclear as to the developmental trajectories of EWC (to Chinese emotion words in Chinese children, let alone the cross-cultural difference of EWC in different languages (i.e., English V.S. Chinese. Furthermore, the influence of valence on EWC, as well as the interaction mechanism between EWC and empathy, has not been fully investigated. Finding answers to these research gaps has become the main motivation of the current study. For this purpose, a Chinese emotion vocabulary was first constructed to estimate EWC of Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old. Then, the valence of each emotion word was evaluated using the standard 9-point scale approach. After that, the Chinese children's EWC and empathy were measured in terms of parental ratings. Finally, all data collected were statistically analyzed to reveal the influence of the valence of EWC, the relation between EWC and empathy, and the cross-cultural difference of children's EWC between China and UK from the viewpoint of developmental science. The main results of the current study included the following: (i EWC in general increased with age for Chinese children ages 2-13 years old, however, there was a dramatic increase during ages 6-8 years old; (ii EWC of positive emotion words in general developed better than that of negative and neutral ones for Chinese children (ages 2-13 years old; and the disadvantage of EWC to negative emotion words over neutral ones was gradually observed with the increase of age, even though there were no significant differences between them from the beginning; (iii EWC completely mediated the effect of age on empathy; and (iv EWC of children in UK developed better than Chinese counterparts during the early childhood period (ages 4-6 years old, then

  16. Developing and Validating Proof Comprehension Tests in Undergraduate Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Lew, Kristen; de la Torre, Jimmy; Weber, Keith

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe and illustrate the process by which we developed and validated short, multiple-choice, reliable tests to assess undergraduate students' comprehension of three mathematical proofs. We discuss the purpose for each stage and how it benefited the design of our instruments. We also suggest ways in which this process could…

  17. On the Factor Structure of a Reading Comprehension Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…

  18. Calibration of a reading comprehension test for Portuguese students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cadime

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension assessments are important for determining which students are performing below the expected levels for their grade's normative group. However, instruments measuring this competency should also be able to assess students' gains in reading comprehension as they move from one grade to the next. In this paper, we present the construction and calibration process of three vertically scaled test forms of an original reading comprehension test to assess second, third and fourth grade students. A sample of 843 students was used. Rasch model analyses were employed during the following three phases of this study: (a analysis of the items' pool, (b item selection for the test forms, and (c test forms' calibration. Results suggest that a one dimension structure underlies the data. Mean-square residuals (infit and outfit indicated that the data fitted the model. Thirty items were assigned to each test form, by selecting the most adequate items for each grade in terms of difficulty. The reliability coefficients for each test form were high. Limitations and potentialities of the developed test forms are discussed.

  19. From word reading to multisentence comprehension: Improvements in brain activity in children with autism after reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaugh, Donna L; Maximo, Jose O; Cordes, Claire E; O'Kelley, Sarah E; Kana, Rajesh K

    2017-01-01

    Children with ASD show a unique reading profile characterized by decoding abilities equivalent to verbal abilities, but with lower comprehension skills. Neuroimaging studies have found recruitment of regions primarily associated with visual processing (e.g., fusiform gyrus and medial parietal cortex), but reduced activation in frontal and temporal regions, when reading in adults with ASD. The purpose of this study was to assess neural changes associated with an intense reading intervention program in children with ASD using three fMRI tasks of reading. 25 children with ASD were randomly assigned to a treatment (ASD-EXP) or waitlist group (ASD-WLC). Children participated in a reading intervention program (4-hour sessions per day, 5 days a week for 10 weeks). We utilized three tasks: word, sentence, and multisentence processing, each with differential demands of reading comprehension. fMRI data were acquired at each of two scanning sessions 10-weeks apart. Across tasks, post-intervention results revealed that the ASD-EXP group showed greater activation in bilateral precentral gyrus and the postcentral gyrus, visual processing regions (e.g., occipital cortex, fusiform gyrus), and frontal regions. In the word task, left thalamus and the right angular gyrus (AG) activation was unique to the ASD-EXP group post-intervention. Sentence tasks showed differential activation of core language areas (e.g., IFG, IPL) post-intervention. Our results provide evidence for differential recruitment of brain regions based on task demands in children with ASD, and support the potential of targeted interventions to alter brain activation in response to positive gains in treatment. Children with ASD have a different reading profile from other reading disorders that needs to be specifically targeted in interventions.

  20. Psychometric properties of the reading comprehension test ECOMPLEC.Sec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos Albacete, Ricardo; León Cascón, José A; Martín Arnal, Lorena A; Moreno Pérez, José D; Escudero Domínguez, Inmaculada; Sánchez Sánchez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    ECOMPLEC.Sec is a reading comprehension test for secondary students, conceived from a multidimensional perspective in line with large-scale educational surveys such as PISA or PIRLS. The objective of this study was to validate the theoretical model of ECOMPLEC.Sec. A bifactor model that postulates the existence of a general reading comprehension factor and three specific factors provided a good fit to the data. 1,912 adolescents (13-18 years) participated in this study. Data analysis included construct validity via confirmatory factor analysis, and factors were regressed onto observed covariates for the interpretation of the constructs. Reliability was calculated from a non-linear SEM in order to justify the interpretability of the observed scale and subscale scores. The bifactor model exhibited a significantly better fit to the data than the second-order model. Furthermore, construct validity analysis suggests the existence of specific reading comprehension factors. Finally, the reliability study also supports the idea of using a total score to obtain a measure of reading comprehension. ECOMPLEC.Sec displays a valid parsimonious factor structure, as well as metric properties that make it a suitable tool to assess reading comprehension.

  1. The influence of semantic and syntactic context constraints on lexical selection and integration in spoken-word comprehension as revealed by ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Daniëlle; Hagoort, Peter

    2004-01-01

    An event-related brain potential experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of semantic and syntactic context constraints on lexical selection and integration in spoken-word comprehension. Subjects were presented with constraining spoken sentences that contained a critical word that was either (a) congruent, (b) semantically and syntactically incongruent, but beginning with the same initial phonemes as the congruent critical word, or (c) semantically and syntactically incongruent, beginning with phonemes that differed from the congruent critical word. Relative to the congruent condition, an N200 effect reflecting difficulty in the lexical selection process was obtained in the semantically and syntactically incongruent condition where word onset differed from that of the congruent critical word. Both incongruent conditions elicited a large N400 followed by a left anterior negativity (LAN) time-locked to the moment of word category violation and a P600 effect. These results would best fit within a cascaded model of spoken-word processing, proclaiming an optimal use of contextual information during spoken-word identification by allowing for semantic and syntactic processing to take place in parallel after bottom-up activation of a set of candidates, and lexical integration to proceed with a limited number of candidates that still match the acoustic input.

  2. Phoneme Error Pattern by Heritage Speakers of Spanish on an English Word Recognition Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Heritage speakers acquire their native language from home use in their early childhood. As the native language is typically a minority language in the society, these individuals receive their formal education in the majority language and eventually develop greater competency with the majority than their native language. To date, there have not been specific research attempts to understand word recognition by heritage speakers. It is not clear if and to what degree we may infer from evidence based on bilingual listeners in general. This preliminary study investigated how heritage speakers of Spanish perform on an English word recognition test and analyzed their phoneme errors. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was employed. Twelve normal-hearing adult Spanish heritage speakers (four men, eight women, 20-38 yr old) participated in the study. Their language background was obtained through the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire. Nine English monolingual listeners (three men, six women, 20-41 yr old) were also included for comparison purposes. Listeners were presented with 200 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words in quiet. They repeated each word orally and in writing. Their responses were scored by word, word-initial consonant, vowel, and word-final consonant. Performance was compared between groups with Student's t test or analysis of variance. Group-specific error patterns were primarily descriptive, but intergroup comparisons were made using 95% or 99% confidence intervals for proportional data. The two groups of listeners yielded comparable scores when their responses were examined by word, vowel, and final consonant. However, heritage speakers of Spanish misidentified significantly more word-initial consonants and had significantly more difficulty with initial /p, b, h/ than their monolingual peers. The two groups yielded similar patterns for vowel and word-final consonants, but heritage speakers made significantly

  3. [Diagnosis of language-understanding deficit in aphasia. Methodological considerations and composition of a test for discourse comprehension (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, W; Stachowiak, F J; Kerschensteiner, M; Poeck, K

    1975-05-28

    The investigation of language comprehension in aphasics has usually been concerned only with the word and sentence levels. It has not been considered that language in the normal communicative situation has the character of discourse. Furthermore, language understanding should be conceived of as comprising different processes of comprehension which can be selectively affected in aphasia. It was therefore necessary to compose a test for text comprehension. In this test the patient is read a short text and then required to choose that picture from a multiple-choice set which is most appropriate to the story. Texts and pictures were developed according to the linguistic parameters: agent/experiencer, action, situation, metaphorical comment. With the tasks kept uniform this test allows not only quantitative but also qualitative statistical evaluation. Preliminary results show that the test reveals qualitative differences between subtypes of aphasia.

  4. Impairment of Self-control and its manifestations in Continuous Word Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marhevská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work is to find out how self–control influences word associations. The research presented herein provides new insight into manifestations of self–control. Experimental study is based on the Strength model (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998, which assumes that self–control relies on limited resources of ego which become depleted with increased exercising of self–control (Ego depletion. The aim of this experiment was to verify in an empirical manner that the impairment of self–control can be manifested in word association tests. Continuous word association test (Kondáš, 1979 was used in this experiment. Distinct indicators of continuous word associations were divided into the following 4 categories; verbal dynamics, abnormalities in association, errors in the reproduction of association reactions and the overall number of mistakes. Parallel task and “e letter” crossing out exercises were used in order to impair ego resource.One–Way ANOVA was used in the analysis. The results of the study indicate that impaired self–control, induced by the “e letter” crossing out task, increased verbal dynamics. According to the obtained results, Continuous word association test provoke automatic processes. Further important indicators of impaired self–control were increased perseverations of potentially conflicting word ′control′, erroneous reproductions of potentially conflicting word ′explosions′ and the overall indicator of mistakes in conflict word‚ explosions and control‘. The experiment results show an increase in the number of mistakes of word association production when self–control is impaired.

  5. Differential Effects of Instruction on the Development of Second Language Comprehensibility, Word Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation: The Case of Inexperienced Japanese EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yukie; Saito, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined in depth the effects of suprasegmental-based instruction on the global (comprehensibility) and suprasegmental (word stress, rhythm, and intonation) development of Japanese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Students in the experimental group (n = 10) received a total of three hours of instruction over six…

  6. Neurobiological Bases of Reading Comprehension: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies of Word-Level and Text-Level Processing in Skilled and Impaired Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    For accurate reading comprehension, readers must first learn to map letters to their corresponding speech sounds and meaning, and then they must string the meanings of many words together to form a representation of the text. Furthermore, readers must master the complexities involved in parsing the relevant syntactic and pragmatic information…

  7. Fracture Testing of Large-Scale Thin-Sheet Aluminum Alloy (MS Word file)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Word Document; A series of fracture tests on large-scale, precracked, aluminum alloy panels were carried out to examine and characterize the process by which cracks propagate and link up in this material. Extended grips and test fixtures were special...

  8. Setting Specific Criteria for Scoring Word Problems in Mathematics: Effects on Test Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Milagros D.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of specific criteria for marking a test on its reliability and validity. Eight algebra word problems were administered to grade 10 students. The objectivity of scoring criteria improved the reliability of the test, but did not affect its validity. (MNS)

  9. Successful Word Recognition by 10-Month-Olds Given Continuous Speech Both at Initial Exposure and Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    Most words that infants hear occur within fluent speech. To compile a vocabulary, infants therefore need to segment words from speech contexts. This study is the first to investigate whether infants (here: 10-month-olds) can recognize words when both initial exposure and test presentation are in

  10. Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2003-04-01

    The National Academy of Sciences recently published a detailed study of technical factors related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), with emphasis on those issues that arose when the Senate declined to ratify the Treaty in 1999. The study considered (1) the capacity of the United States to maintain confidence in the safety and reliability of its nuclear weapons without nuclear testing; (2) the capabilities of the international nuclear-test monitoring system; and (3) the advances in nuclear weapons capabilities that other countries might make through low-yield testing that might escape detection. Excluding political factors, the committee considered three possible future worlds: (1) a world without a CTBT; (2) a world in which the signatories comply with a CTBT; and (3) a world in the signatories evade its strictures within the limits set by the detection system. The talk and ensuing discussion will elaborate on the study. The principal conclusion of the report, based solely on technical reasons, is that the national security of the United States is better served with a CTBT in force than without it, whether or not other signatories conduct low level but undetected tests in violation of the treaty. Moreover, the study finds that nuclear testing would not add substantially to the US Stockpile Stewardship Program in allowing the United States to maintain confidence in the assessment of its existing nuclear weapons.

  11. Capability to Monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In September 1996, the United States was the first country to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), an international agreement to ban all nuclear test explosions, now signed by 177 nations. The treaty is intended to impede the development of nuclear weapons as part of the international nonproliferation regime. The treaty is not yet in effect because it has not been ratified by enough countries-including the United States. As a result, many of its verification provisions have not yet been fully implemented. When implemented, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) are confident that the combined worldwide monitoring resources will meet the verification goals of the CTBT.

  12. Re: A Word of Caution on New and Revolutionary Diagnostic Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, Myron G.; Sol, Nik; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Wesseling, Pieter; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In his letter “A word of caution on new and revolutionary diagnostic tests,” Dr. Diamandis argues that discoveries and progress in the field of biomarker discovery for the early detection of cancer are hampered by multiple factors, including pre- and post-analytical and bioinformatics artifacts. He

  13. Performance-intensity functions of Mandarin word recognition tests in noise: test dialect and listener language effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danzheng; Shi, Lu-Feng

    2013-06-01

    This study established the performance-intensity function for Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin bisyllabic word recognition tests in noise in native speakers of Wu Chinese. Effects of the test dialect and listeners' first language on psychometric variables (i.e., slope and 50%-correct threshold) were analyzed. Thirty-two normal-hearing Wu-speaking adults who used Mandarin since early childhood were compared to 16 native Mandarin-speaking adults. Both Beijing and Taiwan bisyllabic word recognition tests were presented at 8 signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in 4-dB steps (-12 dB to +16 dB). At each SNR, a half list (25 words) was presented in speech-spectrum noise to listeners' right ear. The order of the test, SNR, and half list was randomized across listeners. Listeners responded orally and in writing. Overall, the Wu-speaking listeners performed comparably to the Mandarin-speaking listeners on both tests. Compared to the Taiwan test, the Beijing test yielded a significantly lower threshold for both the Mandarin- and Wu-speaking listeners, as well as a significantly steeper slope for the Wu-speaking listeners. Both Mandarin tests can be used to evaluate Wu-speaking listeners. Of the 2, the Taiwan Mandarin test results in more comparable functions across listener groups. Differences in the performance-intensity function between listener groups and between tests indicate a first language and dialectal effect, respectively.

  14. Testing the Home Literacy Model: Parent Involvement in Kindergarten Is Differentially Related to Grade 4 Reading Comprehension, Fluency, Spelling, and Reading for Pleasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senechal, Monique

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal relations among early literacy experiences at home and children's kindergarten literacy skills, Grade 1 word reading and spelling skills, and Grade 4 reading comprehension, fluency, spelling, and reading for pleasure. Ninety French-speaking children were tested at the end of kindergarten and Grade 1, and 65…

  15. La comprehension du francais parle au niveau avance: un exemple de test (Comprehension of Spoken French at the Advanced Level: A Test Sample).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriac, Paul

    1980-01-01

    The use of taped radio programs is suggested for testing advanced level French comprehension. In the testing technique described less attention is given to program content than to style and language usage. A sample test is presented. (MSE)

  16. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-06

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing.

  17. Comprehension of non-technical words in science: The case of students using a `foreign' language as the medium of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P. K.

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into Hong Kong students' comprehension of English non-technical words used in science. The investigation was conducted in a context in which English, a foreign language to students, is the medium of instruction, in that textbooks and examinations are all in English but the classroom language used is mainly Chinese, with frequent Chinese-English code-switching. A total of 4644 Secondary 4, 5 and 6 students participated in the study. Many students did not correctly comprehend a large proportion of the words, confused them with words that were graphologically or phonetically similar, and even took them for their antonyms. Such poor performance raises doubts as to whether the majority of Hong Kong students have attained a ‘threshold level’ of competence in English to benefit from learning science in English.

  18. Relationships between Eye Movements during Sentence Reading Comprehension, Word Spelling and Reading, and DTI and fmri Connectivity In Students with and without Dysgraphia or Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagle, Kevin; Richards, Todd; Askren, Katie; Mestre, Zoe; Beers, Scott; Abbott, Robert; Nagy, William; Boord, Peter; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    While eye movements were recorded and brains scanned, 29 children with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) decided if sentences they read (half with only correctly spelled words and half with homonym foils) were meaningful. Significant main effects were found for diagnostic groups (non-SLD control, dysgraphia control, and dyslexia) in total fixation (dwell) time, total number of fixations, and total regressions in during saccades; the dyslexia group had longer and more fixations and made more regressions in during saccades than either control group. The dyslexia group also differed from both control groups in (a) fractional anisotropy in left optic radiation and (b) silent word reading fluency on a task in which surrounding letters can be distracting, consistent with Rayner's selective attention dyslexia model. Different profiles for non-SLD control, dysgraphia, and dyslexia groups were identified in correlations between total fixation time, total number of fixations, regressions in during saccades, magnitude of gray matter connectivity during the fMRI sentence reading comprehension from left occipital temporal cortex seed with right BA44 and from left inferior frontal gyrus with right inferior frontoccipital fasciculus, and normed word-specific spelling and silent word reading fluency measures. The dysgraphia group was more likely than the non-SLD control or dyslexia groups to show negative correlations between eye movement outcomes and sentences containing incorrect homonym foils. Findings are discussed in reference to a systems approach in future sentence reading comprehension research that integrates eye movement, brain, and literacy measures.

  19. Relationships between Eye Movements during Sentence Reading Comprehension, Word Spelling and Reading, and DTI and fmri Connectivity In Students with and without Dysgraphia or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagle, Kevin; Richards, Todd; Askren, Katie; Mestre, Zoe; Beers, Scott; Abbott, Robert; Nagy, William; Boord, Peter; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    While eye movements were recorded and brains scanned, 29 children with and without specific learning disabilities (SLDs) decided if sentences they read (half with only correctly spelled words and half with homonym foils) were meaningful. Significant main effects were found for diagnostic groups (non-SLD control, dysgraphia control, and dyslexia) in total fixation (dwell) time, total number of fixations, and total regressions in during saccades; the dyslexia group had longer and more fixations and made more regressions in during saccades than either control group. The dyslexia group also differed from both control groups in (a) fractional anisotropy in left optic radiation and (b) silent word reading fluency on a task in which surrounding letters can be distracting, consistent with Rayner's selective attention dyslexia model. Different profiles for non-SLD control, dysgraphia, and dyslexia groups were identified in correlations between total fixation time, total number of fixations, regressions in during saccades, magnitude of gray matter connectivity during the fMRI sentence reading comprehension from left occipital temporal cortex seed with right BA44 and from left inferior frontal gyrus with right inferior frontoccipital fasciculus, and normed word-specific spelling and silent word reading fluency measures. The dysgraphia group was more likely than the non-SLD control or dyslexia groups to show negative correlations between eye movement outcomes and sentences containing incorrect homonym foils. Findings are discussed in reference to a systems approach in future sentence reading comprehension research that integrates eye movement, brain, and literacy measures. PMID:28936361

  20. New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    2003-04-01

    Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  1. The Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT): Initial psychometric, validation, and physiological evidence in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeare, Christopher A; Freund, Sabrina; Kaploun, Kristen; McAuley, Tara; Dumitrescu, Claudiu

    2017-10-01

    The clinical assessment of affective functioning has been slow to incorporate findings from affective neuroscience. Of particular interest in the current study is the assessment of affective word production. In a series of four studies, we examined test-retest and interrater reliability for the Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT), basic construct validity with existing verbal fluency measures, physiological responses across verbal fluency tasks, and a novel scoring method to examine qualitative aspects of participant response sets. Results demonstrated interrater and test-retest reliability values that were comparable to those of other commonly used verbal fluency tests. Construct validity was demonstrated by relations between the EWFT and other verbal fluency tests as well as through physiological evidence that performance on the EWFT is related to greater sympathetic activity than traditional verbal fluency tasks. Lastly, some of the novel scoring metrics related to two self-report measures of emotional functioning. Taken together, our findings provide initial support for the use of the EWFT as a measure of emotion word generation ability in young adults. This measure may prove to be useful in the assessment of affective language production in patient populations.

  2. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    OpenAIRE

    Suyatman Suyatman; Dzul Rachman

    2017-01-01

    Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the s...

  3. Individual differences in text comprehension as a function of test anxiety and prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A E

    This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension and comprehension monitoring with undergraduates (223 women, 69 men). Further, the effect of test anxiety and of prior knowledge on reading comprehension and on comprehension monitoring was examined in groups of students of equal

  4. Test-taking Strategies and Performance on Reading Comprehension Tests by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pourdana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to explore the possible relationship between test-taking strategies and (a successful performance on English as a Foreign Language (EFL reading comprehension, (b EFL learners’ level of language proficiency. To accomplish the purpose of this study, 68 students of English translation of both genders were randomly selected and placed in the three Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced levels, at Alborz Institute for Higher Education, Qazvin, Iran. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA proved that there was a significant and positive correlation between the scores in reading comprehension test and Oxford Placement Test. While the scores in reading comprehension test did not show any significant correlations with using the majority of test-taking strategies, they had a relatively low and negative but significant correlation with test management strategy. The findings in this study were interpreted as the low knowledge of test-taking strategies in Iranian EFL context and the importance of attending to the cognitive processes effective in taking language tests was emphasized.

  5. Reading words and pseudowords in dyslexia: ERP and behavioural tests in English-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroyan, Naira A; Nicolson, Roderick I

    2009-12-01

    The study reports neurophysiological and behavioural correlates of lexical decision processes in English speaking dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers. Nine dyslexic adolescents (ages 15.6-17.8) and 9 control (ages 15.4-19.3) adolescents were tested, and the event related potentials (ERPs) to words and pseudowords were recorded simultaneously with behavioural measures. As expected, both groups showed significantly lower accuracy and longer response times for the pseudowords. Furthermore, overall performance (in terms of lower accuracy and longer response times) was significantly worse for the dyslexic group. The ERP analysis indicated that the later positive peaks, P4 (around 400 ms from stimulus onset) and P5 (around 500 ms), were significantly delayed and attenuated for the dyslexic group. Analysis of the early ERP peaks recorded in the occipitotemporal region led to an interesting dissociation. The controls showed a left lateralised Condition effect, with the amplitude of P1 significantly smaller to words than pseudowords. By contrast, there was no such lexical effect for the dyslexic group, with equal P1 amplitudes for words and pseudowords, at the control level for pseudowords. The deviations in the early ERP components of dyslexics support the evidence of deficits in pre-lexical visual word form recognition within the first 110 ms of activation together with altered hemispheric asymmetry. In addition, the slowed and attenuated late ERP components and weaker behavioural performance of the dyslexic group highlight deficits in the later, cognitive, processing stages.

  6. Generating quality word sense disambiguation test sets based on MeSH indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2009-11-14

    Word sense disambiguation (WSD) determines the correct meaning of a word that has more than one meaning, and is a critical step in biomedical natural language processing, as interpretation of information in text can be correct only if the meanings of their component terms are correctly identified first. Quality evaluation sets are important to WSD because they can be used as representative samples for developing automatic programs and as referees for comparing different WSD programs. To help create quality test sets for WSD, we developed a MeSH-based automatic sense-tagging method that preferentially annotates terms being topical of the text. Preliminary results were promising and revealed important issues to be addressed in biomedical WSD research. We also suggest that, by cross-validating with 2 or 3 annotators, the method should be able to efficiently generate quality WSD test sets. Online supplement is available at: http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~juf7002/AMIA09.

