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Sample records for wood quercus mongolica

  1. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  2. Draft genome sequence of the fungus associated with oak-wilt mortality in South Korea, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae KACC44405

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbum Jeon; Ki-Tae Kim; Hyeunjeong Song; Gir-Won Lee; Kyeongchae Cheong; Hyunbin Kim; Gobong Choi; Yong-Hwan Lee; Jane E. Stewart; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2017-01-01

    The fungus Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is the causal agent of Korean oak wilt, a disease associated with mass mortality of oak trees (e.g., Quercus spp.). The fungus is vectored and dispersed by the ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis. Here, we present the 27.0-Mb draft genome sequence of R. quercus-mongolicae strain KACC44405.

  3. Soil respiration in relation to photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica trees at elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-12-06

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO(2) is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO(2)-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO(2) (EC = 500 µmol mol(-1)) and ambient CO(2) (AC = 370 µmol mol(-1)) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO(2) assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO(2) fixation of plants in a CO(2)-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration.

  4. Soil respiration in relation to photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica trees at elevated CO2.

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    Yumei Zhou

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO(2 is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO(2-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO(2 (EC = 500 µmol mol(-1 and ambient CO(2 (AC = 370 µmol mol(-1 from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO(2 m(-2 hr(-1 at AC in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO(2 m(-2 hr(-1 at AC in 2008, and increased the daytime CO(2 assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO(2 m(-2 hr(-1 at AC across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO(2 fixation of plants in a CO(2-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration.

  5. Soil Respiration in Relation to Photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica Trees at Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO2 is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO2-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO2 (EC = 500 µmol mol−1) and ambient CO2 (AC = 370 µmol mol−1) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO2 assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO2 fixation of plants in a CO2-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration. PMID:21151897

  6. Modeling of stomatal conductance to estimate stomatal ozone uptake by Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Azuchi, Fumika; Uehara, Yui; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into the models and the models could explain 34-52% of the variability in gs. Although the O3 concentration was relatively high in spring from April to May, COU of F. crenata, Q. serrata and Q. mongolica var. crispula were relatively low and the ratios of COU in spring to total COU in one year were 16.8% in all tree species because of low gs limited mainly by leaf pre-maturation and/or low temperature. The COU of B. platyphylla were relatively high mainly because of rapid leaf maturation and lower optimal temperature for stomatal opening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Change in the Green-Up Dates for Quercus mongolica in Northeast China and Its Climate-Driven Mechanism from 1962 to 2012.

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    Deqin Fan

    Full Text Available The currently available studies on the green-up date were mainly based on ground observations and/or satellite data, and few model simulations integrated with wide coverage satellite data have been reported at large scale over a long time period (i.e., > 30 years. In this study, we combined phenology mechanism model, long-term climate data and synoptic scale remote sensing data to investigate the change in the green-up dates for Quercus mongolica over 33 weather stations in Northeast China and its climate-driven mechanism during 1962-2012. The results indicated that the unified phenology model can be well parameterized with the satellite derived green-up dates. The optimal daily mean temperature for chilling effect was between -27°C and 1°C for Q. mongolica in Northeast China, while the optimal daily mean temperature for forcing effect was above -3°C. The green-up dates for Q. mongolica across Northeast China showed a delayed latitudinal gradient of 2.699 days degree-1, with the earliest date on the Julian day 93 (i.e., 3th April in the south and the latest date on the Julian day 129 (i.e., 9th May in the north. The green-up date for Q. mongolica in Northeast China has advanced 6.6 days (1.3 days decade-1 from 1962 to 2012. With the prevailing warming in autumn, winter and spring in Northeast China during the past 51 years, the chilling effect for Q. mongolica has been weakened, while the forcing effect has been enhanced. The advancing trend in the green-up dates for Q. mongolica implied that the enhanced forcing effect to accelerate green-up was stronger than the weakened chilling effect to hold back green-up while the changes of both effects were caused by the warming climate.

