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Sample records for wood-apple feronia limonia

  1. Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (Elephant apple; Hindi-Kaithbelj is a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (Elephant apple; Hindi-Kaithbelj is a deciduous thorny tree with aromatic leaves and small white flowers. Fruits are large, globose ofthe size of tennis balls with a hard shell. The pulp of ripe fruit is sweet and edible. The gum exudate from the tree is used in dying and coloring. The wood is made ...

  2. Identifikasi Komponen Minyak Atsiri Daun Kawista (Feronia limonia dengan Metode Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS

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    Saadatul Husna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a vast variety of plants species which largely unexplored. Several researches have conducted to explore the potentials of the plants. However, the chemical constituents of Kawista plant have not been widely investigated. This study aimed to identify the components of the essential oil from Kawista leaves (Feronia limonia. This study consisted of two stages, namely the extraction of essential oil by distillation method and the analysis of the essential oil components by GC-MS method. The results showed that there are sixteen volatile components in the essential oil of Kawista leaves (Feronia limonia. They are 3-pentanol, 1-methyl siklopenatnol, 3methyl siklopentanol, 1,1-dimethyl 2-propenol, 4-tujanol, 2 methyl 3buten-2-ol, 1-(2-oksiranil etanon, 2-heksanon, 1-butanone cyclohexyl, 3-methyl 2 pentanon, 1-heksanal, 2-heksenal, 1-ethyl acetaldehyde, 2,5-tetrahidrodimethyl furan and γ-terpinen.

  3. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution with adsorption technique using Limonia acidissima (wood apple shell as low cost adsorbent

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    Ashish S. Sartape

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the use of low-cost, abundantly available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbent wood apple shell (WAS has been reported as an alternative to the current expensive methods of removing of malachite green (MG dye from aqueous solution. The effects of different variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, contact time, temperature etc. were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The Langmuir isotherm model has given a better conformity than the Freundlich model with 80.645 mg/g as maximum adsorption capacity at 299 K. The adsorption of MG on WAS was confirmed by FTIR, SEM study, as it showed the change in characterization before and after adsorption. It was found that the Lagergren’s model could be used for the prediction of the system’s kinetics, while intraparticle diffusion study and Boyd plot were used to furnish the mechanistic study. Thermodynamic study concluded the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption. Present investigation and comparison with other reported adsorbents concluded that, WAS may be applied as a low-cost attractive option for removal of MG from aqueous solution.

  4. Development of Wood Apple Shell (Feronia acidissima Powder Biosorbent and Its Application for the Removal of Cd(II from Aqueous Solution

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    Ch. Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosorbent was prepared by using wood apple shell (WAS powder and studied its application for the removal of Cd(II from aqueous solution by a batch method. The biosorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. WAS is principally made up of lignin and cellulose, containing functional groups such as alcoholic, ketonic, and carboxylic groups which can be involved in complexation reactions with Cd(II. The effect of experimental parameters like initial pH, contact time, metal ion concentration, and sorbent dose on adsorption was investigated. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cd(II onto WAS was found to be pH 5.0 and the quantitative removal of Cd(II ions was achieved in 30 min. The kinetic study showed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate. Experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Desorption studies were carried out using HCl solution.

  5. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Limonia elephantum leaves

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    K. Kamalakannan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Limonia elephantum (wood apple has been widely used in an Indian folk medicine system. In the present study, the acute toxicity studies were carried out to determine the safety of the compounds in liver diseases. The antioxidant and the hepatoprotective properties of the L. elephantum are evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Liver superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, catalase levels and serum biochemical profile such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and total protein were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. The results of the present studies strongly indicate that the higher dose (400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of L. elephantum proved against hepatoprotective effects and also the antioxidant properties.

  6. Effect of Filler Loading on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Wood Apple Shell Reinforced Epoxy Composite

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    Ojha Shakuntala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, natural fibers and particulates are used as reinforcement in polymer composite that has been continuously growing in the composite industry. This polymer matrix composite has wide range of applications in hostile environment where they are exposed to external attacks such as solid particle erosion. Also, the mechanical properties of different polymer composites show the best alternate to replace the metal material. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to improve the mechanical and tribological behaviour of polymer matrix composite using wood apple shell particles as a filler material in polymer matrix. Also the temperature variation of the dynamic-mechanical parameters of epoxy matrix composites incorporated with 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% of wood apple shell particles was investigated by DMA test. It is clearly observed that the incorporation of wood apple shell particles tends to increase the tensile strength, flexural strength, erosive wear resistance, and viscoelastic stiffness of the polymer composite. To validate the results, SEM of the polymer matrix composite has been studied.

  7. Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutaceae) which has long been used traditionally for various infectious and malignant diseases. Methods: The fruit extract of Limonia acidissima Linn was obtained by macerating 3 times with methanol and then concentrating it at reduced pressure.

  8. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of fruit pulp of limonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: MELA exhibited significant dose dependant protective effect against CCl4 induced liver damage which can be mainly attributed to the antioxidant property of the extract. This study rationalized the ethno-medicinal use of the plant for curing hepatic injuries. Keywords: Limonia acidissima, hepatoprotective, carbon

  9. SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF FERONIA COGNATA DEJEAN, 1831 (COLEOPTERA, CARABIDAE

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    Borislav V. Guéorguiev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The type material of Feronia cognata Dejean, 1831, Steropus schmidtii Chaudoir, 1838 and Pterostichus placidus W. Rosenhauer, 1847 is examined. This action resulted into new combinations, new synonym, and restored status in terms of the genera Pterostichus Bonelli, 1810 and Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858: Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus cognatus (Dejean, 1831, comb. nov. of Pterostichus (Pseudosteropus cognatus (Dejean, 1831; Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus kaufmanni Ganglbauer, 1896, syn. nov. of Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus cognatus (Dejean, 1831; Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus cognatus transsylvanicus Mandl, 1936, comb. nov. of Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus kaufmanni transsylvanicus Mandl, 1936; Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus cognatus kalofi­rensis Maran, 1933, comb. nov. of Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus kaufmanni kalofirensis Maran, 1933; Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus cognatus winkleri Mandl, 1936, comb. nov. of Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus kaufmanni winkleri Mandl, 1936; Steropus schmidtii Chaudoir, 1838 removed from synonymy with Feronia cognata Dejean, 1831 and treated as valid species - Pterostichus (Pseudosteropus schmidtii (Chaudoir, 1838, stat. rest. Lectotype and paralectotypes for Steropus schmidtii Chaudoir, 1838 are designated.

  10. In vitro Antibacterial Activity Analysis of Leaves of Limonia acidissima

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    Gandi Kishore NAIDU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Limonia acidissima. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and five Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae by agar well diffusion method. Methanol extract showed good antibacterial activity with the high inhibition zones while chloroform extract exhibited mild to moderate activity and hexane extract was found to be less active. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites like steroids, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins and triterpenoids. The results of the present study suggest that leaves of Limonia acidissima can be used to treating infectious diseases caused by E. coli, P. vulgarisand S. pneumoniae.

  11. Wound healing and anti-oxidant activities of the fruit pulp of limonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The fruits of Limonia acidissima Linn are used traditionally in India for the treatment of tumours, asthma, wounds, cardiac debility and hepatitis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of the methanol extract of its fruit pulp (MELA) in incision, excision and dead-space wound ...

  12. FERONIA/FER-like Receptor Kinases Integrate and Modulate Multiple Signaling Pathways in Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Yan, Jiaqi; Jia, Wensuo

    2017-12-07

    Ripening of fleshy fruits is a complex process that involves dramatic changes in color, texture, flavor, and aroma, which is essentially regulated by multiple hormone signals. Although the metabolic mechanisms for the regulation of fruit development and ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process. FERONIA has been increasingly suggested to be implicated in multiple signaling pathways. In a recent publication, we showed that a FERONIA/FER -like receptor kinase, FaMRLK47, playes an important role in the regulation of fruit ripening in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, a typical non-climacteric fruit) fruit. Over-expression orRNAi-mediated down regulation of FaMRLK47 caused a delay or acceleration, respectively, of fruit ripening progress. Meanwhile, over-expression orRNAi-mediated down regulation of FaMRLK47 caused a decrease or increase, respectively, in the ABA-induced expression of a series of ripening-related genes. More recently, we also found that MdFERL1, a FERONIA/FER-like receptor kinase in tomato plant, was implicated in the regulation of tomato fruit ripening via modulating ethylene production. We propose that FERONIA/FER-like receptor kinases may function to regulate fruit development and ripening via integrate multiple signaling pathways in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits.

  13. In vitro organogenesis optimization and plantlet regeneration in Citrus sinensis and C. limonia

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    Almeida Weliton Antonio Bastos de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous genes can be introduced in plants by genetic transformation techniques. However, an efficient tissue culture system with high rates of plant recovery is necessary for gene introduction. This work aimed to define organogenesis and plant regeneration protocols for sweet orange varieties Natal, Valencia and Hamlin (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck which can be used in plant transformation experiments. Seeds of which teguments were removed, were germinated in vitro and maintained in the dark for three weeks, followed by one week at 16-h photoperiod (40 µmol m-2 s-1 and 27 ± 2°C. Organogenesis induction was done by introducing epicotyl segments in MT medium with 25 g L-1 sucrose and different BAP concentrations. After adventitious bud growth, the shoots were transferred to MT medium with either NAA or IBA (1 mg L-1, or absence of auxin, for rooting. The best results were obtained with 1 mg L-1 BAP for bud induction and 1 mg L-1 IBA for rooting for all three sweet orange cultivars. The use of 0.5-2.5 mg L-1 BAP, followed by 1 mg L-1 IBA were the best growth regulator combinations for bud induction and rooting, respectively, for 'Rangpur' lime. The protocols presented in this work are suitable for associations with genetic transformation experiments for these cultivars.

  14. A FERONIA-Like Receptor Kinase Regulates Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Fruit Ripening and Quality Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Meiru; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qing; Xing, Sinian; Wei, Lingzhi; Zhao, Yaoyao; Du, Ping; Mao, Wenwen; Li, Jizheng; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2017-01-01

    Ripening of fleshy fruits is controlled by a series of intricate signaling processes. Here, we report a FERONIA/FER-like receptor kinase, FaMRLK47, that regulates both strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit ripening and quality formation. Overexpression and RNAi-mediated downregulation of FaMRLK47 delayed and accelerated fruit ripening, respectively. We showed that FaMRLK47 physically interacts with FaABI1, a negative regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, and demonstrated that FaMRLK47 regulates fruit ripening by modulating ABA signaling, a major pathway governing strawberry fruit ripening. In accordance with these findings, overexpression and RNAi-mediated downregulation of FaMRLK47 caused a decrease and increase, respectively, in the ABA-induced expression of a series of ripening-related genes. Additionally, overexpression and RNAi-mediated downregulation of FaMRLK47 resulted in an increase and decrease in sucrose content, respectively, as compared with control fruits, and respectively promoted and inhibited the expression of genes in the sucrose biosynthesis pathway (FaSS and FaSPS). Collectively, this study demonstrates that FaMRLK47 is an important regulator of strawberry fruit ripening and quality formation, and sheds light on the signaling mechanisms underlying strawberry fruit development and ripening. PMID:28702036

  15. Schistosomicidal Effects of the Essential Oils of Citrus limonia and Citrus reticulata Against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Moara H G; Fracarolli, Letícia; Vieira, Tatiana M; Dias, Herbert J; Cruz, Michele G; Deus, Cássia C H; Nicolella, Heloiza D; Stefani, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2017-01-01

    We report the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil obtained from Citrus limonia leaves (CL-EO) and C. reticulata fruit peels (CR-EO), cultivated in Brazil, against Schistosoma mansoni worms. Limonene (29.9%), β-pinene (12.0%), sabinene (9.0%), citronellal (9.0%), and citronellol (5.8%) are the major constituents of CL-EO; limonene (26.5%), γ-terpinene (17.2%), linalool (11.1%), octanal (8.0%), myrcene (6.2%), and capraldehyde (3.9%) predominate in CR-EO. CL-EO displayed moderate lethal concentration 50% (LC50 ) of 81.7 and 38.9 μg/ml against male and female worms at 24 and 72 h, respectively. At concentrations of 25 and 100 μg/ml, CL-EO separated between 50 and 75% of the coupled worm pairs during the evaluated period. CR-EO presented moderate LC50 of 81.7 μg/ml against male and female worms at 24 and 72 h. However, this oil separated coupled worm pairs more effectively than CL-EO and displayed lower cytotoxicity to GM07492-A cells (IC50 = 987.7 ± 88.9 μg/ml) as compared to CL-EO (IC50 = 187.8 ± 2.9 μg/ml). The enantiomers (+)-(R)-limonene and (-)-(S)-limonene did not affect S. mansoni adult worm pairs significantly. Taken together, these data indicate that CL-EO and CR-EO exhibit moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Two FERONIA-Like Receptor Kinases Regulate Apple Fruit Ripening by Modulating Ethylene Production

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    Meiru Jia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene has long been known to be a critical signal controlling the ripening of climacteric fruits; however, the signaling mechanism underlying ethylene production during fruit development is unknown. Here, we report that two FERONIA-like receptor kinases (FERLs regulate fruit ripening by modulating ethylene production in the climacteric fruit, apple (Malus×domestica. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the apple genome contains 14 members of the FER family (MdFERL1–17, of these 17 FERLs, MdFERL6 was expressed at the highest level in fruit. Heterologous expression of MdFERL6 or MdFERL1, the apple homolog of Arabidopsis FER, in another climacteric fruit, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit delayed ripening and suppressed ethylene production. Overexpression and antisense expression of MdFERL6 in apple fruit calli inhibited and promoted ethylene production, respectively. Additionally, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS of SlFERL1, the tomato homolog of FER, promoted tomato fruit ripening and ethylene production. Both MdFERL6 and MdFERL1 physically interacted with MdSAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase, a key enzyme in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. MdFERL6 was expressed at high levels during early fruit development, but dramatically declined when fruit ripening commenced, implying that MdFERL6 might limit ethylene production prior to fruit development and the ethylene production burst during fruit ripening. These results indicate that FERLs regulate apple and tomato fruit ripening, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying ripening in climacteric fruit.

  17. Two FERONIA-Like Receptor Kinases Regulate Apple Fruit Ripening by Modulating Ethylene Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Meiru; Du, Ping; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qing; Xing, Sinian; Wei, Lingzhi; Zhao, Yaoyao; Mao, Wenwen; Li, Jizheng; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene has long been known to be a critical signal controlling the ripening of climacteric fruits; however, the signaling mechanism underlying ethylene production during fruit development is unknown. Here, we report that two FERONIA-like receptor kinases (FERLs) regulate fruit ripening by modulating ethylene production in the climacteric fruit, apple (Malus×domestica). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the apple genome contains 14 members of the FER family (MdFERL1-17), of these 17 FERLs, MdFERL6 was expressed at the highest level in fruit. Heterologous expression of MdFERL6 or MdFERL1, the apple homolog of Arabidopsis FER, in another climacteric fruit, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit delayed ripening and suppressed ethylene production. Overexpression and antisense expression of MdFERL6 in apple fruit calli inhibited and promoted ethylene production, respectively. Additionally, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of SlFERL1, the tomato homolog of FER, promoted tomato fruit ripening and ethylene production. Both MdFERL6 and MdFERL1 physically interacted with MdSAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase), a key enzyme in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. MdFERL6 was expressed at high levels during early fruit development, but dramatically declined when fruit ripening commenced, implying that MdFERL6 might limit ethylene production prior to fruit development and the ethylene production burst during fruit ripening. These results indicate that FERLs regulate apple and tomato fruit ripening, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying ripening in climacteric fruit.

  18. A cell-free method for expressing and reconstituting membrane proteins enables functional characterization of the plant receptor-like protein kinase FERONIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Benjamin B; Makino, Shin-Ichi; Haruta, Miyoshi; Beebe, Emily T; Wrobel, Russell L; Fox, Brian G; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-04-07

    There are more than 600 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) in Arabidopsis, but due to challenges associated with the characterization of membrane proteins, only a few have known biological functions. The plant RLK FERONIA is a peptide receptor and has been implicated in plant growth regulation, but little is known about its molecular mechanism of action. To investigate the properties of this enzyme, we used a cell-free wheat germ-based expression system in which mRNA encoding FERONIA was co-expressed with mRNA encoding the membrane scaffold protein variant MSP1D1. With the addition of the lipid cardiolipin, assembly of these proteins into nanodiscs was initiated. FERONIA protein kinase activity in nanodiscs was higher than that of soluble protein and comparable with other heterologously expressed protein kinases. Truncation experiments revealed that the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain is necessary for maximal FERONIA activity, whereas the transmembrane domain is inhibitory. An ATP analogue that reacts with lysine residues inhibited catalytic activity and labeled four lysines; mutagenesis demonstrated that two of these, Lys-565 and Lys-663, coordinate ATP in the active site. Mass spectrometric phosphoproteomic measurements further identified phosphorylation sites that were examined using phosphomimetic mutagenesis. The results of these experiments are consistent with a model in which kinase-mediated phosphorylation within the C-terminal region is inhibitory and regulates catalytic activity. These data represent a step further toward understanding the molecular basis for the protein kinase catalytic activity of FERONIA and show promise for future characterization of eukaryotic membrane proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Selection of perching site background color by Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Costa Rica: implications for industrial melanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Hiller, Luis Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Observations of the increased frequency of melanic forms in moths of the genus Biston in Great Britain after the industrial revolution lead to the development of the theory of Industrial Melanism. Nonetheless, arguments against that interpretation of the experimental evidence have polarized acceptance of the concept. New evidence based on diurnal butterflies is more credible because it involves behavior that can be seen in action, during daylight, and because the natural history of the selected species is well known. An experiment was carried out in which three substrate colors (white, black, and gray) were employed to test the landing preferences of Hamadryas feronia. A marked preference was observed for landing on white and gray, and a chi-square (N=644 tests) showed evidence of a preference by males to land on white, and for females to land on gray. Black was rejected perhaps because it provides very little background matching with the butterfly's colors. The butterfly habit of perching selectively on particular color substrates is a genetically fixed behavior, where the males possibly choose white as a tactic to be noticed by females and attract them, whereas females prefer gray to enhance crypsis and avoid attracting predators.