  7. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  8. Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbach, Carolyn

    1986-01-01

    Teaching comprehension skills requires teaching to intuition with activities such as presenting puzzling situations to introduce a topic, using art to elicit latent feelings, using imagery and improvisations to enhance visualization, and using music and dance to encourage nonverbal expressions. (DB)

  9. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

  10. From Words to Text: Inference Making Mediates the Role of Vocabulary in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Cain, Kate; Elbro, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between inference making, vocabulary knowledge, and verbal working memory on children's reading comprehension in 62 6th graders (aged 12). The effect of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension was predicted to be partly mediated by inference making for two reasons: Inference making often taps the semantic…

  11. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  12. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  13. Speed and automaticity of word recognition - inseparable twins?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Asmussen, Vibeke; Elbro, Carsten

    'Speed and automaticity' of word recognition is a standard collocation. However, it is not clear whether speed and automaticity (i.e., effortlessness) make independent contributions to reading comprehension. In theory, both speed and automaticity may save cognitive resources for comprehension...... processes. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the unique contributions of word recognition speed and automaticity to reading comprehension while controlling for decoding speed and accuracy. Method: 139 Grade 5 students completed tests of reading comprehension and computer-based tests of speed...... developmental sources. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that both automaticity (effortlessness) and speed of word recognition (word-specific orthographic knowledge) contributed unique variance to reading comprehension when word decoding accuracy and speed was controlled. Conclusion: The results...

  14. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  15. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  16. [Words before actions- the significance of counselling in the Praena-Test era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, Sibil

    2014-04-23

    Due to new offers in prenatal diagnostics pregnant women are forced to make choices. In Switzerland physicians are obliged to inform previous to prenatal tests and to obtain informed consent. Considering the complexity of this information and the consequences of a positive result, counselling is challenging, especially in an intercultural context. A questionnaire-based study compared information processing, test interpretation and emotional response of pregnant women from Switzerland and adjacent countries with Turkish women. Knowledge of the latter was significantly lower and they found counselling more unsettling, but their acceptance of prenatal tests was significantly higher. An empathetic approach and the right words are decisive, and counselling will even gain importance when considering the increase in options patients are confronted with.

  17. A meta-analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Stroop Color and Word Test with children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homack, Susan; Riccio, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the Stroop Color-Word Test demonstrates sensitivity and specificity for the identification of executive function deficits in children and adolescents...

  18. Using Arabic in Testing Reading Comprehension in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Jihad; Diab, Turki

    A study examined the role of the native language (Arabic) in assessing the reading comprehension of learners of English as a second language. Subjects were 60 secondary school students in two comparable classes in Jordan. After receiving instruction for one month using reading material in the prescribed textbook, students were administered a…

  19. Three monosyllables for standard words in Nasometer test: to evaluate air leakage in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunkngarmpun, Chaivut; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an evaluation method using a Nasometer, with several monosyllabic test words, to reveal the level of air leakage in maxillectomy patients without limitations due to language or ability to read. 20 normal Japanese (Group 1) and 20 international adults (Group 2), were asked to read 7 monosyllables, (5 vowels and 2 combined vowels, /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, /am/, /aj/), 6 times each and 12 Japanese maxillectomy patients (Group 3) were asked to read only 3 monosyllables (/a/, /am/, /aj/) 6 times each. The "Nasalance Score" was calculated using a Nasometer (Nasometer II, model 6400 KayPentax, Lincoln Park, NJ, USA). Coefficient of variations (CVs) of three monosyllables /a/, /am/, /aj/ of Group 1 and Group 2 showed less than 0.33. There is significant difference in all pairs of three monosyllables between Group 1 and Group 3 (p Nasometer, these three monosyllables, /a/, /am/ and /aj/, could be used as standard test words and could reveal the level of air leakage in maxillectomy patients.

  20. Assessing the relationship between Vocabulary Level Test (VLT and reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpino Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been considered crucial about how vocabulary knowledge in relation with reading comprehension. This research was conducted to explore the link of Indonesian students Vocabulary Level Test (VLT performance and their reading textbook on reading subject. Through this pilot research, it can describe the implications profile in English teaching process especially in reading. Furthermore it can give more information in how to measure the reading textbook reference for reading subject or other similar subject that involve reading activities. There were 30 undergraduate students in Universitas Putera Batam that participated in the VLT. Their English textbook (Mosaic 1 was profiled to measure the lexical vocabulary level. The results indicated that only 1% of the participants had mastered the 2000-word level which means the vocabulary textbook-level is still far from students vocabulary knowledge. From the level of comparison theoretically they would have difficulties to comprehend the reading textbook, and some additional activities would be recommended, before, during and after the reading subject.

  1. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    In forensic neuropsychological settings, maintaining test security has become critically important, especially in regard to symptom validity tests (SVTs). Coaching, which can entail providing patients or litigants with information about the cognitive sequelae of head injury, or teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of symptom dissimulation has been examined experimentally in many research studies. Emerging evidence supports that coaching strategies affect psychological and neuropsychological test performance to differing degrees depending on the coaching paradigm and the tests administered. The present study sought to examine Internet coverage of SVTs because it is potentially another source of coaching, or information that is readily available. Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test. Results indicated that there is a variable amount of information available about each test that could threaten test security and validity should inappropriately interested parties find it. Steps that could be taken to improve this situation and limitations to this exploration are discussed.

  2. Multimodality and listening comprehension: testing and implementing classroom material

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Romero, Elena; Maíz Arévalo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, multimodality has gained an increasing amount of attention. Accordingly, multimodal analysis has eventually widened its research into the realm of language teaching and learning in what is currently known as Applied Multimodality. The present article intends to make a contribution to this field by focusing on the role played by multimodality in listening comprehension, taking into account three main aspects: the arrangement of information value, salience and framing. In ord...

  3. Multimodality and listening comprehension: testing and implementing classroom material

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Romero, Elena; Maíz Arévalo, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, multimodality has gained an increasing amount of attention. Accordingly, multimodal analysis has eventually widened its research into the realm of language teaching and learning in what is currently known as Applied Multimodality. The present article intends to make a contribution to this field by focusing on the role played by multimodality in listening comprehension, taking into account three main aspects: the arrangement of information value, salience and framing. In ord...

  4. Teaching Word Meanings to Students at Different Reading Ability: A Controlled Assessment of the Contextual-Based Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, İlhan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contextual-based vocabulary instruction on reading comprehension of seventh-grade students at different reading ability levels in social studies. The Sentence Verification Technique test consisted of 16-items was used to determine participants’ reading comprehension skills. In addition, a semi-structured interview form was used to describe participants’ perceptions and experiences related to the vocabulary intervention program acti...

  5. On the Relationship between Right- brain and Left- brain Dominance and Reading Comprehension Test Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of works have been conducted by psycholinguistics to identify hemisphere processing during second/ foreign language learning, or in other words to investigate the role of the brain hemisphere dominance in language performance of learners. Most of these researches have focused on single words and word pairs (e.g., Anaki et al., 1998; Arzouan et. al., 2007; Faust & Mahal, 2007 or simple sentences (Rapp et al., 2007; Kacinik & Chiarello, 2007, and it has been discovered that there is an advantage of right hemisphere for metaphors and an
    advantage of left hemisphere for literal text. But the present research was designed to study Iranian EFL learners' performance in different reading tasks, so there could be differences between the consequences of the former research and the results of the present study due to the context. Here left-brain and right-brain dominance was investigated in 60 individuals (20 right-handed and 10 left-handed male, 20 right-handed and 10 left-handed female via the Edinburg Handedness Questionnaire (EHQ. The research results suggested that the right-handed learners who are supposed to be left-brain outperformed the left-handed ones; and regarding participant's gender, male learners outperformed female learners on reading comprehension test tasks.

  6. From word reading to multisentence comprehension: Improvements in brain activity in children with autism after reading intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Murdaugh, Donna L.; Maximo, Jose O.; Cordes, Claire E.; O'Kelley, Sarah E.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with ASD show a unique reading profile characterized by decoding abilities equivalent to verbal abilities, but with lower comprehension skills. Neuroimaging studies have found recruitment of regions primarily associated with visual processing (e.g., fusiform gyrus and medial parietal cortex), but reduced activation in frontal and temporal regions, when reading in adults with ASD. The purpose of this study was to assess neural changes associated with an intense reading inte...

  7. Test Method Facet and the Construct Validity of Listening Comprehension Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Khoii

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of listening abilities is one of the least understood, least developed and, yet, one of the most important areas of language testing and assessment. It is particularly important because of its potential wash-back effects on classroom practices. Given the fact that listening tests play a great role in assessing the language proficiency of students, they are expected to enjoy a high level of construct validity. The present study was dedicated to investigating the construct validity of three different test formats, namely, multiple-choice, gap filling on summary (also called listening summary cloze, and fill-in-the-blank, used to evaluate the listening comprehension of EFL learners. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, three passages with relatively similar readability levels were used for the construction of 9 listening tests, that is, each appeared in three formats. Following a counter-balanced design, the tests were administered to 91homogeneous EFL learners divided into three groups. The statistical analysis of the results revealed that the multiple-choice test enjoyed the highest level of construct validity. Moreover, a repeated measure one-way ANOVA demonstrated that the fill-in-the-blank task was the most difficult with the MC test as the easiest for the participants.

  8. Factors Associated with Word Memory Test Performance in Persons with Medically Documented Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Davis, Lynne C; Sander, Angelle M; Nick, Todd G; Luo, Chunqiao; Pastorek, Nicholas; Hanks, Robin

    2015-01-01

    (1) To examine the rate of poor performance validity in a large, multicenter, prospectively accrued cohort of community dwelling persons with medically documented traumatic brain injury (TBI), (2) to identify factors associated with Word Memory Test (WMT) performance in persons with TBI. This was a prospective cohort, observational study of 491 persons with medically documented TBI. Participants were administered a battery of cognitive tests, questionnaires on emotional distress and post-concussive symptoms, and a performance validity test (WMT). Additional data were collected by interview and review of medical records. One hundred and seventeen participants showed poor performance validity using the standard cutoff. Variable cluster analysis was conducted as a data reduction strategy. Findings revealed that the 10 cognitive tests and questionnaires could be summarized as 4 indices of emotional distress, speed of cognitive processing, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Regression models revealed that verbal memory, emotional distress, age, and injury severity (time to follow commands) made unique contribution to prediction of poor performance validity. Poor performance validity was common in a research sample of persons with medically documented TBI who were not evaluated in conjunction with litigation, compensation claims, or current report of symptoms. Poor performance validity was associated with poor performance on cognitive tests, greater emotional distress, lower injury severity, and greater age. Many participants expected to have residual deficits based on initial injury severity showed poor performance validity.

  9. The Effect of Content Familiarity and Test Format on Iranian EFL Test Takers’ Performance on Test of Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rezaei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of content familiarity and test format on Iranian English learners. The participants of this were advanced students studying at different language institutes in Isfahan, Iran. To sample the subjects of this study, the latest version of Oxford Placement Test was administered to 428 students studying at advanced level in 6 different language institutes. Based on the results of the OPT test and for the sake of homogeneity 70 students were considered as the target participants of the study. Each participant was given a test of reading comprehension with familiar content and unfamiliar content. Each test contained multiple choice, true/false, and fill in the blanks test items. Factorial design results indicated that test takers had a significantly better performance on content familiar tests and sub tests. It also became clear that their performance on multiple choice section either in content familiar and content unfamiliar test was superior to that of true/false and fill in the blanks. It will be of endless help to test makers and language teachers to be aware of the role test format and content of the test can play on test takers’ performance.

  10. The reliability and validity of qualitative scores for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P; Calhoun, Emily; Cox, Tara; Wenner, Carolyn; Kono, Whitney; Pleasant, Morgan

    2007-05-01

    The reliability and validity of two qualitative scoring systems for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test [Benton, A. L., Hamsher, de S. K., & Sivan, A. B. (1983). Multilingual aplasia examination (2nd ed.). Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates] were examined in 108 healthy young adults. The scoring systems developed by Troyer et al. [Troyer, A. K., Moscovich, M., & Winocur, G. (1997). Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: Evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology, 11, 138-146] and by Abwender et al. [Abwender, D. A., Swan, J. G., Bowerman, J. T., & Connolly, S. W. (2001a). Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency output: Review and comparison of several scoring methods. Assessment, 8, 323-336] each demonstrated excellent interrater reliability (all indices at or above r(icc)=.9). Consistent with previous research [e.g., Ross, T. P. (2003). The reliability of cluster and switch scores for the COWAT. Archives of Clinical Psychology, 18, 153-164), test-retest reliability coefficients (N=53; M interval 44.6 days) for the qualitative scores were modest to poor (r(icc)=.6 to .4 range). Correlations among COWAT scores, measures of executive functioning, verbal learning, working memory, and vocabulary were examined. The idea that qualitative scores represent distinct executive functions such as cognitive flexibility or strategy utilization was not supported. We offer the interpretation that COWAT performance may require the ability to retrieve words in a non-routine manner while suppressing habitual responses and associated processing interference, presumably due to a spread of activation across semantic or lexical networks. This interpretation, though speculative at present, implies that clustering and switching on the COWAT may not be entirely deliberate, but rather an artifact of a passive (i.e., state-dependent) process. Ideas for future research, most noticeably experimental studies using cognitive methods (e.g., priming), are

  11. Comprehension asymmetries in language acquisition: a test for Relativized Minimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Nerantzini, Michaela; Papadopoulou, Despina

    2015-05-01

    Cross-linguistic studies have shown that typically developing children have difficulties comprehending non-canonical structures. These findings have been interpreted within the Relativized Minimality (RM) approach, according to which local relations cannot be established between two terms of a dependency if an intervening element possesses similar morphosyntactic features. In an extension of RM, Friedmann, Belletti, and Rizzi (2009) suggested that lexical NP restriction is the source of minimality effects in non-canonical sentences. The present study aimed at investigating whether the predictions of their account can be confirmed in Greek. Our results indicate that although lexical NP restriction is a crucial factor in generating minimality effects, it is not always sufficient to account for the comprehension difficulties that young children face with non-canonical sentences, since the internal structure (i.e. the feature specification) of the moved element and of the intervener affects their performance, as well.

  12. [The 5-word test in 85 patients with generalized anxiety disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisile, Bernard; Simon, Emile; Astier, Jean-Laurent; Beaumont, Charlotte; Mollion, Hélène

    2009-11-01

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) expressed frequent memory complaints leading to consultations in memory clinics. The 5-word test (5WT) is a serial verbal memory test with semantic cuing. It is proposed to rapidly evaluate memory of people with memory complaints. It has previously shown its sensitivity and its specificity in identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective was to evaluate memory performances of patients with GAD. Characteristics of the 5WT were investigated in a sample of 85 patients with GAD compared with 183 normal controls aged from 40 to 70 years. For each score of the 5WT, GAD patients significantly differed from controls. Forgetting rate was twice more important in GAD patients than in controls. However, for any score of the 5WT, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves found no significant cut-off scores combining reliable sensitivity, specificity and correct classification of the subjects. In spite of ancient and severe mnestic complaints, GAD patients have significant difficulties with the 5WT as compared to controls without being of the magnitude of those observed in AD patients. The 5WT is an easy and rapid test allowing a reliable evaluation of memory in GAD patients. Results could usually confort patients. The presence of true memory deficits with the 5WT could not be ascribed to anxiety but to other pathological conditions. Consequently, further memory testing should be done.

  13. A Comprehensive Sex Education Approach for HIV Testing and Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpin, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    Despite huge prevention efforts the number of HIV infections worldwide continues to increase dramatically. Among other strategies, the HIV test offers an important chance for targeted prevention, provided quality counselling is offered. Several studies have revealed that HIV testing is often performed in less than optimal conditions and is often…

  14. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    Several press reports between 1996 and 1999 claimed that Russia may have conducted low-yield nuclear tests at its Arctic test site at Novaya Zemlya...newswire, April 24, 2006. Gorbachev, Mikhail, “The Nuclear Threat,” Wall Street Journal, January 31, 2007:13. Graham- Silverman , Adam, “Nuclear

  15. Developing auditory comprehension subtests of the Russian Aphasia Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova

    2015-04-01

    •\tDiscourse – comprehension of orally presented stories of varying lexical-semantic and syntactic difficulty indexed by response accuracy to a set of 16 yes-no questions on explicit and implicit content of the stories. Each subtest was completed by at least 20 individuals with aphasia and 20 healthy age-matched controls. To maximize validity and reliability of the subtests, “poor” items were removed according to the following principles. First, items that were answered erroneously by two or more healthy participants were eliminated. Second, based on item difficulty and corrected-item-total correlation derived for the aphasia group, most sensitive and valid items were retained. Also, it was ensured that each influential psychometric property was represented in the refined set by a wide range of values. Thus, a final smaller set of items for each subtest was selected for further norming and standardization. We will discuss in detail the various conceptual and psychometric considerations that went into the design of the subtests and affected item selection. This project is supported by Russian Scientific Foundation for Humanities, grant №14-04-00596.

  16. Developing Reading and Listening Comprehension Tests Based on the Sentence Verification Technique (SVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, James M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a team-based approach for creating Sentence Verification Technique (SVT) tests, a development procedure that allows teachers and other school personnel to develop comprehension tests from curriculum materials in use in their schools. Finds that if tests are based on materials that are appropriate for the population to be tested, the…

  17. Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and…

  18. The Effect of Test Speededness on the Validity of Reading Comprehension Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, S. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined irregularities in reading comprehension (RC) test results at both the individual and aggregate levels, focusing on the effect of test speededness on test scores. Data were taken from results of the Stanford Achievement Test--Seventh Edition (SAT/7), administered during April of 1983 to about 50,000 Palm Beach County (Florida)…

  19. Examining word association networks: A cross-country comparison of women's perceptions of HPV testing and vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd C Schmid

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the perceptual associations women hold with regard to cervical cancer testing and vaccination across two countries, the U.S. and Australia. In a large-scale online survey, we presented participants with 'trigger' words, and asked them to state sequentially other words that came to mind. We used this data to construct detailed term co-occurrence network graphs, which we analyzed using basic topological ranking techniques. The results showed that women hold divergent perceptual associations regarding trigger words relating to cervical cancer screening tools, i.e. human papillomavirus (HPV testing and vaccination, which indicate health knowledge deficiencies with non-HPV related associations emerging from the data. This result was found to be consistent across the country groups studied. Our findings are critical in optimizing consumer education and public service announcements to minimize misperceptions relating to HPV testing and vaccination in order to maximize adoption of cervical cancer prevention tools.

  20. Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  1. Word Memory Test Predicts Recovery in Claimants With Work-Related Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Annette; Abada, Abigail; Haws, Calvin; Park, Joanne; Niemeläinen, Riikka; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility. Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]). Not applicable. Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression. Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=-.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34). Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual Differences in Working Memory for Comprehension and Following Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Randall W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study measured how differences in working memory capacity related to differences in comprehension and following directions in first, third, and sixth graders. The number of words recalled in word- and reading-span tests predicted comprehension for all grades. Results indicate working memory's role in following directions increases with age. (SM)

  3. Comparison of "Word" vs. "Picture" Version of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Wang, Cuiling; Burns, Leah C; Berman, Robert M; Derby, Carol A; L'Italien, Gilbert; Budd, David; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the psychometric relationship between the Word and Picture versions of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) and developed an equation for score conversion. 187 participants were administered the FCSRT-Picture and FCSRT-Word on two visits using a randomized counterbalanced design. Participants had a mean age of 82.1 (sd=5.4) and mean education of 14.5 (sd=3.3) years. Mean FCSRT-Picture Free Recall score (mean 33.0, range: 17-44) was 7.9 points higher than the Word score (mean 25.1, range: 3-43). The Picture and Word FCSRT correlations for Free Recall and Total Recall were r=0.56, pPicture and Word versions of the FCSRT were moderately associated in a sample of cognitively normal older adults. The score mean differences and variability between FCSRT-Picture and FCSRT-Word indicate that their scores should not be considered equivalent.

  4. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    for the timely replacement of the Los Alamos plutonium research and development and analytical chemistry facility, the uranium facilities at the Oak...most recently in December 2012, to study how plutonium behaves under pressures generated by explosives. It asserts these experiments do not violate...hypotheses are that the device reduced the amount of plutonium used in order to conserve that material, or engineers sought to test the

  5. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed.

  6. PSYCHOACOUSTICS: a comprehensive MATLAB toolbox for auditory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Grassi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOACOUSTICS is a new MATLAB toolbox which implements three classic adaptive procedures for auditory threshold estimation. The first includes those of the Staircase family (method of limits, simple up-down and transformed up-down); the second is the Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing (PEST); and the third is the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLP). The toolbox comes with more than twenty built-in experiments each provided with the recommended (default) parameters. However, if desired, these parameters can be modified through an intuitive and user friendly graphical interface and stored for future use (no programming skills are required). Finally, PSYCHOACOUSTICS is very flexible as it comes with several signal generators and can be easily extended for any experiment.

  7. PSYCHOACOUSTICS: a comprehensive MATLAB toolbox for auditory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eSoranzo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available PSYCHOACOUSTICS is a new MATLAB toolbox which implements three classic adaptive procedures for auditory threshold estimation. The first includes those of the Staircase family (method of limits, simple up-down and transformed up-down; the second is the Parameter Estimation by Sequential Testing (PEST; and the third is the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLP. The toolbox comes with more than twenty built-in experiments each provided with the recommended (default parameters. However, if desired, these parameters can be modified through an intuitive and user friendly graphical interface and stored for future use (no programming skills are required. Finally, PSYCHOACOUSTICS is very flexible as it comes with several signal generators and can be easily extended for any experiment.

  8. American Sign Language Comprehension Test: A Tool for Sign Language Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Peter C.; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Riddle, Wanda; Kurz, Kim B.; Emmorey, Karen; Contreras, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The American Sign Language Comprehension Test (ASL-CT) is a 30-item multiple-choice test that measures ASL receptive skills and is administered through a website. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the test based on a sample of 80 college students including deaf native signers, hearing native signers, deaf…

  9. Heart rate variability changes during stroop color and word test among genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Priyanka; Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Shanmugapriya

    2015-01-01

    Stress is the reaction of the body to a change that requires physical, mental or emotional adjustments. Individual differences in stress reactivity are a potentially important risk factor for gender-specific health problems in men and women. The Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system is most commonly affected by stress and is assessed by means of short term heart rate variability (HRV).The present study was undertaken to investigate the difference in the cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System response to mental stress between the genders using HRV as tool. We compared the mean RR interval, Blood pressure and indices of HRV during the StroopColor Word Test (SCWT).Twenty five male (Age 19.52±0.714, BMI 22.73±2 kg/m2) and twenty five female subjects (Age 19.80±0.65, BMI 22.39±1.9) performed SCWT for five minutes. Blood Pressure (SBP pgenders. HRV indices like LFms2 (pgenders. The response by the cardiovascular system to a simple mental stressor exhibits difference among the genders.

  10. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a picture-word matching paradigm. ERPs time-locked to pictures elicited a modulation of the negative central (Nc) component, associated with visual attention and recognition. It was attenuated by category repetition as well as by the type-token ratio of picture context. ERPs time-locked to words in the training phase became more negative with repetition (N300-600), but there was no influence of picture type-token ratio, suggesting that infants have identified the concept of each picture before a word was presented. Results from the test phase provided clear support that infants integrated word meanings with (novel) picture context. Here, infants showed different ERP responses for words that did or did not align with the picture context: a phonological mismatch (N200) and a semantic mismatch (N400). Together, results were informative of visual categorization, word recognition and word-to-world-mappings, all three crucial processes for vocabulary construction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroanatomical Comparison of the "Word" and "Picture" Versions of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slachevsky, Andrea; Barraza, Paulo; Hornberger, Michael; Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; Flanagan, Emma; Henríquez, Fernando; Bravo, Eduardo; Farías, Mauricio; Delgado, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Episodic memory tests with cued recall, such as the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), allow for the delineation of hippocampal and prefrontal atrophy contributions to memory performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both Word and Picture versions of the test exist but show different profiles, with the Picture version usually scoring higher across different cohorts. One possible explanation for this divergent performance between the different modality versions of the test might be that they rely on different sets of neural correlates. The current study explores this by contrasting the neural correlates of the Word and Picture versions of the FCSRT with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in AD and healthy subjects. We predicted that the Picture version would be associated with different cortical regions than the Word version, which might be more hippocampal-centric. When comparing 35 AD patients and 34 controls, AD patients exhibited impairments on both versions of the FCSRT and both groups performed higher in the Picture version. A region of interest analysis based on prior work revealed significant correlations between free recall of either version with atrophy of the temporal pole and hippocampal regions. Thus, contrary to expectations, performance on both the Word and the Picture version of the FCSRT is associated with largely overlapping networks. Free recall is associated with hippocampal volume and might be properly considered as an indicator of hippocampal structural integrity.