  8. Levulinic acid production by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica using dilute sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanseob; Jang, Soo-Kyeong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Soo Min; Choi, Joon Weon; Choi, In-Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230°C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1 st step acid-catalyzed treatment, most of the hemicellulosic C5 sugars (15.6gg/100gbiomass) were released into the liquid hydrolysate at the reaction temperature of 150°C in 1% SA; the solid fraction, which contained 53.5% of the C6 sugars, was resistant to further loss of C6 sugars. Subsequently, 2 nd step acid-catalyzed treatment of the solid fractions was performed under more severe conditions. Finally, 16.5g/100g biomass of levulinic acid was produced at the reaction temperature of 200°C in 2% SA, corresponding to a higher conversion rate than during single-step treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new attempt at discrimination between Quercus petraea and Quercus robur based on wood anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Feuillat, François; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Sciama, Delphine; Keller, René

    1997-01-01

    The interspecific variability of wood anatomy between the two major oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. is still largely unknown. However, anatomy strongly influences the technological properties of wood and the ecophysiological functioning of trees. Moreover, identification of oak wood species is a long-standing challenge and important for many purposes. In the Cîteaux Forest (Burgundy), 58 oaks from 14 mixed stands were sampled for wood anatomy characterization. ...

  10. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Hilke; Cronn, Richard; Yanbaev, Yulai; Jennings, Tara; Mader, Malte; Degen, Bernd; Kersten, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 189 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism) from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America), and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites) and Q. robur (346 variant sites). Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose) electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber.

  11. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of Oak wood ( Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis): optimization of the processing parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Rim; Azzouz, Soufien; Remond, Romain; Ouertani, Sahbi; Elaieb, Mohamed Taher; El Cafci, Mohamed Afif

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the moisture desorption isotherms and essentials thermodynamic properties of two Oak wood varieties. Desorption isotherms were measured using a static gravimetric method at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C within the range of 5-90 % relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. The `Thermodynamic' sorption equation was found to be the best for describing the experimental moisture sorption isotherms of woods within the range of temperature and water activity investigated. The Fiber saturation point, deduced from the `Thermodynamic' model parameters, depends on the temperature and varying from 22.6 to 54.4 (% kg water/kg dry matter). Isosteric heat of desorption and differential entropy were calculated by applying Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the desorption data fitted by the `Thermodynamic' model. The isosteric heat of desorption and the differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture content according to an exponential law equation and varying from 2.03 to 31.14 kJ/mol and from 73.98 to 4.34 J/(mol K), respectively. The linear relationship between differential enthalpy and entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The sign of Gibbs free energy was found to be positive (+283 J/mol) and (+97 J/mol) for Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis, respectively. The isokinetic temperature was found to be greater than the harmonic temperature. Based on the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory, it could be concluded that the moisture desorption isotherm of Oak wood is a non-spontaneous and enthalpy-controlled process.

  12. Properties of Hungarian oak(quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Hilandar Monastery forest

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    Popović Zdravko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study results of the basic physical and strength properties of Hungarian oak (Quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Kakovo Monastery forests of Hilandar Monastery in Greece. Wood properties were analyzed in detail, as an indispensable proof of wood quality and its use for joinery, interiors and wooden floors. The basic physical properties of wood (moisture content at the time of tree felling, density and volume porosity and the basic strength properties (compressive strength, bending strength and module of elasticity were researched. The results are presented in Tables and in Diagrams with statistical parameters and compared to the literature data. The correlation of the study properties of wood was also analyzed.

  13. Development of molecular markers for determining continental origin of wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke Schroeder; Richard Cronn; Yulai Yanbaev; Tara Jennings; Malte Mader; Bernd Degen; Birgit Kersten; Dusan Gomory

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica...