  20. Selection of perching site background color by Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in Costa Rica: Implications for industrial melanism

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    Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the increased frequency of melanic forms in moths of the genus Biston in Great Britain after the industrial revolution lead to the development of the theory of industrial Melanism. Nonetheless, arguments against that interpretation of the experimental evidence have polarized acceptance of the concept. New evidence based on diurnal butterflies is more credible because it involves behavior that can be seen in action, during daylight, and because the natural history of the selected species is well known. An experiment was carried out in which three substrate colors (white, black, and gray were employed to test the landing preferences of Hamadryas feronia. A marked preference was observed for landing on white and gray, and a chi-square (N=644 tests showed evidence of a preference by males to land on white, and for females to land on gray. Black was rejected perhaps because it provides very little background matching with the butterfly’s colors. The butterfly habit of perching selectively on particular color substrates is a genetically fixed behavior, where the males possibly choose white as a tactic to be noticed by females and attract them, whereas females prefer gray to enhance crypsis and avoid attracting predators.Observaciones en el incremento de la frecuencia de las formas melánicas de la polilla Biston de Gran Bretaña después de la revolución industrial, llevó al desarrollo de la teoría del melanismo industrial. Sin embargo, se originaron argumentos en contra de la interpretación experimental de dicho fenómeno que llevaron a polarizar su aceptación general. Nueva evidencia basada en mariposas diurnas genera nuevas perspectivas puesto que incluye el comportamiento, que puede ser apreciado durante el día. Además, la especie seleccionada es bien conocida desde el punto de vista de su historia natural. El experimento que desarrolle consiste en tres sustratos de diferente color (blanco, negro y gris en donde se pone a

  1. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-09-13

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)-A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals.

  3. Large changes in anatomy and physiology between diploid Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) and its autotetraploid are not associated with large changes in leaf gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, Thierry; Brumos, Javier; Colmenero-Flores, Jose Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Froelicher, Yann; Talon, Manuel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2011-05-01

    Very little is known about the molecular origin of the large phenotypic differentiation between genotypes arising from somatic chromosome set doubling and their diploid parents. In this study, the anatomy and physiology of diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) seedlings has been characterized. Growth of 2x was more vigorous than 4x although leaves, stems, and roots of 4x plants were thicker and contained larger cells than 2x that may have a large impact on cell-to-cell water exchanges. Leaf water content was higher in 4x than in 2x. Leaf transcriptome expression using a citrus microarray containing 21 081 genes revealed that the number of genes differentially expressed in both genotypes was less than 1% and the maximum rate of gene expression change within a 2-fold range. Six up-regulated genes in 4x were targeted to validate microarray results by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Five of these genes were apparently involved in the response to water deficit, suggesting that, in control conditions, the genome expression of citrus autotetraploids may act in a similar way to diploids under water-deficit stress condition. The sixth up-regulated gene which codes for a histone may also play an important role in regulating the transcription of growth processes. These results show that the large phenotypic differentiation in 4x Rangpur lime compared with 2x is not associated with large changes in genome expression. This suggests that, in 4x Rangpur lime, subtle changes in gene expression may be at the origin of the phenotypic differentiation of 4x citrus when compared with 2x.

  4. Role of CrRLK1L Cell Wall Sensors HERCULES1 and 2, THESEUS1, and FERONIA in Growth Adaptation Triggered by Heavy Metals and Trace Elements

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    Julia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell walls are not only a protective barrier surrounding protoplasts but serve as signaling platform between the extracellular environment and the intracellular physiology. Ions of heavy metals and trace elements, summarized to metal ions, bind to cell wall components, trigger their modification and provoke growth responses. To examine if metal ions trigger cell wall sensing receptor like kinases (RLKs of the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L family we employed a molecular genetic approach. Quantitative transcription analyses show that HERCULES1 (HERK1, THESEUS1 (THE1, and FERONIA (FER were differently regulated by cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb. Growth responses were quantified for roots and etiolated hypocotyls of related mutants and overexpressors on Cd, copper (Cu, Ni, Pb, and zinc (Zn and revealed a complex pattern of gene specific, overlapping and antagonistic responses. Root growth was often inversely affected to hypocotyl elongation. For example, both HERK genes seem to negatively regulate hypocotyl elongation upon Cd, Ni, Zn, and Pb while they support root growth on Cd, Cu, and Ni. The different THE1 alleles exhibited a similar effect between roots and hypocotyls on Ni, where the loss-of-function mutant was more tolerant while the gain of function mutants were hypersensitive indicating that THE1 is mediating Ni specific inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in the dark. In contrast hypocotyl elongation of the knock-out mutant, fer-4, was hypersensitive to Ni but exhibited a higher tolerance to Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. These data indicate an antagonistic action between THE1 and FER in relation to hypocotyl elongation upon excess of Ni. FERs function as receptor for rapid alkalinization factors (RALFs was tested with the indicator bromocresol purple. While fer-4 roots strongly acidified control and metal ion containing media, the etiolated hypocotyls alkalized the media which is consistent with the already shorter hypocotyl of fer-4

  5. Sound production and hearing in the blue cracker butterfly Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) from Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, J E; Otero, L D; Dawson, J W

    2000-01-01

    of exoskeleton (the tympanum) bordered by a rigid chitinous ring; associated with its inner surface are three chordotonal sensory organs and enlarged tracheae. The largest chordotonal organ attaches to a sclerite positioned near the center of the eardrum and possesses more than 110 scolopidial units. The two...

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Nagano, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of citrus and its relatives based on matK gene sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Penjor

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that "true citrus fruit trees" could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions

  8. Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjor, Tshering; Uehara, Miki; Ide, Manami; Matsumoto, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of Aurantioideae and analyzed them phylogenetically. Our study includes many accessions that have not been examined in other studies. The subfamily Aurantioideae has been classified into 2 tribes, Clauseneae and Citreae, and our current molecular analysis clearly discriminate Citreae from Clauseneae by using only 1 chloroplast DNA sequence. Our study confirms previous observations on the molecular phylogeny of Aurantioideae in many aspects. However, we have provided novel information on these genetic relationships. For example, inconsistent with the previous observation, and consistent with our preliminary study using the chloroplast rbcL genes, our analysis showed that Feroniella oblata is not nested in Citrus species and is closely related with Feronia limonia. Furthermore, we have shown that Murraya paniculata is similar to Merrillia caloxylon and is dissimilar to Murraya koenigii. We found that “true citrus fruit trees” could be divided into 2 subclusters. One subcluster included Citrus, Fortunella, and Poncirus, while the other cluster included Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Compared to previous studies, our current study is the most extensive phylogenetic study of Citrus species since it includes 93 accessions. The results indicate that Citrus species can be classified into 3 clusters: a citron cluster, a pummelo cluster, and a mandarin cluster. Although most mandarin accessions belonged to the mandarin cluster, we found some exceptions. We also obtained the information on the genetic background of various species of acid citrus grown in Japan. Because the genus Citrus contains many important accessions, we have

  9. Influência de substratos na formação dos porta-enxertos: limoeiro-Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck e tangerineira-Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. Ex Tanaka em ambiente protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABUR MARCOS ANTÔNIO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando a estudar o efeito do substrato na produção de porta-enxertos de limoeiro-Cravo e tangerineira-Cleópatra em tubetes sob ambiente protegido, conduziu-se este trabalho na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal-UNESP. O estudo foi realizado em ambiente coberto com sombrite preto sem proteção lateral, adotando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5x2, 4 repetições e 20 sementes por parcela. Utilizaram-se os substratos húmus de minhoca oriundo de esterco de curral (H% e vermiculita média (V%, sendo S1=H0 V100; S2=H25 V75; S3=H50 V50; S4=H75 V25 e S5=H100 V0. Avaliaram-se o número de plântulas emergidas, altura das plantas, diâmetro do caule, massas fresca e seca de raiz e parte aérea. Observaram-se resultados estatisticamente significativos para diâmetro do caule, aos 104 e 118 dias após a semeadura (DAS entre espécies, com superioridade de Cravo em relação a Cleópatra, porém não aos 132 DAS. Não foi constatada diferença significativa entre os substratos. Quanto à massa fresca de parte aérea, nenhuma diferença estatística ocorreu entre as espécies; porém, quanto aos substratos, S3 mostrou-se superior a S1, não diferindo, entretanto, dos demais. Embora a análise estatística não tenha mostrado diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para os outros parâmetros analisados, S3 destacou-se entre os substratos testados.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 1900 ... Vol 8, No 6 (2009), Effect of Feronia elephantum (Corr) Fruit Pulp Extract on Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulcer in Albino Rats, Abstract PDF .... Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture Treatment on In vitro Formation and Digestibility of Resistant Starch from African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa), Abstract ...

  11. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Monge-Nájera; Francisco Hernández; María Isabel González; Javier Soley; José Araya; Stefano Zolla

    1998-01-01

    Neotropical butterflies of the genus Hamadryas, noted by the emission of sound, spend much time perching on trees and are believed to be cryptically patterned and colored with respect to tree trunks and branches they use as perching sites, but the subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1853), H. februa (Godart, 1824), H. feronia (Fruhstorfer, ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 1932 ... Vol 11, No 3 (2012), Anticancer Activity of Limonia acidissima Linn (Rutaceae) Fruit Extracts on Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Abstract PDF. D Pradhan, G Tripathy, S Patanaik. Vol 16, No 4 (2017), Anticancer activity of aqueous myrrh extract alone and in combination with cisplatin in HeLa cells ...

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Amorim

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o. and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    ...) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation...

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  16. The taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group (Teloschistaceae) in the Black Sea region; with contributions to the cryptic species concept in lichenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Jan; RÍHA, Pavel; ARUP, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    . flavocitrina, C. geleverjae, C. limonia. Five new species are described: Caloplaca arcisproxima, C. austrocitrina, C. communis, C. confusa and C. nigromarina. Seven further species, Caloplaca britannica, C. citrina, C. marina, C. maritima, C. microthallina, C. ora and C. phlogina are also treated briefly. Some...

  17. Behavior-induced auditory exostoses in imperial Roman society: evidence from coeval urban and rural communities near Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, G; Sperduti, A; Passarello, P

    1991-07-01

    Presence and features of auditory exostoses were investigated in two cranial samples of Roman imperial age (1st-3rd century A.D.). The skeletal material comes from the necropolises of Portus (Isola Sacra) and Lucus Feroniae (Via Capenate), two towns along the Tevere River, in close relation with the social and economic life of Rome. Deep-rooted differences between the human communities represented by the skeletal samples (83 and 71 individuals, respectively, in this study) are documented both historically and archaeologically. The results show lack of exostoses in the female sex, a negligible incidence among the males of Lucus Feroniae, but a high frequency in the male sample from Isola Sacra (31.3%). Auditory exostoses are commonly recognised as localized hyperplastic growths of predominantly acquired origin. Features of the exostoses found in the male crania from Isola Sacra (particularly in relation to the age at death of the affected individuals) support this view. Furthermore, several clinical and anthropological studies have pointed out close links between the occurrence of auditory exostoses and prolonged cold water exposure, generally due to the practice of aquatic sports, or to working activities involving water contact or diving. In this perspective, the differences observed between the two Roman populations and between the sexes (in Isola Sacra) appear to result from different social habits: the middle class population of Portus habitually used thermal baths, whereas it is probable that thermae were seldom frequented (if at all) by the Lucus Feroniae population represented in the necropolis (mostly composed by slaves or freedmen farm laborers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. [Study on Camellia Sect. Chrysantha Chang species identification by FTIR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Ling; Shi, Yan-Cai; Li, Cheng-Zhuo; Wei, Xiao; Huang, Rong-Shao; Kong, De-Xin; Huang, Shu-Shi

    2012-10-01

    FTIR spectra from 16 kinds of Camellia Sect. Chrysantha by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method combined with the system clustering and correlation coefficient method were used to analyze and compare these spectral data. The results, show that: Camellia Sect. Chrysantha of 16 kinds were divided into three groups, the first kind was: C. longzhouensis etc, in all eleven kinds; The second kind was: C. achrysantha, C. limonia, C. pingguoensis and C. chuongtsoensis; The third kind was C. microcarpa, which for a class alone. According to the difference in related anatomy and morphology, this study supported that C. longgangensis and C. ptilosperma should be incorporated into one kind; C. multipetala, C. longgangensis, C. parvipetala, C. tunghinensis and C. limonia, C. achrysantha, C. microcarpa, C. nitidissima, C. terminali and C. pingguoensis should be divided into separate species. FTIR-cluster analysis can be used as a possible means for the identification of Camellia Sect. Chrysantha.

  19. Spatial distribution, territoriaiity and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): implications forthe· '''industrial melanism" debate

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Hernández, Francisco; González, María Isabel; Soley, Javier; Araya, José; Zolla, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical buttert1ies of the genus Hamadryas, noted b y the emission of sound, spend much lime perching on trees and are believed 10 be cryptically pattemed and colored with respecI lo Iree trunks and branches ¡hey use as perching siles, bul ¡he subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality ¡¡nd sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1 853), H. februa (Godart, 1 824), H. feronia (Fruhstorfe...

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Amorim; Daniel Luiz Reis Simas; Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro; Daniela Sales Alviano Moreno; Celuta Sales Alviano; Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva; Patricia Dias Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p....

  1. POPULATION SURVEY AND FLIGHT BEHAVIOR OF BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA IN A FOREST PORTION IN SÃO SEPÉ, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maína Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze lepidopterous insects with diurnal habits (butterflies associated with a native forest portion. Eight traps with bananas installed at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 m above soil surface were used. Samplings were obtained on a weekly basis from December 2005 to December 2006 in the county of São Sepé, RS. The faunistic indices represented by frequency, constancy, abundance and dominance were analyzed. Height of flight and species diversity were also evaluated. A total of 737 individuals of the Nymphalidae family were collected, which were classified into six subfamilies, 16 genus and 21 species. The most representative species were: Euptychia sp., Hamadryas feronia, Taygetis ypthima, Epiphile huebneri, Biblis hyperia, Taygetis sp.1 and Praepedaliodes phanias. The diversity indices of Shannon and Margalef indicate greater diversity at the height of 4.0 m and lower diversity at the height of 1.0 m, showing relative abundance as an important parameter in determining diversity. About 70% of the collected species were characterized as frequent, common, non-dominant and of accidental occurrence. Hamadryas feronia and Euptychia sp. were constant, dominant and very frequent. The species Euptychia sp. and Taygetis ypthima had height of flight close to the soil surface.

  2. Acción Bactericida del Jugo de Limón Sobre el Staphylococcus Aureus Rosenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obregón Botero. Rafael

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este experimento fue el determinar la influencia que pudiera tener el jugo de limón común (citrus limonia Osbeck sobre el Staphylococcus; aureus Rosenbach. Esta bacteria se encuentra con frecuencia en la piel y el pelo del hombre y de los animales, también en el pus y con frecuencia asociados a muchas otras causantes de abcesos, forúnculos, nacidos, etc. Ocasionalmente pueden causar osteomielitis y endocarditis. En individuos tuberculosos las infecciones causadas por esta bacteria pueden ocasionar la muerte.

  3. Estado nutricional e produção de laranjeira 'Pêra' em função da vegetação intercalar e cobertura morta

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer Neto, Horst; Victoria Filho, Ricardo; Mourão Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves; Menezes,Gilberto Mendonça de; Canali,Émerson

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da cobertura morta e da vegetação intercalar composta por gramíneas e leguminosas perenes nas propriedades químicas do solo e no estado nutricional de plantas de laranjeira 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) enxertada em limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck). Os tratamentos testados foram: T1, Brachiaria ruziziensis R. Germ. & Evrard na entrelinha sem cobertura morta na linha; T2, B. ruziziensis na entrelinha e cobertura morta na linha...

  4. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.

  5. The Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Arnoldus Huyzendveld

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Virtual Museum of the Tiber Valley project is the creation of an integrated digital system for the knowledge, valorisation and communication of the cultural landscape, archaeological and naturalistic sites along the Tiber Valley, in the Sabina area between Monte Soratte and the ancient city of Lucus Feroniae (Capena. Virtual reality applications, multimedia contents, together with a web site, are under construction and they will be accessed inside the museums of the territory and in a central museum in Rome. The different stages of work will cover the building of a geo-spatial archaeological database, the reconstruction of the ancient potential landscape and the creation of virtual models of the major archaeological sites. This paper will focus on the methodologies used and on present and future results.

  6. Caracterização química e atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de plantas condimentares e medicinais contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Millezi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais são metabólitos secundários dos vegetais com propriedades biológicas diferenciadas, dentre elas, a atividade contra microrganismos, sendo de interesse da indústria de alimentos as concentrações mínimas inibitórias (CMI desses óleos para diversas bactérias. As CMI variam em função dos compostos majoritários e da espécie de bactéria. Nesta pesquisa, os óleos essenciais das plantas Satureja montana L., Cymbopogon nardus L. e Citrus limonia Osbeck foram caracterizados quimicamente e se determinou a CMI sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2592 e Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. A CMI dos óleos testados contra E. coli e S. aureus foi de 1,5%, exceto para o óleo essencial de S. montana sobre S. aureus, a qual foi sensível a este óleo a partir da concentração de 5,0%. Sobre a constituição química, os componentes majoritários dos óleos de S. montana, C. narduse C. limonia Osbeck foram respectivamente o timol, citronelal e limoneno.

  7. Caracterização e atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de plantas condimentares e medicinais contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Millezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais são metabólitos secundários vegetais com propriedades biológicas diferenciadas, dentre elas a atividade contra microrganismos, sendo de importante interesse para a indústria de alimentos. As concentrações mínimas inibitórias (CMI desses óleos para diversas bactérias devem ser determinadas. As CMI variam de acordo com o óleo utilizado, dos compostos majoritários e do tipo de bactéria. Nesta pesquisa, os óleos essenciais das plantas Satureja montana L., Cymbopogon nardus L. e Citrus limonia Osbeck foram caracterizados quimicamente e determinada a CMI sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2592 e Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. A CMI para todos os óleos contra E. coli foi 1,5%, já S. aureus foi sensível a partir da concentração de 5,0% do óleo essencial de S. montana e 1,5% foi a CMI obtida quando utilizados os óleos essenciais das outras espécies estudadas. Na constituição química os componentes majoritários para os óleos de S. montana, C. narduse C. limonia Osbeck foram respectivamente o timol, citronelal e limoneno.