  13. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  14. Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah M; Hulme, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of word level phonological knowledge on learning to read new words in Down syndrome compared to typical development. Children were taught to read 12 nonwords, 6 of which were pre-trained on their phonology. The 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged 8-17 years were compared first to a group of 30 typically developing children aged 5-7 years matched for word reading and then to a subgroup of these children matched for decoding. There was a marginally significant effect for individuals with Down syndrome to benefit more from phonological pre-training than typically developing children matched for word reading but when compared to the decoding-matched subgroup, the two groups benefitted equally. We explain these findings in terms of partial decoding attempts being resolved by word level phonological knowledge and conclude that being familiar with the spoken form of a new word may help children when they attempt to read it. This may be particularly important for children with Down syndrome and other groups of children with weak decoding skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure: A Working Memory Test for Use in Rehabilitative Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Alexander, Genevieve

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) and to conduct the inaugural evaluation of the performance of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing, and older adults with pure-tone hearing loss on the WARRM. The WARRM is a new test designed for concurrently assessing word recognition and auditory working memory performance in adults who may have pure-tone hearing loss. The test consists of 100 monosyllabic words based on widely used speech-recognition test materials. The 100 words are presented in recall set sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 items, with 5 trials in each set size. The WARRM yields a word-recognition score and a recall score. The WARRM was administered to all participants in three listener groups under two processing conditions in a mixed model (between-subjects, repeated measures) design. The between-subjects factor was group, with 48 younger listeners with normal audiometric thresholds (younger listeners with normal hearing [YNH]), 48 older listeners with normal thresholds through 3000 Hz (older listeners with normal hearing [ONH]), and 48 older listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (older listeners with hearing loss [OHL]). The within-subjects factor was WARRM processing condition (no additional task or with an alphabet judgment task). The associations between results on the WARRM test and results on a battery of other auditory and memory measures were examined. Word-recognition performance on the WARRM was not affected by processing condition or set size and was near ceiling for the YNH and ONH listeners (99 and 98%, respectively) with both groups performing significantly better than the OHL listeners (83%). The recall results were significantly better for the YNH, ONH, and OHL groups with no processing (93, 84, and 75%, respectively) than with the alphabet processing (86, 77, and 70%). In both processing conditions, recall was best for YNH, followed by

  16. A restricted test of single-word intelligibility in 3-year-old children with and without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Poulsen, Mads

    2012-05-01

    In a previous study, children with cleft palate with hard palate closure at 12 months of age showed more typical phonological development than did children with an unrepaired hard palate at 36 months of age. This finding was based on narrow transcription of word initial target consonants obtained from a simple naming test. To evaluate the relevance of this finding, we investigated how well the children's target words were understood by 84 naive listeners. A cross-sectional study. Data obtained from 28 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, 3 years of age, who received hard palate closure at either 12 months (hard palate repaired; HPR) or 36 months (hard palate unrepaired; HPU) were compared with data obtained from 14 age-matched, typically developing control children. Video recordings of the children naming target words were shown to 84 naive listeners between 15 and 24 years of age who typed the word they heard. The findings of this study indicated that naive listeners correctly identified a larger percentage of words in the control children followed by children in the HPR group. Children in the HPU group were more difficult for the naive listeners to understand. The error of retraction/backing of alveolar target consonants to velar place of articulation occurred frequently and most often in the HPU group and was found to have a negative effect on intelligibility.

  17. The Relations between Word Reading, Oral Language, and Reading Comprehension in Children Who Speak English as a First (L1) and Second Language (L2): A Multigroup Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the reading and oral language skills of children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2), and examined whether the strength of the relationship between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension was invariant (equivalent) across the two groups. The participants included 183 L1 and L2 children…

  18. Comparison between the story recall test and the word-list learning test in Korean patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sangyun

    2012-01-01

    Among verbal memory tests, two that are commonly used to measure the ability of verbal memory function in cognitive impairment are story recall tests and word-list learning tests. However, research is limited regarding which test might be more sensitive in discriminating between normal cognitive aging and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Korean population. The purpose of the current study was to compare the word-list learning test (Seoul Verbal Learning Test; SVLT) and the story recall test (Korean Story Recall Test; KSRT) to determine which test is more sensitive in discriminating between individuals with normal cognitive aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage of AD in Korea. A total of 53 healthy adults, 127 patients with MCI, and 72 patients with early stage of AD participated in this study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated to compare these two tests. The results showed that the AUC of the SVLT was significantly larger than the AUC of the KSRT in all three groups (healthy adults vs. MCI and early stage of AD; healthy adults vs. MCI; healthy adults vs. early stage of AD). However, in comparison of patients with MCI and early stage of AD, the AUC of SVLT and the AUC of KSRT were not significant. The word-list learning test is a more useful tool for examining verbal memory function for older adults in Korea than the story recall test.

  19. Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test in Children and Adolescents with Brain Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Vertinski, Mary; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT) is a relatively new version of the Trail Making Test that has a number of appealing features, including a large normative sample that allows raw scores to be converted to standard "T" scores adjusted for age. Preliminary validity information suggests that CTMT scores are sensitive to brain…

  20. Developing, Analyzing, and Using Distractors for Multiple-Choice Tests in Education: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Bulut, Okan; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is considered one of the most effective and enduring forms of educational assessment that remains in practice today. This study presents a comprehensive review of the literature on multiple-choice testing in education focused, specifically, on the development, analysis, and use of the incorrect options, which are also…

  1. Why Not Non-Native Varieties of English as Listening Comprehension Test Input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, Priyanvada

    2013-01-01

    The existence of different varieties of English in target language use (TLU) domains calls into question the usefulness of listening comprehension tests whose input is limited only to a native speaker variety. This study investigated the impact of non-native varieties or accented English speech on test takers from three different English use…

  2. Testing a Comprehensive Model for Measuring Problem Solving and Problem Posing Skills of Primary Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Philippou, George

    2003-01-01

    The study reported in this paper is an attempt to develop a comprehensive model of measuring problem solving and posing (PSP) skills based on Marshall's schema theory (ST). A battery of tests on PSP skills was administered to 5th and 6th grade Cypriot students (n=2519). The Rasch model was used and a scale was created for the battery of tests and…

  3. Development and preliminary evaluation of a new test of ongoing speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Buchholz, Jӧrg M; Freeston, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this work is to create new speech perception tests that more closely resemble real world communication and offer an alternative or complement to the commonly used sentence recall test. We describe the development of a new ongoing speech comprehension test based on short everyday passages and on-the-go questions. We also describe the results of an experiment conducted to compare the psychometric properties of this test to those of a sentence test. Both tests were completed by a group of listeners that included normal hearers as well as hearing-impaired listeners who participated with and without their hearing aids. Overall, the psychometric properties of the two tests were similar, and thresholds were significantly correlated. However, there was some evidence of age/cognitive effects in the comprehension test that were not revealed by the sentence test. This new comprehension test promises to be useful for the larger goal of creating laboratory tests that combine realistic acoustic environments with realistic communication tasks. Further efforts will be required to assess whether the test can ultimately improve predictions of real-world outcomes.

  4. Development and preliminary evaluation of a new test of ongoing speech comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Buchholz, Jörg M.; Freeston, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objective The overall goal of this work is to create new speech perception tests that more closely resemble real world communication and offer an alternative or complement to the commonly used sentence recall test. Design We describe the development of a new ongoing speech comprehension test based on short everyday passages and on-the-go questions. We also describe the results of an experiment conducted to compare the psychometric properties of this test to those of a sentence test. Study Sample Both tests were completed by a group of listeners that included normal hearers as well as hearing-impaired listeners who participated with and without their hearing aids. Results Overall, the psychometric properties of the two tests were similar, and thresholds were significantly correlated. However, there was some evidence of age/cognitive effects in the comprehension test that were not revealed by the sentence test. Conclusions This new comprehension test promises to be useful for the larger goal of creating laboratory tests that combine realistic acoustic environments with realistic communication tasks. Further efforts will be required to assess whether the test can ultimately improve predictions of real-world outcomes. PMID:26158403

  5. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

  6. The Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Struggling Readers across Brief Tests of Various Intervention Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dana L.; Espin, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Although several different reading fluency intervention approaches appear promising for adolescents who are struggling readers, few studies have directly compared various approaches. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine the relative effects of word-oriented, fluency-oriented, comprehension-oriented, and multi-component…

  7. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; Subkritiske tester - kjernevaapentesting under avtalen om fullstendig proevestans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeibraaten, S

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments.

  8. "En Sus Proprias Palabras" ("In Their Own Words"): Latina Women's Perspectives on Enablers of HIV Testing Using Freelisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Sudha, S.; Herrera, Samantha; Ruiz, Carolina; Thomas, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive information on the facilitators of HIV testing in Latino women (Latinas) in the Southeastern USA is lacking. Efforts to rectify this should include Latina perspectives on the issue. This study aimed to (1) solicit Latina perspectives using qualitative methodology and (2) characterise enablers of HIV testing follow-through.…

  9. The Deaf Child's Knowledge of Words: Volume II, Alphabetical List of Test Items. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Dresner, Toby; Guilfoyle, George R.

    The document is the second volume of a report providing descriptive data on the reading vocabulary of deaf children ages 8-17 years, which resulted from a study assessing the reading vocabulary knowledge of 13,207 deaf students. Volume 2, continuing the appendix begun in Volume 1, contains an alphabetical list of the 7,300 words used on the 73…

  10. A Neural Assembly-Based View on Word Production: The Bilingual Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijkers, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    I will propose a tentative framework of how words in two languages could be organized in the cerebral cortex based on neural assembly theory, according to which neurons that fire synchronously are bound into large-scale distributed functional units (assemblies), which represent a mental event as a whole ("gestalt"). For language this…

  11. Lexical patterns in the reading comprehension section of the toefl test

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Macmillan

    2014-01-01

    The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) is currently one of the most widely accepted English language proficiency tests. Designed by the ETS (Educational Testing Service), the main purpose of the TOEFL is to determine whether the English language skills of a student applying to a North American college or university are adequate for enrollment into the selected program of study. This study will focus upon the third section of the TOEFL, Reading Comprehension, which consists of sever...

  12. Culturomics as a data playground for tests of selection: Mathematical approaches to detecting selection in word use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Suzanne S; Dale, Rick

    2016-09-21

    In biological evolution traits may rise and fall in frequency due to genetic drift, where variant frequencies change by chance, or by selection where advantageous variants will rise in frequency. The neutral model of evolution, first developed by Kimura in the 1960s, has become the standard against which selection is detected. While the balance between these two important forces - drift and selection - has been well established in biology there are other domains where the contribution of these processes is still coming together. Although the idea of natural selection has been applied to the cultural domain since the time of Darwin, it has proven more challenging to positively identify cultural traits under selection both because of a lack of established tests for selection and a lack of large cultural data sets. However, in recent years with the accumulation of large cultural data sets many cultural features from pre-history pottery to modern baby names have been shown to evolve according to the neutral theory. But there is accumulating empirical evidence from cultural processes suggesting that the neutral theory alone cannot account for all features of the data. As such, there has been a renewed interest in determining whether there is selection amidst drift. Here we analyze a subset English word frequencies, and determine whether frequency change reveals processes of selection. Inspired by the Moran and Wright-Fisher models in population genetics, we developed a neutral model of word frequency variation to assess when linguistic data appears to depart from neutral evolution. As such, our model represents a possible "test for selection" in the linguistic domain. We explore how the distribution of word use has changed for sets of words in English for more than 100 years (1901-2008) as expressed in vocabulary usage in published books, made available by Google Ngram. When comparing empirical word frequency changes to our neutral model we find pervasive and systematic

  13. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

  14. Gastric potential difference and pH in ulcer patients and normal volunteers during Stroop's colour word conflict test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    mucosal electrical potential difference (PD). In 13 healthy volunteers and 12 duodenal ulcer patients gastric PD, pH, and heart rate were measured continuously during basal conditions, during mental stress evoked by the Stroop's colour word conflict test, and after return to basal conditions...... declined significantly during sympathetic activation (delta PD = -5 (2)mV, p less than 0.05). Gastric pH increased. Eleven of 12 ulcer patients had sympathetic activation accompanied by a decline in PD, and an increased pH. Sympathetic activation in ulcer patients and volunteers impaired gastric mucosal......Whether mental stress is important in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders is not clearly established. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic activation caused by the Stroop's colour word conflict test and gastric mucosal function, monitored by measuring the gastric...

  15. Gastric potential difference and pH in ulcer patients and normal volunteers during Stroop's colour word conflict test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    mucosal electrical potential difference (PD). In 13 healthy volunteers and 12 duodenal ulcer patients gastric PD, pH, and heart rate were measured continuously during basal conditions, during mental stress evoked by the Stroop's colour word conflict test, and after return to basal conditions......Whether mental stress is important in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders is not clearly established. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic activation caused by the Stroop's colour word conflict test and gastric mucosal function, monitored by measuring the gastric....... The volunteers fell into two groups: In seven no sympathetic activation was elicited as no changes in heart rate were demonstrated. Gastric pH was unchanged, and PD increased slightly. Sympathetic activation was elicited in the other six with increased heart rate by 18 (6) beats per min. Potential difference...

  16. The comprehension of sentences with unaccusative verbs in aphasia: a test of the intervener hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Natalie; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have difficulty comprehending some sentences with filler-gap dependencies. While investigations of these difficulties have been conducted with several different sentence types (e.g., object relatives, Wh -questions), we explore sentences containing unaccusative verbs, which arguably have a single noun phrase (NP) that is base-generated in object position but then is displaced to surface subject position. Unaccusative verbs provide an ideal test case for a particular hypothesis about the comprehension disorder-the Intervener Hypothesis-that posits that the difficulty individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have comprehending sentences containing filler-gap dependencies results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between the two elements of a syntactic chain. To assess a particular account of the comprehension deficit in agrammatic Broca's aphasia-the Intervener Hypothesis. We used a sentence-picture matching task to determine if listeners with agrammatic Broca's aphasia (LWBA) and age-matched neurologically unimpaired controls (AMC) have difficulty comprehending unaccusative verbs when placed in subject relative and complement phrase (CP) constructions. We found above-chance comprehension of both sentence constructions with the AMC participants. In contrast, we found above-chance comprehension of CP sentences containing unaccusative verbs but poor comprehension of subject relative sentences containing unaccusative verbs for the LWBA. These results provide support for the Intervener Hypothesis, wherein the presence of an intervening NP between two elements of a filler-gap dependency adversely affects sentence comprehension.

  17. Development of Listening Comprehension Tests with Narrative and Expository Texts for Portuguese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Prieto, Gerardo; Brandão, Sara; Cadime, Irene

    2015-03-03

    This investigation aimed to develop and collect psychometric data for two tests assessing listening comprehension of Portuguese students in primary school: the Test of Listening Comprehension of Narrative Texts (TLC-n) and the Test of Listening Comprehension of Expository Texts (TLC-e). Two studies were conducted. The purpose of study 1 was to construct four test forms for each of the two tests to assess first, second, third and fourth grade students of the primary school. The TLC-n was administered to 1042 students, and the TLC-e was administered to 848 students. The purpose of study 2 was to test the psychometric properties of new items for the TLC-n form for fourth graders, given that the results in study 1 indicated a severe lack of difficult items. The participants were 260 fourth graders. The data were analysed using the Rasch model. Thirty items were selected for each test form. The results provided support for the model assumptions: Unidimensionality and local independence of the items. The reliability coefficients were higher than .70 for all test forms. The TLC-n and the TLC-e present good psychometric properties and represent an important contribution to the learning disabilities assessment field.

  18. A quick behavioral dichotic word test is prognostic for clinical response to cognitive therapy for depression: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Haggerty, Agnes; Siegle, Greg J

    2017-02-01

    There are no commonly used clinical indicators of whether an individual will benefit from cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. A prior study found right ear (left hemisphere) advantage for perceiving dichotic words predicted CT response. This study replicates this finding at a different research center in clinical trials that included clinically representative samples and community therapists. Right-handed individuals with unipolar major depressive disorder who subsequently received 12-14 weeks of CT at the University of Pittsburgh were tested on dichotic fused words and complex tones tests. Responders to CT showed twice the mean right ear advantage in dichotic fused words performance than non-responders. Patients with a right ear advantage greater than the mean for healthy controls had an 81% response rate to CT, whereas those with performance lower than the mean for controls had a 46% response rate. Individuals with a right ear advantage, indicative of strong left hemisphere language dominance, may be better at utilizing cognitive processes and left frontotemporal cortical regions critical for success of CT for depression. Findings at two clinical research centers suggest that verbal dichotic listening may be a clinically disseminative brief, inexpensive and easily automated test prognostic for response to CT across diverse clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels among Portuguese speakers: the Irregular Word Reading Test (TeLPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lara; Simões, Mário R; Martins, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Information regarding cognitive abilities in earlier stages of life is essential to ascertain if and to what extent these may have declined. When unavailable, clinicians rely on estimate methods. One of the contemporary methods used worldwide combines performance on irregular word reading test with demographics since it has shown to provide reliable estimates of premorbid ability. Hence, a reading test portuguese irregular word reading test (TeLPI) was developed, filling an important gap in the neuropsychological evaluation of Portuguese speakers. Using 46 irregular, infrequent Portuguese words, TeLPI was validated against Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-III (N = 124), and regression-based equations were determined to estimate premorbid IQ considering TeLPI scores and demographic variables. TeLPI scores accounted for 63% of the variance of WAIS-III Full-Scale IQ, 62% of Verbal IQ, and 47% of Performance IQ and thus were considered valid for premorbid intelligence estimation. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. A test of speech motor control on word level productions: The SPA Test (Dutch: Screening Pittige Articulatie)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Dejonckere; F. Wijnen; Dr. Yvonne van Zaalen

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to study whether an assessment instrument specifically designed to assess speech motor control on word level productions would be able to add differential diagnostic speech characteristics between people who clutter and people who stutter. It was hypothesized

  1. Using a Comprehensive Model to Test and Predict the Factors of Online Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Minyan

    2013-01-01

    As online learning is an important part of higher education, the effectiveness of online learning has been tested with different methods. Although the literature regarding online learning effectiveness has been related to various factors, a more comprehensive review of the factors may result in broader understanding of online learning…

  2. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  3. Dynamic Testing, Working Memory, and Reading Comprehension Growth in Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…

  4. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  5. Lexical patterns in the reading comprehension section of the toefl test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Macmillan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language is currently one of the most widely accepted English language proficiency tests. Designed by the ETS (Educational Testing Service, the main purpose of the TOEFL is to determine whether the English language skills of a student applying to a North American college or university are adequate for enrollment into the selected program of study. This study will focus upon the third section of the TOEFL, Reading Comprehension, which consists of several passages followed by questions with different testing purposes. An adaptation of Hoey's (1991 analytical system for the analysis of lexical cohesion in authentic texts will be used to identify bonds connecting reading comprehension questions on the test to key excerpts in the passages they are related to. A number of sample reading comprehension questions taken from practice tests produced by the ETS will be analyzed. The analysis will focus on the relationship between the testing purpose of each question and the type(s of lexical link involved in the identification of the correct answer.

  6. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  7. COMMUNICATIVE VALIDITY OF THE NEW CET-4 LISTENING COMPREHENSION TEST IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Based on the major dimensions of a communicative language test that Bachman proposed, this paper aims to have an investigation on the validity of the new CET-4 listening subtest in China from a communicative point of view. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are involved in the study. Material analysis falls into qualitative study, including analysis of the CET-4 testing syllabus and eight new CET-4 listening comprehension tests. Students’ scores of two tests and the questionnaires are analyzed quantitatively. Through analysis, it is found that the new CET-4 listening subtest has a high validity and can measure test-takers’ listening ability in real communication. First, the new CET-4 listening subtest has the quality of reliability. Second, the seven listening skills tested in this subtest can measure the communicative language ability required in the testing syllabus. The intra-correlation analysis shows that each part of the new CET-4 listening subtest focuses on different language abilities related to listening. Third, the authenticity of the new CET-4 listening subtest reaches a satisfactory level. The materials chosen in the test cover various topics and genres. Speakers’ pronunciation, tone and speed are in accordance with the real situation. However, some shortcomings also exist in the test design and should be improved later. For example, its limited item types cannot represent the task types in real life, and the actual input is too ideal to be authentic.   Keywords: Communicative language ability, communicative language testing, listening comprehension, test validity

  8. Relationships between Visual and Auditory Perceptual Skills and Comprehension in Students with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Phyllis A.; Rosner, Jerome

    1979-01-01

    Scores of 25 learning disabled students (aged 9 to 13) were compared on five tests: a visual-perceptual test (Coloured Progressive Matrices); an auditory-perceptual test (Auditory Motor Placement); a listening and reading comprehension test (Durrell Listening-Reading Series); and a word recognition test (Word Recognition subtest, Diagnostic…

  9. Reading comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: the role of oral language and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R G; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-04-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability. Further, we explore whether reading comprehension is additionally influenced by individual differences in social behaviour and social cognition in ASD. Adolescents with ASD aged 14-16 years completed assessments indexing word recognition, oral language, reading comprehension, social behaviour and social cognition. Regression analyses show that both word recognition and oral language explain unique variance in reading comprehension. Further, measures of social behaviour and social cognition predict reading comprehension after controlling for the variance explained by word recognition and oral language. This indicates that word recognition, oral language and social impairments may constrain reading comprehension in ASD.

  10. Learning new vocabulary in German: the effects of inferring word meanings, type of feedback, and time of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Sachs, Riebana E; Martin, Beth; Schmidt, Kristian; Looft, Ruxandra

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, introductory-level German students read a simplified story and learned the meanings of new German words by reading English translations in marginal glosses versus trying to infer (i.e., guess) their translations. Students who inferred translations were given feedback in English or in German, or no feedback at all. Although immediate retention of new vocabulary was better for students who used marginal glosses, students who inferred word meanings and then received English feedback forgot fewer translations over time. Plausible but inaccurate inferences (i.e., those that made sense in the context) were more likely to be corrected by students who received English feedback as compared with German feedback, providing support for the beneficial effects of mediating information. Implausible inaccurate inferences, however, were more likely to be corrected on the delayed vocabulary test by students who received German feedback as compared with English feedback, possibly because of the additional contextual support provided by German feedback.

  11. A spatially-supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children’s long-term memory for newly learned word forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children’s memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4-to-6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially-supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time.

  12. A Dynamic Speech Comprehension Test for Assessing Real-World Listening Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Freeston, Katrina; Buchholz, Jörg M

    2016-07-01

    Many listeners with hearing loss report particular difficulties with multitalker communication situations, but these difficulties are not well predicted using current clinical and laboratory assessment tools. The overall aim of this work is to create new speech tests that capture key aspects of multitalker communication situations and ultimately provide better predictions of real-world communication abilities and the effect of hearing aids. A test of ongoing speech comprehension introduced previously was extended to include naturalistic conversations between multiple talkers as targets, and a reverberant background environment containing competing conversations. In this article, we describe the development of this test and present a validation study. Thirty listeners with normal hearing participated in this study. Speech comprehension was measured for one-, two-, and three-talker passages at three different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and working memory ability was measured using the reading span test. Analyses were conducted to examine passage equivalence, learning effects, and test-retest reliability, and to characterize the effects of number of talkers and SNR. Although we observed differences in difficulty across passages, it was possible to group the passages into four equivalent sets. Using this grouping, we achieved good test-retest reliability and observed no significant learning effects. Comprehension performance was sensitive to the SNR but did not decrease as the number of talkers increased. Individual performance showed associations with age and reading span score. This new dynamic speech comprehension test appears to be valid and suitable for experimental purposes. Further work will explore its utility as a tool for predicting real-world communication ability and hearing aid benefit. American Academy of Audiology.

  13. The Design and Implementation of Test System Based on Programmable Excitation Power Supply for Mining Comprehensive Protector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jie Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As comprehensive protectors for coal mining (referred to comprehensive protectors in use are prone to fail, it can timely screen out the invalid comprehensive protector by periodic functional test when it is used (it is called test in use to ensure the production safety. The test in use needs the specialized test equipment, which is not used in delivery inspection by the manufacturers of comprehensive protectors. Thus, testing excitation power becomes a constraint for the improvement of the accuracy of test in use and the degree of automation. To solve the problem, this paper developed a power frequency programmed input-output testing excitation power supply, and on that basis it also realized the mining comprehensive protector test system in use with the excitation circuit and voltage program-controlled output.