  14. Nutrients and trace elements content of wood decay fungi isolated from oak (Quercus ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Juan A

    2011-12-01

    The presence of chemical elements and the differences in their concentration in the fruiting bodies of wood decay fungi may reflect their activity either as saprobes or parasites and the intimate physiological relation with the substrate from which they extract their nutrients. In order to test this hypothesis, we carried out a systematic sampling of eight species of wood decay fungi on oak (Quercus ilex). The data show that the concentration of some elements exhibits a very wide range of values for the species tested, which could mean that the relative content of some elements may provide clues about the nature of the substrate and, moreover, about the nutritional physiology. The comparison between the foliar analysis (FA) and the elemental content of fungi may shed light on the specific physiological behaviour of the species. Potassium is an element accumulated in fungal biomass in higher quantities than in the FA. By contrast, calcium appears in foliar analysis in much higher quantities than in fungal fruiting bodies' biomass. Concerning this element, we have also found profound differences between the two species phylogenetic groups and lifestyle. Of all elements measured, we believe that the relative accumulation of K and Ca may be related to the close connection between fungi and the substrate on which they live and may also explain their physiological role as saprobes or parasites. When the lifestyle and the systematic position of the different species sampled were compared, differences also emerged in the content of Na and Ca.

  15. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

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    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area.Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m and prepared for X-ray microdensity.Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good.Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations. 

  16. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, V.B.; Louzada, J.L.; Pereira, H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture) by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area. Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m) and prepared for X-ray microdensity. Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good. Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations). (Author)

  17. French Oak Wood (Quercus robur) Extract (Robuvit) in Primary Lymphedema: A Supplement, Pilot, Registry Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, Gianni; Dugall, Mark; Hu, Shu; Ledda, Andrea; Ippolito, Edmondo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot supplement study was the evaluation of an oak wood extract (Robuvit, Quercus robur [QR], Horphag Research) in an 8-week registry study on lymphatic signs in primary lymphedema. Subjects with primary lymphedema confined to a single leg without skin changes or ulcerations were followed for at least 8 weeks. Lymphedema was mainly present distally (below the knee). Three groups were formed: one group used only the standard management for lymphedema; one used the same management plus 300 mg Robuvit; and one used the standard management plus 600 mg of Robuvit. The three groups were comparable. After 8 weeks the variation in leg volume was on average −6.2% with standard management, −15% in the QR 300 mg group, and −18.9% in the 600 mg group. The edema score was also significantly lower at 8 weeks in the two QR groups. The variation in proteins in the interstitial fluid in comparison with initial values was −14.8% in controls in comparison with −29.9% in QR 300 mg group and −36.9% in QR 600 mg group. Skin flux significantly improved (increased) in the two QR groups. Ultrasound pretibial skin thickness was decreased on average 6% in controls versus 10.3% in the low-dose QR group and 11.8% in the higher dose group. Perimalleolar thickness was decreased 7% in controls and more in the two QR groups. Ankle circumference was decreased 4.4% in controls and more in the two supplement groups. This pilot registry indicates that Robuvit can be effective in the management of primary lymphedema. More patients and longer evaluation periods are needed. PMID:25780327

  18. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-08

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak.

  19. Polyphenols in red wine aged in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and oak (Quercus petraea) wood barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Martinez, Juana

    2012-06-30

    Polyphenolic composition of two Syrah wines aged during 6 or 12 months in medium toasting acacia and oak 225L barrels was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. A total of 43 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were found in all wines, and other 15 compounds only in the wines from acacia barrels. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify the wines aged in acacia barrels. Among all of them the dihydrorobinetin highlights because of its high levels, but also robinetin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, a tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol, fustin, butin, a trihydroxymethoxydihydroflavonol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected at appreciable levels in wines during aging in acacia barrels, and could be used as phenolic markers for authenticity purposes. Although longer contact time with acacia wood mean higher concentrations of phenolic markers found in wines, the identification of these wines will also be easy after short aging times due the high levels reached by these compounds, even after only 2 months of aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in fine-scale genetic structure and dispersal in Quercus ilex L. and Q. suber L.: consequences for regeneration of mediterranean open woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, A; Lorenzo, Z; Gil, L