  8. In vitro organogenesis in some citrus species Organogênese in vitro em algumas espécies de cítrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Henrique Schinor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro organogenesis of Citrus was studied for the genotypes Citrus sinensis cv. 'Natal', C. limonia, C. volkameriana, and C. aurantium, with the use of epicotyl segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP - 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1. For the recalcitrant genotypes C. limonia and C. aurantium the in vitro organogenesis was also studied with internodal segments-derived explants, cultured in MT salts and vitamins medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP. The efficiency of culture medium supplementation with the combination of BAP (0.0; 1.0, or 2.0 mg L-1 and NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid - 0.0; 0.3, or 0.5 mg L-1 in the development of adventitious shoots was evaluated for C. aurantium. Culture medium supplementation with BAP is not essential for the adventitious shoots development in the four genotypes studied when epicotyl segments-derived explants are used. In general, culture media supplementation with BAP decreased the percentage of responsive explants excepted for C. sinensis cv. 'Natal' and C. limonia when the concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L were used. The presence of cytokinin, in concentrations up to 2 mg/L, stimulated the in vitro organogenesis when internodal segments-derived explants were used for C. limonia and C. aurantium. For C. aurantium no adventitious shoots developed in explants (internodal segments cultured in basal culture medium, without BAP supplementation. Although no statistic differences could be detected, culture media supplementation with the combination of BAP and NAA favored the development of adventitious shoots in C. aurantium. The best concentration of NAA varied according to BAP concentration. The results presented herein, show that Citrus in vitro organogenesis depends on the interaction of culture medium composition, explant differentiation level, and genotype.A organogênese in vitro

  9. Environmental degradation and its health implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1992-01-01

    Several types of environmental degradation and their philosophical implications are discussed in this essay. Environmental degradation causes chemicalization and degradation of the health of the body and harm to the soul and mind because of the resulting unmet needs of the many and the greedy consumption of the few. Degradation of the water supply is caused by overuse of water for cash crops, contamination of water by night soil, and improper disposal and piping of sewage. The resulting water-borne diseases, such as cholera, are then mistreated by giving children anti-diarrheal drugs that keep the germs in the body. Bottling of mineral water further reduces the supply for the poor. People should instead put bottles of water in the sun or use wood apple or drumstick seeds to purify water. Chemicalization of the environment has resulted in major disasters such as Mina inmates disease, the Bhopal disaster, the Bichri acid drinking water tragedy, crippling of youths in Karnataka by pesticide-poisoned crabs, and poisoning by use of pesticide containers for food. Usually those responsible go free, and socially conscious officers are fired. People have to protect themselves by taking such action as: recycling envelopes, eating non-processed foods, composting instead of burning leaves, and trying to get codes passed for baby food, drugs, vehicle emissions, and factory effluents.

  10. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

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    Julián Monge-Nájera

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical butterflies of the genus Hamadryas, noted by the emission of sound, spend much time perching on trees and are believed to be cryptically patterned and colored with respect to tree trunks and branches they use as perching sites, but the subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1853, H. februa (Godart, 1824, H. feronia (Fruhstorfer, 1916, H. glauconome (Bates, 1864 and H. guatemalena (Bates, 1864. Tree characteristics and use by butterflies were recorded under natural conditions in open habitats (grassland thinly covered with trees in Costa Rica and Panama, avoiding the problems that affected previous natural selection studies in Biston betularia (the "industrial melanism" moth. Males perched on the trees and used them as courting territories. The butterflies perched more often on some individual trees, and did not use others. The general tree bark ("background" color tended to match wing coloration, while presence of food, position of trees along flight routes, tree size, bark texture, and lichen cover were not associated with the frequency of perching on the trees. Most individuals that perched in the study sites were males. Species differed in perching height and populations of H. februa perched at the same heights in both countries; H. feronia moves to higher perches near day's end. The relative use of branches and trunks is not related to the time of day but reflects the typical perching height of each species. The northern side of trees is less used and cardinal side distribution is independent of time of day. Perches exposed to direct sunlight are less used in hot days. All species perch with the head downwards. Perching males frequently fly towards other Hamadryas as well as towards tethered cardboard models. Trees with experimentally removed males were taken by newcomers 32 times

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Ca, K and Mg from in vitro citrus culture

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    Arruda Sandra C. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound extraction procedure for Ca, K and Mg from in vitro plant cultures is proposed, comparing cultures of different embryogenic levels of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limonia, employing ultrasound energy. Parameters related to metals extraction, such as plant material sampling, acid concentration and sonication time were investigated. For accuracy check, the proposed ultrasound extraction procedure was compared with a microwave-assisted digestion procedure and no differences in the results were verified at 95% of the confidence level. With this simple and accurate extraction procedure, it was possible to determine differences in Ca, K and Mg concentrations during Citrus embryo formation/development and between cultures (embryogenic and non-embryogenic. Finally, the ultrasound extraction method demonstrated to be an excellent alternative for handless sampling and operational costs.

  12. The South Temperate Pronophilina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): a phylogenetic hypothesis, redescriptions and revisionary notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Jess; Brower, Andrew V Z

    2016-06-15

    Phylogenetic analysis of the south-temperate members of Pronophilina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) using mitochondrial and nuclear gene data corroborated monophyly of the clade and provided a framework for its systematic revision based on morphology. Of the 19 genera, 8 have been synonymized with 16 new combinations: Cosmosatyrus stelligera n. comb., C. dubii n. comb., Neomaenas tristis n. comb., Neosatyrus boisduvalii n. comb., N. humilis n. comb., N. schajovskoii n. comb., N. vesagus n. comb., Punargentus chiliensis n. comb., P. lamna cuzcoensis n. comb., P. monticolens n. comb., P. tandilensis n. comb., Pampasatyrus edmondsii n. comb., P. gustavi n. comb., Tetraphlebia eleates n. comb.,T. leucoglene n. comb., and T. patagonica n. comb. Neomaenas poliozona eustephanos nom. nov., stat. nov. has been raised to a valid subspecies. Neomaenas monachus limonias and Pampasatyrus gustavi penai have been demoted to subspecies and Auca nycteropus and A. pales have been synonymized with A. coctei. The phylogenetic placement of Neomaniola euripides, not formally revised here, is discussed.

  13. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  14. Characterization and localization of Rickettsia sp. in water beetles of genus Deronectes (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, Stefan Martin; Kehl, Siegfried; Dettner, Konrad

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, Rickettsia sp. was detected in four water beetles of the genus Deronectes (Dytiscidae) for the first time. Rickettsiae were found in 100% of examined specimens of Deronectes platynotus (45/45), 39.4% of Deronectes aubei (28/71), 40% of Deronectes delarouzei (2/5) and 33.3% of Deronectes semirufus (1/3). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a phylogenetic relationship with rickettsial isolates of Limonia chorea (Diptera), tentatively classified as members of the basal ancestral group. Phylogenetic analysis of the gltA (citrate synthase) gene sequences showed that Deronectes symbionts were closest to bacterial symbionts from spiders. Ultrastructural examinations revealed typical morphological features and intracellular arrangements of rickettsiae. The distribution, transmission and localization of Rickettsia sp. in D. platynotus were studied using a diagnostic PCR assay and FISH. Eggs from infected females of D. platynotus were all Rickettsia-positive, indicative of a vertical transmission.

  15. Fruit quality of 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanak grafted on twelve different rootstocks Qualidade de frutos de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka enxertada em doze porta-enxertos

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    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of twelve rootstocks on fruit quality of the nucellar clone IAC-5 of 'Tahiti' lime, (Citrus latifolia Tanaka and the influence of fruit position on tree in fruit quality was evaluated in the Citrus Experimental Station of Bebedouro (EECB, located in the Bebedouro county, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A 8.0 x 5.0m planting frame was utilized. The evaluated rootstocks were: 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis (L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; the hybrids 'Rangpur' lime x 'Swingle' citrumello (C. limonia Osbeck x P. trifoliata Raf and 'Changsha' x 'English Small'(C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. x P. trifoliata Raf.; the mandarins 'Sun Chu Sha Kat' (C. reticulata Blanco and 'Sunki' (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka; the 'Rangpur' limes 'Cravo Limeira' and ' Cravo FCAV' (C. limonia Osbeck; the 'Swingle' citrumello (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.; the 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. and the trifoliates cvs. 'Rubidoux', 'FCAV' and 'Flying Dragon' (P. trifoliata Raf.. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with twelve treatments, six replicates and one plant per plot. The rootstocks induced differences in fruit quality; however, all the evaluated quality characteristics were within the values considered as normal and acceptable for the variety, constituting good alternative rootstocks for the 'Rangpur' lime. Additionally, the fruit position in the plant (northeastern or southwestern had a significant influence on the external fruit color regardless of the rootstock.No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de doze porta-enxertos sobre a qualidade dos frutos da lima-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tanaka, clone 'IAC-5', amostrados em duas posições nas plantas, em experimento conduzido na Estação de Citricultura de Bebedouro, em um pomar de três anos. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 8.0 x 5.0m. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: citrangeiro 'Carrizo' (C. sinensis (L

  16. Caipira sweet orange + Rangpur lime: a somatic hybrid with potential for use as rootstock in the Brazilian citrus industry

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    Fernanda Januzzi Mendes-da-Glória

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast culture following polyethylene glycol-induced fusion resulted in the regeneration of somatic hybrid plants between Caipira sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck and Rangpur lime (C. limonia L. Osbeck. The plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids by leaf morphology, chromosome number and RAPD profile. All regenerated plants were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36, with intermediate leaf morphology and complementary RAPD banding profile of both parents. This combination may be useful as a rootstock for the citrus industry in Southeastern Brazil since this somatic hybrid could combine the drought tolerance and vigor of Rangpur lime with the blight tolerance of Caipira sweet orange.Híbridos somáticos de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck e limão Cravo (C. limonia L. Osbeck foram regenerados após a fusão (polietileno glicol e cultura de protoplastos. Os híbridos somáticos foram confirmados pela análise da morfologia das folhas, determinação do número de cromossomos e marcadores moleculares (RAPD. Todas as plantas analisadas revelaram-se tetraplóides (2n = 4x = 36, possuíam folhas de morfologia intermediária e uma combinação do padrão de bandas de RAPD de ambos os parentais. Esta combinação pode se tornar útil como porta-enxerto para a Região Sudeste da indústria citrícola brasileira. Este híbrido somático potencialmente combinará as características de tolerância à seca e o vigor do limão Cravo com a tolerância ao declínio da laranja Caipira.

  17. Microbial community of predatory bugs of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Machtelinckx Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predatory mirids of the genus Macrolophus are key natural enemies of various economically important agricultural pests. Both M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus are commercially available for the augmentative biological control of arthropod pests in European greenhouses. The latter species is known to be infected with Wolbachia -inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host- but the presence of other endosymbionts has not been demonstrated. In the present study, the microbial diversity was examined in various populations of M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus by 16S rRNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results Besides Wolbachia, a co-infection of 2 Rickettsia species was detected in all M. pygmaeus populations. Based on a concatenated alignment of the 16S rRNA gene, the gltA gene and the coxA gene, the first is phylogenetically related to Rickettsia bellii, whereas the other is closely related to Rickettsia limoniae. All M. caliginosus populations were infected with the same Wolbachia and limoniae-like Rickettsia strain as M. pygmaeus, but did not harbour the bellii-like Rickettsia strain. Interestingly, individuals with a single infection were not found. A PCR assay on the ovaries of M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus indicated that all endosymbionts are vertically transmitted. The presence of Wolbachia and Rickettsia in oocytes was confirmed by a fluorescence in situ hybridisation. A bio-assay comparing an infected and an uninfected M. pygmaeus population suggested that the endosymbionts had minor effects on nymphal development of their insect host and did not influence its fecundity. Conclusion Two species of the palaearctic mirid genus Macrolophus are infected with multiple endosymbionts, including Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Independent of the origin, all tested populations of both M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus were infected with three and two endosymbionts, respectively. There was no indication that

  18. NATURAL ACID IN OVERCOMING PINHA SEED DORMANCY (ANNONA SQUAMOSA L.

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    A. R. Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of good quality seedlings becomes essential strategy for those who wish to become production that is more competitive. To induce dormancy breaking and germination and emergence of these, the imbibing of natural acid in seeds can be an alternative for the optimization of this process. The aim of this study is to evaluate the dormancy breaking in Anonna seeds squamosa immersed in different natural acid in times through the lemon juice Rangpur (Citrus limonia Osbeck. This work is being conducted in Biotecnogia laboratory greenhouse at the Federal Institute Goiano campus Urutaí where the seeds were soaked in lemon juice Rangpur (C. limonia in five different times, each time constituting a treatment: seeds without soaking in lemon groove variety Cravo '(T1; soaked for 8 hours (T2; soaked for 16 hours (T3; soaked for 24 hours (T4; soaked for 32 hours (T5. The seeds were sown in plastic boxes with dimensions 40 x 27 x 10 cm, containing washed sand substrate, 2 cm deep in spacing of 2 x 2 cm. The germination percentage data were determined up to 45 days after sowing (DAS, and survival to 73 (DAS. After 73 DAS were evaluated after 73 days of sowing, they were evaluated; germination and survival; emergence speed index (EVI; total length of seedlings; shoot length of seedlings and radicle length (cm; Stem diameter (mm; pair of leaf number (MPN; total fresh mass changes (MFT; dry matter of shoot and radicle (g. There was not statistical diseases among treatments. T4 treatment in comparison to others on the numerical difference CTM, NPF, DC and CPA.

  19. Comportamento da laranjeira 'Pêra' sobre cinco porta-enxertos em ecossistema de tabuleiros costeiros, Umbaúba-SE Behavior of Pera orange on five different roostocks in Brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

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    Roosevelt Menezes Prudente

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento instalado em 1984 no Campo Experimental de Umbaúba-SE, com delineamento em blocos casualizados, avaliou-se a potencialidade da laranjeira 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.], clone D6, enxertada sobre cinco porta-enxertos. A análise estatística das médias dos dados do 9° ao 13° ano do plantio permite concluir que as seleções do limoeiro 'Volkameriano' (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq., 'Catânia 2' e 'Palermo', os limoeiros 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osb. e 'Rugoso da Flórida' (C. jambhiri Lush. e a tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes quanto à produtividade, percentagem de suco e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, evidenciando que o 'Catânia 2', 'Palermo' e 'Cleópatra' tiveram eficiência similar ao 'Cravo' e 'Rugoso', porta-enxertos estes mais utilizados nas regiões citrícolas de Sergipe e litoral norte da Bahia.In an experiment set in a field in 1984 at the Experiment Station of Umbauba-SE, was studied the behavior of 'Pera' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck], clone D6 , grafted on five rootstocks in a soil of Brazilian northeast coastal tableland ecosystem. The data from the 9th to the 13th year, after planting, indicated that the rootstocks - 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq., 'Catania 2' and 'Palermo' selections, 'Florida Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. did not show statistic difference related to productivity, juice percentage TSS, giving evidence that the rootstocks 'Catania 2', 'Palermo' and 'Cleopatra' can be used with the same performance of 'Rangpur' lime and 'Rough' lemon, the most grafted in Sergipe and north coast of Bahia state citricultures fields.

  20. Fenologics characteristics of the ‘Siciliano’ lemon tree on two rootstocks influenced by liming and boron addition

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    Hélio Grassi Filho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study was developed with disturbed samples of an Oxisol, in which ‘Siciliano’ lemon trees seedlings (C. limon were grafted on sour orange tree (C. aurantium and rangpur lime tree (C. limonia. The experiment consisted of three basis saturation levels (50, 70 and 90 percent and three boron doses (0.5; 1.5 and 4.5 mg dm-3 in the planting with 3x3x2 factorial experimental design with four replications. Mineral composition of the "Siciliano" lemon leaves as well as root system development in sour orange tree were higher than the rangpur lime tree. There was no effect in the interaction basis saturarion level and the boron doses for any of the evaluated parameters.O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na UNESP/Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil, num solo identificado como Oxisol, onde foram plantadas mudas de limoeiro ‘Siciliano’ (C. limon enxertadas em laranjeira ‘Azeda’ (C. aurantium e em limoeiro ‘Cravo’ (C. limonia. O experimento consistiu em três níveis de saturação por bases (50%, 70% e 90% e três doses de boro (0,5; 1,5 e 4,5 mg dm-3 no plantio em esquema fatorial de 3x3x2, com quatro repetições. Houve diferentes comportamentos entre os porta-enxertos no que se refere à composição mineral de folhas de limoeiro ‘Siciliano’, bem como, no desenvolvimento do sistema radicular, sendo maior na laranjeira azeda em relação ao limoeiro cravo. Não houve nenhum efeito na interação de níveis de saturação por bases e doses de boro para nenhum dos parâmetros avaliados.

  1. Intraspecific variation in Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated with different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, R B; Zucchi, R A

    2002-11-01

    Trichogramma bruni is an insufficiently studied South American species whose limits are still not well defined. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize T. bruni taxonomically and to determine the association between morphological variations as well as host and habitat, based on morphological and biological studies. Specimens from the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ) collection, and from the University of California Riverside (UCR) and specimens collected from the vegetation of forest parks with native areas planted with eucalyptus in Piracicaba and Itatinga, State of São Paulo, were also analyzed. The holotype deposited at Univeridade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) collection was also examined. The variability in the genital capsule of T. bruni observed both among individuals of the same progeny and among specimens from different hosts is remarkable and is mainly related to the dorsal lamina. Therefore, an association of diagnostic characters rather than the dorsal lamina alone should be used for the identification of T. bruni and intraspecific variations should be considered. The intraspecific variation observed for T. bruni is a factor that should be considered for its identification, since the influence of the environment (habitat + host) and the variation among individuals itself is responsible for the plasticity observed in the genital capsule. Heliconius erato phyllis, Hamadryas feronia, Erosina hyberniata and Mechanitis lysiminia are new hosts of T. bruni.

  2. Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbez, Elke; Dünser, Kai; Gaidora, Angelika; Lendl, Thomas; Busch, Wolfgang

    2017-06-13

    Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model remains heavily debated in roots, because of both the complex role of auxin in plant development as well as technical limitations in investigating apoplastic pH at cellular resolution. Here, we introduce 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) as a suitable fluorescent pH indicator for assessing apoplastic pH, and thus acid growth, at a cellular resolution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Using HPTS, we demonstrate that cell wall acidification triggers cellular expansion, which is correlated with a preceding increase of auxin signaling. Reduction in auxin levels, perception, or signaling abolishes both the extracellular acidification and cellular expansion. These findings jointly suggest that endogenous auxin controls apoplastic acidification and the onset of cellular elongation in roots. In contrast, an endogenous or exogenous increase in auxin levels induces a transient alkalinization of the extracellular matrix, reducing cellular elongation. The receptor-like kinase FERONIA is required for this physiological process, which affects cellular root expansion during the gravitropic response. These findings pinpoint a complex, presumably concentration-dependent role for auxin in apoplastic pH regulation, steering the rate of root cell expansion and gravitropic response.