  14. Not all performance validity tests are created equal: The role of recollection and familiarity in the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglit, Graham M L; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are both performance validity tests (PVTs) that use a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) recognition memory format. Several studies have reported that these tests are susceptible to cognitive impairment and that the WMT is more susceptible than the TOMM. The current study explored components of recognition memory (i.e., conscious recollection and familiarity) underlying the TOMM and WMT to identify factors that make them susceptible and resilient to cognitive impairment. Fifty-four nonclinical undergraduate research participants were administered the TOMM and WMT while providing introspective judgments about their recognition memory using the remember/know/guess procedure. In addition, half of participants were administered dual-task interference, a manipulation intended to reduce recollection, during these tests, while the other half completed these tests without interference. Standard cutoffs on the TOMM and WMT were explored, as well as alternative cutoffs based on TOMM Trial 1 scores. The WMT was more impacted by dual-task interference than standard TOMM cutoff trials, while alternative TOMM cutoff trials were equally impacted by dual-task interference relative to the WMT. Dual-task interference reduced recollection on these tests, but spared familiarity. Standard TOMM trials and the WMT were relatively comparable on levels of recollection, but familiarity contributed more to the TOMM than to the WMT. Alternative TOMM trials possessed lower familiarity and recollection than standard TOMM trials and lower recollection than the WMT. Reduced recollection places examinees at risk of failing the TOMM and WMT, while familiarity contributes to the relative resilience of the standard TOMM. Future development of 2AFC recognition memory PVTs should attempt to maximize the contribution of familiarity to their completion.

  15. Word 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Herb

    2010-01-01

    In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

  16. Lexical Access and Reading Comprehension: A Study with University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fajardo Hoyos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor automatization of lexical access results in poor performance in reading comprehension (Perfetti, 1985 and 1991. This study relates the performance of 84 undergraduate students in word recognition and reading comprehension skills. Three items of a standardized test were given to the students—the reading of words and pseudowords to identify the percentage of error, and a reading comprehension item. The results show that 36% had high percentages of error in both lexical and semantic processes, while 19% had low percentages of error in both tasks. The effect of the lexical variables of frequency and length is evident. There is a higher percentage of error for low-frequency words and pseudowords and for long words and pseudowords. A higher rate of error in words and pseudowords correlated to a greater number of mistakes in reading comprehension.

  17. Chinese L2 Learners' Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and Its Role in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Yang, Xuexue

    2016-01-01

    Using a Chinese Word Associates Test (WAT-C), this study examined the vocabulary depth of second language learners of Chinese and its contribution to the learners' reading comprehension. Results showed no significant effects of word frequency, word class (i.e., adjectives vs. verbs), and type of association relationships (i.e., paradigmatic vs.…

  18. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  19. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: A Perspective from the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    A brief history of the de facto and formal treaties pertaining to nuclear weapons will be reviewed leading to a broader discussion of the recent Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The role of the National Laboratories (primarily Livermore and Los Alamos) in both the technical and policy aspects of those treaties will be described. The debates within the Laboratories as well as the framework for testimony of individual Laboratory staff and other members of the scientific community will also be discussed.

  20. Key issues in the emerging U.S. debate on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Christian D.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis analyzes both sides of the U.S. debate concerning the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was rejected by the U.S. Senate in 1999, and which has attracted renewed interest under the Barack Obama administration. Significant events in international politics have changed the prospects of nuclear proliferation since 1999. Scientists and engineers have improved methods for verifying treaty compliance and ensuring the safety...

  1. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A

    2009-10-01

    The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P term memory (episodic declarative).

  2. Error analysis of the nine-word California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-9) among older adults with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly L; Price, Catherine C; Kaplan, Edith; Libon, David J

    2002-02-01

    The nine-word California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-9; Libon et al., 1996; Spreen & Strauss, 1998) is a verbal list learning task used to assess declarative memory impairment among dementia patients. The present study sought to investigate the neuro-cognitive mechanisms that underlie the production of intrusions and perseverations on the list A, free recall learning trials, and the false positive responses made on the delayed recognition condition. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), Ischaemic Vascular Dementia associated with periventricular and deep white matter changes (IVD), and individuals without dementia (NC) were studied. Between-group analyses showed that AD participants produced more initial intrusion errors, and perseverated on those same intrusion errors across list A learning trials than IVD or NC participants. Also, as participants with dementia produced initial free recall intrusion errors, the semantic organization of their responses on the 'animal' word list generation task declined (Giovannetti-Carew, Lamar, Cloud, Grossman, & Libon, 1997). On the delayed recognition test condition, within-group analyses revealed that the IVD group endorsed more list B interference foils, than other errors. AD participants endorsed semantically related foils and list B interference foils. In addition, as participants with dementia endorsed more list B interference foils, more perseverations were produced on the Graphical Sequence Test - Dementia Version (Lamar et al., 1997). These results were interpreted within the context of the semantic knowledge, and executive functions deficits that typify AD and IVD, respectively.

  3. Validation and Development of Norms for the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language-Revised (TACL-R) in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassan, Karma; Jammal, Rima

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of auditory comprehension is necessary for therapeutic clinical intervention as well as remedial and special education services. In this study, the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language-Revised (TACL-R), developed by Elizabeth Carrow-Woolfolk in 1985, was translated and adapted for use in the Lebanese culture. The adapted test was…

  4. Reliability and validity of a computer-mediated, single-word intelligibility test: preliminary findings for children with repaired cleft lip and palate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zajac, David J; Plante, Caitrin; Lloyd, Amanda; Haley, Katarina L

    2011-01-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of a computer-mediated, 50-word intelligibility test designed to be a global measure of severity of speech disability in children with repaired cleft lip and palate...

  5. Testing Measurement Invariance across Groups of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Applications for Word Recognition and Spelling Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, Patrícia S; Salum, Giovanni; Swardfager, Walter; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Pan, Pedro M; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis A; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform significantly lower than controls on word recognition and spelling tests, such studies rely on the assumption that those groups are comparable in these measures. This study investigates comparability of word recognition and spelling tests based on diagnostic status for ADHD through measurement invariance methods. The participants (n = 1,935; 47% female; 11% ADHD) were children aged 6-15 with normal IQ (≥70). Measurement invariance was investigated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes models. Measurement invariance was attested in both methods, demonstrating the direct comparability of the groups. Children with ADHD were 0.51 SD lower in word recognition and 0.33 SD lower in spelling tests than controls. Results suggest that differences in performance on word recognition and spelling tests are related to true mean differences based on ADHD diagnostic status. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  6. Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and U.S. security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the United States has the technical expertise and physical means to i) maintain a safe, secure and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile without nuclear-explosion testing, and ii) effectively monitor global compliance once the Treaty enters into force. Moreover, the CTBT is judged to help constrain proliferation of nuclear-weapons technology, so it is considered favorable to U.S. security. Review of developments since the studies were published, in 2002 and 2012, show that the study conclusions remain valid and that technical capabilities are better than anticipated.

  7. Estimating Intelligence in Spanish: Regression Equations With the Word Accentuation Test and Demographic Variables in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Sanjurjo, Natalia; Montañes, Patricia; Sierra Matamoros, Fabio Alexander; Burin, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world, and the majority of Spanish speakers have a Latin American origin. Reading aloud infrequently accentuated words has been established as a National Adult Reading Test-like method to assess premorbid intelligence in Spanish. However, several versions have been proposed and validated with small and selected samples, in particular geographical conditions, and they seldom derive a formula for IQ estimation with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). The objective of this study was to develop equations to estimate WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III) FSIQ from the Word Accentuation Test-Revised (WAT-R), demographic variables, and their combination within diverse Latin American samples. Two hundred and forty participants from Argentina and Colombia, selected according to age and years of education strata, were assessed with the WAT-R, the WAIS-III, and a structured questionnaire about demographic and medical information. A combined approach including place of birth, years of education, and WAT-R provided the best equation, explaining 76% of IQ variance. These equations could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ in patients with Latin American Spanish as their birth language.

  8. The Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test: an assessment tool for clinical research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C K; O'Donnell, D C; Searight, H R; Barbarash, R A

    1996-01-01

    We developed an instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information among 275 adults entering one of four ambulatory trials. At the conclusion of trial enrollment, subjects rated their understanding of the information presented and completed the Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test (DICCT). Subjects completed the vocabulary subtest of the revised Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) and the reading subtest of the revised Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-R). The DICCT for 50 subjects was scored by 2 blinded investigators. Interrater agreement was 0.84 (df = 49, p < 0.001). To investigate the DICCT's potential validity, its scores were correlated with WAIS-R vocabulary scores (r = 0.44, df = 199, p < 0.01) and WRAT-R reading scores (r = 0.39, df = 268, p < 0.01). Understanding of consent information was rated as thorough by 70% of subjects. The mean +/- SD DICCT score was 20.4 +/- 3.9. The DICCT is a reliable instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information. There is preliminary evidence for the scale's validity. The subjects believed that they had greater understanding of study information than was shown by the DICCT.

  9. Comprehensive baseline environmental audit of former underground test areas in Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of Former Underground Test Areas (FUTAS) in the States of Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico. DOE and contractor systems for management of environmental protection activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were not within the scope of the audit. The audit was conducted May 16-May 26, 1994, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program{close_quotes}, establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is to enhance environmental protection and minimize risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission using systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE`s environmental programs within line organizations and supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. These evaluations function as a vehicle through which the Secretary and program managers are apprised of the status and vulnerabilities of Departmental environmental activities and environmental management systems. Several types of evaluations are conducted, including: (1) comprehensive baseline environmental audits; (2) routine environmental audits; (3) environmental management assessments; and (4) special issue reviews.

  10. Stimulus affectivity of the Danish Word Association Test as measured by response heterogeneity and Rasch scaled number of prolonged reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanouw, Jan

    2006-02-01

    With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of the psychometric properties of the 70-item Danish Word Association Test, data from three samples of non-patients and psychiatric patients (N = 326) were used to provide two measures of affectivity of the stimulus words, response heterogeneity and reaction time prolongation. It was possible to fit an item response theory one-parameter measurement (Rasch) model to the number of reaction time prolongations (> or =3 seconds) for 54 of the stimulus words. Correlation between Rasch-model item parameters and response heterogeneity was high (r = 0.86), while no correlation was found between either of these measures and frequency of the stimulus words in the Danish language. Both measures of stimulus affectivity supported a theoretically based classification of stimulus words as emotional or neutral. Response heterogeneity measures and Rasch measurement item and person parameters for reaction time prolongations are provided.

  11. Word Spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, James

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the use of word-spotting in psycholinguistic research. Notes that listeners hear a list of nonsense words, some of which contain embedded real words, and they detect those embedded words, a task designed to study the segmentation of continuous speech. Describes the task and summarizes its advantages and disadvantages. (12 references)…

  12. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  13. Small Business: Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made Permanent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    SMALL BUSINESS Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be... Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made Permanent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...committees November 2015 SMALL BUSINESS Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made

  14. Invariance levels across language versions of the PISA 2009 reading comprehension tests in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua Oliden, Paula; Mujika Lizaso, Josu

    2013-01-01

    The PISA project provides the basis for studying curriculum design and for comparing factors associated with school effectiveness. These studies are only valid if the different language versions are equivalent to each other. In Spain, the application of PISA in autonomous regions with their own languages means that equivalency must also be extended to the Spanish, Galician, Catalan and Basque versions of the test. The aim of this work was to analyse the equivalence among the four language versions of the Reading Comprehension Test (PISA 2009). After defining the testlet as the unit of analysis, equivalence among the language versions was analysed using two invariance testing procedures: multiple-group mean and covariance structure analyses for ordinal data and ordinal logistic regression. The procedures yielded concordant results supporting metric equivalence across all four language versions: Spanish, Basque, Galician and Catalan. The equivalence supports the estimated reading literacy score comparability among the language versions used in Spain.

  15. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  16. Changes in Word Usage Frequency May Hamper Intergenerational Comparisons of Vocabulary Skills: An Ngram Analysis of Wordsum, WAIS, and WISC Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2014-01-01

    Research on secular trends in mean intelligence test scores shows smaller gains in vocabulary skills than in nonverbal reasoning. One possible explanation is that vocabulary test items become outdated faster compared to nonverbal tasks. The history of the usage frequency of the words on five popular vocabulary tests, the GSS Wordsum, Wechsler…

  17. The relations between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension in children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2): A multigroup structural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Babayigit, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the reading and oral language skills of children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2), and examined whether the strength of the relationship between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension was invariant (equivalent) across the two groups. The participants included 183 L1 and L2 children (M = 9;7 years, SD = 3.64 months) in England. As anticipated, there was a significant L1 advantage for oral language (i.e., vocabulary, verbal working m...

  18. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  19. Effects of computer-based immediate feedback on foreign language listening comprehension and test-associated anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Su, Hui-Kai; Lee, Shin-Da

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of immediate feedback on computer-based foreign language listening comprehension tests and on intrapersonal test-associated anxiety in 72 English major college students at a Taiwanese University. Foreign language listening comprehension of computer-based tests designed by MOODLE, a dynamic e-learning environment, with or without immediate feedback together with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were tested and repeated after one week. The analysis indicated that immediate feedback during testing caused significantly higher anxiety and resulted in significantly higher listening scores than in the control group, which had no feedback. However, repeated feedback did not affect the test anxiety and listening scores. Computer-based immediate feedback did not lower debilitating effects of anxiety but enhanced students' intrapersonal eustress-like anxiety and probably improved their attention during listening tests. Computer-based tests with immediate feedback might help foreign language learners to increase attention in foreign language listening comprehension.

  20. Discrimination of normal and aphasic subjects on a test of syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, D

    1987-01-01

    An Anglophone population consisting of 37 aphasic patients and 23 normal control subjects, and a Francophone population consisting of 49 aphasic patients and 23 control subjects were given a task requiring the comprehension of syntactic structures for the correct assignment of thematic roles to nouns. Discriminant analysis was used to classify subjects into aphasic and normal groups according to their scores on the task. In both populations--Anglophone and Francophone--most of the subjects were classified into their actual groups except for an occasional normal subject classified with the aphasic group and a small number of aphasics classified as normal. A cut-off score below which performance is clearly abnormal and above which performance is clearly normal can be set for this test. Patients who performed normally on this test had lesions affecting any single lobe within the dominant perisylvian cortex and mostly consisted of patients with dysarthria, apraxia of speech, and 'mixed' aphasia types. The results have implications for the incidence of aphasic disturbances of syntactic comprehension and for the nature of language representation in the brain.

  1. Comprehensive isolation of natural organic matter from water for spectral characterizations and reactivity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Croue, J.-P.; Benjamin, M.; Korshin, G.V.; Hwang, C.J.; Bruchet, A.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of approaches were tested to comprehensively isolate natural organic matter (NOM) from water. For waters with high NOM concentrations such as the Suwannee River, Georgia, approaches that used combinations of membrane concentrations, evaporative concentrations, and adsorption on nonionic XAD resins, ion exchange resins and iron oxide coated sand isolated over 90% of the NOM. However, for waters with low NOM concentrations, losses of half of the NOM were common and desalting of NOM isolates was a problem. A new comprehensive approach was devised and tested on the Seine River, France in which 100 L of filtered water was sodium softened by ion exchange and vacuum evaporated to 100 mL. Colloids (32% of the NOM) were isolated using a 3,500 Dalton membrane by dialysis against 0.1 M HCl and 0.2 M HF to remove salts and silica. On the membrane permeate, hydrophobic NOM (42%) was isolated using XAD-8 resin and hydrophilic NOM (26%) was isolated using a variety of selective desalting precipitations. The colloid fraction was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy as N-acetylamino sugars. ?? 2000 American Chemical Society.

  2. Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S; Vaidya, S

    2009-07-30

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

  3. Comprehensive validation scheme for in situ fiber optics dissolution method for pharmaceutical drug product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Tahseen; Liu, Qian Julie; Vivilecchia, Richard; Joshi, Yatindra

    2009-03-01

    There has been a growing interest during the past decade in the use of fiber optics dissolution testing. Use of this novel technology is mainly confined to research and development laboratories. It has not yet emerged as a tool for end product release testing despite its ability to generate in situ results and efficiency improvement. One potential reason may be the lack of clear validation guidelines that can be applied for the assessment of suitability of fiber optics. This article describes a comprehensive validation scheme and development of a reliable, robust, reproducible and cost-effective dissolution test using fiber optics technology. The test was successfully applied for characterizing the dissolution behavior of a 40-mg immediate-release tablet dosage form that is under development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, New Jersey. The method was validated for the following parameters: linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, and robustness. In particular, robustness was evaluated in terms of probe sampling depth and probe orientation. The in situ fiber optic method was found to be comparable to the existing manual sampling dissolution method. Finally, the fiber optic dissolution test was successfully performed by different operators on different days, to further enhance the validity of the method. The results demonstrate that the fiber optics technology can be successfully validated for end product dissolution/release testing. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  4. Comprehension and Data-Sharing Behavior of Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Test Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Scott P; Coleman, Jason; Najjar, Lotfollah; Fruhling, Ann; Bastola, Dhundy R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic customers' ability to interpret and comprehend test results and to determine if honest brokers are needed. One hundred and twenty-two customers of the DTC genetic testing company 23andMe were polled in an online survey. The subjects were asked about their personal test results and to interpret the results of two mock test cases (type 2 diabetes and multiple sclerosis), where results were translated into disease probability for an individual compared to the public. When asked to evaluate the risk, 72.1% correctly assessed the first case and 77% were correct on the second case. Only 23.8% of those surveyed were able to interpret both cases correctly. x03C7;2 and logistic regression were used to interpret the results. Participants who took the time to read the DTC test-provided supplemental material were 3.93 times (p = 0.040) more likely to correctly interpret the test results than those who did not. The odds for correctly interpreting the test cases were 3.289 times (p = 0.011) higher for those who made more than USD 50,000 than those who made less. Survey results were compared to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) phase 4 cycle 3 data to evaluate national trends. Most of the subjects were able to correctly interpret the test cases, yet a majority did not share their results with a health-care professional. As the market for DTC genetic testing grows, test comprehension will become more critical. Involving more health professionals in this process may be necessary to ensure proper interpretations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  6. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Santos-Galduróz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P < 0.01; F = 14.6. In addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (P < 0.05; F = 9.7. Also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15 significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P < 0.01. The order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5 and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8. The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative.

  7. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan [1] proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework [1], a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method.

  8. Acute effects of an Avena sativa herb extract on responses to the Stroop Color-Word test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Robinson, Matthew J; Bryan, Janet; Buckley, Jonathan D; Murphy, Karen J; Howe, Peter R C

    2011-07-01

    Extracts from oat (Avena sativa) herb may benefit cognitive performance. This study investigated whether Neuravena(®), an oat herb extract, could acutely improve responses to the Stroop Color-Word test, a measure of attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus. Elderly volunteers with below-average cognitive performance consumed single doses (0, 1600, and 2400 mg) of oat herb extract at weekly intervals in a double-blind, randomized, crossover comparison. Resting blood pressure (BP) was assessed before and after supplementation, and a Stroop test was performed. Significantly fewer errors were made during the color-naming component of the Stroop test after consuming the 1600-mg dose than after the 0-mg or 2400-mg doses (F (1,36)=18.85, p<0.001). In 7 subjects with suspected cognitive impairment, Stroop interference score was also improved by the 1600-mg dose compared to 0- and 2400-mg doses (F (1, 34)=2.40, p<0.01). Resting BP was unaffected by supplementation. Taking 1600 mg of oat herb extract may acutely improve attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus in older adults with differing levels of cognitive status.

  9. The effect of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST on item and associative recognition of words and pictures in healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal /pictorial and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources.

  10. Estudo fatorial dos componentes da leitura: velocidade, compreensão e reconhecimento de palavras Estudio factorial de los componentes de la lectura: velocidad, comprensión y reconocimiento de palabras Factorial study of reading components: speed, comprehension and word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra

    2012-08-01

    reconocimiento de palabras; el factor 3, la estrategia ortográfica; y el factor 4 se refirió a la velocidad lectora. Los hallazgos, muy próximos al esperado teóricamente, pueden auxiliar en la comprensión de los procesos cognitivos involucrados en la lectura de niños en el inicio de la enseñanza básica.Information Processing Models has identified different process involved in the reading, including word recognition, comprehension and speed, being that the word recognition can occur for three different strategies, the logographic, the alphabetic and ortographic one. In the way to identify such components in the reading, 443 students of the 1st to the 4th grades of the elementary school were evaluated in words recognition, oral/auditory comprehension, reading comprehension, orthographic processing and speed of reading tests. A Factorial Analyses of principal components and oblimin rotation was conducted, deriving four factors. The factor 1 included recognition of familiar words and oral and written linguistic comprehension; the factor 2 understood the logographic and alphabetic strategies of word recognition; the factor 3, the orthographic strategy; and the factor 4 referred to the speed of reading. The finds, near to the expected theoretically, are able to help in the comprehension of the cognitive process involved in the reading of children in the beginning of the elementary education.

  11. Cytocompatibility testing of cyclodextrin-functionalized antimicrobial textiles-a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddersen, Kirsten; Finger, Susanne; Zieger, Michael; Wiegand, Cornelia; Buschmann, Hans-Jürgen; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2016-12-01

    Functionalized textiles can be used in wound management to reduce the microbial burden in the wound area, to prevent wound infections, and to avoid cross-contamination between patients. In the present study, a comprehensive in vitro approach to enable the assessment of antibacterial activity of functionalized textiles and cytotoxicity of cyclodextrin (CD)-complexes with chlorhexidine diacetate (CHX), iodine (IOD), and polihexanide (PHMB) is suggested to evaluate their properties for supporting optimal conditions for wound healing. For all β-CD-antiseptic functionalized cotton samples a strong antibacterial effect on the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as on the Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli was proven. In addition, β-CD-CHX and β-CD-PHMB were effective against the yeast Candida albicans. The growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be reduced significantly by β-CD-IOD and β-CD-PHMB. The established comprehensive testing system for determination of biocompatibility on human HaCaT keratinocytes is suitable for obtaining robust data on cell viability, cytotoxicity and mode of cell death of the β-CD-antiseptic-complexes. The promising results of the high antimicrobial activity of these functionalized textiles show the high potential of such materials in medical applications.

  12. The Role of Teachers in Reducing/Increasing Listening Comprehension Test Anxiety: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasheneh, Naser; Izadi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Three components have been introduced for foreign language learning anxiety in the literature: Test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation and communication apprehension. This study teases out the first of the three components with special focus on listening comprehension test to investigate the correlation between listening test results and foreign…

  13. Neural mechanisms of sentence comprehension based on predictive processes and decision certainty: Electrophysiological evidence from non-canonical linearizations in a flexible word order language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröge, Alexander; Fleischer, Jürg; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2016-02-15

    The specificity or generality of language-related event-related brain potentials (ERPs) has been a point of continuing debate in the cognitive neuroscience of language. The present study measured ERPs to (preferred) subject-before-object (SO) and (dispreferred) object-before-subject (OS) word orders in German while manipulating morphosyntactic and semantic cues to correct sentence interpretation. We presented sentence pairs as connected speech (context and target sentences) and examined ERPs at the position of the first argument (noun phrase) in the target sentence. At this position, word order was determinable by either (a) case marking (morphosyntactic cue); (b) animacy (semantic cue); or (c) the preceding context sentence (local ambiguity; contextual cue). Following each sentence pair, participants judged the acceptability of the second sentence in the context of the first and performed a probe word recognition task. Results showed a biphasic N400-P600 pattern at the first noun phrase in the OS conditions irrespectively of which cues (syntactic or semantic) were available to the parser for disambiguation. N400 latency varied as a function of temporal cue availability and P600 amplitude increased for unambiguous object-initial conditions even though these were rated acceptable in the judgment task. These findings support an interpretation of ERP components in terms of general cognitive mechanisms such as predictive processes (N400) and decision certainty (P600 as an instance of the P300) rather than a domain-specific view of a semantic N400 and a syntactic P600. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Approach to a Comprehensive Test Framework for Analysis and Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran N. Milivojevic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a testing framework for the evaluation and validation of text line segmentation algorithms. Text line segmentation represents the key action for correct optical character recognition. Many of the tests for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms deal with text databases as reference templates. Because of the mismatch, the reliable testing framework is required. Hence, a new approach to a comprehensive experimental framework for the evaluation of text line segmentation algorithms is proposed. It consists of synthetic multi-like text samples and real handwritten text as well. Although the tests are mutually independent, the results are cross-linked. The proposed method can be used for different types of scripts and languages. Furthermore, two different procedures for the evaluation of algorithm efficiency based on the obtained error type classification are proposed. The first is based on the segmentation line error description, while the second one incorporates well-known signal detection theory. Each of them has different capabilities and convenience, but they can be used as supplements to make the evaluation process efficient. Overall the proposed procedure based on the segmentation line error description has some advantages, characterized by five measures that describe measurement procedures.