    2007-12-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and holm oak (Q. ilex L.) are among the most important tree species (economically and ecologically) in the Western Mediterranean region, where they define unique open woods (created and maintained by man) known as 'dehesas' in Spain. However, these formations are under increasing threat due to the lack of regeneration. We have analysed spatial genetic structure in a mixed parkland; inferences about gene dispersal have also been performed, according to the isolation by distance model. Noticeable differences have been detected between the species, despite their similar ecological roles. Restricted effective dispersal leads to kin structures in cork oak, up to 70 m, while no genetic structure is observed in holm oak. Our results suggest a very effective dispersal for the latter, with a local historical gene flow estimated between 55 and 95 m. This is the first time regeneration of Mediterranean oak parklands has been assessed from a genetic perspective. Effective gene flow detected for holm oaks allows us to discount the risk of inbreeding over successive generations. Thus, regeneration of Q. ilex dehesas will just require action directed to help the settlement of the saplings (such as limiting grazing). However, in those cases where densities are too low, more intense forestation (such as plantation and/or establishment of appropriate shelter) will be needed. The 'density threshold' for initiating regeneration will probably be higher for cork oak, due to its more limited dispersal and minor full-light tolerance.

  1. Biodegradation of oak (Quercus alba) wood during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes): a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Christopher H; Drage, Trevor C; Snape, Colin E

    2003-02-12

    The chemical transformations that occur during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) on oak (Quercus alba) were investigated to improve mushroom cultivation and utilization of the spent substrate. Oak logs were decayed by L. edodes over 8 years, during which time they were sampled at six intervals (30, 40, 66, 76, 77, and 101 months). Fresh and decayed oak samples were analyzed using solid-state (13)C NMR and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Degraded oak exhibited lower carbon contents and increased oxygen content compared to the control. Solid-state (13)C NMR analysis revealed that polysaccharides were the major component of both fresh and decayed oak but that L. edodes mediated the preferential loss of cellulose and xylans as compared to lignin, which remained in an altered form. Several trends point toward the degradation of lignin, including a decrease in the proportion of syringyl units as compared to guaiacyl units and a reduction in side-chain length. An increase in guaiacyl and syringyl acid-to-aldehyde ratios occurred with growth, which suggested that the fungus had caused oxidation of Calpha-Cbeta bonds. The overall effect of L. edodes on oak is similar to that of many white-rot fungi, which simultaneously degrade all cell wall components.

  2. Identification and sensory evaluation of dehydro- and deoxy-ellagitannins formed upon toasting of oak wood (Quercus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-05-16

    Traditionally, spirits such as whiskey are matured in toasted wood barrels to improve the sensory quality of the final beverage. In order to gain first insight into the puzzling road map of thermal ellagitannin transformation chemistry and provide evidence for the changes in sensory active nonvolatiles in oak wood during toasting, the purified oak ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, their corresponding dimers roburin A and roburin D, and 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin were thermally treated in model experiments. Besides mouth-coating and golden-brown colored melanoidin-type polymers, individual major reaction products were produced as transient intermediates which were identified for the first time by means of LC-MS/MS and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy. Depending strongly on the stereochemistry, castalagin is oxidized to the previously unreported dehydrocastalagin, whereas its diastereomer vescalagin, differing only in the stereochemistry at carbon C-1, is most surprisingly converted into deoxyvescalagin. Comparative model experiments with 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin revealed castalagin, vescalagin, dehydrocastalagin, and deoxyvescalagin as typical reaction products, thus indicating decarboxylation as a key step in the thermal degradation of that ellagitannin. Similar to the ellagitannin monomers, LC-MS/MS analyses gave strong evidence that the corresponding dimer roburin A, containing the vescalagin configuration at C-1, was converted into the deoxyroburin A, whereas roburin D, exhibiting the castalagin configuration at C-1, was oxidized to give the dehydroroburin D. Human sensory experiments revealed that the ellagitannin derivatives imparted an astringent mouth-coating sensation with threshold concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 126.0 micromol/L, depending strongly on their chemical structure.