  3. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF FRUIT-FEEDING BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE IN AN EASTERN AMAZONIAN FOREST

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    LUCAS PEREIRA MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deforestation has negative impacts on diversity and community patterns of several taxa. In the eastern Amazon, where much deforestation is predicted for the coming years, forests patches may be essential to maintain the local biodiversity. Despite increasing concerns about the conservation of threatened areas, few studies have been performed to analyze the communities of diversified groups, such as insects, in the eastern Amazon. Here, we investigated species diversity and community structure of fruit-feeding butterflies, a well-known bioindicator group, in a threatened remnant of an eastern Amazonian forest located on Maranhão Island, northeastern Brazil. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled monthly for one year. Diversity and evenness indices, richness estimators, rarefaction curve, and rank-abundance plot were used to describe community structure in the study area. We captured 529 fruit-feeding butterflies in four subfamilies, 23 genera and 34 species. The three most abundant species, Hamadryas februa, Hamadryas feronia, and Hermeuptychia cf. atalanta are indicators of disturbed habitats and represented more than half of the collected individuals. Richness estimators revealed that between 87 and 94% of the fruit-feeding butterfly species were sampled, suggesting few additional records would be made for the area. Our results indicate that human-caused disturbances have altered local community patterns and provide baseline data for future research in threatened regions of the eastern Amazon.

  4. Conserved roles of CrRLK1L receptor-like kinases in cell expansion and reproduction from algae to angiosperms

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    Sergio Galindo Trigo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are regulators of plant development through allowing cells to sense their extracellular environment. They facilitate detection of local endogenous signals, in addition to external biotic and abiotic stimuli. The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L protein kinase subfamily, which contains FERONIA, plays a central role in regulating fertilization and in cell expansion mechanisms such as cell elongation and tip growth, as well as having indirect links to plant-pathogen interactions. Several components of CrRLK1L signaling pathways have been identified, including an extracellular ligand, coreceptors and downstream signaling elements. The presence and abundance of the CrRLK1L proteins in the plant kingdom suggest an origin within the Streptophyta lineage, with a notable increase in prevalence in the seeded land plants. Given the function of the sole CrRLK1L protein in a charophycean alga, the possibility of a conserved role in detection and/or regulation of cell wall integrity throughout the Strephtophytes is discussed. Orthologs of signaling pathway components are also present in extant representatives of non-vascular land plants and early vascular land plants including the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Deciphering the roles in development of the CrRLK1L protein kinases in early diverging land plants will provide insights into their ancestral function, furthering our understanding of this diversified subfamily of receptors in higher plants.

  5. 'Valencia' sweet orange tree flowering evaluation under field conditions Avaliação do florescimento de laranjeiras valência em condição de campo

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    Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since citrus flowering is a key process in citriculture and its evaluation is often difficult due to the canopy structure and field sampling, the aim of this research was to give some directions regarding the evaluation of flowering in field-grown sweet orange plants. This study was conducted in a citrus orchard of sweet orange plants cv. 'Valencia' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] grafted on 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka or 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck rootstocks, with North-South orientation. Generative structures [buds, flowers and fruitlets (diameter O florescimento dos citros é um processo chave na citricultura e sua avaliação é dificultada devido à estrutura da copa e amostragem em campo. O objetivo desse artigo foi fornecer algumas indicações de como avaliar o florescimento de laranjeiras em condição de campo. Esse estudo foi conduzido em um pomar de laranjeiras 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka ou limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, com orientação Norte-Sul. As estruturas reprodutivas [botões florais, flores e frutos (diâmetro < 3 cm] foram quantificadas semanalmente entre agosto e novembro de 2005, utilizando guias de 1 m² posicionadas no terço médio da copa das plantas, amostrando aproximadamente um volume de 1 m³. As guias foram divididas em duas partes para que duas pessoas pudessem realizar as avaliações, e posicionadas nas orientações sudeste, sudoeste, nordeste e noroeste, em sete plantas. Alguns aspectos do florescimento dos citros foram avaliados: (i quantas plantas são necessárias para uma amostragem representativa do florescimento; (ii em qual orientação deve ser feita a medida e (iii qual volume da copa das plantas que deve ser amostrado. Ao se considerar os aspectos práticos da produção dos citros, um método rápido, simples e representativo é necessário para avaliar o florescimento

  6. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1 Uso do método de dissipação de calor para a medição do fluxo de seiva em mudas cítricas

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.O fluxo de seiva poderia ser utilizado como parâmetro fisiológico para fomentar a irrigação de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido pela estimação do consumo contínuo de água. Neste trabalho, reportam-se os primeiros resultados, indicando o uso potencial e as limitações iniciais do método de dissipação de calor para medição do fluxo de seiva em mudas cítricas em recipientes. Mudas de laranjeira-doce 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck foram avaliadas por 30 dias, durante o verão. Sondas de dissipação de calor e sensores do tipo termopar foram construídos a partir de materiais prontamente disponíveis e de baixo custo para favorecer o acesso ao método por viveiristas. O fluxo de seiva apresentou alta correlação com a temperatura do ar dentro da estufa telada. Contudo, erros inerentes ao gradiente térmico natural e a injúrias nos tecidos do caule afetaram a

  7. Balanço hídrico no solo para porta-enchertos de citros em ecossistema de tabuleiro costeiro Water balance in soil for citrus rootstocks in the brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

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    Fernando Luis Dultra Cintra

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A má distribuição das chuvas e a existência de camadas coesas em muitos solos dos tabuleiros promovem, muitas vezes, alterações importantes no regime hídrico do solo e nas taxas de evapotranspiração das culturas exploradas nesse ecossistema. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, conhecer, através do balanço hídrico, como esses processos ocorrem e, também, contribuir para o estabelecimento de práticas de manejo visando ao melhor uso das reservas de água no solo. Todos os componentes do balanço foram medidos, à exceção da evapotranspiração, que foi calculada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a maior demanda hídrica da laranjeira aconteceu nos meses de outubro e novembro e que, com base na taxa de evapotranspiração, a Tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. foi o porta-enxerto menos adaptado e o Limão Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck o que apresentou as melhores características de adaptação à área estudada.The irregular rain distribution and the existence of hardened layers in several soils of the tablelands promote, sometimes, important changes in the soil water regime and in the rates of evapotranspiration of the crops utilized in that ecosystem. The objective of this work was to know, by means of the water balance, how these processes occur in the studied area and to contribute to the establishment of management practices in order to make better use of the soil water. All components of the equations were measured, with exception of the evapotranspiration which was calculated. According to the results, it could be concluded that the orange tree had the maximum water consumption during the months of October and November and that, in terms of the rootstocks during these periods of great water consumption, the "Tangerina Cleópatra" (Citrus reshni Hort. former Tan. was the less adapted and the "Limão Cravo" (Citrus limonia Osbeck presented the best adaptation characteristics to the studied area.

  8. Efeito do KNO3 nos teores de macronutrientes na matéria seca total de porta-enxertos cítricos produzidos em bandejas KNO3 effect on macronutrients contents on the dry matter of citrus rootstocks produced in containers

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    SÉRGIO ALVES DE CARVALHO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três freqüências de aplicação (uma, duas e três vezes por semana de quatro doses de KNO3 (1,5; 3; 4,5 e 6 g.L-1 em cobertura, nos teores de macronutrientes, na matéria seca total dos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka. As sementes foram germinadas em bandejas de 128 células piramidais comportando, cada uma, cerca de 75 cm³ de substrato e as plantas, mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação. O aumento na dose e freqüência de aplicação do KNO3 proporcionou elevações nos teores de N e, de maneira geral, diminuição nos teores de P, K, Ca, Mg e S na matéria seca total das plantas dos dois porta-enxertos avaliados aos 120 dias pós-semeadura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of dosages and frequency of potassium nitrate (KNO3 application on macronutrients contents of two citrus rootstocks. Seeds of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka were germinated in speedlings flats, containing 128 pyramidal cells holding about 75 cm³ of vermiculite and pinus rind substrate. Three frequencies of application (1, 2 and 3 times per week of four dosages of KNO3 (1,5; 3; 4,5 and 6 g.L-1 plus a non-fertilization control for each rootstock, were tested. Increasing the dosages and the frequencies of KNO3 application resulted in higher N and lower P, K, Ca, Mg and S concentration in plants dry matter at 120 days after sowing.

  9. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' sobre quatro porta-enxertos Growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin on four rootstocks

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    Erick Espinoza Núñez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Fremont' (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco sobre os porta-enxertos limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumelo 'Swingle' (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., tangerina 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., foi instalado um experimento em Bebedouro-SP, em 1997. Embora diferenças na produção tenham sido registradas em função dos porta-enxertos, nos anos de 2003 a 2005, a produção acumulada nas safras de 2000 a 2006 não revelou influência dos mesmos. Os valores do índice de alternância de produção e eficiência de produção não foram influenciados pelos porta-enxertos. O teor de sólidos solúveis, bem como acidez total foram superiores nos frutos das plantas enxertadas sobre citrumelo 'Swingle' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'. Os valores de volume da copa e diâmetro do tronco foram superiores nas árvores sobre tangelo 'Orlando' e tangerina 'Cleópatra'.An experiment was installed in Bebedouro, SP, Brazil in 1997, with the aim of evaluate the effect of the rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. and 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Fremont' mandarin (C. clementina Hort. ex Tan. X C. reticulata Blanco. Despite that differences in yield have been registered related to the rootstocks between 2003 to 2005; cumulative yield from 2000 to 2006 seasons was not affected by the rootstock. Alternate bearing index and yield efficiency values were not influenced by the rootstocks. Fruits from trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Cleópatra' mandarin had higher values of total soluble solids concentration and total acids. Trunk diameter and canopy volume values were higher in

  10. Desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en condiciones de invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego Vegetative development of citrus seedlings cultivated at greenhouse conditions and submitted to two irrigations systems

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    Gilmar Schäfer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó el desarrollo vegetativo de patrones cítricos cultivados en invernadero bajo dos sistemas de riego. El experimento se realizó en la Estação Experimental Agronômica de la Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ubicada en Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre los meses de septiembre de 2003 y abril de 2004, totalizando 225 días de experimentación. El diseño experimental fue de parcelas subdivididas, en factorial 2 x 3, con 4 repeticiones de 22 contenedores cada. En las parcelas principales se evaluaron los sistemas de riego (microaspersión y capilaridad y en las subparcelas los patrones cítricos Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., citrangero 'C37' [P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra] y lima 'Rangpur' (C. limonia Osb.. En condiciones de invernadero los patrones cítricos presentan un desarrollo vegetativo más rápido bajo riego por capilaridad respecto a la microaspersión. Los patrones cítricos evaluados presentan desarrollos vegetativos distintos, donde el citrangero 'C37' supera a los demás.The aim of the present work was to evaluate the vegetative development of citrus rootstock seedlings cultivated under greenhouse conditions with two irrigation systems. The experiment was conducted at the Estação Experimental Agronômica , Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from September 2003 to April 2004, totalizing 225 days of experimentation. The experimental design was a split-plot, in a 2x3 factorial, with 4 replications of 22 pots each. In the main plot the irrigation systems was evaluated (micro sprinkler and capillarity and in the split-plot the citrus rootstocks [Trifoliate orange - Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C37' citrange - P. trifoliata x Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. cv. Pêra and 'Rangpur' lime - C. limonia Osb.] were evaluated. The main result showed in conditions of greenhouse citrus rootstock seedlings

  11. Estado nutricional e produção de laranjeira 'Pêra' em função da vegetação intercalar e cobertura morta Nutritional status and production of 'Pêra' sweet orange related to cover crops and mulch

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    Horst Bremer Neto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da cobertura morta e da vegetação intercalar composta por gramíneas e leguminosas perenes nas propriedades químicas do solo e no estado nutricional de plantas de laranjeira 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck enxertada em limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck. Os tratamentos testados foram: T1, Brachiaria ruziziensis R. Germ. & Evrard na entrelinha sem cobertura morta na linha; T2, B. ruziziensis na entrelinha e cobertura morta na linha; T3, B. ruziziensis consorciada com amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg na entrelinha e cobertura morta na linha; T4, B. ruziziensis e estilosantes (Stylosanthes capitata, S. macrocephala e S. guianensis na entrelinha e cobertura morta na linha; T5, capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. na entrelinha e cobertura morta na linha; T6, amendoim forrageiro na entrelinha e cobertura morta na linha; T7, estilosantes na entrelinha e cobertura morta na linha. A leguminosa estilosantes proporcionou aumento da concentração foliar de N em relação à vegetação intercalar composta por B. ruziziensis. A cobertura morta não reduziu a disponibilidade de N para as plantas cítricas. Verificou-se correlação entre a densidade do sistema radicular na camada superficial do solo com a concentração foliar de P e produção de frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops composed of grass and perennial leguminous in the orchard inter-rows and mulch on the rows, on soil chemical characteristics and nutritional status of Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra sweet orange budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The treatments were: T1, Cover crop of Brachiaria ruziziensis R. Germ. & Evrard, without mulch on the row; T2, B. ruziziensis and mulch on the row; T3, B. ruziziensis and Arachis pintoi and mulch on the row; T4, B. ruziziensis and stylosanthes and mulch on the row; T5, Brachiaria plantaginea and mulch

  12. Qualidade industrial e maturação de frutos de laranjeira "valência" sobre seis porta-enxertos Industrial quality and maturation of fruits of 'valência' sweet orange trees on six rootstocks

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    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de seis porta-enxertos sobre a maturação e as características físico-químicas de frutos de laranjeira 'Valência', instalou-se um experimento em janeiro de 1994, no município de Nova Esperança-PR. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, três plantas úteis por parcela e seis tratamentos, constituídos pelos porta-enxertos: limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni e 'Sunki' (C. sunki, citrangeiro 'Troyer' (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, tangeleiro 'orlando' (C. tangerina x C. paradisi e laranjeira 'Caipira'(C. sinensis. Avaliou-se a qualidade dos frutos em sete safras e a curva de maturação foi estimada para os anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os porta-enxertos proporcionaram qualidade aceitável aos frutos da laranjeira 'Valência', com destaque para o citrangeiro 'Troyer' que superou o limoeiro 'Cravo' em rendimento industrial. Em um ano considerado com padrão climático normal, a evolução do índice tecnológico ajustou-se a uma equação de regressão quadrática, proporcionando melhor rendimento industrial quando os frutos foram colhidos no início de novembro, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado.In order to evaluate the influence of six rootstocks on the maturation and the physical characteristics and chemical composition of 'Valência' fruits, a research was conducted in a field established in 1994, in Nova Esperança city, state of Paraná, Brazil. A complete randomized block design was used, with four replications, three evaluated trees per plot and six treatments, constituted by the rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'Cleopatra' (C. reshni and 'Sunki' (C. sunki mandarins, 'Troyer' citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis, 'orlando' tangelo (C. tangerina x C. paradisi and 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis. Fruit quality was evaluated along seven harvesting seasons and the maturation curve was

  13. TURAN and EVAN mediate pollen tube reception in Arabidopsis Synergids through protein glycosylation.

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    Heike Lindner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tube (PT reception in flowering plants describes the crosstalk between the male and female gametophytes upon PT arrival at the synergid cells of the ovule. It leads to PT growth arrest, rupture, and sperm cell release, and is thus essential to ensure double fertilization. Here, we describe TURAN (TUN and EVAN (EVN, two novel members of the PT reception pathway that is mediated by the FERONIA (FER receptor-like kinase (RLK. Like fer, mutations in these two genes lead to PT overgrowth inside the female gametophyte (FG without PT rupture. Mapping by next-generation sequencing, cytological analysis of reporter genes, and biochemical assays of glycoproteins in RNAi knockdown mutants revealed both genes to be involved in protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. TUN encodes a uridine diphosphate (UDP-glycosyltransferase superfamily protein and EVN a dolichol kinase. In addition to their common role during PT reception in the synergids, both genes have distinct functions in the pollen: whereas EVN is essential for pollen development, TUN is required for PT growth and integrity by affecting the stability of the pollen-specific FER homologs ANXUR1 (ANX1 and ANX2. ANX1- and ANX2-YFP reporters are not expressed in tun pollen grains, but ANX1-YFP is degraded via the ER-associated degradation (ERAD pathway, likely underlying the anx1/2-like premature PT rupture phenotype of tun mutants. Thus, as in animal sperm-egg interactions, protein glycosylation is essential for the interaction between the female and male gametophytes during PT reception to ensure fertilization and successful reproduction.

  14. Alternation of host plants as a survival mechanism of leafhoppers Dilobopterus costalimai and Oncometopia facialis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, vectors of the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC

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    Milanez José Maria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilobopterus costalimai (Young and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret are two of the most important species of citrus leafhoppers, vectors of bacterium Xylella fastidiosa which causes the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC disease. To develop a rearing technique for these species under laboratory conditions, the egg laying preference and nymph development were studied in different breeding systems: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia and "falso boldo" (Vernonia condensata as host plants. Trials were set up in a randomized block design with three treatments (n=8. Females of D. costalimai had particular preference for ovipositing on Rangpur lime leaves while O. facialis females placed a higher number of eggs on "falso boldo", but it did not differ statistically from the Rangpur lime. The nymphal viability of D. costalimai was null in Rangpur lime and 58% in "falso boldo". For O. facialis the nymphal viability was 25 and 78% in Rangpur lime and "falso boldo", respectively. "Falso boldo" is more suitable as a host plant to rear the two species of citrus leafhoppers. The alternation of host plants seems to be an important survival mechanism of the CVC-vector species, as shown in natural conditions.

  15. Concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of Citrus species (Rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of Citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine.

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    Arbo, M D; Larentis, E R; Linck, V M; Aboy, A L; Pimentel, A L; Henriques, A T; Dallegrave, E; Garcia, S C; Leal, M B; Limberger, R P

    2008-08-01

    Dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight. This study were conducted to determine the concentration of p-synephrine in unripe fruits and leaves from Citrus aurantium Lin, C. sinensis Osbeck, C. deliciosa Ten, C. limon Burm and C. limonia Osbeck, collected in Southern Brazil, and to evaluate the acute toxicity of C. aurantium extract and p-synephrine. A high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was optimized and validated for determination of p-synephrine. The results indicate that all of analyzed samples present p-synephrine in amounts that range from 0.012% to 0.099% in the unripe fruits and 0.029 to 0.438% in the leaves. Acute oral administration of C. aurantium extracts (2.5% p-synephrine, 300-5,000 mg/kg) in mice produced reduction of locomotor activity, p-synephrine (150-2,000 mg/kg) produced piloerection, gasping, salivation, exophtalmia and reduction in locomotor activity, which was confirmed in spontaneous locomotor activity test. All the effects were reversible and persisted for 3-4h. The toxic effects observed seem to be related with adrenergic stimulation and should alert for possible side effects of p-synephrine and C. aurantium.