  15. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Evelien; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children with mild ID and typically developing controls. Moreover, it was explored how the precursors related to reading achievement. Children with mild ID and typical controls were assessed on reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, and linguistic (early literacy skills, vocabulary, grammar) and cognitive (rapid naming, phonological short-term memory, working memory, temporal processing, nonverbal reasoning) precursor measures. It was tested to what extent variations in reading comprehension could be explained from word decoding, listening comprehension and precursor measures. The ID group scored significantly below typical controls on all measures. Word decoding was at or above first grade level in half the ID group. Reading comprehension in the ID group was related to word decoding, listening comprehension, early literacy skills, and temporal processing. The reading comprehension profile of children with mild ID strongly resembles typical early readers. The simple view of reading pertains to children with mild ID, with additional influence of early literacy skills and temporal processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  17. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  18. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  19. Is adaptation of the word accentuation test of premorbid intelligence necessary for use among older, Spanish-speaking immigrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Weintraub, Sandra; Navarro, Ellen

    2006-05-01

    Adaptations of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) for assessing premorbid intelligence in languages other than English requires (a) generating word-items that are rare and do not follow grapheme-to-phoneme mappings common in that language, and (b) subsequent validation against a cognitive battery normed on the population of interest. Such tests exist for Italy, France, Spain, and Argentina, all normed against national versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Given the varieties of Spanish spoken in the United States, the adaptation of the Spanish Word Accentuation Test (WAT) requires re-validating the original word list, plus possible new items, against a cognitive battery that has been normed on Spanish-speakers from many countries. This study reports the generation of 55 additional words and revalidation in a sample of 80 older, Spanish-dominant immigrants. The Batería Woodcock-Muñoz Revisada (BWM-R), normed on Spanish speakers from six countries and five U.S. states, was used to establish criterion validity. The original WAT word list accounted for 77% of the variance in the BWM-R and 58% of the variance in Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, suggesting that the unmodified list possesses adequate predictive validity as an indicator of intelligence. Regression equations are provided for estimating BWM-R and Ravens scores from WAT scores.

  20. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  1. Proofreading for word errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Agpawa, Ian; Krajniak, Marta; Mahamane, Salif

    2012-04-01

    Proofreading (i.e., reading text for the purpose of detecting and correcting typographical errors) is viewed as a component of the activity of revising text and thus is a necessary (albeit not sufficient) procedural step for enhancing the quality of a written product. The purpose of the present research was to test competing accounts of word-error detection which predict factors that may influence reading and proofreading differently. Word errors, which change a word into another word (e.g., from --> form), were selected for examination because they are unlikely to be detected by automatic spell-checking functions. Consequently, their detection still rests mostly in the hands of the human proofreader. Findings highlighted the weaknesses of existing accounts of proofreading and identified factors, such as length and frequency of the error in the English language relative to frequency of the correct word, which might play a key role in detection of word errors.

  2. Automated particulate sampler for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty verification (the DOE radionuclide aerosol sampler/analyzer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Miley, H. S.; Thompson, R. C.; Hubbard, C. W.

    1997-06-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was recently signed by President Clinton and is intended to eliminate all nuclear weapons testing. One way which the treaty seeks to accomplish this is by the establishment of the International Monitoring System. As stated in the latest Working Papers of the Draft CTBT, "The International Monitoring System shall comprise facilities for seismological monitoring, radionuclide monitoring including certified laboratories, hydroacoustic monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and respective means of communication, and shall be supported by the International Data Centre of the Technical Secretariat". Radionuclide monitoring consists of both radionuclides associated with particulates and relevant noble gases. This type of monitoring is quite valuable since indications of a nuclear test in the form of radioactive particulate or radioactive noble gases may be detected at great distances from the detonation site. The system presented here is concerned only with radioactive particulate monitoring and is described as an automated sampler/analyzer which has been developed for the Department of Energy (DoE) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).

  3. How Specific are Specific Comprehension Difficulties? An Investigation of Poor Reading Comprehension in Nine-Year-Olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the incidence of poor comprehenders, that is, children identified as having reading comprehension difficulties, despite age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension, despite age-appropriate word reading......, as measured with a phonological coding test. However, the proportion of poor comprehenders was smaller than the frequently reported 10–15%, and smaller yet, when average sight word recognition, measured with an orthographic coding test, was also set as a criterion for word reading skill. Compared to average...... comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ orthographic coding and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below those of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience, and likewise, a lack of fluent word reading, may be important factors in understanding 9-year-old poor...

  4. Mono-syllabic word test score as a pre-operative assessment criterion for cochlear implant candidature in adults with acquired hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Maire; Jenkinson, Louise

    2016-04-01

    Cochlear Implant (CI) candidates with a ski-slope hearing loss may be outside current implantation criteria [< 50% on Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB) sentence testing], despite having a significant hearing disability and limited benefit from conventional amplification. To use existing post-operative performance data to establish a criterion for Arthur Boothroyd (AB) word test for CI candidacy assessment. Retrospective analysis of post-operative AB words scores for 64 CI users was performed and the 10th percentile score selected as a criterion of reasonable chance for post-operative improvement. A follow-up audit was performed 4 years later with a larger patient group of 127 CI users. An AB word score of 15% was determined using this method and became the pre-implant criterion for future patients. The same score was achieved on the follow-up audit and was adopted as an All Wales criterion as part of the National Audit process.

  5. The anxiogenic video-recorded Stroop Color-Word Test: psychological and physiological alterations and effects of diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Silva, Flavia; Prado, Gabriela Bordini; Ribeiro, Lídia Christine Goulart; Leite, José Roberto

    2004-09-15

    From among the few human experimental models that can be used to predict the clinical activity of new anxiolytic drugs, the video-recorded Stroop Color-Word Test (VRSCWT), which uses subjective scales to evaluate anxious states, is notable for its simplicity. However, considering that the choice of treatment for anxiety disorders is heavily dependent on the level of somatic symptomatology, a quantitative evaluation of the physiological alterations elicited by the anxiogenic situation of the VRSCWT would also be of great interest. In the present study, 36 healthy male and female volunteers were submitted to either the VRSCWT or to a nonanxiogenic test. The results showed that, as well as a sensation of anxiety, the VRSCWT elicited increases in heart rate and gastrocnemius tension. Subsequently, a further 48 healthy men and women were randomly assigned to three treatments: placebo, 5 and 10 mg of diazepam, and were submitted to the VRSCWT. The results showed that in men, diazepam blocked the feeling of anxiety elicited by the test, although it did not prevent the physiological alterations, while in women, there was no response to the anxiolytic action of the drug. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that the VRSCWT is an efficient method of inducing anxiety experimentally. It is able to elicit observable psychological and physiological alterations and can detect the blocking, by an anxiolytic, of the feelings of anxiety in healthy men. Furthermore, the results suggest that the neural pathways for the control of the psychological and physiological manifestations of anxiety may be separate. This study also draws attention to the fact that gender is an important variable in the evaluation of anxiolytic drugs.

  6. Young Children's Fast Mapping and Generalization of Words, Facts, and Pictograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Toney, Alexis J.

    2013-01-01

    To test general and specific processes of symbol learning, 4- and 5-year-old children learned three kinds of abstract associates for novel objects: words, facts, and pictograms. To test fast mapping (i.e., one-trial learning) and subsequent learning, comprehension was tested after each of four exposures. Production was also tested, as was…

  7. Parallel Recovery in a Trilingual Speaker: The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a Diagnostic Complement to the Comprehensive Aphasia Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W.; Ruffle, Louise; Grogan, Alice; Ali, Nilufa; Ramsden, Sue; Schofield, Tom; Leff, Alex P.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    We illustrate the value of the Bilingual Aphasia Test in the diagnostic assessment of a trilingual speaker post-stroke living in England for whom English was a non-native language. The Comprehensive Aphasia Test is routinely used to assess patients in English, but only in combination with the Bilingual Aphasia Test is it possible and practical to…

  8. Test Review: Hammill, D. D., Pearson, N. A., & Weiderholt, J. L. (2009). "Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2)." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Erhan; Kaya, Fatih; Ritter, Nicola L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2), a nonverbal intelligence test created to assess reasoning and problem solving of children and adults. The goal of the CTONI-2 is to minimize the influence of language ability on intelligence test scores. Oral or pantomime instructions can…

  9. Utility of language comprehension tests for unintelligible or non-speaking children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geytenbeek, Joke; Harlaar, Laurike; Stam, Marloes; Ket, Hans; Becher, Jules G; Oostrom, Kim; Vermeulen, Jeroen

    2010-12-01

    to identify the use and utility of language comprehension tests for unintelligible or non-speaking children with severe cerebral palsy (CP). severe CP was defined as severe dysarthria (unintelligible speech) or anarthria (absence of speech) combined with severe limited mobility, corresponding to Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV to V. An electronic search in the databases of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and CINAHL was made of studies published between January 1965 and December 2008. Indexing terms and free-text terms for 'cerebral palsy', 'language', and 'instrumentation' were used. Studies were included when (1) the focus was to investigate comprehension of spoken language of children (0-18 y) with severe CP, and (2) language tests were described. twelve standardized tests and five experimental instruments were identified. All standardized tests were developed for children without limited mobility. Only the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised was frequently used and feasible for older children with severe CP (> 9y). The other tests were used occasionally. To establish utility, adaptations of standardized test procedures were necessary. language comprehension tests for children with severe CP are scarce. A language comprehension test specifically designed for these children is warranted. Cite this as: Dev Med Child Neurol 52: e267-e277.

  10. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  11. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  12. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  13. Dialect Variation Influences the Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Word Processing in Sentences. Electrophysiological Evidence from a Cross-Dialectal Comprehension Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanwermeyer, Manuela; Henrich, Karen; Rocholl, Marie J.; Schnell, Hanni T.; Werth, Alexander; Herrgen, Joachim; Schmidt, Jürgen E.

    2016-01-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study examines the influence of dialectal competence differences (merged vs. unmerged dialect group) on cross-dialectal comprehension between Southern German dialects. It focuses on the question as to whether certain dialect phonemes (/oa⌢/, /oƱ⌢/), which are attributed to different lexemes in two dialect areas (Central Bavarian, Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone) evoke increased neural costs during sentence processing. In this context, the phonological and semantic processing of lexemes is compared in three types of potentially problematic communication settings (misunderstanding, incomprehension, allophonic variation = potential comprehension). For this purpose, an oddball design including whole sentences was combined with a semantic rating task. Listeners from the unmerged Central Bavarian dialect area heard sentences including either native or non-native lexemes from the merged neighboring dialect. These had to be evaluated with regard to their context acceptability. The main difference between the lexemes can be attributed to the fact that they have different meanings in the respective dialect areas or are non-existent in the linguistic competence of the Central Bavarians. The results provide evidence for the fact that non-native lexemes containing the /oa⌢/-diphthong lead to enhanced neural costs during sentence processing. The ERP results show a biphasic pattern (N2b/N400, LPC) for non-existent lexemes (incomprehension) as well as for semantically incongruous lexemes (misunderstanding), reflecting an early error detection mechanism and enhanced costs for semantic integration and evaluation. In contrast, allophonic /oƱ⌢/ deviations show reduced negativities and no LPC, indexing an unproblematic categorization and evaluation process. In the light of these results, an observed change of /oa⌢/ to /oƱ⌢/ in the Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone can be interpreted as a facilitation strategy of cross

  14. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  15. Validity of the Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test in Assessment of Children with Speech and Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa; Smith, Billy L.; Eichler, Joan B.; Pollard, Amy Gilbert

    2002-01-01

    Investigates construct, predictive, and differential validity for the Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test (CREVT). Adequate construct validity for the CREVT was documented, using the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-III as a criterion. Also, the CREVT effectively differentiated between students with disabilities. These…

  16. How Do Chinese ESL Learners Recognize English Words during a Reading Test? A Comparison with Romance-Language-Speaking ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…

  17. Determining Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure on the Concept of "Diffusion" through the Free Word-Association Test and the Drawing-Writing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gülay; Aktas, Murat; Aksu, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate student biology teachers' cognitive structures related to "diffusion" through the free word-association test and the drawing-writing technique. As the research design of the study, the qualitative research method was applied. The data were collected from 44 student biology teachers. The free…

  18. A Case-Series Test of the Interactive Two-Step Model of Lexical Access: Predicting Word Repetition from Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Gary S.; Martin, Nadine; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2007-01-01

    Lexical access in language production, and particularly pathologies of lexical access, are often investigated by examining errors in picture naming and word repetition. In this article, we test a computational approach to lexical access, the two-step interactive model, by examining whether the model can quantitatively predict the repetition-error…

  19. Testing of trigger detectors for alerting radionuclide monitoring stations as part of a comprehensive test ban treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Piero U.; Reed Johnson, W.

    1999-02-01

    With the signing of a comprehensive test ban treaty in 1996, the ability to detect the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere for verification purposes is increasingly important. A trigger detector is a concept designed to aid in this purpose by giving timely notice of suspicious concentrations of radionuclides in the atmosphere adjacent to a radionuclide monitoring station (RMS) [1](DeGeer, Nuclear Detection Group, Division of Nuclear Weapons Physics, National Defence Research Establishment, S-17290 Stockholm, Sweden, De Geer, Paper presented at the ARPA sponsored meeting on CTBT Monitoring Technologies, San Diego, 26-29 September 1994). In this research, the evaluation and performance analysis of two different trigger detectors was studied. Point source experiments were performed to characterize the detector response. Limits of detection for each detector were determined using a simulated atmosphere (˜100 gal of water) contaminated with a gamma-ray emitting radioisotope. Three different analytical models of radioactive clouds were developed to predict detectability: (1) uniformly contaminated hemisphere; (2) uniformly contaminated slabs; and (3) a series of infinitely long line sources (representing rectangular segments of a uniformly contaminated atmosphere). The simulation of a contaminated atmosphere yielded a detectable concentration, for 1.0 MeV photons, of approximately 0.5 Bq/m 3 by the NaI detector. The study indicates that the NaI crystal is the detector of choice for a RMS triggering system.

  20. Investigating affective prosody in psychosis: a study using the Comprehensive Affective Testing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Susan L; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Groot, Christopher; Gogos, Andrea; O'Regan, Alison; Joshua, Nicole R

    2013-12-30

    Affective prosody is substantially impaired in schizophrenia, yet little is known about affective prosody in bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study was to examine affective prosody performance in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and BD on a newly released standardised assessment to further our understanding of BD performance. Fifty-four schizophrenia, 11 schizoaffective and 43 BD patients were compared with 112 healthy controls (HC) on four affective prosody subtests of the Comprehensive Affective Testing System (CATS). Schizophrenia patients showed a 10% reduction in accuracy on two subtests compared to HC. BD showed a trend for performance intermediary to schizophrenia and HC; and schizoaffective patients performed more like HC on these four affective prosody measures. Severity of current auditory hallucination, across all patients, was related to task performance on three of the measures. These data confirm that schizophrenia and BD have reduced affective prosody performance, with deficits in BD being less pronounced than schizophrenia. The schizoaffective results in this study should be interpreted with caution due to small sample size. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  2. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, Trevor J; Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie; Ungar, R Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of (131m)Xe, (133)Xe, (133m)Xe, and (135)Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naïve Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  3. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Hwang, Sung Ho; Kim, Hyun Young; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, Jaebong; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2012-10-18

    Liver function tests (LFTs) can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST). On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  4. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  5. Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

  6. Adults with Poor Reading Skills: How Lexical Knowledge Interacts with Scores on Standardized Reading Comprehension Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gai; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from…

  7. A restricted test of single word intelligibility in 3-year-old children with and without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Poulsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    listeners to understand. The error of retraction/backing of alveolar target consonants to velar place of articulation occurred frequently and most often in the HPU group and was found to have a negative effect on intelligibility. Key words: intelligibility, cleft palate, naïve listeners, error types, single......Abstract Objective: In a previous study, children with cleft palate with hard palate closure at 12 months of age showed more typical phonological development than children with an unrepaired hard palate at 36 months of age. This finding was based on narrow transcription of word initial target...... hard palate closure at either12 months (HPR (hard palate repaired)) or 36 months (HPU (hard palate unrepaired)), were compared to data obtained from 14 age-matched, typically developing, control children. Methods: Video recordings of the children naming target words were shown to 84 naïve listeners...

  8. Causal Influence of Articulatory Motor Cortex on Comprehending Single Spoken Words: TMS Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomers, Malte R; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Weigand, Anne; Bajbouj, Malek; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-10-01

    Classic wisdom had been that motor and premotor cortex contribute to motor execution but not to higher cognition and language comprehension. In contrast, mounting evidence from neuroimaging, patient research, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest sensorimotor interaction and, specifically, that the articulatory motor cortex is important for classifying meaningless speech sounds into phonemic categories. However, whether these findings speak to the comprehension issue is unclear, because language comprehension does not require explicit phonemic classification and previous results may therefore relate to factors alien to semantic understanding. We here used the standard psycholinguistic test of spoken word comprehension, the word-to-picture-matching task, and concordant TMS to articulatory motor cortex. TMS pulses were applied to primary motor cortex controlling either the lips or the tongue as subjects heard critical word stimuli starting with bilabial lip-related or alveolar tongue-related stop consonants (e.g., "pool" or "tool"). A significant cross-over interaction showed that articulatory motor cortex stimulation delayed comprehension responses for phonologically incongruent words relative to congruous ones (i.e., lip area TMS delayed "tool" relative to "pool" responses). As local TMS to articulatory motor areas differentially delays the comprehension of phonologically incongruous spoken words, we conclude that motor systems can take a causal role in semantic comprehension and, hence, higher cognition. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. A predictive study of reading comprehension in third-grade Spanish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Elosúa de Juan, María Rosa; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The study of the contribution of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension is an important goal of current reading research. However, reading comprehension is not easily assessed by a single instrument, as different comprehension tests vary in the type of tasks used and in the cognitive demands required. This study examines the contribution of basic language and cognitive skills (decoding, word recognition, reading speed, verbal and nonverbal intelligence and working memory) to reading comprehension, assessed by two tests utilizing various tasks that require different skill sets in third-grade Spanish-speaking students. Linguistic and cognitive abilities predicted reading comprehension. A measure of reading speed (the reading time of pseudo-words) was the best predictor of reading comprehension when assessed by the PROLEC-R test. However, measures of word recognition (the orthographic choice task) and verbal working memory were the best predictors of reading comprehension when assessed by means of the DARC test. These results show, on the one hand, that reading speed and word recognition are better predictors of Spanish language comprehension than reading accuracy. On the other, the reading comprehension test applied here serves as a critical variable when analyzing and interpreting results regarding this topic.

  10. Mapping and Imaging Methodologies within the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's On-Site Inspection Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W.; Sussman, A. J.; Kelley, R. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is the final verification measure of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs rely heavily on geologic and geophysical investigations. The objective is to apply methods that are effective, efficient and minimally intrusive. We present a general overview of the OSI as provisioned in the CTBT, specifying the allowed techniques and the timeline for their application. A CTBT OSI relies on many geological, geophysical and radiological methods. The search area for an OSI is mostly defined by uncertainty in the location of a suspect event detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) and reported through the International Data Center and can be as large as 1000 km2. Thus OSI methods are fundamentally divided into general survey methods that narrow the search area and more focused, detailed survey methods to look for evidence of a potential underground explosion and try to find its location within an area of several km2. The purpose and goal of a CTBT OSI, as specified in the Article IV of the Treaty, is 'to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty' and to 'gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator.' Through the use of visual, geophysical, and radiological techniques, OSIs can detect and characterize anomalies and artifacts related to the event that triggered the inspection. In the context of an OSI, an 'observable' is a physical property that is important to recognize and document because of its relevance to the purpose of the inspection. Potential observables include: (1) visual observables such as ground/environmental disturbances and manmade features, (2) geophysical techniques that provide measurements of altered and damaged ground and buried artifacts, and (3) radiological measurements on samples. Information provided in this presentation comes from observations associated with historical testing activities that were not intended to go undetected

  11. Utility of language comprehension tests for unintelligible or non-speaking children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geytenbeek, J.J.M.; Harlaar, L.; Stam, M.; Ket, H.; Becher, J.G.; Oostrom, K.J.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To identify the use and utility of language comprehension tests for unintelligible or non-speaking children with severe cerebral palsy (CP).Method Severe CP was defined as severe dysarthria (unintelligible speech) or anarthria (absence of speech) combined with severe limited mobility,

  12. Automated Scoring for the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive Writing and Speaking Test. Research Report. ETS RR-15-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanini, Keelan; Heilman, Michael; Wang, Xinhao; Blanchard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the initial automated scoring results that were obtained using the constructed responses from the Writing and Speaking sections of the pilot forms of the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive test administered in late 2011. For all of the items except one (the edit item in the Writing section), existing automated scoring…

  13. A comprehensive longitudinal test of the acquired preparedness model for alcohol use and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Iwamoto, Derek K; Fromme, Kim

    2011-07-01

    According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition.

  14. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development FY95-96 program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the United States Government`s (USG) research and development (R&D) functions for monitoring nuclear explosions in the context of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This responsibility includes the November 1993 transfer of the Department of Defense`s (DoD) CTBT R&D responsibility to DOE. The DOE research program builds on the broad base of USG expertise developed historically and includes R&D for detecting, locating, identifying, and characterizing nuclear explosions in all environments. The Office of Research and Development (NN-20), within the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, formulates and executes the efforts necessary to meet the Department`s responsibilities. The following DOE laboratories as a team will support NN-20 in implementing the program plan: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. DOE has committed to a cooperative program that draws upon the core competencies of the national laboratories and upon the strengths of other government agencies and the private sector (academia and industry). The integration of resources under a common direction will allow the program to be flexible and responsive to changing technical and policy requirements while maximizing the effectiveness of funding appropriations. DOE will develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, algorithms, procedures, and integrated systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. The program comprises seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound monitoring; on-site inspection; space-based monitoring; and automated data processing elements.

  15. Tracking sentence comprehension: Test-retest reliability in people with aphasia and unimpaired adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer E; Wei, Andrew Zu-Sern; Gutierrez, Stephanie; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2016-11-01

    Visual-world eyetracking is increasingly used to investigate online language processing in normal and language impaired listeners. Tracking changes in eye movements over time also may be useful for indexing language recovery in those with language impairments. Therefore, it is critical to determine the test-retest reliability of results obtained using this method. Unimpaired young adults and people with aphasia took part in two eyetracking sessions spaced about one week apart. In each session, participants completed a sentence-picture matching task in which they listened to active and passive sentences (e.g., The [N1+Auxwoman was] [Vvisiting/visited] [NP/PP2(by) the man]) and selected between two pictures with reversed thematic roles. We used intraclass correlations (ICCs) to examine the test-retest reliability of response measures (accuracy, reaction time (RT)) and online eye movements (i.e., the likelihood of fixating the target picture in each region of the sentence) in each participant group. In the unimpaired adults, accuracy was at ceiling (thus ICCs were not computed), with moderate ICCs for RT (i.e., 0.4 - 0.58) for passive sentences and low (0.75) for RT for both sentence types. Similarly, for the unimpaired listeners, reliability of eye movements was moderate for passive sentences (NP/PP2 region) and low in all regions for active sentences. But, for the aphasic participant group, eye movement reliability was excellent for passive sentences (in the first second after sentence end) and strong for active sentences (V and NP/PP2 regions). Results indicated moderate-to-low reliability for unimpaired listeners; however, reliable eye movement patterns were detected for processes specific to passive sentences (e.g., thematic reanalysis). In contrast, individuals with aphasia exhibited strong and stable performance across sentence types in response measures and online eye movements. These findings indicate that visual-world eyetracking provides a reliable measure

  16. Developing a comprehensive, effective patient-friendly website to enhance decision making in predictive testing for Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins Virani, Alice K; Creighton, S M; Hayden, M R

    2013-06-01

    Predictive testing for Huntington disease is a complex decision, requiring in-depth counseling, education, and evaluation. Despite the growth in Web-based decision aids and educational resources, such tools for those considering Huntington disease testing are not available. The main objective of this project was to develop a patient-friendly, comprehensive, accessible Web-based tool to provide accurate information about testing for Huntington disease. A semistructured interview study was conducted to determine the informational, educational, and support needs of those considering Huntington disease testing. A dedicated predictive testing website was subsequently developed and pilot tested. The interview study revealed that an effective website should include interactive diagrams, video documentaries, and personal stories of others who had considered testing. The pilot test revealed that the multidimensional site was easy to navigate and understand and provided an accurate, unbiased overview of the important factors to be considered before undergoing predictive testing. This project demonstrates the use of a mixed-method approach to develop the first tailored website dedicated to predictive testing for Huntington disease. Such an approach enabled the development of a comprehensive, accurate, and effective educational tool that supports informed decision making for people considering predictive testing for Huntington disease in an accessible, nonthreatening manner.