  16. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

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    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  17. Sistema radicular de plantas cítricas e atributos físicos do solo em um Latossolo argiloso submetido à escarificação

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    Bordin Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da escarificação sobre atributos físicos do solo e sobre a distribuição do sistema radicular do limão ?Cravo? (Citrus limonia Osb sob copa de laranja ?Pêra? (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. Foram abertas quatro trincheiras para cada tratamento (entrelinha escarificada e entrelinha não escarificada avaliando-se distribuição das raízes na linha e entrelinha até a profundidade de 1,0 m pelo Sistema Integrado de Análise de Raízes e Cobertura do Solo (SIARCS 3.0. A porosidade total e a densidade do solo foram avaliadas em três profundidades (0,000-0,125; 0,125-0,250 e 0,25-0,375 m em três posições: linha, centro da entrelinha e limite da copa na entrelinha. Três anos depois da escarificação não se detectou alteração para a densidade e a porosidade total do solo nas entrelinhas do pomar e a quantidade de raízes, independentemente da profundidade e posição em relação à planta.

  18. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na comunidade quilombola Carreiros, Mercês – Minas Gerais

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    Flávia M. C. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as espécies medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade quilombola Carreiros, bem como traçar o perfil social das famílias desta comunidade. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas da comunidade, sendo um representante de cada família. Para fins de registro foram coletados dois exemplares de cada espécie medicinal identificada, os quais foram conservados na forma de exsicatas e mantidos no Laboratório de Ecologia do IF Sudeste MG – Campus Rio Pomba. As mulheres aparentemente desempenham importante papel social e estão bastante envolvidas no conhecimento das plantas medicinais. Nota-se, que o conhecimento existente foi adquirido de forma empírica e éevidente entre as famílias a preocupação em repassar os conhecimentos tradicionais sobre o uso das plantas medicinais aos jovens. Dentre as principais espécies utilizadas pela comunidade estão: Citrus Sinensis L., Psidium guajava L., Leonurus sibiricus L., Citrus Limonia (Osbeck, Carica sp., Vernonia condensataBacker, Sechuium edule (Jacq. Sw, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Malpighia glabra L., e Saccharum zofficinarum L..

  19. Resistance of Citrus and Related Genera to Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, P C; Vendramim, J D; Lourencão, A L; Machado, M A

    2014-10-01

    The present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of Citrus and related genera to this pest: 'Pera,' 'Natal', and 'Washington Navel' oranges (Citrus sinensis), 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'Rubidoux' (Poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle), citrumelo 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata), and citrange 'Troyer' (P. trifoliata x C. sinensis). The experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia) and placed individually in voile cages. The preference for oviposition in a no-choice test, and the effect of genotype were evaluated. The egg-adult cycle was monitored to determine the effect of genotype on the biology of the insect. Poncirus 'Rubidoux' was the least preferred genotype for oviposition; reduced number of eggs was also found to occur on citrange 'Troyer', and 'Marsh Seedless' was the genotype with the most eggs. No significant variation in the duration of the embryonic period was observed; however, a difference in the viability of eggs was found, with the lowest egg viabilities on 'Swingle.' Kumquat and 'Marsh Seedless' genotypes were correlated with increased durations of the nymphal phase, however, there was no difference in the survival of this phase. Fecundity of females on 'Troyer', 'Swingle', and kumquat was reduced. Considering all of the evaluated parameters, it was concluded that cultivars of sweet orange are the most susceptible genotypes to Diaphorina citri. Regarding oviposition, P. trifoliata 'Rubidoux' showed resistance of the antixenosis type.

  20. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  1. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

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    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka; 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields

  2. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

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    Stenzel Neusa Maria Colauto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  3. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

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    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  4. Comparative analysis of juice volatiles in selected mandarins, mandarin relatives and other citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Bai, Jinhe; Chen, Chunxian; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2018-02-01

    Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Rootstocks influence yield performance of navel orange trees after drastic pruning

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    Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drastic pruning is an alternative control recommended in orchards affected by citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of six rootstocks on growth, yield and quality of 'Monte Parnaso'(Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. navel oranges, after performing a drastic pruning to eradicate the citrus canker. A complete randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replicates, was used. The following rootstocks were tested: 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana Pasq., 'Cravo' Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb., 'Swingle'citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata. Traits related to plant height, yield and fruit quality were evaluated. The largest cumulative yield was obtained from 'Cravo', 'Volkamer' and 'Sunki'. 'Cravo' and 'Volkamer' induced higher production efficiency, fruits with the highest average weight and the lowest pre-harvest fruit drop. All the evaluated rootstocks produced high quality fruits and similar canopy sizes.

  6. A Xanthomonas citri subsp citri hypothetical protein related to virulence contains a non-functional HD domain and is implicated in flagellar motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F C F; Gonçalves, A M; Mendoza, E F R; Ferreira, R M; Costa, M L M; Balbuena, T S; Sebinelli, H G; Ciancaglini, P; Pizauro Junior, J M; Ferro, J A

    2017-08-31

    Citrus canker, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (Xac), severely affects most economically important citrus varieties worldwide. A previous study showed that disruption of the ORF XAC1201 from the Xac 306 strain by transposon Tn5 decreased bacterium virulence in the Rangpur lime host (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck). However, little is known regarding the possible function of the hypothetical protein XAC1201 and how it affects the virulence of Xac 306. Here, we confirmed that disruption of ORF XAC1201 reduces Xac 306 virulence in two different hosts, delaying the onset of typical symptoms. In silico analysis suggested that XAC1201 interacts with the flagellar proteins FliM and FliL, known to be an important factor for virulence. In fact, motility assays revealed that the XAC1201 mutant has a significant difference in motility compared to the wild-type Xac 306. Also, a 3-D structure model revealed modified cofactor binding sites and suggested that XAC1201 has a non-functional HD domain. This hypothesis was confirmed by enzymatic assays performed in purified, XAC1201 recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli, which revealed no significant activities previously associated with HD domains for the tested substrates. Thus, the role of the XAC1201 protein in Xac 306 virulence seems to be related to flagellar motility, although a non-classic role for the HD domain cannot be dismissed.

  7. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

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    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  8. Leaf nutrient contents of rangpur lime rootstock as afected by N, P, K, Ca and S fertilization Concentrações foliares do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'cravo' em função da adubação N, P, K, Ca e S

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    Jonas Ruschel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of leaf nutrient contents can demonstrate plant nutritional status, identify symptoms of deficiency and toxicity, and evaluate the need to adjust fertilization programs. This research determined N:P:K:Ca:S rates for optimal nutrition of Rangpur lime - RL (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock, in an experiment arranged in a fractional factorial design of the (¹/25 5(4 type, with 25 treatments distributed within five blocks. Seedlings of RL were transplanted into 3.8-dm³ containers filled with commercial growing media, when plant height = 10 cm, in a nursery. Treatments consisted of the following nutrient rates (g per plant: N = 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; K = 0.4, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; P = 0.35, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0; and Ca = 3.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0. Phosphorus and Ca were applied to the compost before transplant of seedlings, while N and K were applied later and total amounts were split into 20 weekly applications via fertigation. Nutrient sources were triple super phosphate, gypsum, NH4NO3 and KCl. Leaf nutrient concentrations of five-mo-old plants were high or in excess for N, P, K and S. Calcium and Mg concentrations were low. Greater dry mass of plants were observed at nutrient rates of N = 3.5, P = 2.7, K = 2.0, and Ca = 6.5 g per plant.A determinação das concentrações foliares representa o estado nutricional das plantas, identifica deficiências e/ou excessos e avalia a necessidade de ajustar as adubações. Este trabalho objetivou determinar a melhor combinação de doses NPKCa e S que proporcione a concentração foliar responsável pela maior quantidade de matéria seca total das plantas de porta-enxerto limoeiro `Cravo', em um experimento fatorial fracionário (¹/25 5(4, com 25 tratamentos, repartidos em cinco blocos de cinco tratamentos. As mudas do limoeiro `Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb. foram transplantadas para recipientes (3,8 dm³ com substrato comercial, em viveiro telado, quando atingiram 10 cm. Os tratamentos

  9. Carbohydrate levels in the leaves and production consistency of the Ponkan tangerine when thinned out with Ethephon Teores de carboidratos nas folhas e regularidade da produção de tangerineira 'Ponkan' raleadas com Ethephon

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    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Management practices that maintain carbohydrate reserves in tangerines are necessary in order to ensure good yields. This experiment was carried out with the object of evaluating the levels of carbohydrates in the leaves, and consistency in the production of the Ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco when subjected to chemical thinning with five concentrations of Ethephon for three consecutive years. The Ponkan tangerine evaluated had been grafted onto Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck, cultivated with a spacing of 6.0 x 3.0 m and were 12 years old. The Ethephon concentrations tested were: 0; 200; 400; 600 and 800 mg L-1, applied in January of 2009; 2010 and 2011, when the fruits were of 25 to 30mm in transverse diameter. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four blocks and four plants per plot. The levels of soluble leaf carbohydrate, starch and total carbohydrates were evaluated during flowering and harvesting. Fifteen days after application of the concentrations, the percentage of thinning was evaluated. Production, pending load and alternate bearing were evaluated when harvesting. Chemical thinning with Ethephon favors the maintaining of leaf carbohydrates in the Ponkan tangerine. The most effective concentration in reduncing the alternate bearing in the Ponkan tangerine is 600 mg L-1 of Ethephon.Práticas de manejo que proporcionem a manutenção das reservas de carboidratos nas tangerineiras são necessárias para garantir boas produtividades. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os teores de carboidratos foliares e a regularidade da produção de tangerineira 'Ponkan' (Citrus reticulata Blanco submetida ao raleio químico com cinco concentrações de Ethephon por três anos consecutivos. As tangerineiras 'Ponkan' avaliadas estavam enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, cultivadas no espaçamento 6,0 x 3,0 m e com 12 anos de idade. As concentrações de Ethephon testadas foram: 0

  10. Production regularity of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin trees submitted to chemical thinningRegularidade de produção de tangerineira ‘Ponkan’ submetida a raleio químico

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    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternate bearing is a problem that has influenced the productivity and fruits quality of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin trees. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of chemical thinning on alternate bearing and productivity of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin tree. Ten-year-old plants grafted on ‘Rangpur’ lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck were evaluated in a commercial orchard from December 2006 to July 2008. Five Ethephon concentrations were applied: 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg L-1 in two fruit development stages (30 mm and 40 mm of transverse diameter. The experiment was set in a 5×2 factorial scheme, in randomized blocks with four replications. In the first year after chemical thinning with Ethephon the productivity was evaluated in plants of different treatments. In the second year the alternate bearing and the productivity were evaluated. The chemical thinning promotes yield regularity in ‘Ponkan’ mandarin trees, with the application of Ethephon at concentrations between 300 mg L-1 to 600 mg L-1. Plants sprayed with 600 mg L-1 of Ethephon produced fruit higher amounts in following year to thinning. Para a tangerineira ‘Ponkan’, a alternância de produção é um problema que tem influenciado a qualidade das frutas e a produtividade. A finalidade desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos do raleio químico sobre a alternância de produção e produtividade da tangerineira ‘Ponkan’. Foram utilizadas tangerineiras ‘Ponkan’ enxertadas sobre limoeiro ‘Cravo’ (Citrus limonia Osbeck, de um pomar comercial com dez anos de idade, no período de dezembro de 2006 a julho de 2008. As plantas foram pulverizadas com cinco concentrações de Ethephon: 0, 150, 300, 450, 600 mg L-1, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento das frutas: 30 e 40 mm de diâmetro transversal. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5×2, disposto em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. No primeiro ano, após a aplicação do raleio químico com Ethephon, foi avaliado o

  11. Produção de frutos e incidência de cancro cítrico em laranjeiras "Monte Parnaso" enxertadas sobre sete porta-enxertos Fruit production and incidence of citrus canker lesions on "Monte Parnaso" navel orange budded on seven rootstocks

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    Bernadete Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Porta-enxertos de citros podem exercer influência sobre a produção de frutos e suscetibilidade das plantas ao cancro cítrico. Este trabalho objetivou selecionar porta-enxertos que induzam elevado índice de produtividade e menor suscetibilidade das copas de laranjeiras-de-umbigo "Monte Parnaso"(Citrus sinensis à bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, causadora do cancro cítrico (CC. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um pomar experimental com 10 anos de idade, plantado em espaçamento de 2,5 x 6,0m, no município de Butiá, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando duas plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos constaram dos seguintes porta-enxertos: limoeiros "Cravo" (C. limonia e "Volkameriano" (C. volkameriana., trifoliata "Flying Dragon" (Poncirus trifoliata., laranjeira "Caipira" (C. sinensis, citrangeiro "Troyer" (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata, tangerineira "Sunki" (C. sunki. e citrumeleiro "Swingle" (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: incidência de CC em folhas e frutos em toda a planta e em ramos previamente selecionados, em diversas épocas. Verificou-se que as plantas enxertadas sobre citrumeleiro "Swingle" apresentaram o maior índice de produtividade e, à semelhança do "Flying Dragon", a menor incidência de CC, tanto nas folhas como nos frutos. Além disso, verificou-se também que as plantas enxertadas sobre os limoeiros "Cravo" e "Volkameriana", apesar de produzirem as mais elevadas cargas de frutos, foram as mais suscetíveis ao CC.Citrus rootstocks can exert some influences on fruit production and susceptibility of the plants to citrus canker (CC. This research was performed aiming to select rootstocks which induce higher productivity index and lower susceptibility of 'Monte Parnaso' navel orange (Citrus sinensis trees to the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. The research was carried out in an

  12. Vigor, produtividade e qualidade de frutos de quatro tangerineiras e híbridos sobre quatro porta-enxertos Vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of four mandarin and hybrid cultivars on four rootstocks

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    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares-copa 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' [C. reticulata x C. sinensis (L. Osbeck], 'Fortune' (C. clementina hort. ex Tanaka x C. tangerina hort. ex Tanaka e 'Nova' [C. clementina x (C. paradisi Macfad. x C. reticulata] sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck, citrumeleiro 'Swingle' (C. paradisi x P. trifoliata (L. Raf., tangelereiro 'Orlando' (C. reticulata x C. paradisi e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (C. reshni hort. ex Tanaka, de 2000 a 2006. O experimento foi instalado em Bebedouro-SP, em outubro de 1997. As variáveis analisadas foram: produção anual e produção acumulada de todas as cultivares para todos os anos (2000 a 2006, qualidade de frutos em 2005 e 2006 (massa, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total, ratio, volume da copa, diâmetro do tronco da copa, eficiência de produção (Kg frutos/m³ copa e índice de alternância de produção. A produção acumulada e a qualidade de frutos das cultivares testadas não foram influenciadas pelos porta-enxertos. O citrumelo 'Swingle' induziu menor porte às plantas das cultivares-copa. O tangelo 'Nova' apresentou características adequadas à comercialização in natura. A tangerineira 'Swatow' produziu frutos de qualidade semelhante aos de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O tangor 'Ellendale' e a tangerineira 'Fortune' apresentaram produção de frutos baixa e irregular.Plant growth, yield, and fruit quality of 'Swatow' (Citrus reticulata Blanco, 'Ellendale' (C. reticulata x Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Fortune' (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. x Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tan. e 'Nova' [(C. clementina x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata] mandarins budded on 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Swingle' citrumelo (P. trifoliata Raf. x C. paradisi Macf., 'Orlando' tangelo (C. reticulata Blanco x C. paradisi Macf., and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. were evaluated, from 2000

  13. Alterações das características químicas de três substratos comerciais na produção de mudas cítricas Change of the chemical characteristics of three commercial substrates in the production of citric seedlings

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    Mário Luís Fochesato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica dos nutrientes em três substratos comerciais em que cultivaram-se mudas cítricas, desde o momento da repicagem dos porta-enxertos até a fase final de produção das mesmas. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, sendo as mudas cultivadas em citropotes de 4L. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS em Eldorado do Sul, RS, no período de junho/2003 a novembro/2004, e obedeceu ao delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 2, sendo: 3 substratos comerciais de cultivo (Comercial 1, 2 e 3 - composto de turfa preta; cascas processadas e enriquecidas, perlita, vermiculita expandida e turfa; e, casca de pinus compostada e vermiculita, respectivamente, 3 porta-enxertos (Trifoliata - Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.; citrangeiro 'C13' - Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck x P. trifoliata [L.] Raf.; e limoeiro 'Cravo' - C. limonia Osbeck e 2 variedades copa (laranjeira 'Valência' C. sinensis [L.] Osbeck e a tangerineira 'Montenegrina' - C. deliciosa Tenore. Empregou-se o sistema de irrigação por gotejamento. Avaliou-se a caracterização química dos substratos e conteúdo nutricional foliar e a massa seca da raiz e da parte aérea. Nas condições deste experimento, os substratos apresentam perdas consideráveis de nutrientes, especialmente de fósforo e potássio. No entanto, observa-se que o substrato Comercial 2 apresenta maior aporte de nutrientes, quando comparado com os outros substratos, proporcionando maior acúmulo de massa seca nos porta-enxertos, no momento da enxertia e nas mudas cítricas no final do experimento.The dynamics of nutrients in three commercial substrates were evaluated, from the transplanting until final nursery. The rootstocks were cultivated in 4L containers under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was developed at Estação Experimental Agronômica of UFRGS from June/2003 to November/2004, with the experimental design of

  14. Mudas de laranjeira 'valência' sobre dois porta-enxertos e sob diferentes manejos de adubação 'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees on two rootstocks under different fertilizer managements

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    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da adubação é uma das principais práticas culturais para a produção de mudas cítricas em cultivo protegido. Avaliou-se o efeito de seis tipos de manejo das adubações comercialmente recomendadas na produção de mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] enxertada sobre os porta-enxertos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e citrumeleiro 'Swingle' [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. As avaliações foram conduzidas a partir da transplantação dos porta-enxertos até 180 dias após a enxertia, em viveiro empresarial, em Conchal-SP. Os manejos corresponderam a duas soluções de fertilizantes solúveis aplicadas isoladamente, soluções de fertilizante solúveis associadas a fertilizante de liberação controlada e aplicação exclusiva de fertilizante de liberação controlada. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o fatorial 2 x 6 (porta-enxerto x manejo da adubação, em blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 12 mudas na parcela. O limoeiro 'Cravo' induziu maior crescimento ao enxerto. O crescimento vegetativo das mudas foi similar após o uso de fertilizantes solúveis ou de liberação controlada, apesar da grande variação de quantidades totais de nutrientes fornecidas às plantas. Desta forma, o viveirista poderá optar pelo manejo mais econômico ou prático, conforme as condições locais.The fertilizer program is a major practice for screened citrus nursery tree production. The effect of six fertilizer programs commercially recommended was evaluated on the production of 'Valência' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] nursery trees budded on rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.]. Experimental work was carried out from rootstock transplant until 180 days after budding, in a citrus nursery in Conchal, SP, Brazil. Fertilizer managements consisted of two soluble fertilizers

  15. Aproveitamento da casca de citros na perspectiva de alimentos: prospecção da atividade antibacteriana Utilization of citrus by-products in food perspective: screening of antibacterial activity

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    Carin Gerhardt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os citros são as frutas mais produzidas e consumidas no mundo. O Brasil ocupa primeiro lugar na produção mundial e na exportação de suco de laranja, sendo o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul um importante produtor. Ao longo do cultivo e do processamento dos citros, são geradas toneladas de resíduos de baixo valor comercial, mas com grande potencial de aproveitamento dentro da indústria de alimentos. Esses resíduos possuem elevados teores de nutrientes, pigmentos e componentes bioativos, bem como possuem baixa toxicidade e baixo custo. Há evidências de que a casca de diferentes espécies de citros possui princípios ativos antibacterianos e antifúngicos. O objetivo deste trabalho, portanto, foi verificar a atividade antibacteriana de extratos alcoólicos da casca de citros na perspectiva da desinfecção e da conservação de alimentos, propondo alternativas sustentáveis e naturais voltadas a consumidores cada vez mais preocupados com sua saúde. Foram obtidos extratos alcoólicos da casca crua de bergamota-ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco, pomelo (Citrus maxima (Burm. Merr. e limão-bergamota (Citrus limonia Osbeck ou limão-cravo maduros, provenientes de cultivo agroecológico, cujas atividades antibacterianas foram avaliadas quanto à Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e à Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM frente a cinco diferentes bactérias. O extrato de limão-bergamota apresentou a melhor atividade antibacteriana, apresentando CIM em torno de 24 mg.mL-1 e CBM de 42 mg.mL-1 para as bactérias mais resistentes. A bactéria mais sensível a todos os extratos foi Pseudomonas aeruginosa, com CIM entre 16 e 36 mg.mL-1 e CBM entre 28 e 49 mg.mL-1. Os extratos inibiram ou inativaram na sua totalidade as bactérias testadas, indicando a possibilidade de se tornarem alternativas naturais na desinfecção e na conservação de alimentos.Citrus are the most produced fruits in the world. Brazil ranks first in global production and

  16. Identificação de espécies de citros mediante polimorfismo enzimático Identification of citrus species by means of enzymatic polymorphism

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    Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, mediante polimorfismo enzimático em gel de poliacrilamida, a variabilidade genética das espécies de laranja-doce (Citrus sinensis; laranja-azeda (C. aurantium; tangerinas clementina (C. clementina, sunki (C. sunki, cleópatra (C. reshni e poncã (C. rsticulata; lima-da-pérsia (C. limettioides; limão-galego (C. aurantifolia; limão-cravo (C. limonia e trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata. Extratos de folhas foram analisados para as isoenzimas de malato deidrogenase (MDH, enzima málica (ME, leucino amino peptidase (LAP, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase (GOT, fosfoglucoisomerase (PGI, fosfoglucomutase (PGM e isocitrato deidrogenase (IDH. Verificou-se grande variabilidade genética interespecífica, porém nenhuma entre os cultivares de laranja-doce. Foram encontradas algumas aloenzimas, além das referidas pela literatura em gel de amido, como aquelas de uma região próxima ao loco conhecido por Pgm-1, responsável por proteínas monoméricas. Este sistema, denominado PGM, revelou a maior diferenciação entre as espécies, tendo apresentado duas regiões distintas com 9 alelos. No sistema MDH, foram considerados dois locas codificando para proteínas diméricas com 7 alelos; no ME, um loco com 3 alelos; no LAP, possivelmente dois locos responsáveis por proteínas monoméricas com 4 alelos; no GOT, dois focos com 7 alelos; no PGI, um loco com 3 alelos e no IDH, um loco com 4 alelos.The genetic diversity of citrus cultivars was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on sweet orange (C. sinensis; tangerines (C. clementine, C. sunki, C. reshni, C. reticulata; Palestine lime (C. Iimettioides; West Indian lime (C. aurantifolia; Rangpur lime (C. limonia, Sour orange (C. aurantium and Poncirus trifoliata. Citrus leaf extracts were analysed for isozymes of malato dehidrogenase (MDH, malic enzyme (ME, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI, phosphoglucose mutase (PGM and

  17. Macronutrientes em mudas de citros cultivadas em vasos em resposta à adubação NPK Macronutrients in citrus nursery trees grown in pots in response to NPK fertilization

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    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis sobre o porta-enxerto de limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de casca de Pinus, vermiculita e perlita com o objetivo de avaliar-se os efeitos do fornecimento de N, P e K sobre os teores de macronutrientes do porta-enxerto e das mudas. Utilizou-se um esquema de fatorial fracionário (1/55³ com um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Os tratamentos consistiram em 5 doses (em g por planta de N: 1,25; 6,25; 11,25; 16,25; 21,25; 5 doses de K: 0,42; 3,75; 6,22; 9,34; 12,45; e 5 doses de P: 0,19; 0,89; 1,59; 2,29; 2,99. O N e K foram fornecidos semanalmente, sendo 37,5% da dose para o porta-enxerto. O P foi fornecido totalmente no plantio. Determinaram-se os teores totais de N, P e K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas novas e velhas, raízes e caule e a extração de N, P e K. Os teores de N relacionaram-se diretamente e os de P e K inversamente com a adubação nitrogenada. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S relacionaram-se positivamente até as doses intermediárias de N utilizadas. Houve efeito inibitório do fertilizante potássico sobre a absorção de Ca e Mg. A acumulação de NPK pelos porta-enxertos foi em torno de 30% pelas raízes e 70% pela parte aérea.'Valencia' sweet orange nursery trees (Citrus sinensis budded on Rangpur lime rootstocks (C. limonia were grown in containers using pine bark, vermiculite and perlite as substracts with the objective of evaluating the NPK fertilization effect on macronutrient levels. The experiment was a complete (1/5 5³ factorial randomized block design. Treatments comprised five concentrations in g per plant of N: 1.25; 6.25; 11.25; 16.25; 21.25; five concnetrations of K: 0.42; 3.75; 6.22; 9.34; 12.45; and five concentration of P: 0.19; 0.89; 1.59; 2.29; 2.99. Nitrogen and K were applieded weekly, and 37.5% of the total fertilization was applied to rootstocks. All P was supplied at planting. Young and old leaves, root and stem total nutrient

  18. Evaluation of three rootstocks root system for acid lime ‘tahiti’ at Piauí state/ Sistema radicular de três porta-enxertos para lima ácida ‘tahiti’ no estado do Piauí

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    Adeodato Ari Cavalcante Salviano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of the root system of three rootstocks for ‘Tahiti’acid lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu.Tanaka Tanaka]: Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osbeck; Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.]; Flying Dragon trifoliate (P. trifoliata (L. Raf.var. (FD – in the soil and environment conditions of the county of José de Freitas, Piauí, located on 04º 52' latitude S and 42º 42' longitude W and 110 m of altitude, in Aw climate. It was used the trench method. A wooden frame divided into 0.1 x 0.2 m parts was fixed in the soil profile and a digital photograph was taken from each part. These photographs were analyzed by software SIARCS 3.0 for sizing of the root system and the data gotten, submitted to the analysis of variance with Tukey test at the level of 5% of probability. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments (rootstocks and four replications (trenches. The root systems of the rootstocks had 90% of concentration until the depth of 0,4 m, and it was observed that 60% of the roots were concentrated in the first 0,2 m. The root system of the Rangpur lime demonstrated to be superior, in lenght (cm.200 cm-² to the Flying Dragon trifoliate and Swingle citrumelo root systems.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento radicular de três porta-enxertos para lima ácida ‘Tahiti’ [Citrus latifolia (Yu.Tanaka Tanaka]: limão Cravo (C. limonia Osbeck; citrumelo Swingle [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x C. paradisi Macf.]; trifoliata Flying Dragon (P. trifoliata (L. Raf.var. (FD, no município de José de Freitas, Piauí, localizado a 04º 52’ latitude S e 42º 42’ longitude W, e altitude de 110m, onde predomina clima Aw. Foram abertas trincheiras com quatro repetições, para colocação de quadro-gabarito de madeira, com divisórias de 0,1 m na profundidade por 0,2 m na largura, perfazendo cinco camadas na profundidade e seis posi

  19. Citrus tissue culture employing vegetative explants.

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    Chaturvedi, H C; Singh, S K; Sharma, A K; Agnihotri, S

    2001-11-01

    Citrus being a number one fruit of the world due to its high nutritional value, huge production of fruits and fruit products, the citrus industry may be considered a major fruit industry. Though citrus orchard area in India is comparable to USA, the produce is far less, while its export is nil. Biotechnology has played an outstanding role in boosting the citrus industry, e.g., in Spain, which is now the biggest exporter of citrus fruit with the application of micrografting. Amongst the fruit trees, perhaps the maximum tissue culture research has been done in citrus during the past four decades, however, the results of practical value are meagre. The shortfalls in citrus tissue culture research and some advancements made in this direction along with bright prospects are highlighted, restricting the review to vegetative explants only. Whilst utilization of nucellar embryogenesis is limited to rootstocks, the other aspects, like, regeneration and proliferation of shoot meristems measuring 200 microm in length--a global breakthrough--of two commercially important scion species, Citrus aurantifolia and C. sinensis and an important rootstock, C. limonia, improvement of micrografting technique, cloning of the same two scion species as well as some Indian rootstock species, employing nodal stem segments of mature trees, of immense practical value have been elaborated. A rare phenomenon of shift in the morphogenetic pattern of differentiation from shoot bud differentiation to embryoid formation occurred during the long-term culture of stem callus of C. grandis. Stem callus-regenerated plants of C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. grandis showed variation in their ploidy levels and a somaclonal variant of C. sinensis, which produced seedless fruits was isolated. Tailoring of rooting in microshoots to a tap root-like system by changing the inorganic salt composition of the rooting medium, resulting in 100% transplant success, and germplasm preservation through normal growth

  20. Comportamento da laranjera 'Folha Murcha' em sete porta-enxertos no noroeste do Paraná Performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange on seven rootstocks in northwest of Parana

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    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou por um período de 14 anos, em Paranavaí-PR, o comportamento de plantas de laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' enxertadas nos porta-enxertos: limoeiros 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, 'Rugoso da África' (Citrus jambhiri e 'Volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana, citrangeiro 'C-13' (Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata, tangerineiras 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki e 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (porta-enxertos e quatro repetições, com três plantas por parcela. Os volumes das copas de plantas em tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' foram significativamente maiores. Plantas em limoeiro 'Cravo' apresentaram a menor diferença entre os diâmetros dos troncos do porta-enxerto e da copa. A produção acumulada foi superior nas plantas em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e menor em plantas sobre o trifoliata. A alternância da produção não foi acentuada nas plantas sobre os porta-enxertos avaliados. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi significativamente superior nos frutos obtidos de plantas enxertadas em trifoliata e menor em limoeiro 'Rugoso da África'. A qualidade do suco apresentou-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para variedades-copa de laranjeiras. A tangerineira 'Cleópatra' e o limoeiro 'Rugoso da África' são porta-enxertos promissores para a laranjeira 'Folha Murcha' nas condições avaliadas.This work evaluated for 14 years, in Paranavaí, PR, Brazil, the performance of 'Folha Murcha' orange trees budded on the following rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia, 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri, 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana, 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni. The experimental design was in blocks, with seven treatments

  1. Growth of citrus rootstocks under aluminium stress in hydroponics Crescimento de porta-enxertos de citros submetidos a estresse por alumínio, em cultivo hidropônico

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    Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants present different degrees of adaptation to aluminium (Al concentrations in the soil, and the understanding of this characteristic can lead to a viable option for the utilization of acid soils. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of five Al concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mumol L-1 on the growth of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Hort. ex Tan., and tangerine rootstocks 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan and 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., in hydroponic culture. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications. For all rootstocks, the relative growth rate in terms of plant total fresh matter increased under low and, decreased under large Al concentrations. Growth of the shoot, leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio decreased for all rootstocks in the presence of Al. The 'Rangpur' lime had a decrease of the root system growth, starting from 23 mumol L-1 of Al. For the remaining rootstocks, this growth reached maximum values at 91 to 117 mumol L-1 of Al, respectively. Considering all the evaluated characteristics of plant growth, the 'Rangpur' lime was the most susceptible to Al.As plantas apresentam diferentes graus de tolerância aos efeitos tóxicos do alumínio (Al, e a exploração dessa característica pode ser uma opção viável para a utilização dos solos ácidos. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de cinco concentrações de alumínio (0, 50, 100, 200 e 400 mimol L-1 de Al sobre o crescimento dos porta-enxertos limoeiros 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e 'Volkameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Hort. ex Tan., e tangerineiras 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan e 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. em cultivo hidropônico. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e duas plantas por parcela. Em todos os porta-enxertos, a taxa relativa

  2. Parentais femininos monoembriônicos na obtenção de porta-enxertos híbridos de citros The use of female monoembryonic parents to obtain citrus rootstocks hybrids

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    Walter dos Santos Soares Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando a evitar os efeitos da poliembrionia, os quais dificultam a distinção entre indivíduos híbridos e aqueles de origem materna (nucelares. O Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Citros da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical selecionou híbridos monoembriônicos, com potencial de geração de novos porta-enxertos, e utilizou-os como parentais femininos em polinizações abertas. Esses parentais foram: trifoliados HTR-001; HTR-002; HTR-005; HTR-037; HTR-073 e HTR-135, além de LCR (limoeiro 'Cravo' Citrus limonia x LRF (limoeiro 'Rugoso da Flórida' C. jambhiri - 005. As progênies de meios-irmãos obtidas compreenderam, respectivamente, 364; 55; 12; 58; 51; 551 e 59 seedlings (plantas oriundas de sementes zigóticos. Os híbridos dentro de progênies foram extremamente variáveis quanto à altura da planta e diâmetro do caule, também apresentando diferenças na presença de ramificações, formato, cor e textura do limbo foliar e tamanho de espinhos. A progênie mais vigorosa relacionou-se ao parental HTR-073, dando-se o contrário com aquela relativa ao híbrido LCR x LRF-005. Este trabalho indica que, em citros, a utilização de parentais femininos monoembrônicos em cruzamentos abertos constitui método simples e fácil de obtenção de híbridos.Seeking to avoid the effects of polyembryony, that difficult the identification of hybrids and individuals of maternal origin (nucellar, the Citrus Breeding Program of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits selected monoembryonic hybrids with potential of generating new rootstocks. Thus, the trifoliate hybrids HTR-001, HTR-002, HTR-005, HTR-037, HTR-073 and HTR-135, besides LCR ('Rangpur' lime Citrus limonia x LRF ('Florida' rough lemon C. jambhiri - 005 were used as female parents in open pollinations design. The half-sibling progenies obtained were, respectively, 364; 55; 12; 58; 51; 551 and 59 zygotic seedlings. The hybrids inside progenies were extremely variable as regards the height

  3. Comportamento de clones de laranja 'Valência' na região norte do Paraná Behaviour of 'Valencia' orange clones in northern Paraná, Brazil

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    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os clones de laranjas-doces [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] 'Valência', acesso I-93; 'Valência 718', acesso I-94, e 'Valência Late 1138', acesso I-105, enxertados sobre o limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, em relação à produção e às características físico-químicas dos frutos (acidez, sólidos solúveis totais, 'ratio', rendimento em suco, índice tecnológico e massa. As plantas estudadas fazem parte do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Citros (BAG-Citros do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, em Londrina. Foram utilizadas três plantas por clone, em espaçamento de 7,0 m x 6,0 m (238 plantas/hectare, conduzidas sem irrigação. As produções acumuladas das laranjas 'Valência' e 'Valência Late 1138', durante nove safras (1985 a 1994, foram significativamente superiores à da 'Valência 718'. Todos os clones apresentaram características aceitáveis de frutos, em relação à acidez, sólidos solúveis totais, 'ratio', rendimento em suco e massa do fruto, exceto para o índice tecnológico, que foi inferior na 'Valência Late 1138', não sendo observadas diferenças significativas durante o período avaliado (1986 a 1997.The aim of this study was to evaluate clones of the sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] 'Valência' accession I-93, 'Valência 718' accession I-94 and 'Valência Late 1138' accession I-105, grafted on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck, in relation to plant production, physical and chemical fruit characteristics (acidity, total soluble solids, TSS/TA ratio, juice content, technological index and fruit mass. The plants, three of each clone, were originated from the Citrus Active Germoplasm Bank (AGB-Citrus of the Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, located in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The plants were spaced at 7.0 m x 6.0 m (238 plants/hectare and maintained without irrigation. Cumulative yields of 'Valência' and 'Valência Late 1138' oranges, during nine

  4. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium Laranjas-doce sobre diferentes porta-enxertos adubadas com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio

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    José Antônio Quaggio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.A maioria dos citros produzidos no Brasil são enxertados em limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb.. Apesar das boas características agronômicas desse porta-enxerto, a procura por variedades tolerantes a doenças, para aumentar a produtividade e longevidade dos pomares cítricos, tem aumentado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de produção de frutos de laranjas-doce sobre diferentes porta-enxertos e adubadas com N, P e potássio. O crescimento das árvores foi afetado pelas variedades de porta-enxertos estudadas; plantas sobre citrumelo 'Swingle' [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] apresentaram o menor volume de copa (13,3 m³ no quinto ano após plantio quando comparadas àquelas em limão 'Cravo' e tangerina 'Cleópatra' [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] no mesmo pomar

  5. Plant growth and phosphorus uptake in mycorrhizal rangpur lime seedlings under different levels of phosphorus Crescimento e absorção de fósforo por plântulas de limão 'Cravo' micorrizadas sob diferentes níveis de fósforo