  17. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal. PMID:26321783

  18. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; LaBar, Kevin S

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal.

  19. Recognition memory across the lifespan: The impact of word frequency and study-test interval on estimates of familiarity and recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate recognition memory performance across the lifespan and to determine how estimates of recollection and familiarity contribute to performance. In each of three experiments, participants from five groups from 14 up to 85 years of age (children, young adults, middle-aged adults, young-old adults and old-old adults were presented with high- and low-frequency words in a study phase and were tested immediately afterwards and/or after a one day retention interval. The results showed that word frequency and retention interval affected recognition memory performance as well as estimates of recollection and familiarity. Across the lifespan, the trajectory of recognition memory followed an inverse u-shape function that was neither affected by word frequency nor by retention interval. The trajectory of estimates of recollection also followed an inverse u-shape function, and was especially pronounced for low-frequency words. In contrast, estimates of familiarity did not differ across the lifespan. The results indicate that age differences in recognition memory are mainly due to differences in processes related to recollection while the contribution of familiarity-based processes seems to be age-invariant.

  20. An Item Response Theory–Based, Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip S.; Havmose, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential validity of an IRT-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS) vocabulary checklist, with the objective of reducing length while maintaining measurement......:WS. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that a CAT version of the CDI:WS has the potential to reduce length while maintaining the accuracy and precision of the full instrument....

  1. Indici di Frequenza di Errori nella Prova di Comprensione dell'Italiano Come L2 (Frequency of Error Indexes in Testing Comprehension in Italian as a Second Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintori, Adriana

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses the preparation of a test of reading comprehension in Italian as a Second Language for Spanish university students and analyzes the results of the test. The article includes the reading passage and the test. (CFM)

  2. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    side if necessary and identify by block number) WORD FLUENCY MEASUREMENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY DIVING NAVSEA TASK NO. 86-54 SATURATION NEDU TEST...WORDS: <II Word Fluency--,, Neuropsychology’-" Diving Saturation Measurement Pyschology NAVSEA Task #86-54 NEDU Test Plan #86-10 v N. .,#7V REPEATED...function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word

  3. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  4. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  5. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  6. Emotion processing in words: a test of the neural re-use hypothesis using surface and intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponz, Aurélie; Montant, Marie; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Silva, Catarina; Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional information processing during reading using a combination of surface and intracranial electroencephalography (EEG). Two different theoretical views were opposed. According to the standard psycholinguistic perspective, emotional responses to words are generated within the reading network itself subsequent to semantic activation. According to the neural re-use perspective, brain regions that are involved in processing emotional information contained in other stimuli (faces, pictures, smells) might be in charge of the processing of emotional information in words as well. We focused on a specific emotion-disgust-which has a clear locus in the brain, the anterior insula. Surface EEG showed differences between disgust and neutral words as early as 200 ms. Source localization suggested a cortical generator of the emotion effect in the left anterior insula. These findings were corroborated through the intracranial recordings of two epileptic patients with depth electrodes in insular and orbitofrontal areas. Both electrodes showed effects of disgust in reading as early as 200 ms. The early emotion effect in a brain region (insula) that responds to specific emotions in a variety of situations and stimuli clearly challenges classic sequential theories of reading in favor of the neural re-use perspective.

  7. The Army Needs More Comprehensive Evaluations to Make Effective Use of Its Weapon System Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-24

    include risk assessments Technical risks are those involved in translating a system design into a producible weapon within the constraints of cost...staff will have the skills and expertise necessary to prepare a comprehensive evaluation. We believe the pilot program is an acceptable aproach to

  8. Using Necessary Information to Identify Item Dependence in Passage-Based Reading Comprehension Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldonado, Angela Argo; Svetina, Dubravka; Gorin, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Applications of traditional unidimensional item response theory models to passage-based reading comprehension assessment data have been criticized based on potential violations of local independence. However, simple rules for determining dependency, such as including all items associated with a particular passage, may overestimate the dependency…

  9. Online Test Tool to Determine the CEFR Reading Comprehension Level of Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea

    2014-01-01

    On the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) scale, the average reading comprehension level of the Dutch population is B1 and the average level of text provided by Dutch government organisations requires a considerably higher reading skills level (C1). This means that part of

  10. The Effects of Learning from Word Pairs on Word Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Sarimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an essential role in language learning. The lack of vocabulary might cause incompetency to language users. It is therefore very important for language instructors to find suitable ways of teaching vocabulary since learning vocabulary consists of learning various aspects of word knowledge. These aspects include orthography, meaning and form, collocation, association and grammatical functions. There are various methods that could be used in gaining aspects of word knowledge. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent are aspects of word knowledge gained by learning from word pairs. 120 secondary school students were divided into four groups of thirty students. The first group was given a set of Malay Translation, the second, English Translation, the third, Malay Definition and the fourth, English Definition word pair to learn followed by word knowledge tests. The results show that all word pairs promote large gains in learning aspects of word knowledge. The scores between the groups were also compared and it was found that the mean score of the Malay Definition word pair group is the highest, followed by the Malay Translation word pair group, the English Translation word pair group, and English Definition word pair group.

  11. The differential relations between verbal, numerical and spatial working memory abilitiesand children's reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Oakhill, Jane; Yuill, Nicola; Garnham, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM) abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading comprehension and reading accuracy. Tests of word reading accuracy and reading comprehension, and working memory tests in three different modalities (v...

  12. Word learning by preschoolers with specific language impairment: effect of phonological or semantic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shelley

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated whether phonological or semantic encoding cues promoted better word learning for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and whether this treatment differentially affected children with SLI and normal language (NL). Twenty-four preschoolers ages 4;0 (years;months) to 5;11 with SLI and 24 age- and gender-matched children with NL participated. The between-group factor was language group (NL, SLI) and within-group factors were language modality (comprehension, recognition, production) and treatment condition (phonological, semantic). Word learning was assessed during fast mapping, word learning, and post-testing with trials to criterion calculated for the number of words learned. A drawing task assessed the change in semantic representation of words. The SLI group comprehended more words in the semantic condition and produced more words in the phonological condition, but the NL group performed similarly in both. The NL group required significantly fewer trials than the SLI group to comprehend words in the semantic and phonological conditions and to produce words in the semantic condition, but between-group differences for production were not significant for the phonological condition. The results suggest that preschoolers with SLI may benefit from cues that highlight the phonological or semantic properties of words but that different cues may aid different aspects of word learning.

  13. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning ...

  14. Sarbalap! Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  15. Emotion word processing: Does mood make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Bo eYao; Thaden, Elske J.; Patrick J. O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one’s inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as...

  16. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a f...

  17. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sironi, Luke

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom's parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United Stat...

  18. Reading Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Oral Language and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability.…

  19. Supporting Social Studies Reading Comprehension with an Electronic Pop-Up Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara Winstead; Gosky, Ross

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how middle school students' comprehension was impacted by reading social studies texts online with a pop-up dictionary function for every word in the text. A quantitative counterbalance design was used to determine how 129 middle school students' reading comprehension test scores for the pop-up dictionary reading differed…

  20. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  1. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  2. Brain activation during word identification and word recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Ostergaard, Arne L.; Law, Ian

    1998-01-01

    subjects performed the word identification (reading) and recognition memory tasks used previously by Ostergaard. The results are the direct comparisons of the two tasks and the effects of stimulus degradation on blood flow patterns during the tasks. Clear differences between word identification and word...... dramatically alter the degree to which word priming shows a dissociation from word recognition; i.e., effects of a number of factors on priming paralleled their effects on recognition memory tests when the words were degraded at test. In the present study, cerebral blood flow changes were measured while...... recognition were observed: the latter task evoked considerably more prefrontal activity and stronger cerebellar activation. Stimulus degradation was associated with focal increases in bilateral fusiform regions within the occipital lobe. No task, degradation, or item repetition effects were demonstrated...

  3. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  4. The NIH genetic testing registry: a new, centralized database of genetic tests to enable access to comprehensive information and improve transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Maglott, Donna R.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Kattman, Brandi L.; Malheiro, Adriana J.; Ovetsky, Michael; Hem, Vichet; Gorelenkov, Viatcheslav; Song, Guangfeng; Wallin, Craig; Husain, Nora; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Katz, Kenneth S.; Hoffman, Douglas; Jang, Wonhee; Johnson, Mark; Karmanov, Fedor; Ukrainchik, Alexander; Denisenko, Mikhail; Fomous, Cathy; Hudson, Kathy; Ostell, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Genetic Testing Registry (GTR; available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/) maintains comprehensive information about testing offered worldwide for disorders with a genetic basis. Information is voluntarily submitted by test providers. The database provides details of each test (e.g. its purpose, target populations, methods, what it measures, analytical validity, clinical validity, clinical utility, ordering information) and laboratory (e.g. location, contact information, certifications and licenses). Each test is assigned a stable identifier of the format GTR000000000, which is versioned when the submitter updates information. Data submitted by test providers are integrated with basic information maintained in National Center for Biotechnology Information’s databases and presented on the web and through FTP (ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/GTR/_README.html). PMID:23193275

  5. [Control System Design and Test of Digital Comprehensive Training Treadmill for Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulin; Ma, Guanpo; Zhao, Jun; Hu, Xiufang

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the design of a treadmill of comprehensive training experiment for rats. The treadmill is composed of six tracks and two of them were designed as conventional plane, two were designed to swing right and left, and two were designed to swing back and forth. The power was provided by six motors. The MSP430F149 is used as core to adjust the swing rate and the grade of electric shock. The IAR for MSP430 is used to design the software. The speed of the six tracks could be adjusted between 0 and 30 m/min. The swing tracks of back and forth can be swung for 3-25 times per minute and the swing tracks of right and left for 3-32 times. The electric shock can be divided into three levels, i. e. strong, middle, and weak level for each track. The digital comprehensive training treadmill can meet different training needs, and provide experimental data for mechanism research of some related diseases.

  6. word2vec Parameter Learning Explained

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The word2vec model and application by Mikolov et al. have attracted a great amount of attention in recent two years. The vector representations of words learned by word2vec models have been shown to carry semantic meanings and are useful in various NLP tasks. As an increasing number of researchers would like to experiment with word2vec or similar techniques, I notice that there lacks a material that comprehensively explains the parameter learning process of word embedding models in details, t...

  7. Mothers speak less clearly to infants than to adults: a comprehensive test of the hyperarticulation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew; Schatz, Thomas; Versteegh, Maarten; Miyazawa, Kouki; Mazuka, Reiko; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2015-03-01

    Infants learn language at an incredible speed, and one of the first steps in this voyage is learning the basic sound units of their native languages. It is widely thought that caregivers facilitate this task by hyperarticulating when speaking to their infants. Using state-of-the-art speech technology, we addressed this key theoretical question: Are sound categories clearer in infant-directed speech than in adult-directed speech? A comprehensive examination of sound contrasts in a large corpus of recorded, spontaneous Japanese speech demonstrates that there is a small but significant tendency for contrasts in infant-directed speech to be less clear than those in adult-directed speech. This finding runs contrary to the idea that caregivers actively enhance phonetic categories in infant-directed speech. These results suggest that to be plausible, theories of infants' language acquisition must posit an ability to learn from noisy data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The Academic Spoken Word List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thi Ngoc Yen; Coxhead, Averil; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The linguistic features of academic spoken English are different from those of academic written English. Therefore, for this study, an Academic Spoken Word List (ASWL) was developed and validated to help second language (L2) learners enhance their comprehension of academic speech in English-medium universities. The ASWL contains 1,741 word…

  9. On the occasion of the first interconnection, LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans tests out the co-activity principle in the tunnel, in other words the performance of several tasks in parallel for the installation of the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the first interconnection, LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans tests out the co-activity principle in the tunnel, in other words the performance of several tasks in parallel for the installation of the LHC.

  10. The "N" Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    In a lawsuit involving classroom and literary racial epithets, the Ninth Circuit Court remanded the racial-harassment claim, not the book-removal claim. The ultimate outcome awaits trial; the court's Solomonic decision needs further testing. Meanwhile, the "N" word is a no-no for teachers and students, but not necessarily for books. (MLH)

  11. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  12. Human Resources Test and Evaluation System (HRTES). Volume 1. Comprehensive Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    SYSTEM: ?:: UYAir Defense Missile Launcher ITEMS TO BE INCLUDED IN TEST (Number and Type): "’ - MECURY Self Propelled Air Defense Launcher- (including...8217/- AW F SYSTEM MECURY Air Defense System TEST OT TDATE25 Mar 81"PAGE NAME TELEPHONE_ _ _ _ _ H2- 6 -’, .’._ ,.K_. *..:&j&. ’ -. ... /..--i" i-. ".2’-bK

  13. A Conversation Analysis-Informed Test of L2 Aural Pragmatic Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, F. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Speech act theory-based, second language pragmatics testing (SLPT) raises test-validation issues owing to a lack of correspondence with empirical conversational data. On the assumption that conversation analysis (CA) provides a more accurate account of language use, it is suggested that CA serve as a more empirically valid basis for SLPT…

  14. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  15. Deterioration of word meaning: implications for reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, K; Hodges, J R

    1992-12-01

    We investigated six patients with progressive focal dementia or progressive aphasia, who showed impairments in knowledge of word meaning ranging from moderate to very severe. In all cases, a test of oral word reading demonstrated preserved reading of words with regular spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g. MINT), but impaired reading of words with atypical correspondences (e.g. PINT). The level of success on these "exception" words was significantly related to word frequency, and the most common error was the assignment of a more typical spelling-sound correspondence. Various explanations are considered for this common association between loss of word meaning and a surface alexic pattern of reading performance.

  16. Introduction of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and preparatory activities for its entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu Establishment, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a very important treaty, not only for Japan but also for the world, because it prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. The treaty however will not enter into force until it has been signed and ratified by all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 to the treaty. Many efforts to facilitate the treaty's early entry into force are being done by many countries and many international organizations. As one of result of these efforts, a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization had be established at a meeting of State Signatories on 19 November 1996, and the Commission started activities to establish global verification regime of the treaty and to prepare for its entry into force. Under the CTBT activities, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is expected to play an important role as supporter for the Japanese Government, especially in a field of an International Monitoring System (IMS). However, there is no appropriate guide book on the CTBT for JAERI staff at present. This report provides some introduction of the CTBT regime and preparatory activities for its entry into force. Only open source information is used for making the report. If anyone need more detail information, it should be asked to contact competent authorities. (author)

  17. Reading comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: The role of oral language and social functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Jessie; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is an area of difficulty for many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). According to the Simple View of Reading, word recognition and oral language are both important determinants of reading comprehension ability. We provide a novel test of this model in 100 adolescents with ASD of varying intellectual ability. Further, we explore whether reading comprehension is additionally influenced by individual differences in social behaviour and social cognition in ASD...

  18. Grounding word learning in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; Smith, Linda B; Perry, Lynn K; Spencer, John P

    2011-01-01

    Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  19. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcal, Lucian; Torres Andón, Fernando; Di Cristo, Luisana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Bussolati, Ovidio; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Mech, Agnieszka; Hartmann, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Riego-Sintes, Juan; Ponti, Jessica; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Rossi, François; Oomen, Agnes; Bos, Peter; Chen, Rui; Bai, Ru; Chen, Chunying; Rocks, Louise; Fulton, Norma; Ross, Bryony; Hutchison, Gary; Tran, Lang; Mues, Sarah; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Campagnolo, Luisa; Vecchione, Lucia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS). Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues). The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry - hydrophilic (NM-103) and hydrophobic (NM-104), two forms of ZnO - uncoated (NM-110) and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111) and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques - precipitated (NM-200) and pyrogenic (NM-203). Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h) (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2). Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days) significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST) classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially 'weak-embryotoxic' and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as 'non-embryotoxic'. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103). This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2

  20. Comprehensive In Vitro Toxicity Testing of a Panel of Representative Oxide Nanomaterials: First Steps towards an Intelligent Testing Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Farcal

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials (NMs display many unique and useful physico-chemical properties. However, reliable approaches are needed for risk assessment of NMs. The present study was performed in the FP7-MARINA project, with the objective to identify and evaluate in vitro test methods for toxicity assessment in order to facilitate the development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS. Six representative oxide NMs provided by the EC-JRC Nanomaterials Repository were tested in nine laboratories. The in vitro toxicity of NMs was evaluated in 12 cellular models representing 6 different target organs/systems (immune system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive organs, kidney and embryonic tissues. The toxicity assessment was conducted using 10 different assays for cytotoxicity, embryotoxicity, epithelial integrity, cytokine secretion and oxidative stress. Thorough physico-chemical characterization was performed for all tested NMs. Commercially relevant NMs with different physico-chemical properties were selected: two TiO2 NMs with different surface chemistry - hydrophilic (NM-103 and hydrophobic (NM-104, two forms of ZnO - uncoated (NM-110 and coated with triethoxycapryl silane (NM-111 and two SiO2 NMs produced by two different manufacturing techniques - precipitated (NM-200 and pyrogenic (NM-203. Cell specific toxicity effects of all NMs were observed; macrophages were the most sensitive cell type after short-term exposures (24-72h (ZnO>SiO2>TiO2. Longer term exposure (7 to 21 days significantly affected the cell barrier integrity in the presence of ZnO, but not TiO2 and SiO2, while the embryonic stem cell test (EST classified the TiO2 NMs as potentially 'weak-embryotoxic' and ZnO and SiO2 NMs as 'non-embryotoxic'. A hazard ranking could be established for the representative NMs tested (ZnO NM-110 > ZnO NM-111 > SiO2 NM-203 > SiO2 NM-200 > TiO2 NM-104 > TiO2 NM-103. This ranking was different in the case of embryonic tissues, for which TiO2

  1. A Comprehensive Systems Testing Plan for the Smart Phone Assisted Rapid Communication and Control System (SPARCCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    formal testing since its inception. As a result, the system is at risk while it enters into later stages of development. Problems in systems...Photos, Videos, Sensor Data Weather, Terrain Heat, EMF Data, Location, Photos, Video Internet, Data Commands, Requests Photos, Videos, Data...Giadrosich, 1995). Testing helps reduce risks and helps assure proper human factors engineering in the system. It also helps to detect 14 problems and

  2. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  3. A Laminated Microfluidic Device for Comprehensive Preclinical Testing in the Drug ADME Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fan; Qu, Yueyang; Luo, Yong; Fang, Ning; Liu, Yang; Gao, Zhigang; Zhao, Weijie; Lin, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    New techniques are urgently needed to replace conventional long and costly pre-clinical testing in the new drug administration process. In this study, a laminated microfluidic device was fabricated to mimic the drug ADME response test in vivo. This proposed device was loaded and cultured with functional cells for drug response investigation and organ tissues that are involved in ADME testing. The drug was introduced from the top of the device and first absorbed by the Caco-2 cell layer, and then metabolized by the primary hepatocyte layer. It subsequently interacted with the MCF-7 cell layer, distributed in the lung, heart and fat tissues, and was finally eliminated through the dialysis membrane. Throughout this on-chip ADME process, the proposed device can be used as a reliable tool to simultaneously evaluate the drug anti-tumor activity, hepatotoxicity and pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, this device was proven to be able to reflect the hepatic metabolism of a drug, drug distribution in the target tissues, and the administration method of a drug. Furthermore, this microdevice is expected to reduce the number of drug candidates and accelerate the pre-clinical testing process subject to animal testing upon adaptation in new drug discovery. PMID:27122192

  4. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  5. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  7. Comprehensive overview of FPL field testing conducted in the tropics (1945-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant T. Kirker; Stan L. Lebow; Mark E. Mankowski

    2016-01-01

    Tropical exposure often represents a more severe environment for treated wood and wood based products. Accelerated tropical decay rates are typically attributed to higher mean rainfall and temperatures. The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, WI has been conducting tropical field tests in a variety of locations since the early 1940’s. This paper summarizes FPL...

  8. Towards a comprehensive evaluation system for the quality of tests and assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wools, Saskia; Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of educational assessments, several evaluation systems are available. These systems are, however, focused around the evaluation of a single type of test. Furthermore, within these systems, quality is defined as a non-flexible construct, whereas in this paper it is argued that

  9. Comprehensibility and transparency of the impairment tests in contexts of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Magli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of Impairment Test on Goodwill is one of the most debated issues in the international arena, both in relation to the multiple profiles of subjectivity inherent in the valuation criteria set out in IAS 36 and in relation to the novelty that brings this procedure. For this reason, in our work we analyze Goodwill, Impairment Test and the international regulations governing them that are IAS 36 and IFRS 3. The Goodwill is an important asset for some companies, an intangible asset that arises as a result of the acquisition of one company by another for a premium value. Its assessment is, however, discretionary. Main objective of this paper is to analyze this discretionary and check whether the information resulting from the Impairment Test on Goodwill is in accordance with the provisions of IAS 36. The empirical analysis has been developed on a selected sample relative to utilities in Europe who had recorded higher Goodwill in 2012. The results show that disclosures do not always conform to the requirements of IAS 36; in particular, there is a reluctance of the company managements in providing quantitative information about the sensitivity analysis of the Impairment Test results. The practical implications lead to stress that the reader of the financial statements is not facilitated, not only he fails to assess the effects on the recoverability of the value but also to recognize the reliability of the estimates

  10. Comprehensive System-Based Architecture for an Integrated High Energy Laser Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Demonstrator (MLD). LaWS, is an application of fiber SSL that are widely used in industry for cutting and welding metal (Figure 1). It utilizes six... welding lasers that are incoherently combined into a 33kW beam with the capability to disable or destroy targets. The system successfully shot down...transmission parameters impact visibility among other things. There are, however, two major challenges to implanting this system in a directed energy testing

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  12. Comprehensive visual field test & diagnosis system in support of astronaut health and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Clark, Jonathan B.; Reisman, Garrett E.; Tarbell, Mark A.

    Long duration spaceflight, permanent human presence on the Moon, and future human missions to Mars will require autonomous medical care to address both expected and unexpected risks. An integrated non-invasive visual field test & diagnosis system is presented for the identification, characterization, and automated classification of visual field defects caused by the spaceflight environment. This system will support the onboard medical provider and astronauts on space missions with an innovative, non-invasive, accurate, sensitive, and fast visual field test. It includes a database for examination data, and a software package for automated visual field analysis and diagnosis. The system will be used to detect and diagnose conditions affecting the visual field, while in space and on Earth, permitting the timely application of therapeutic countermeasures before astronaut health or performance are impaired. State-of-the-art perimetry devices are bulky, thereby precluding application in a spaceflight setting. In contrast, the visual field test & diagnosis system requires only a touchscreen-equipped computer or touchpad device, which may already be in use for other purposes (i.e., no additional payload), and custom software. The system has application in routine astronaut assessment (Clinical Status Exam), pre-, in-, and post-flight monitoring, and astronaut selection. It is deployable in operational space environments, such as aboard the International Space Station or during future missions to or permanent presence on the Moon and Mars.

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and

  14. Logical reasoning and probabilities: a comprehensive test of Oaksford And Chater (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Weidenfeld, Andrea; Hörnig, Robin

    2004-06-01

    We report two experiments testing a central prediction of the probabilistic account of reasoning provided by Oaksford and Chater (2001): Acceptance of standard conditional inferences, card choices in the Wason selection task, and quantifiers chosen for conclusions from syllogisms should vary as a function of the frequency of the concepts involved. Frequency was manipulated by a probability-learning phase preceding the reasoning tasks to simulate natural sampling. The effects predicted by Oaksford and Chater (2001) were not obtained with any of the three paradigms.