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    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of rangpur lime (Citrus limonia to arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, under P levels ranging from low to excessive. Plants were grown in three levels of soluble P (25, 200 and 1,000 mg kg-1, either inoculated with Glomus intraradices or left noninoculated, evaluated at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after transplanting (DAT. Total dry weight, shoot P concentration and specific P uptake by roots increased in mycorrhizal plants with the doses of 25 and 200 mg kg-1 P at 90 DAT. With 1,000 mg kg-1 P, mycorrhizal plants had a transient growth depression at 90 and 120 DAT, and nonmycorrhizal effects on P uptake at any harvesting period. Root colonization and total external mycelium correlated positively with shoot P concentration and total dry weight at the two lowest P levels. Although the highest P level decreased root colonization, it did not affect total external mycelium to the same extent. As a result, a P availability imbalance affected negatively the mycorrhizal symbiosis and, consequently, the plant growth.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia à micorriza arbuscular (Glomus intraradices, com variações de níveis de P de baixo a excessivo. As plantas foram cultivadas em três níveis de P solúvel (25, 200 e 1.000 mg kg-1, com inoculação de Glomus intraradices ou sem inoculação, e avaliadas aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias depois do transplantio (DAT. A biomassa seca total, a concentração de P na parte aérea, e a absorção específica de P pelas raízes aumentaram nas plantas micorrizadas nas doses de 25 e 200 mg kg-1 de P aos 90 DAT. Na dose de 1.000 mg kg-1 de P, houve depressão transiente de crescimento nas plantas micorrizadas, aos 90 e 120 DAT, e não houve efeito micorrízico sobre a absorção de P em qualquer época de colheita. A colonização radicular e o micélio externo total correlacionaram-se positivamente com a

  6. Biological aspects of Cirrospilus neotropicus Diez and Fidalgo (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoid of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae); Aspectos biologicos de Cirrospilus neotropicus Diez e Fidalgo (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoide de Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foelkel, Ester [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnia; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Jahnke, Simone M.; Losekann, Paula B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2008-05-15

    The biology of Cirrospilus neotropicus Diez and Fidalgo reared on third instar Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton larvae having Citrus limonia Osbeck as host plant, was evaluated under controlled conditions (25 {+-} 1 deg C; 12 h photophase). The survival, immature development, longevity, sex ratio, host feeding and oviposition ratio of C. neotropicus, were registered. Two groups of parasitoid females were evaluated: one, with parasitoids obtained from P. citrella pupae collected in citrus orchards and the other group came from laboratory rearing. These females, after mating, were maintained individually on gerbox containers with honey and pollen as food source. At each 48h, 12 P. citrella larvae were changed. The average biological cycle of the female progenies from orchard and laboratory generation groups were 11.8 and 11.6 days, respectively. The males progenies had biological cycles of 11.6 and 10.9 days, as well. The shortest immature survival period, for both studied groups was the larval (57.3% - orchard group and 57.4% - lab group). The mated females average longevity (21.8 days) was superior than the non mated ones (9.1 days) for the orchard group. The average daily oviposition rate for this last group was also significantly superior (2.8 eggs /day) than the lab group (1.6 eggs / day). The same trend was observed for the average daily host feeding rate (1.7 larvae /day for the orchard group and 0.9 larvae/ day for the lab group). These data suggest that C. neotropicus have potential as a biological control agent of P. citrella. (author)

  7. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  8. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of ‘Shatangju’ Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), ‘Shatangju’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and ‘Shatangju’ mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in ‘Red tangerine vs Canton lemon’. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways. PMID:28081213

  9. Influencia del porta-injertos y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad de pomelo (Citrus paradisis Macfad variedad Rio Red

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    Andrés José Armadans Rojas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción San Lorenzo, Paraguay, se estudió la influencia del tipo de porta-injerto y la época de cosecha sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo rosado (Citrus paradisis. Macfad var. Rio Red. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con arreglo en parcelas subdivididas, siendo la parcela principal las épocas (abril, mayo y junio de cosecha y la subparcela los porta-injertos [tangelo Orlando -Citrus tangerina Hort. ex Tanaka x Citrus paradisi Macfad., limón rugoso -Citrus jambhiri Luch, lima Rangpur -Citrus limonia y Citrange C35 -Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Ruby en cuatro repeticiones. Se cosecharon 10 frutos por unidad experimental y se evaluaron los caracteres morfológicos: diámetro y forma del fruto, y los porcentajes de jugo, bagazo, sólidos solubles totales,acidez titulable y relación o cociente entre sólidos solubles totales: acidez. Los resultados mostraron la influencia de los porta-injertos sobre la calidad del fruto del pomelo Rio Red. El limón rugoso fue el porta-injerto que presentó el menor porcentaje de jugo (47.33% y el mayor en bagazo (48.72%, sólido soluble (10.54% y acidez (1.42%. Mientras que el mayor porcentaje de jugo (52.76 y 50.75% se presentó en los frutos cosechados en abril y mayo. El mayor porcentaje de acidez se presentó en abril (9.53%.

  10. The relationships among lemons, limes and citron: a chromosomal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R; Soares Filho, W S; Brasileiro-Vidal, A C; Guerra, M

    2005-01-01

    Lemons, limes and citron constitute a group of closely related Citrus species, whose species delimitations and taxonomic relationships are unclear. In order to identify karyotypic similarities and species relationships within this group, the CMA+/DAPI- banding pattern and the distribution of the 5S and 45S rDNA sites of 10 accessions of lime, lemon, and citron were investigated. The four cultivars of C. limon analyzed showed the same pattern of CMA+ bands and rDNA sites, suggesting that they originated from a single germplasm, later differentiated by distinct somatic mutations. The lemons C. jambhiri, C. limonia and C. volkameriana displayed karyotypes very similar to each other, but they differed from C. limon by the absence of a single chromosome with one band in each telomere. The limes, C. aurantifolia and C. limettioides, seemed less related to each other and exhibited different heteromorphic chromosome pairs. In C. aurantifolia, the presence of a chromosome type unknown in all other Citrus species cytologically known so far supports the assumption that this accession may be derived from a hybrid with a species from the subgenus Papeda or from another genus. Citrus medica was the only homozygous accession of this group and all of its chromosome types were clearly represented in limes and lemons, some of them forming heteromorphic pairs. The analysis of the distribution of rDNA sites allowed a further refinement of the comparison among accessions. The lemons and limes were heterozygous for all rDNA sites, whereas C. medica was entirely homozygous. These data support the hypothesis that C. medica is a true species while the other nine accessions are hybrids. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Ocorrência de declínio dos citros na região Noroeste do Paraná

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    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O declínio dos citros é uma anomalia vascular que provoca grandes prejuízos à produção de citros. Sua causa é controversa, e fatores bióticos e abióticos têm sido sugeridos. Embora detectado desde 1979 afetando plantas em pomares do Estado de São Paulo, sua ocorrência ainda não foi relatada em certas regiões produtoras de citros do Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comprovar, por meio de testes diagnósticos, a ocorrência do declínio dos citros no polo citrícola da região noroeste do Paraná. Foi realizado em pomar experimental de laranjeira 'Valência' (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. enxertada em limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osb. plantado em 1994 no município de Nova Esperança. Os testes de teor de zinco na madeira e da absorção de água com injeção no tronco confirmaram a presença de declínio dos citros. Os sintomas da doença foram caracterizados por folhas pequenas, sem brilho e com menor turgidez, redução nos fluxos de brotação, morte da extremidade de ramos e redução da produção e do tamanho de frutos. A primeira ocorrência de declínio dos citros foi observada aos sete anos após o plantio, e aos quinze anos atingiu 31% das plantas.

  12. Entomofauna acuática del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona,Pacífico colombiano, con énfasis en Ephemeroptera y Plecoptera

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    María del Carmen Zúñiga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye la primera aproximación al conocimiento de las especies que caracterizan la entomofauna acuática del PNN Gorgona, con énfasis en Ephemeroptera y Plecoptera, su distribución, ecología y relación con la parte continental. Entre Octubre de 2010 y Junio de 2011 se realizaron recolectas de estados inmaduros y adultos en cinco quebradas del sector oriental de la isla, con ayuda de redes entomológicas, trampas Malaise y de luz blanca y negra. Se registran nueve órdenes, 28 familias, 39 géneros y 16 especies. Por primera vez se reportan la familia Dytiscidae (Coleoptera y los géneros: Zelusia, Farrodes y Terpides (Ephemeroptera, Leucotrichia y Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Laccodytes, Neoelmis y Pheneps (Coleoptera, Maruina y Limonia (Diptera. Se encontraron cuatro especies nuevas de Ephemeroptera y cuatro de Plecoptera, en proceso de descripción. Además, Leptohyphes jodiannae, L. maculatus y Hagenulopsis esmeralda son primeras citas para Colombia. Farrodes caribbianus, F. roundsi, Hagenulopsis zunigae, Zelusia principalis y Anacroneuria choco, reportadas para el país, amplían su rango de distribución para el PNN Gorgona. La riqueza de familias, géneros y especies es alta y se considera una extensión de la fauna de corrientes hídricas de bajo y mediano orden del trópico continental, particularmente en la provincia del Chocó biogeográfico.

  13. Desempenho da tangerineira 'Span Americana' em diferentes porta-enxertos

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    Simone Rodrigues da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Span Americana' em diferentes porta-enxertos, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Bebedouro-SP. O plantio foi realizado em junho de 2003, em espaçamento de 6,0 m x 3,0 m, sendo utilizada irrigação por gotejamento a partir de 2006. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram: citranges [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf] 'Carrizo' e 'Troyer', tetraploides; trifoliatas (P. trifoliata 'Davis A' e 'Flying Dragon'; limão Volkameriano Catania 2 (C. volkameriana Tenn. et Pasq., HRS 849 [(C. aurantium L. cv. 'Smooth Flat Seville' x P. trifoliata cv. 'Argentina'], tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf. e limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck. Foram avaliadas a produção acumulada, a eficiência produtiva e a precocidade de entrada em produção, no período de 2007 a 2009. Avaliaram-se, também, as dimensões das plantas e a taxa média de crescimento das plantas no período de 2005 a 2008, além da qualidade dos frutos em 2006 e 2007. Em pomares irrigados de tangerineira 'Span Americana', os porta-enxertos trifoliata 'Davis A' e HRS 849 apresentam desempenho horticultural satisfatório. Para plantio em alta densidade, a melhor performance da tangerineira 'Span Americana' é obtida com a utilização dos porta-enxertos trifoliata 'Flying Dragon' e citranges 'Troyer' e 'Carrizo'.

  14. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Filho, Mauricio Antônio; Morillon, Raphaël; Bonatto, Diego; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2017-01-01

    Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively), as well as common to both networks (773) were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants. PMID:28545114

  15. Porta-enxertos utilizados na citricultura

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    Schäfer Gilmar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A muda cítrica é o insumo mais importante na formação de um pomar. As características mais importantes da muda cítrica são a origem do enxerto e do porta-enxerto, a qualidade do sistema radicular e a sua sanidade. Os porta-enxertos são capazes de influenciar várias características horticulturais e sanitárias nas árvores e nos frutos cítricos, como: sólidos solúveis totais, tamanho da copa e do fruto, resistência a moléstias e ao frio, distribuição da raízes, etc. O principal porta-enxerto utilizado no Brasil (cerca de 80% é o limoeiro ?Cravo? (Citrus limonia Osbeck cv. Cravo. No Rio Grande do Sul, mais especificamente, destaca-se o Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf em mais de 90% dos pomares. Isso torna a citricultura vulnerável ao surgimento de moléstias que afetem estes porta-enxertos, como ocorreu na década de 40 em todo o Brasil com a 'Tristeza' dos citros em plantas enxertadas sobre laranjeira azeda, e, mais recentemente, com o 'declínio'. Assim, o conhecimento das características dos diversos porta-enxertos e de algumas particularidades do uso destes é de grande importância para a diversificação e escolha do porta-enxerto a ser utilizado pelo citricultor.

  16. Citrus orchard planted with no tillage and conventional systemsHuerto de cítricos plantado con sistema de cero labranza y sistema convencional

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    Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available No tillage system has brought many advantages to soil protection, without reducing the yield of annual crops. This system has been adapted for Citrus orchards, with the plantation of trees in furrows opened in areas previously occupied by pastures. This work had as objective to evaluate tree development, root system, yield, and soil characteristics in an orchard planted in two systems. The study was made in Parana State, Brazil, in a medium texture oxisol with ‘Valência’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. trees with Rangpur lime rootstock (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The treatments were no tillage (furrowing and plantation and conventional plantation (hole area plowing and disk harrowing before furrowing and plantation. The yield was 86 - 129 kg of fruits per plant, without significant difference between treatments. The plantation systems either do not affect the development of the plants, the amount of roots and the fruit quality. In the conventional plantation system the soil has greater resistance to penetration in inter rows than in the zero tillage system plantation.El sistema de cero labranza ha traído muchas ventajas en la protección del suelo, sin perjudicar el rendimiento de los cultivos anuales. Este sistema ha sido adaptado para los huertos citrícolas, realizándose la plantación en surcos abiertos en terrenos anteriormente ocupados por pastizales. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el desarrollo de las plantas y del sistema radicular, producción, características del suelo en un huerto plantado en dos sistemas de labranza. El estudio fue realizado en el Noroeste de Paraná, en un oxisol con textura media, en plantas de naranja ‘Valência’ con patrón de lima Rangpur. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: cero labranza (apertura de surcos y plantación y plantación convencional (arado de discos y grada, seguido de apertura de surcos y plantación. La producción fue de 86 a 129 kg de frutos por planta, sin diferencia significativa

  17. Qualidade de frutas de tangerineira 'ponkan' submetidas ao raleio químico Quality of 'ponkan' mandarin fruits submitted to chemical thinning

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    Maria do Céu Monteiro da Cruz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Para o mercado de frutas destinadas ao consumo in natura, o tamanho é uma das principais características relacionadas à qualidade. A aplicação de Ethephon em tangerineira 'Ponkan' é realizada para promover o raleio, visando ao aumento do tamanho das frutas. Além disso, outras características relacionadas à qualidade das frutas podem ser influenciadas pela aplicação de Ethephon. O trabalho foi conduzido em pomar comercial, com objetivo de estudar o efeito do raleio químico sobre a qualidade das frutas de tangerineira 'Ponkan', enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, com dez anos de idade. Foram testadas cinco concentrações de Ethephon: 0; 150; 300; 450 e 600 mg L-1, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento das frutas: 30 e 40 mm de diâmetro. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, sendo os fatores as cinco concentrações de Ethephon e os dois estádios de desenvolvimento dos frutos. O raleio químico, com a aplicação de Ethephon, melhorou a qualidade das frutas de tangerineira 'Ponkan'. O estádio de desenvolvimento de 40 mm mostrou-se mais adequado para a aplicação do Ethephon.For the market, the size is one of the major characteristics related to quality for fruits fresh consume. The Ethephon application in mandarin 'Ponkan' is accomplished for thinning to increase fruit size. Moreover, other features related to fruit quality can be influenced by the ethephon application. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical thinning effect on mandarin 'Ponkan' fruit quality grafted on tenyear-old 'Rangpur' lime tree in a commercial orchard. Five Ethephon concentrations were tested: 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 mg L-1, in two fruit development stages: 30 and 40 mm of diameter. The experiment was set in 5 x 2 factorial scheme, being the factors the Ethephon concentrations and the two fruit development stages, with four randomized block replications. The

  18. Produção de mudas de tangerineira 'Ponkan' em sistema hidropônico

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    Aline das Graças Souza

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas enxertadas em hidroponia vem sendo utilizada com sucesso para várias culturas, devido à precocidade de sua obtenção e à isenção de patógenos, principalmente de solos e substratos. Assim, realizou-se essa pesquisa com o objetivo de estudar em sistema hidropônico, a viabilidade da produção de porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' através da determinação do diâmetro ótimo dos porta-enxertos para execução de enxertia da cultivar tangerineira 'Ponkan' e avaliação da produção de mudas enxertadas. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Setor de Hidroponia do Departamento Ciência do Solo na Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, em duas etapas. Na primeira etapa pesquisou-se, o crescimento dos porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck. Na segunda etapa, avaliou-se, o diâmetro ótimo dos porta-enxertos para execução da enxertia e a viabilidade da produção de mudas enxertadas da cultivar tangerineira 'Ponkan', (Citrus reticulata Blanco em porta-enxertos de limoeiro 'Cravo'. Ambas as etapas foram conduzidas em sistema hidropônico utilizando o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos de cada experimento foram épocas de avaliação (semanas composta por cinco repetições de cinco plântulas, totalizando 25 porta-enxertos por tubete. Os porta-enxertos de Limoeiro 'Cravo' com diâmetro de 7 mm, foi o mais apropriado à propagação de mudas da cultivar tangerineira 'Ponkan', (Citrus reticulata Blanco, apresentando o melhor crescimento vegetativo do enxerto, sobressaindo com tempo 91 DAE, superando o tempo para a formação das mudas cítricas obtidas com os demais diâmetros (4 mm; 5 mm e 6 mm. O sistema hidropônico mostrou ser uma técnica viável para a propagação de mudas cítricas.