  15. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  16. Symptoms, signs, and tests: The general practitioner's comprehensive approach towards a cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Benedicte Iversen; Holtedahl, Knut

    2015-01-01

    To study the relative importance of different tools a GP can use during the diagnostic process towards cancer detection. Retrospective cohort study with prospective registration of cancer in general practice. One hundred and fifty-seven Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) reported 261 cancer patients. During 10 consecutive days, GPs registered all patient consultations and recorded any presence of seven focal symptoms and three general symptoms, commonly considered as warning signs of cancer (WSC). Follow-up was done six to 11 months later. For each patient with new or recurrent cancer, the GP completed a questionnaire with medical-record-based information concerning the diagnostic procedure. In 78% of cancer cases, symptoms, signs, or tests helped diagnose cancer. In 90 cases, there were 131 consultation-recorded WSC that seemed related to the cancer. Further symptoms were reported for another 74 cases. Different clinical signs were noted in 41 patients, 16 of whom had no previous recording of symptoms. Supplementary tests added information in 59 cases; in 25 of these there were no recordings of symptoms or signs. Sensitivity of any cancer-relevant symptom or clinical finding ranged from 100% for patients with uterine body cancer to 57% for patients with renal cancer. WSC had a major role as initiator of a cancer diagnostic procedure. Low-risk-but-not-no-risk symptoms also played an important role, and in 7% of patients they were the only symptoms. Clinical findings and/or supplementary procedures were sometimes decisive for rapid referral.

  17. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  18. Developing and pilot testing a comprehensive health literacy communication training for health professionals in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Marise S; Sixsmith, Jane; Koot, Jaap A R; Meijering, Louise B; van Twillert, Sacha; Giammarchi, Cinzia; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Barry, Margaret M; Doyle, Priscilla; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F

    2018-01-01

    Skills to address different health literacy problems are lacking among health professionals. We sought to develop and pilot test a comprehensive health literacy communication training for various health professionals in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Thirty health professionals participated in the study. A literature review focused on evidence-informed training-components. Focus group discussions (FGDs) explored perspectives from seventeen professionals on a prototype-program, and feedback from thirteen professionals following pilot-training. Pre-post questionnaires assessed self-rated health literacy communication skills. The literature review yielded five training-components to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy: health literacy education, gathering and providing information, shared decision-making, enabling self-management, and supporting behaviour change. In FGDs, professionals endorsed the prototype-program and reported that the pilot-training increased knowledge and patient-centred communication skills in addressing health literacy, as shown by self-rated pre-post questionnaires. A comprehensive training for health professionals in three European countries enhances perceived skills to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy. This training has potential for wider application in education and practice in Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  20. Assessing the Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT)-Form C in Measuring Listening Comprehension of Post-Secondary Hispanic-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Debra L.; Keaton, Shaughan; Cook, John; Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.

    2014-01-01

    The Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT) is one of the most popular measures of listening comprehension. However, participants in studies utilizing this scale have been almost exclusively Anglo-American. At the same time, previous research questions the psychometric properties of the test. This study addressed both of these issues by testing the…

  1. A powerful microbiome-based association test and a microbial taxa discovery framework for comprehensive association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyunwook; Blaser, Martin J; Li, Huilin

    2017-04-24

    The role of the microbiota in human health and disease has been increasingly studied, gathering momentum through the use of high-throughput technologies. Further identification of the roles of specific microbes is necessary to better understand the mechanisms involved in diseases related to microbiome perturbations. Here, we introduce a new microbiome-based group association testing method, optimal microbiome-based association test (OMiAT). OMiAT is a data-driven testing method which takes an optimal test throughout different tests from the sum of powered score tests (SPU) and microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MiRKAT). We illustrate that OMiAT efficiently discovers significant association signals arising from varying microbial abundances and different relative contributions from microbial abundance and phylogenetic information. We also propose a way to apply it to fine-mapping of diverse upper-level taxa at different taxonomic ranks (e.g., phylum, class, order, family, and genus), as well as the entire microbial community, within a newly introduced microbial taxa discovery framework, microbiome comprehensive association mapping (MiCAM). Our extensive simulations demonstrate that OMiAT is highly robust and powerful compared with other existing methods, while correctly controlling type I error rates. Our real data analyses also confirm that MiCAM is especially efficient for the assessment of upper-level taxa by integrating OMiAT as a group analytic method. OMiAT is attractive in practice due to the high complexity of microbiome data and the unknown true nature of the state. MiCAM also provides a hierarchical association map for numerous microbial taxa and can also be used as a guideline for further investigation on the roles of discovered taxa in human health and disease.

  2. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  3. WordPress 3.7 complete

    CERN Document Server

    Król, Karol

    2013-01-01

    WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition is a comprehensive and step-by-step tutorial packed with screenshots and examples to make it easy and quick to pick it up.This WordPress book is a guide to WordPress for online publishers and web developers. If you are new to blogging and want to create your own blog or website from scratch, then ""WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition"" is for you. No prior knowledge of HTML/CSS or PHP is required.

  4. A Close Look at the Relationship between Multiple Choice Vocabulary Test and Integrative Cloze Test of Lexical Words in Iranian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajideh, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    In spite of various definitions provided for it, language proficiency has been always a difficult concept to define and realize. However the commonality of all the definitions for this illusive concept is that language tests should seek to test the learners' ability to use real-life language. The best type of test to show such ability is…

  5. Executive dysfunction among children with reading comprehension deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E Mark; Eason, Sarah H; Cutting, Laurie E

    2010-01-01

    Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children with S-RCD struggle, a range of EF skills was compared among 86 children, ages 10 to 14, grouped by word reading and comprehension abilities: 24 average readers, 44 with word recognition deficits (WRD), and 18 S-RCD. An exploratory principal components analysis of EF tests identified three latent factors, used in subsequent group comparisons: Planning/ Spatial Working Memory, Verbal Working Memory, and Response Inhibition. The WRD group exhibited deficits (relative to controls) on Verbal Working Memory and Inhibition factors; S-RCD children performed more poorly than controls on the Planning factor. Further analyses suggested the WRD group's poor performance on EF factors was a by-product of core deficits linked to WRD (after controlling for phonological processing, this group no longer showed EF deficits). In contrast, the S-RCD group's poor performance on the planning component remained significant after controlling for phonological processing. Findings suggest reading comprehension difficulties are linked to executive dysfunction; in particular, poor strategic planning/organizing may lead to reading comprehension problems.

  6. [Gogi (word-meaning) aphasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamadori, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    Gogi (word meaning) aphasia is an aphasic syndrome originally described by Tsuneo Imura in 1943. According to Imura, this syndrome is characterized by 4 symptoms: (1) difficulty in comprehending the meaning of a word despite perfect perception of the sound of the word; (2) presence of word amnesia and verbal paraphasia; (3) preservation of the ability to repeat spoken words; and (4) characteristic disturbances in reading and writing, in which Kana (Japanese syllabogram) can be correctly read and written, but Kanji (Japanese logogram) is read and transcribed in a peculiar way without comprehension, resulting in strange paragraphia. Gogi aphasia occupies a unique seat in the category of transcortical sensory aphasia. While the latter is grossly defined as fluent sensory aphasia with good repetition and without any specification about the linguistic level of deficit, the former is defined more specifically as fluent sensory aphasia with the deficit limited to the level of words. The characteristic Kana-Kanji dissociation aids in the diagnosis of this syndrome. Recently, it has been repeatedly confirmed that the temporal lobe type of Pick disease (known as semantic dementia in recent English literature) often presents the clinical picture of Gogi aphasia in its early course. Many Japanese physicians have contributed to the elucidation of this clinicopathological correlation. This is mainly because many neurologists and psychiatrists in Japan have long been familiar with the concept of Gogi aphasia and the nosology of Pick disease.

  7. A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

  8. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    CERN Document Server

    Aalseth, C E; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Woods, V T

    2010-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  9. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis.

  11. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  12. Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: a twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Laurie; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; DeThorne, Laura S.; Justice, Laura M.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the Simple View of reading from a behavioral genetic perspective. Two aspects of word decoding (phonological decoding and word recognition), two aspects of oral language skill (listening comprehension and vocabulary), and reading comprehension were assessed in a twin sample at age 9. Using latent factor models, we found that overlap among phonological decoding, word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension was primarily due to genetic influences. Shared environmental influences accounted for associations among word recognition, listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Independent of phonological decoding and word recognition, there was a separate genetic link between listening comprehension, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and a specific shared environmental link between vocabulary and reading comprehension. There were no residual genetic or environmental influences on reading comprehension. The findings provide evidence for a genetic basis to the “Simple View” of reading. PMID:20814768

  13. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

  14. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children

  15. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  16. An In-Depth Investigation into the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) with the purpose of assessing the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in academic listening comprehension. The Vocabulary Size Test (VST, Nation & Beglar, 2007) and the Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) were administered to…

  17. Reading comprehension among typically developing Swedish-speaking 10-12-year-olds: examining subgroups differentiated in terms of language and decoding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Jakob; Carlsson, Marika; Oderstam, Ann-Marie; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2010-12-01

    Based on data from 156 typically developing 10-12-year-olds from Sweden, reading comprehension skills were studied in three subgroups: those classified with specific poor word decoding skills (n = 10), those with specific poor language comprehension (n = 12), and those with mixed difficulties in word decoding and language comprehension (n = 11). The mixed poor group achieved significantly lower scores than both specific groups in reading comprehension, and was the only group displaying poor reading comprehension test results relative to the performance of the full sample. Results are indicative of the necessity of a combined effect of poor word decoding and language in reading comprehension difficulties for this group. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Mi Primer Libro de Palabras (My First Book of Words).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Area Bilingual Education League, Berkeley, CA.

    This book was written to facilitate the learning and teaching of phonetic and vocabulary skills important for the development of reading. The book uses the manipulative approach to the usage of words. Words are presented with corresponding pictures in order to enhance the child's comprehension. In addition to the words, the book includes a…

  19. Word-Stress--A Source of Unintelligibility in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrabah, M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on English word-stress, a feature essential for effective communication. Discusses the difficulty in assigning this phonological aspect and the effect of its misplacement on comprehension. Shows how English word-stress differs from that of Arabic and emphasizes the need to teach word-stress during pronunciation instruction. (36 references)…

  20. Teaching the Meaning of Words to Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Loijens, Nancy E. A.; Waller, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    In the report presented here, the authors describe a pilot intervention study that was intended to teach children with visual impairments the meaning of far-away words, and that used their mothers as mediators. The aim was to teach both labels and deep word knowledge, which is the comprehension of the full meaning of words, illustrated through…

  1. The Role of Vowel Signs in Hebrew: Beyond Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimron, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Examines contributions of vowel signs in reading Hebrew on memory and comprehension. Finds that vowel signs speeded up recognition memory of words in third graders, and improved recall of words printed in the context of mixed lists in sixth graders. Finds also that vowelization improved memory and comprehension of some prose texts. (RS)

  2. Same wording, distinct concepts? Testing differences between expectancies and motives in a mediation model of alcohol outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Wiers, Reinout W; Janssen, Tim; Gmel, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Per definition, alcohol expectancies (after alcohol I expect X), and drinking motives (I drink to achieve X) are conceptually distinct constructs. Theorists have argued that motives mediate the association between expectancies and drinking outcomes. Yet, given the use of different instruments, do these constructs remain distinct when assessment items are matched? The present study tested to what extent motives mediated the link between expectancies and alcohol outcomes when identical items were used, first as expectancies and then as motives. A linear structural equation model was estimated based on a national representative sample of 5,779 alcohol-using students in Switzerland (mean age = 15.2 years). The results showed that expectancies explained up to 38% of the variance in motives. Together with motives, they explained up to 48% of the variance in alcohol outcomes (volume, 5+ drinking, and problems). In 10 of 12 outcomes, there was a significant mediated effect that was often higher than the direct expectancy effect. For coping, the expectancy effect was close to zero, indicating the strongest form of mediation. In only one case (conformity and 5+ drinking), there was a direct expectancy effect but no mediation. To conclude, the study demonstrates that motives are distinct from expectancies even when identical items are used. Motives are more proximally related to different alcohol outcomes, often mediating the effects of expectancies. Consequently, the effectiveness of interventions, particularly those aimed at coping drinkers, should be improved through a shift in focus from expectancies to drinking motives.

  3. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  4. General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A

  5. WordEdge® A Career Mobility Guide to High Speed Dictionary-Based Electronic Learning and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oliphant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As Thomas Kuhn taught us, misery loves innovation even more than company. Small wonder our recession worriers — and who isn’t one these days, directly or indirectly? — are desperately looking for new and practical ways to increase their job mobility. Statistically considered, since most unskilled jobs are already filled, jobseekers from shrinking fields of employment are being advised to broaden their search to include entry level jobs in new high tech fields that are either stable or expanding, e.g., health care.Let’s grant that each high tech field has its own hands-on skills. But it’s also true that each field, e.g., plumbing, has its own high tech vocabulary which each candidate for employment is expected to know or learn, including correct pronunciation, very much like an aspiring restaurant server learning the complete menu by heart. Hence the desirability of acquiring preliminary mastery of an employment field’s high tech vocabulary well in ADVANCE of the first interview, not in a panicky last minute cram session. Until recently, the only way we could acquire a preliminary mastery of, say, health care terms was to take a course (inconvenient and expensive or to study a specific-field booklet (usually limited inscope. Today, however, our current partnership between print dictionaries and their electronic versions gives any job candidate quick access to an amazingly efficient learning tool for masteringa wide range of high tech vocabularies in current use. Here’s the why and how of our dictionary-based learning and testing route.

  6. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  7. Reassessing Word Frequency as a Determinant of Word Recognition for Skilled and Unskilled Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational…

  8. Audience design: embedded versus word search priming

    OpenAIRE

    Leckie, Tomlin

    2010-01-01

    The present study looks at manipulating audience design using different priming techniques. We were trying to test the effectiveness of different priming techniques (priming words embedded in a story versus priming words embedded in a word search) on audience design by making people more or less helpful in a story retelling task. A time constraint was also introduced to see if the effect of word search priming would be cancelled out. In order to answer these questions two experiments were ru...

  9. Vocabulary size and speed of word recognition in very young French-English bilinguals: A longitudinal study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jacqueline; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    A longitudinal study of lexical development in very young French-English bilinguals is reported. The Computerized Comprehension Test (CCT) was used to directly assess receptive vocabulary and processing efficiency, and parental report (CDI) was used to measure expressive vocabulary in monolingual and bilingual infants at 16 months, and six months later, at 22 months. All infants increased their comprehension and production of words over the six-month period, and bilingual infants acquired approximately as many new words in each of their languages as the monolinguals did. Speed of online word processing was also equivalent in both groups at each wave of data collection, and increased significantly across waves. Importantly, significant relations emerged between language exposure, vocabulary size, and processing speed, with proportion of language exposure predicting vocabulary size at each time point. This study extends previous findings by utilizing a direct measure of receptive vocabulary development and online word processing. PMID:29416429

  10. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics × Instruction Interactions on Third Graders’ Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J.; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children’s initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers (n = 33) and their students (n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students’ varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students’ profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade. PMID:27867226

  11. Testing the Impact of Child Characteristics × Instruction Interactions on Third Graders' Reading Comprehension by Differentiating Literacy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Fredrick J; Fishman, Barry; Giuliani, Sarah; Luck, Melissa; Underwood, Phyllis S; Bayraktar, Aysegul; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating correlational evidence that the effect of specific types of reading instruction depends on children's initial language and literacy skills, called child characteristics × instruction (C×I) interactions. There is, however, no experimental evidence beyond first grade. This randomized control study examined whether C×I interactions might present an underlying and predictable mechanism for explaining individual differences in how students respond to third-grade classroom literacy instruction. To this end, we designed and tested an instructional intervention (Individualizing Student Instruction [ISI]). Teachers ( n = 33) and their students ( n = 448) were randomly assigned to the ISI intervention or a vocabulary intervention, which was not individualized. Teachers in both conditions received professional development. Videotaped classroom observations conducted in the fall, winter, and spring documented the instruction that each student in the classroom received. Teachers in the ISI group were more likely to provide differentiated literacy instruction that considered C×I interactions than were the teachers in the vocabulary group. Students in the ISI intervention made greater gains on a standardized assessment of reading comprehension than did students in the vocabulary intervention. Results indicate that C×I interactions likely contribute to students' varying response to literacy instruction with regard to their reading comprehension achievement and that the association between students' profile of language and literacy skills and recommended instruction is nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. Hence, dynamic and complex theories about classroom instruction and environment impacts on student learning appear to be warranted and should inform more effective literacy instruction in third grade.

  12. Prevalence of Two-Syllable Digits Affecting Forward Digit Span Test Score: A Potential Reliability Factor in Digit Span Tests and New Light to the Word Length Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egner, Lars E; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo G

    2016-01-01

    .... The study examined the effect of amount of syllables on Norwegian digit span test scores by altering the prevalence of two-syllable digits using three conditions in a repeated measures design (N = 54...

  13. Differential diagnostics in cluttering and stuttering A test of speech motor control on word level productions: The SPA Test (Dutch: Screening Pittige Articulatie)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Yvonne van Zaalen; Prof. dr. Frank Wijnen; Prof. dr. Philip Dejonckere

    2009-01-01

    Tot op heden bestond er geen onderzoeksinstrument dat betrouwbaar differentieert tussen broddelende en stotterende clienten. Een door de eerste auteur ontwikkelde test voor spraakmotorische controle op woordniveau is genormeerd en gevalideerd voor broddelende, stotterende sprekers en controles. Dit

  14. Geriatric problems correlated with cognitive decline using a screening test named "Dr. SUPERMAN" for comprehensive geriatric assessment in elderly inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namioka, Nayuta; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Terayama, Hideyuki; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Fujihira, Teruaki; Tsugehara, Hiromi; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Hanyu, Haruo

    2017-09-01

    We have recently developed and validated a screening test for comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). We investigated the prevalence of geriatric problems in elderly inpatients using CGA, and determined the relationship between geriatric problems and cognitive decline. We enrolled consecutive elderly inpatients aged >65 years who were admitted to all of the hospital departments at Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between July and December 2013. We investigated the prevalence of specific geriatric problems or situations in elderly inpatients using a screening test for CGA named "Dr. SUPERMAN." We examined 3969 elderly inpatients (2211 men and 1758 women; mean age 75.5 ± 6.7 years) using CGA. Inpatients were divided into three groups by age, namely, 65-74 years, 75-84 years and ≥85 years. Inpatients were divided into the two groups of "internal medicine" and "other departments." Geriatric problems were more frequently found in patients who were aged ≥85 years and admitted to "internal medicine" departments. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis found cognitive decline significantly correlated with ADL decline, age, poor medication adherence, upper and lower extremity function disorder, visual/auditory disorder, and urinary disorder. In particular, cognitive decline strongly correlated with a decline in activities of daily living. CGA should be considered for the treatment of elderly inpatients, particularly those with cognitive decline and admitted to "internal medicine" departments. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1252-1256. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Effects of a Student-Reads-Aloud Accommodation on the Performance of Students with and without Learning Disabilities on a Test of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaum, Batya; Arguelles, Maria Elena; Campbell, Yvonne; Saleh, Maya Bardawil

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of a student-reads-aloud accommodation on the performance of middle school and high school students with and without learning disabilities (LD) on a test of reading comprehension. Data for the analyses came from 311 students (n = 230 with LD) who took alternate forms of a reading test in a standard and an…

  16. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  17. Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Robert O'Connor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206 to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signalling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterised by standard recognition memory task performance.

  18. Utility of Green's Word Memory Test Free Recall Subtest as a Measure of Verbal Memory: Initial Evidence from a Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Osborn, Katie E; Mattingly, Michelle L; Vale, Fernando L; Benbadis, Selim R; Rodgers-Neame, Nancy T; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the Word Memory Test (WMT) Free Recall (FR) subtest as a conventional memory measure. Nineteen participants with pharmacoresistant left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and 16 with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) completed the WMT, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition Logical Memory (LM) subtest during presurgical evaluation. LTLE participants performed significantly worse on FR subtest (p < .05, [Formula: see text]) and RAVLT Trial 7 (p < .01, [Formula: see text]), but not on LM subtest. Age was a significant covariate for FR (p < .01, [Formula: see text]). Logistic regression revealed FR plus age and RAVLT age-adjusted T-scores both yielded 77.1% classification accuracy and respective diagnostic odds ratios of 11.36 and 11.84. Receiver operating characteristic curves to classify seizure laterality found that RAVLT and FR were significant (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82 and 0.74), whereas LM was nonsignificant (AUC = 0.67). Cut scores and positive/negative predictive values were established for improved clinical classification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pop-Out Effect of Negative Words in a Word-Grid-Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roja Palma de Figueiredo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environment is very complex, as there are many different stimuli that evoke attention, and therefore demands different adaptive reactions. Quick responses to upcoming danger are essential for survival. Highly negative stimuli contain alarm signals that cause an attentional shift toward the stimulus. Past research indicates that high arousal negative words lead to faster reaction times in a Lexical Decision Task. This study tested whether these words can be found faster in a word grid task. Therefore we tested 56 participants who had to find words seen before within a word grid task. Our results show that participants found high arousal negative words faster than high arousal positive or neutral words. This might suggest a pop-out effect for the high arousal negative words within the word grid.

  20. Atypical performance patterns on Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Color-Word Interference Test: Cognitive switching and learning ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative strengths in semantic fluency and learning.

  1. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  2. Examining incidental word learning during reading in children: The role of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Holly; Nation, Kate

    2018-02-01

    From mid-childhood onward, children learn hundreds of new words every year incidentally through reading. Yet little is known about this process and the circumstances in which vocabulary acquisition is maximized. We examined whether encountering novel words in semantically diverse, rather than semantically uniform, contexts led to better learning. Children aged 10 and 11years read sentences containing novel words while their eye movements were monitored. Results showed a reduction in reading times over exposure for all children, but especially for those with good reading comprehension. There was no difference in reading times or in offline post-test performance for words encountered in semantically diverse and uniform contexts, but diversity did interact with reading comprehension skill. Contextual informativeness also affected reading behavior. We conclude that children acquire word knowledge from incidental reading, that children with better comprehension skills are more efficient and competent learners, and that although varying the semantic diversity of the reading episodes did not improve learning per se in our laboratory manipulation of diversity, diversity does affect reading behavior in less direct ways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The differential relations between verbal, numerical and spatial working memory abilities and children's reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Oakhill

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relations between children's reading skills and working memory (WM abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading comprehension and reading accuracy. Tests of word reading accuracy and reading comprehension, and working memory tests in three different modalities (verbal, numerical and spatial, were given to 197 6- to 11-year old children. The results support the view that working memory tasks that require the processing and recall of symbolic information (words and numbers are better predictors of reading comprehension than tasks that require visuo-spatial storage and processing. The different measures of verbal and numerical working memory were not equally good predictors of reading comprehension, but their predictive power depended on neither the word vs. numerical contrast nor the complexity of the processing component. In general, performance on the verbal and numerical working memory tasks predicted reading comprehension, but not reading accuracy, and spatial WM did not predict either. The patterns of relations between the measures of working memory and reading comprehension ability were relatively constant across the age group tested.

  4. The differential relations between verbal, numerical and spatial working memory abilitiesand children's reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane OAKHILL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the relationsbetween children's reading skills and working memory (WM abilities in 3 modalities, extends previous work by including measures of both reading comprehension and reading accuracy. Tests of word reading accuracy and reading comprehension, and working memory tests in three different modalities(verbal, numerical and spatial, were given to 197 6- to 11-year old children. The results support the view that working memory tasks that require the processing and recall of symbolic information (words and numbers are better predictors of reading comprehension than tasks that require visuo-spatial storage and processing. The different measures of verbal and numerical working memory were not equally good predictors of reading comprehension, but their predictive power depended on neitherthe word vs. numerical contrast nor the complexity of the processing component. In general, performance on the verbal and numerical working memory tasks predicted reading comprehension, but not reading accuracy, and spatial WM did not predict either. The patterns of relations between the measures of working memory and reading comprehension ability were relatively constant across theage group tested.

  5. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  6. The Colour of Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Bernice Lever

    Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can…

  7. Chi-Square Test of Word of Mouth Marketing with Impact on the Evaluation of Patients' Hospital and Services: An Application in Teaching and Research Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda ŞENER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, using data provided from 223 inpatients in a teaching and research hospital, hospital’s preference is to explain the effect of word of mouth marketing. For this purpose, word of mouth marketing process is evaluated in terms of providing information about the hospital and the patient’s level of intimacy, both of patients and information provider’s level of expertise with related to hospital and services, the patient’s perceived level of risk for hospitals and services and providing information’s level of impact on patient being treated in hospital. The obtain data, after evaluation by frequency distributions these factors impact on word of mouth marketing is demonstrated by descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis and pearson’s correlation analysis. As a result of this study is concluded word of mouth marketing on the training and research hospital is preferred by the patints to have a significant impact.

  8. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  9. Performance on the Green Word Memory Test following Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom-era military service: Test failure is related to evaluation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cortney L; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; McDonald, Scott D; Campbell, Thomas C; Tupler, Larry A

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates prior reports of high neuropsychological symptom validity test (SVT) failure rates in post-deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) active and veteran military personnel, using a large, multi-site sample (N = 214) drawn from three levels of the Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma System of Care. The sample failure rate and its relationship to research versus dual research/clinical context of evaluation were examined, in addition to secondary variables explored in prior studies. Results yielded an overall failure rate of 25%, lower than prior reports describing OEF/OIF active-duty and veteran military personnel. Findings also supported the hypothesis that SVT failure rates would differ by context (dual > research). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed more frequently than those without TBI in the dual context but not in the research context. Secondary analyses revealed that failure rates increased in the presence of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and male sex but were unrelated to active versus veteran military status, service connection (SC) or percentage of SC, age, education, or ethnicity. Further research is required to elucidate the underpinnings of these findings in light of the limited literature and variability between OEF/OIF-related SVT studies, as well as the substantial diagnostic and treatment implications for VA.

  10. A Factor Analytic Approach to the Validation of the Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering as Measures of Effort and Not Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Thaler, Nicholas S; Linck, John F; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Miller, Brian; Romesser, Jennifer; Sim, Anita H

    2015-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the utility of performance validity tests (PVTs) as a method of determining adequate effort during a neuropsychological evaluation. Although some studies affirm that forced-choice PVTs measure effort rather than memory, doubts remain in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between effort and memory variables in a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) sample (n = 160) by separating memory and effort as distinct factors while statistically controlling for the shared covariance between the variables. A two-factor solution was extracted such that the five PVT variables loaded on Factor 1 and the four memory variables loaded on Factor 2. The pattern matrix, which controls for the covariance between variables, provided clear support of two highly distinct factors with minimal cross-loadings. Our findings support assertions that PVTs measure effort independent of memory in veterans with mild TBI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  12. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  13. Early Prediction of Reading Comprehension within the Simple View Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Herrera, Sarah; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner

    2015-01-01

    The simple view of reading proposes that reading comprehension is the product of word reading and language comprehension. In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge,…

  14. Finding Words and Word Structure in Artificial Speech: The Development of Infants' Sensitivity to Morphosyntactic Regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve language proficiency, infants must find the building blocks of speech and master the rules governing their legal combinations. However, these problems are linked: words are also built according to rules. Here, we explored early morphosyntactic sensitivity by testing when and how infants could find either words or within-word structure…

  15. Reading Skill and Word Skipping: Implications for Visual and Linguistic Accounts of Word Skipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether high-skill readers skip more words than low-skill readers as a result of parafoveal processing differences based on reading skill. We manipulated foveal load and word length, two variables that strongly influence word skipping, and measured reading skill using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. We found that reading skill did…

  16. The Effect of Colour-Word Interference on Children's Memory for Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliet, Gineva M.

    The Stroop color-word test involves a conflict situation in which subjects are asked to say aloud the ink color used to print a color word on a card. Interference occurs when the ink color is in conflict with the color word, such as 'red' printed in green ink. On the other hand, little interference occurs when asked to name the color words…

  17. Bedtime Stories in English: Field-Testing Comprehensible Input Materials for Natural Second-Language Acquisition in Japanese Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prototype of a new type of bilingual picture book was field-tested with two sets of mother-son subject pairs. This picture book was designed as a possible tool for providing children with comprehensible input during their critical period for second language acquisition. Context is provided by visual cues and both Japanese and…

  18. Comprehension of Written Grammar Test: Reliability and Known-Groups Validity Study with Hearing and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.; Millhoff, Courtney; Mazlouman, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to gather validation evidence for the "Comprehension of Written Grammar" (CWG; Easterbrooks, 2010) receptive test of 26 grammatical structures of English print for use with children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH). Reliability and validity data were collected for 98 participants (49 DHH and 49…

  19. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Second Edition (CTONI-2) normative sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analytic techniques that were not reported in the in the CTONI-2 "Examiner's Manual". Results…

  20. Use of the NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Examination as a Progress Test in the Preclerkship Curriculum of a New Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa R.; Khalil, Mohammed K.; Peppler, Richard D.; Davey, Diane D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we describe the innovative use of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Examination (CBSE) as a progress test during the preclerkship medical curriculum. The main aim of this study was to provide external validation of internally developed multiple-choice assessments in a new medical…

  1. Measuring word identification skills and related variables in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenBos, KP; Spelberg, HCL; Leong, CK; Joshi, RM

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter a simple definition of dyslexia is adopted: Ward identification ability below a certain performance criterion on a suitable word identification test. In Study 1, the research focus is on two word identification tests, a real-word test (RWT) and a pseudoword test (PWT). The question

  2. Performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test and electrodermal responsiveness after acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD Desempenho de pacientes esquizofrênicos no Stroop Color Word Test e responsividade eletrodérmica após administração aguda de canabidiol (CBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. C. Hallak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The last decade has seen increasing evidence of dysfunctions in the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia and of its relationship with the typical cognitive impairment of the disorder. Studies in animal models, healthy volunteers, and psychotic patients clearly suggest an antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol. This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol on selective attention in 28 schizophrenic patients using the Stroop Color Word Test and on these patients' electrodermal responsiveness to auditive stimuli. METHOD: The subjects attended two experimental sessions, the first one without the administration of drugs. In the second session the subjects were divided into three groups that received either a single dose of cannabidiol 300mg or cannabidiol 600mg or placebo. RESULTS: The three groups did not differ significantly with respect to electrodermal measures in the two experimental sessions. When the first and second sessions were compared improved performance was found in all three groups, with patients who received placebo and cannabidiol 300mg performing better than those who received cannabidiol 600mg. CONCLUSION: The single, acute administration of cannabidiol seems to have no beneficial effects on the performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test, although the hypothesis that chronic administration may lead to improvement cannot be disregarded.OBJETIVO: Descobertas relativas a possíveis disfunções do sistema canabinóide endógeno na esquizofrenia e sua relação com o prejuízo cognitivo característico da doença têm aumentado durante a última década. Estudos com modelos animais, voluntários saudáveis e pacientes psicóticos sugerem claramente que o canabidiol possui efeitos antipsicóticos. Este estudo investigou os efeitos do canabidiol sobre a atenção seletiva por meio do Stroop Color Word Test e a responsividade eletrodérmica a estímulos auditivos em 28 pacientes com

  3. Assessing Comprehension During Reading with the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Joseph P; Millis, Keith K; Levinstein, Irwin

    2011-08-01

    Comprehension emerges as the results of inference and strategic processes that support the construction of a coherent mental model for a text. However, the vast majority of comprehension skills tests adopt a format that does not afford an assessment of these processes as they operate during reading. This study assessed the viability of the Reading Strategy Assessment Tool (RSAT), which is an automated computer-based reading assessment designed to measure readers' comprehension and spontaneous use of reading strategies while reading texts. In the tool, readers comprehend passages one sentence at a time, and are asked either an indirect ("What are your thoughts regarding your understanding of the sentence in the context of the passage?") or direct (e.g., why X?) question after reading each pre-selected target sentence. The answers to the indirect questions are analyzed on the extent that they contain words associated with comprehension processes. The answers to direct questions are coded for the number of content words in common with an ideal answer, which is intended to be an assessment of emerging comprehension. In the study, the RSAT approach was shown to predict measures of comprehension comparable to standardized tests. The RSAT variables were also shown to correlate with human ratings. The results of this study constitute a "proof of concept" and demonstrate that it is possible to develop a comprehension skills assessment tool that assesses both comprehension and comprehension strategies.

  4. Reading comprehension and vocabulary:is vocabulary more important for some aspects of comprehension?

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Kate; Oakhill, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vocabulary breadth (number of words known) and vocabulary depth (what is known about those words) on different aspects of text comprehension was examined in 83 10- to 11-year-olds. Vocabulary was not an important predictor of comprehension for details explicitly stated in the text. In contrast, vocabulary was related to inference making and, in particular, measures of vocabulary that assessed what was known about individual words predicted unique variance in global coherence ...

  5. Understanding How Syntactic Awareness Contributes to Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Mediation and Longitudinal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Kieffer, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The authors tested theoretically driven predictions as to the ways in which syntactic awareness, or awareness of word order within sentences, might contribute to reading comprehension, the end goal of reading development and instruction. They conducted a longitudinal study of 100 English-speaking children followed from Grade 3 to 4. Children…

  6. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Reading Comprehension in Early Stages of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Sarid, Miri; Raveh, Michal; Nevo, Einat

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of morphological awareness to reading comprehension in Hebrew was studied in 298 second grade students who practiced two types of inflections, plural and possessive. Reading tasks at the beginning and end of the school year indicated that all improved on all tests in that period. Orthographic word recognition and morphological…

  7. Toddlers Use the Number Feature in Determiners during Online Noun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Erin K.; Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2012-01-01

    Function words support many aspects of language acquisition. This study investigated whether toddlers understand the number feature of determiners and use it for noun comprehension. French offers an ideal "test case" as number is phonetically marked in determiners but not in nouns. Twenty French-learning 24-month-olds completed a split-screen…

  8. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  9. Comprehension or comprehending? Using Critical Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a critique of current approaches to the teaching of reading comprehension in South African classrooms. It is argued that the genre of the school reading comprehension exercise is a prime inculcator of thoughtless and non-interactive reading practices. Doing 'a comprehension' (the word is often ...

  10. Retuning of Lexical-Semantic Representations: Repetition and Spacing Effects in Word-Meaning Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Hannah N; Gilbert, Rebecca A; Cai, Zhenguang G; Okedara, Zainab B; Rodd, Jennifer M

    2017-12-28

    Current models of word-meaning access typically assume that lexical-semantic representations of ambiguous words (e.g., 'bark of the dog/tree') reach a relatively stable state in adulthood, with only the relative frequencies of meanings and immediate sentence context determining meaning preference. However, recent experience also affects interpretation: recently encountered word-meanings become more readily available (Rodd et al., 2016, 2013). Here, 3 experiments investigated how multiple encounters with word-meanings influence the subsequent interpretation of these ambiguous words. Participants heard ambiguous words contextually-disambiguated towards a particular meaning and, after a 20- to 30-min delay, interpretations of the words were tested in isolation. We replicate the finding that 1 encounter with an ambiguous word biased the later interpretation of this word towards the primed meaning for both subordinate (Experiments 1, 2, 3) and dominant meanings (Experiment 1). In addition, for the first time, we show cumulative effects of multiple repetitions of both the same and different meanings. The effect of a single subordinate exposure persisted after a subsequent encounter with the dominant meaning, compared to a dominant exposure alone (Experiment 1). Furthermore, 3 subordinate word-meaning repetitions provided an additional boost to priming compared to 1, although only when their presentation was spaced (Experiments 2, 3); massed repetitions provided no such boost (Experiments 1, 3). These findings indicate that comprehension is guided by the collective effect of multiple recently activated meanings and that the spacing of these activations is key to producing lasting updates to the lexical-semantic network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  12. Tracking word semantic change in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Zhu, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Up to this point, research on written scholarly communication has focused primarily on syntactic, rather than semantic, analyses. Consequently, we have yet to understand semantic change as it applies to disciplinary discourse. The objective of this study is to illustrate word semantic change in biomedical literature. To that end, we identify a set of representative words in biomedical literature based on word frequency and word-topic probability distributions. A word2vec language model is then applied to the identified words in order to measure word- and topic-level semantic changes. We find that for the selected words in PubMed, overall, meanings are becoming more stable in the 2000s than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. At the topic level, the global distance of most topics (19 out of 20 tested) is declining, suggesting that the words used to discuss these topics are stabilizing semantically. Similarly, the local distance of most topics (19 out of 20) is also declining, showing that the meanings of words from these topics are becoming more consistent with those of their semantic neighbors. At the word level, this paper identifies two different trends in word semantics, as measured by the aforementioned distance metrics: on the one hand, words can form clusters with their semantic neighbors, and these words, as a cluster, coevolve semantically; on the other hand, words can drift apart from their semantic neighbors while nonetheless stabilizing in the global context. In relating our work to language laws on semantic change, we find no overwhelming evidence to support either the law of parallel change or the law of conformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Cutting, Laurie E; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2009-10-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In contrast, number and letter pause variability were predictors of comprehension. Results support analysis of subcomponents of RAN and add to literature emphasizing intraindividual variability as a marker for response preparation, which has relevance to reading comprehension.

  14. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  15. Chi-Square Test of Word of Mouth Marketing with Impact on the Evaluation of Patients' Hospital and Services: An Application in Teaching and Research Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENER, Yelda; BEHDİOĞLU, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study, using data provided from 223 inpatients in a teaching and research hospital, hospital’s preference is to explain the effect of word of mouth marketing. For this purpose, word of mouth marketing process is evaluated in terms of providing information about the hospital and the patient’s level of intimacy, both of patients and information provider’s level of expertise with related to hospital and services, the patient’s perceived level of risk for hospitals and service...

  16. MOJIBAKE – The Rehearsal of Word Fragments In Verbal Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christiane eLange-Küttner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005. In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF English words versus geographical UK town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT non-words and names of international (INT European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  17. Mojibake - The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the 'grain size' of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  18. One picture or a thousand words? Influence of question length and illustration support on the success and skip rates on online tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest REDONDO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of automatically graded online tests, either as an evaluation or self-assessment tool in online or blended education, demands a review of how these questions are designed and delivered to their intended audience. This paper analyzes the results of over 20,000 pre-university mock online quizzes designed to train the students for the Spanish university admission test (known as “Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad” or “Selectividad” in the technical drawing subject, corresponding to the June and September intakes of 2009 and 2015. The influence of two key aspects on the questions success and skip rates is assessed: (a the presence or absence of illustration support and (b the length of the question as a proxy of reading comprehension difficulty. The results support that the presence of an accompanying illustration in the questions result in fewer skipped questions and mode successful answers, while the length of the question has the opposite effect. The performance difference in the 6-year span is also discussed, showing a slight decline over time in the pass rates while the skip rates remain stable. When comparing both two intakes, corresponding to different academic profiles of students that passed the June exam and those who did not, the success ratio is unsurprisingly lower for the students in the second intake. These findings should help improving the design of online quizzes, including more visual content and/or rephrasing the questions to be more concise, to fit the requirements of students educated in a more visual environment of multimedia technologies.

  19. The role of accessibility of semantic word knowledge in monolingual and bilingual fifth-grade reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of word decoding, availability and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual (n=65) and bilingual children (n=70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to reading

  20. The role of accessibility of semantic word knowledge in monolingual and bilingual fifth-grade reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of word decoding, availability, and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual (n = 65) and bilingual children (n = 70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to

  1. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH IINTERACTIVE READ-ALOUD TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santoso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study, entitled Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Interactive Read-Aloud, attempts to unlock problems found in teaching and reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud in a Senior High School of Sport (SMAN Olah Raga Lampung, in Metro. The findings revealed that students’ reading comprehension improved through interactive read-aloud. The improvement can be seen from the increase of test results, meaning construction, and motivation. The process of reading activities showed that the teacher’s gesture and body language, 20 questions, explain and guess activities were proven to help the students construct meaning from the given texts. In addition, interactive read-aloud is effective to boost students’ motivation to comprehend the texts.   Key words: Reading comprehension, interactive read-aloud.

  3. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  4. Test Review: Exner, J. E. (2003). "The Rorschach: A Comprehensive System" (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive System for the Rorschach is a major work in psychology that continues to evolve. The Basic Foundations text (Exner, 1974, 1986, 1993, 2003) is now in its fourth edition. The Exner system and the Rorschach have been the subjects of extensive research and publications, and the Exner system has its share of proponents and critics.…

  5. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  6. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  7. Lexical processing during saccades in text comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Kiyomi; Pickering, Martin J; McDonald, Scott A

    2009-02-01

    We asked whether people process words during saccades when reading sentences. Irwin (1998) demonstrated that such processing occurs when words are presented in isolation. In our experiment, participants read part of a sentence ending in a high- or low-frequency target word and then made a long (40 degrees) or short (10 degrees) saccade to the rest of the sentence. We found a frequency effect on the target word and the first word after the saccade, but the effect was greater for short than for long saccades. Readers therefore performed more lexical processing during long saccades than during short ones. Hence, lexical processing takes place during saccades in text comprehension.

  8. Capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Gabriela Juliane; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2017-06-08

    To investigate the capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Brazilian Elementary School students. Fifty-three Elementary students in the 5th and 9th grades from two Public Schools in the city of São Paulo were assessed. They were selected based on their oral reading rate and grouped according to their performance in reading comprehension in the following categories: Group with best comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy, without difficulties in reading comprehension; Group with worst comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy but with difficulties in reading comprehension. Two narrative texts followed by eight questions to assess reading comprehension were presented. Two sentences and two words were replaced by ungrammatical elements and pseudo-words. Under the condition of spontaneous monitoring, students read the text aloud and answered the questions. The analysis considered the calculation of hesitation, self-correction, repetitions and mistakes. Under the condition of directed monitoring, students were instructed to read the text, either aloud or silently, after being told that certain parts of the text could not make sense, and they were oriented to underline such parts. The analysis was carried out by counting of underlined items. The comparisons were made with the Mann-Whitney test. A difference was observed between the groups only at the sentence level among the 9th grade schoolchildren under the spontaneous monitoring and among the 5th grade schoolchildren under directed monitoring. Students with worst comprehension had a poorer performance to monitor the presence of ungrammatical sentences than their peers with best comprehension.

  9. Representations of Circular Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Hegedüs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we give two different ways of representations of circular words. Representations with tuples are intended as a compact notation, while representations with trees give a way to easily process all conjugates of a word. The latter form can also be used as a graphical representation of periodic properties of finite (in some cases, infinite words. We also define iterative representations which can be seen as an encoding utilizing the flexible properties of circular words. Every word over the two letter alphabet can be constructed starting from ab by applying the fractional power and the cyclic shift operators one after the other, iteratively.

  10. Words in Sheep’s Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gabrovšek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on various types of dictionary words, i.e. infrequent and rather uncommon words often listed in comprehensive monolingual English dictionaries but virtually nonexistent in actual usage. These are typically learned derivatives of Greek or Latin origin that are given as unlabeled synonyms of everyday vocabulary items. Their inclusion seems to stem from the application of two different bits of lexicographic philosophy: great respect for matters classical and the principle of comprehensiveness. Seen from this perspective, descriptive corpus-based lexicography is still too weak. While in large native-speaker-oriented dictionaries of English such entries do not seem to cause any harm, they can be positively dangerous in EFL/ESL environments, because using them can easily lead to strange or downright incomprehensible lexical items. Learners are advised to be careful and check the status of such “dubious” items also in English monolingual learners’ dictionaries, in which dictionary words are virtually nonexistent.

  11. On the De-Common-Sense Validity of the Multiple Choice Questions in the Reading Comprehension of College English Test Band 4

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    The researcher selected 10 multiple choice questions from the Reading Comprehension of College English Test Band 4, and asked 102 freshmen and 126 postgraduates to answer the questions without reading the source passages. The result shows that the percentage of the correct choice of each of the 7 multiple choice questions out of 10 exceeds the average percentage of the 4 choices for each question. This suggests that the students’ common sense does play a role when they answer the multiple cho...

  12. How specific are specific comprehension difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading...... as measured on a phonological coding measure. However, the proportion was smaller than the often reported 10-15 % and even smaller when average sight word recognition was also set as a criterion for word reading ability. Compared to average comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ sight word recognition...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....

  13. The Effect of Teaching Reading Comprehension Skills on Translation Quality of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching reading comprehension skills on translation quality of EFL. In other words, this study sought to see if teaching reading comprehension skills had statically any significant impact translation quality of Iranian EFL learners and if yes, which reading comprehension skill was the most predictive of translation quality of  Iranian EFL learners. In order to put this study into practice, these steps were taken. First, in order to assign subjects homogeneity, an OPT (oxford placement test was given to BA students of   English Literature at Beheshti University. Then, a pre- test on translation and a pre-test on reading comprehension were given to the subjects.  In the next step, a treatment, on reading comprehension skills only, was given to the subjects. After that a test based on the treatment was given to the subjects. In the final step, two other post-tests, on reading comprehension and translation were given to the subjects to determine if teaching reading comprehension skills had any impact on translation quality of EFL subjects.  As the data represents the translation quality of EFL students although increased after they were given some treatments on their reading comprehension; the correlation between reading comprehension skills and the translation quality was not significant (0.585.

  14. The Comprehensive Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothberg, Helen M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an objective test used as the comprehensive examination in a graduate library school and discusses its advantages over essay tests. The topics covered include test construction, the use of item analysis for scoring and test revision, and student reactions to the objective test. (1 reference) (CLB)

  15. USING A PROBLEM SITUATION IN A COMPREHENSIVE TEST (BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF PREPARATION FOR INTERCULTURAL BUSINESS INTERACTIONS WITHIN THE ASIAN PACIFIC RIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina G. Dolgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: nowadays Russian people are proactively seeking cooperation with the Asian Pacific Rim. Considering this the author has developed a curricular for institutions of higher learning training students in intercultural business interaction in this region within such disciplines as “Foreign language” and “Professional foreign language”. Materials and Methods: the author puts forward a comprehensive test as a way to define the level of students’ preparedness for business interaction within the Asian Pacific Rim, to test that they understand what they learn and to identify qualitative indicators attending to acquisition of content, and development of communicative and linguistic competences, as well as such necessary characteristics as pragmatism and tolerance. The comprehensive test elaboration was based on A. A. Verbitskiy and E. E. Kreslavskaya’s method of assessing the students’ understanding of meaning and significance of information. Results: drawing upon ideas of researchers studying intercultural communication, East Asian peoples’ values, region’s social, cultural and economic problems, the author proposes some special direction for the learning process – it should orient the Far Eastern students to take into consideration values, behaviours, mental and cultural specifics of partners from China, Korea, Japan and other neighboring countries in the business interaction. It is impossible to subdivide such interaction into professional and social spheres, so the author has chosen a problem situation to be a basic form for organising the learning process. The prob- lem situations of the social and professional character have been taken from East Asia business practices. Discussion and Conclusions: to solve the problem how to check students’ understanding of the learning information, the author has developed a comprehensive test where a problem situation is also used. The paper’s objective is to show how these

  16. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  17. Time flies when we read taboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Jason

    2010-08-01

    Does time fly or stand still when one is reading highly arousing words? A temporal bisection task was used to test the effects of sexual taboo words on time perception. Forty participants judged the duration of sexual taboo, high-arousal negative, high-arousal positive, low-arousal negative, low-arousal positive, and category-related neutral words. The results support the hypothesis that sexual taboo stimuli receive more attention and reduce the perceived time that has passed ("time flies")-the duration of high sexual taboo words was underestimated for taboo-word stimuli relative to all other word types. The findings are discussed in the context of internal clock theories of time perception.

  18. Impact of reading purpose on incidental word learning from context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanborn, MSL; de Glopper, Kees

    Children read texts for various reasons. We examined how reading texts for different purposes affected amounts of incidental word learning. Grade 6 students were asked to read texts for fun, to learn about the topic of the text, and for text comprehension. Proportions of words learned incidentally

  19. Contextual influences on spoken-word processing : an electrophysiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, D. van den

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into spoken-word comprehension and the influence of sentence-contextual information on these processes using ERPs. By manipulating critical words in semantically constraining sententes, in semantic or syntactic sense, and examining the consequences in

  20. Complex Word Reading in Dutch Deaf Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to…