  19. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata,C. maxima,C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia--'Mexican' lime types of Tanaka's taxa), C. reticulata(for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka's taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' and 'Rough' lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon--yellow lemon types--varieties of Tanaka's taxa) or the C. maxima × C. reticulate hybrid (for C. limettioides--'Palestine sweet' lime types--and C

  20. New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library

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    Silva Ana CR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all areas where citrus canker has been detected. Like most phytobacterioses, there is no efficient way to control citrus canker. Considering the importance of the disease worldwide, investigation is needed to accurately detect which genes are related to the pathogen-host adaptation process and which are associated with pathogenesis. Results Through transposon insertion mutagenesis, 10,000 mutants of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 (Xcc were obtained, and 3,300 were inoculated in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia leaves. Their ability to cause citrus canker was analyzed every 3 days until 21 days after inoculation; a set of 44 mutants showed altered virulence, with 8 presenting a complete loss of causing citrus canker symptoms. Sequencing of the insertion site in all 44 mutants revealed that 35 different ORFs were hit, since some ORFs were hit in more than one mutant, with mutants for the same ORF presenting the same phenotype. An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS, two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. Nucleic acid hybridization using

  1. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

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    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  2. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

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    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  3. Influência do extrato pirolenhoso na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes em limoeiro 'Cravo' Effect of pyroligneous acid in the spraymg solutions on foliar nutrients content of 'Rangpur' lime

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    Marcelo Zanetti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da presença do extrato pirolenhoso (EP na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, foi desenvolvido um experimento com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, em blocos ao acaso, em ambiente protegido. Os tratamentos constituíram da pulverização das soluções: T0 = água; T1 = solução de micronutrientes sem EP; T2 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (1cm³ dm-3; T3 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (2 cm³ dm-3; T4 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (5cm³ dm-3; T5 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (10 cm³ dm-3. A solução de micronutrientes foi preparada com sulfatos de Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (250 mg dm-3 do elemento e ácido bórico (42,5 mg dm-3 de B. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes cônicos de 0,280 dm³, com substrato sem a adição de micronutrientes na formulação. As soluções foram pulverizadas uma única vez, aos 140 dias após o plantio (DAP, momento em que as plantas apresentavam aproximadamente 20 cm de altura. Ao final do experimento (160 DAP, quantificaram-se a massa seca e os teores de macro e micronutrientes da parte aérea e sistema radicular. A presença do extrato pirolenhoso na solução de micronutrientes não interferiu na concentração foliar de B, Fe e Zn em mudas de limoeiro 'Cravo'. Entretanto, na concentração de 10 cm³ dm-3, aumentou a concentração foliar de Cu e Mn. Observou-se também que as plantas pulverizadas com soluções contendo EP (1 a 10 cm³ dm-3 + micronutrientes apresentaram menor teor de Fe e maior teor de Ca no sistema radicular.This research studied the effect of pyroligneous acid (PA presence in the micronutrient solution sprayed on leaves on the foliar nutrient content of 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osbeck0 seedlings, under screen house. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replicates was set up. Treatments consisted of leaf spraying with

  4. Produção de laranja 'Pêra' em sistemas de preparo de solo e manejo nas entrelinhas Fruit yields of 'Pêra' orange under different soil tillage and interrow management systems

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    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O preparo convencional do solo utilizado na implantação de pomares cítricos com base na remoção da cobertura vegetal e no revolvimento do solo em área total, assim como o manejo de pomares com eliminação da cobertura vegetal das entrelinhas, têm causado erosão e redução da fertilidade dos solos, com reflexos negativos sobre as plantas cítricas e o ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar sistemas de manejo que contribuam para controle da erosão e melhoria da fertilidade de Argissolos originados do arenito Caiuá, cultivados com citros no noroeste do Paraná. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de preparo do solo: convencional (PC, em área total, e preparo em faixas (PF, de 2 m de largura, com diferentes formas de manejo nas entrelinhas. O estudo foi realizado em um pomar de laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis enxertada em limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia, em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico. O experimento foi implantado em área ocupada por pastagem (Brachiaria humidicola, em agosto de 1993, no espaçamento de 7 x 4 m, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e seis tratamentos, sendo: (1 PC e cultivo intercalar com abacaxi, sucedido por controle da vegetação espontânea com herbicida pós-emergente; (2 PC e cobertura vegetal com a leguminosa Calopogonium mucronoides; (3 PC e cobertura vegetal com a leguminosa perene amendoim forrageiro Arachis pintoi; (4 PC e cobertura vegetal com gramínea mato-grosso ou batatais Paspalum notatum; (5 PC e cobertura com vegetação espontânea da gramínea Brachiaria humidicola; e (6 PF e manutenção da gramínea (pastagem remanescente (Brachiaria humidicola. De 1996 a 2005, foram avaliadas a composição química do solo e das folhas e a produção de frutos. No solo, foram observados incrementos significativos no teor de C orgânico (CO nos tratamentos 4 e 6, em relação aos tratamentos 1 e 3. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para produ

  5. Nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na nutrição e no crescimento de mudas de laranjeiravalência, enxertadas sobre limoeiro cravo Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels on nutrition and production of seedlings of 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted on 'cravo' lemon rootstock

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    Renato de Mello Prado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação telada na FCAV/Unesp campus Jaboticabal-SP, durante o período de novembro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. Conduziu-se este estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar componentes do desenvolvimento e do estado nutricional de mudas de laranjeira Valência (Citrus sinensis Osbeck, enxertadas sobre limoeiro Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck, em função de doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3³ + 1, sendo 3 fatores (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio - NPK, 3 doses e uma testemunha (sem adubação, com 3 repetições. A unidade experimental foi representada por uma muda de laranjeira por sacola com 5 dm³ com 2,5 kg de substrato casca de Pinus spp. e vermiculita. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela metade, uma vez e duas vezes a dose padrão recomendada, de 4.590; 920 e 4.380 mg sacola-1, de N, P e K, respectivamente. As adubações com N e K foram realizadas via fertirrigações três vezes por semana e o P foi adicionado ao substrato antes do replantio das mudas. Aos 424 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram subdivididas em raízes e parte aérea para determinação da massa da matéria seca, altura, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e conteúdo de nutrientes. A adubação com N, P e K proporcionou maior desenvolvimento e maior acúmulo desses macronutrientes na parte aérea e nas raízes das mudas de laranjeira Valência, sobre limoeiro Cravo. Houve adequado desenvolvimento das plantas com a metade da dose recomendada de N, P e K pela literatura, aproximadamente de 918, 184 e 876 mg dm-3, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out in greenhouse at the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal-SP during the period of November 2005 to January 2007. The objective of this study was to evaluate development components and nutritional status of seedlings of 'Valencia' (Citrus sinensis Osbeck sweet orange grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock

  6. Desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos da laranjeira ‘Folha Murcha' sobre seis porta-enxertos no Norte do Paraná Vegetative growth, yield and quality fruits of the ‘Folha Murcha' orange on six rootstocks in North Parana, Brazil

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    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa avaliou em Londrina, PR, plantas de laranjeira ‘Folha Murcha' sobre os porta-enxertos: laranjeira ‘Caipira' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb., limoeiro ‘Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb., tangerineira ‘Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., limoeiro ‘Rugoso da Flórida (Citrus jambhiri Lush., tangerineira ‘Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. e limoeiro ‘Volcameriano' (Citrus volkameriana Ten. e Pasq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, seis porta-enxertos como tratamentos, cinco repetições e duas plantas por parcela. A altura, diâmetro e volume da copa foram significativamente superiores em plantas enxertadas em laranjeira ‘Caipira', quando comparadas com aquelas em limoeiro ‘Volcameriano'. A menor diferença entre os diâmetros dos troncos abaixo/acima da enxertia ocorreu nas plantas em limoeiro ‘Cravo' e tangerineira ‘Sunki'. A produção acumulada foi superior nas plantas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo'e laranjeira ‘Caipira', sem mostrar significância estatística entre si, porém significativamente diferentes daquelas sobre tangerineira ‘Cleópatra' e limoeiro ‘Volcameriano'. A eficiência da produção não foi influenciada pelos porta-enxertos estudados. O peso do fruto foi significativamente maior para as plantas em tangerineira ‘Sunki', em comparação àqueles sobre limoeiros ‘Cravo', limoeiro ‘Rugoso da Flórida' e limoeiro ‘Volcameriano. Os sólidos solúveis totais (SST apresentaram teores elevados nos frutos de laranjeiras ‘Folha Murcha' sobre limoeiro ‘Volcameriano' e limoeiro 'Cravo', sem diferirem entre si. A acidez titulável total (ATT, o ratio (SST/ATT e a cor do suco não foram influenciados pelos porta-enxertos testados. Os limões 'Cravo'e ‘Volcameriano' proporcionaram valores de índice tecnológico significativamente maiores em relação aos porta-enxertos restantes. Os parâmetros de qualidade de suco avaliados estão dentro de padrões aceitáveis para

  7. Inversão da sacarose utilizando ácido cítrico e suco de limão para preparo de dieta energética de Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Inversion of the sucrose using citric acid and lemon juice for preparing energetic diet of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758

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    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Em época de escassez de néctar, pode-se fornecer ao enxame uma suplementação alimentar utilizando "açúcar invertido" que é obtido pela hidrólise da sacarose em meio ácido por aquecimento, formando uma mistura de glicose e frutose. O ácido normalmente utilizado em tal reação é o ácido cítrico, no entanto, diante da dificuldade de pequenos produtores apícolas em obterem tal produto comercialmente, uma alternativa seria substituí-lo pela utilização de suco de limões. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a inversão da sacarose em dietas para operárias de Apis mellifera, empregando-se o ácido cítrico e sucos de limões. Prepararam-se 21 soluções aquosas de açúcar cristal na proporção de 100 g/100 mL, colocando-se em cada uma 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 5,0; 10,0; 15,0 ou 20,0 mL de suco dos limões Galego [Citrus aurantifolia (C. Swingle], Tahiti [Citrus latifolia Tanaka] ou Cravo [Citrus limonia (L. Osbeck]. Além dessas, outras seis soluções aquosas de açúcar na mesma proporção foram preparadas adicionando-se 0,1; 0,16; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 g de ácido cítrico e uma para testemunha. Quantificou-se a inversão pelo método de Somogyi-Nelson. Para o limão Cravo foi encontrada a menor porcentagem de inversão. Em relação a adição de ácido cítrico, constatou-se que ao colocar 0,1 g, a inversão foi estimada em 12,2% enquanto que, com a adição de 0,16 g, a inversão seria de 18,8%. A quantidade máxima de ácido cítrico a ser adicionada foi estimada em 0,18 g adotando como critério o pH médio de 3,3 dos méis de abelhas africanizadas. Para os sucos dos limões Galego, Tahiti e Cravo, quando utilizados como substitutos do ácido cítrico, estimou-se a quantidade máxima a ser adicionada sendo igual a 2,1; 3,6 e 5,3 mL, respectivamente, para cada 100 g de açúcar em 100 mL de água, para o pH fixado em 3,3. Considerando-se a inversão e o pH, o suco do limão Tahiti forneceu melhores resultados.In times of

  8. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration Monitoramento da viabilidade de sementes porta-enxertos de citros armazenados em câmara fria

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    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  9. Avaliação genética de seleções e híbridos de limões cravo, volkameriano e rugoso como porta-enxertos para laranjeiras Valência na presença da morte súbita dos citros

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    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a avaliação genética da produção de frutos, eficiência produtiva e altura de laranjeiras Valência (Citrus sinensis enxertadas em seleções e híbridos dos limões Cravo (C. limonia, Volkameriano (C. volkameriana e Rugoso (C. jambhiri, em área endêmica para morte súbita dos citros (MSC. Foram avaliados 36 genótipos desses porta-enxertos, representados por cinco plantas cada, avaliados em cinco safras, do terceiro ao sétimo ano após o plantio. Sete dos genótipos avaliados apresentaram plantas com sintomas de MSC até o sétimo ano: Rangpur Otaheite orange 12901 (859, Rangpur Red Lime D.33.30 (866, Limão-Cravo EEL (871, Rangpur Borneo red (874, Citrus kokhai (1649, Limão-Rugoso 58329 (1655 e Limão- Cravo x Swingle B (1695. Para os genótipos que não manifestaram sintomas da doença, foram estimados parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizada a predição de valores genéticos dos indivíduos, visando à seleção e ao melhoramento genético para as características citadas, empregando-se o método REML/BLUP (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada. A análise de produção de frutos de cinco safras mostrou acurácia seletiva de 84,59%, tornando-se desnecessária a avaliação de maior número de safras. A seleção dos sete melhores genótipos proporcionou ganhos genéticos de 11,5% na produção de frutos, enquanto a do melhor genótipo conferiu ganho genético de 16,3%. As maiores médias genéticas preditas (>70,0 kg.pl-1 para produção de frutos foram obtidas pelos genótipos Limão-Cravo- Ipanema (1522, Santa- Bárbara-Red- Lime (884, Limão- Cravo- Limeira (863, Limão- Cravo- Taquaritinga (869, Limão- Rugoso- do -Cabo (1643, Rangpur- Rose Lime (868 e Limão- Cravo- da- Califórnia (1467. Já a acurácia seletiva da eficiência produtiva, para quatro colheitas, foi 77,4%. Para este caráter, as maiores médias genéticas (>8,0 kg.m-3 foram dos

  10. Crescimento e nutrição mineral do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'Cravo' cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com NPK Growth and mineral nutrition of rangpur lime rootstock cultivated in substrate with zeolite enriched with NPK

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    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de um concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre o crescimento, produção de matéria seca, área foliar, teores e extração de N, P e K e os teores de clorofila do limoeiro 'Cravo'. O porta-enxerto foi cultivado por 93 dias em tubetes de 150 cm³ com substrato orgânico compostado de casca de coco e carvão vegetal (3:1 ao qual se adicionou o concentrado zeolítico. Este foi obtido com a concentração da zeólita natural (Z e enriquecimento desta com KNO3 (ZNK, e também com a acidificação com H3PO4 e mistura com apatita (ZP. Utilizou-se uma mistura de 30%ZNK + 70%ZP nas doses de: 0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 15 g por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita adicionado ao substrato orgânico comprovou ser alternativa viável para a obtenção de porta-enxertos no sistema de produção em ambiente protegido. A adição de 6,4 g do concentrado zeolítico enriquecido com NPK aumentou significativamente a produção de matéria seca, área foliar, altura e diâmetro de caule. Este aumento foi de 37,5% em relação à testemunha que não recebeu o concentrado zeolítico. Houve aumentos nos teores e extração de N, P e K com o fornecimento da zeólita enriquecida. As leituras dos teores de clorofila relacionaram-se com os teores de N, indicando ser esta uma alternativa para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional para a cultura.The main objective of this research was to evaluated the growth, dry matter production, leaf area, N, P and K levels and exportation and chlorophyll levels of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck grown in a substrate with NPK enriched zeolite. Rootstocks were cultivated during 93 days in 150cm³-dibble tubes containing composted organic substrate of cocopeat and vegetal coal (3:1 with zeolite addition. Treatments comprised 4 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 g per plant of a NPK-enriched zeolite

  11. Effect of Salinity Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Citrus Genotypes

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    B. Golein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citrus (L. is a large genus that covers several major cultivatedspecies, including Citrussinensis (sweet orange, C.reticulata (tangerine and mandarin, C. limon (lemon, C.grandis (pummelo, and C. paradisi (grapefruit.Citrus is one of the world’s important fruit crops and grown inmost areas with suitable climates between latitude 35◦N–35◦S. InIran, citrus industry is of paramount importance. Citrus species have been classified as salt-sensitive crops, although their relative tolerance can be influenced by climate, fertilization, soil type, irrigation method and rootstock. Citrus rootstocks differ in their ability to exclude Cl−and/or Na+from the scion. Many authors have contrasted the relative abilities of rootstocks to restrict movement of salts to the scions. The rootstocks Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni, Rangpur lime (C. limonia and Severiniabuxifolia (Poir Tenore were relatively effective in restricting Cl−transport to scions, whereas the rootstocks Swingle citrumelo and Carrizo citrange were found to be less restrictive. Although the mechanism by which some rootstocks reduce concentrations of ions in the scion is still unknown, it seems to depend on the vigor of the scion and on water requirements. There are a number of reports demonstrating that both scion and rootstock may influence Cl−accumulation in leaves. Several papers reported that accumulation of Na+ in shoots seemed to be more dependent on rootstock–scion combinations. Since, citrus species are different in salt tolerance and use of tolerant rootstocks can decrease salinity damages, sothis study was conducted to identify tolerant genotypes among unknown types from the Kotra Citrus Research Station, Citrus and Sub-Tropical Fruits Research Center (Ramsar. Materials and Methods: The experiment was –arrangedin afactorial, based on completely randomized design in three replications with two plantsin each experimental unit in Iran Citrus Research Institute

  12. Segregações gaméticas de locos isoenzímicos em porta-enxertos de citros e suas contribuições alélicas na formação de híbridos

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    Medina Filho Herculano Penna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os porta-enxertos de citros, Citrus limonia (limão Cravo, C. sunki, (tangerina Sunki, C. aurantium (laranja Azeda e Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliata por meio de eletroforese horizontal descontínua em gel de amido quanto aos seus genótipos e suas segregações dos locos isoenzímicos Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Prxa-1, Aps-1 e Me-1, bem como às suas contribuições alélicas a mais de 400 híbridos entre eles. Os locos Me-1 e Aps-1, embora úteis para identificação de híbridos, são homozigotos nos genitores, portanto, inadequados às análises de segregações gaméticas nos genitores e das contribuições alélicas a seus híbridos e foram, por esta razão, desconsiderados. Em Trifoliata, o loco duplicado Got-2, anteriormente descrito com genótipo MT.SS, é na verdade SS.MT, em que S é um alelo de F em Sunki (FF.MM e de F e M em Azeda (FM.MM, enquanto os alelos M e T da duplicação são alelos de M do loco homozigoto MM de Azeda e Sunki, assim determinados pelo padrão de bandas dos híbridos e pela formação dos correspondentes heterodímeros intraloco. Considerando-se 27 segregações para os cinco locos estudados verificou-se a ocorrência de distorções estatisticamente significativas em seis (22% delas. Assumindo-se a ausência de seleção, haja vista as condições ideais de germinação em placas de Petri, a separação dos embriões e a determinação dos genótipos já no primeiro ou segundo par de folhas, os resultados refletem, provavelmente, distorção na proporção dos alelos nos gametas dos genitores, ou transmissão diferencial dos alelos, ou ainda, distinta viabilidade de seus portadores nos zigotos híbridos. Devido à co-dominância dos alelos de isoenzimas, foi possível deduzir a contribuição relativa de cada alelo dos locos heterozigotos dos genitores a partir dos genótipos das progênies híbridas. Não se observaram distorções genotípicas oriundas do genitor Trifoliata, porém ocorreram em

  13. Battling the un-dead: the status of the Diptera genus-group names originally proposed in Johann Wilhelm Meigen's 1800 pamphlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas

    2017-06-08

    The work of Meigen 1800 was suppressed by the ICZN Commission in 1963 for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. The work as such is still to be treated as having been published and it remains available as a source of published descriptions and illustrations. Therefore, while the names in Meigen (1800) are deemed unavailable, a subsequent usage of any of the names may be considered a novel proposal. We review the first post-Meigen 1800 occurrence of each name, its first date of availability and authorship, and determine status and synonymy.        Designations of type species are given for the following genus-group names: Coryneta Hendel, 1908 [Hybotidae]; Cyanea Hendel, 1908 [Hippoboscidae].        Acting as First Reviser, we select the following as the correct original spelling from multiple original spellings: Calirrhoe Hendel, 1908.        New synonymies are proposed for the following: Ablabesmyia Johannsen, 1905 under Pelopia Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Amasia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Penthetria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Bibionidae]; Amphinome Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Limonia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Antiopa Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Apivora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Volucella Geoffroy, 1762, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Atalanta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Clinocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Empididae]; Calirrhoe Meigen & Hendel in Hendel, 1908 under Prosena Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chrysozona Hendel, 1903 under Haematopota Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tabanidae]; Cinxia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Sericomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Cleona Meigen in Hendel 1908 under Callomyia Meigen, 1804, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Clythia Hendel, 1903 under Platypeza Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Coryneta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Tachydromia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Crocuta Bezzi, 1907 under Siphona Meigen, 1803, n. syn