  3. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...

  4. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  5. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae) in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae), an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit. PMID:21205287

  6. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Kuo-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae, an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit.

  7. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  8. Seasonal dynamics of secondary growth and xylem anatomy in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus; Dinamica estacional del crecimiento secundario y anatomia del xilema en dos Quercus mediterraneos que coexisten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuixech, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Montserrat-Marti, G.

    2012-11-01

    The contribution of secondary growth's patterns and wood anatomy on the coexistence of two species of Quercus (Quercus ilex subsp ballota diffused porous wood and Quercus faginea ring porous wood) were studied in a location with continental Mediterranean climate, which has been studied during two years with contrasted climatology. According to our results secondary growth pattern of Q. faginea is concentrated in the spring, starting before, and responding more than Q. ilex to a rainfall increase during this period. Q. ilex extends wood formation into the fall and late summer growth. Q. ilex growth during the fall and late summer has a greater importance in terms of theoretical hydraulic conductivity than in Q. faginea, which concentrates hydraulic conductivity in spring vessels. Therefore, different response of wood phenology formation and xylem anatomy in both species to the seasonal pattern of precipitation could contribute to explain the coexistence of Q. ilex and Q. faginea. (Author) 48 refs.

  9. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  10. Evaluation of extractive content in Albanian white oak ( Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extraction is done with Soxhlet 250 ml capacity, for about 6 h. The content of extractives decreased from the base to the top of the tree and their content in wood was 4.7%. This result is near to those recommended in literature for Quercus sp. Key words: Extractives, extraction solvent, Soxhlet, evaporator, white oak.

  11. Development and Characterization of 25 EST-SSR markers in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A set of novel expressed sequence tag (EST microsatellite markers was developed in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica to promote further genetic studies in this species. Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-five EST–simple sequence repeat (SSR primers were designed and synthesized for 31,653 isotigs based on P. tabuliformis EST sequences. The primer pairs were used to identify 25 polymorphic loci in 48 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.0435 to 0.8125 and 0.0430 to 0.7820, respectively. Conclusions: These new polymorphic EST-SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity, molecular breeding and genetic improvement, and conservation of P. sylvestris var. mongolica.

  12. Isolation of 16 Microsatellite Markers for Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica (Rosaceae of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A set of microsatellite markers were developed to characterize the level of genetic diversity and gene flow in two plant species endemic to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing repeats (FIASCO method, 16 microsatellite loci showed polymorphisms in both species. In two populations of each species, the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 18 in S. alpina and from four to 30 in S. mongolica. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers provide an efficient tool for population genetic studies and will be used to assess the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of S. alpina and S. mongolica.

  13. Two new species of the genus Timia and a redescription of Timia mongolica (Diptera, Ulidiidae

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    Tatiana V. Galinskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Timia Wiedemann, 1824 are described and illustrated. Timia lazebnayae sp. n. from Uzbekistan has yellow body and is similar to Timia gobica Zaitzev, 1982, differing from it only by the entirely yellow flagellomere 1. Timia shatalkini sp. n. from Mongolia has dark body and differs from all other dark-colored representatives of the genus by the cell r4+5 being completely closed, forming petiole at the wing apex. Timia mongolica Zaitsev, 1982 is redescribed and an updated key for yellow-coloured Timia is provided.

  14. y Quercus laurina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flores-Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las características de maquinado con base en la norma ASTM D 1666-87, en las operaciones de cepillado, barrenado, moldurado, torneado y lijado de la madera de Quercus affinis y Quercus laurina. Los mejores resultados de cepillado para Q. affinis se encontraron al combinar el ángulo de corte de 15º y una velocidad de alimentación de 7.5 m·min-1, para Q. laurina no hubo influencia del ángulo de corte. En el barrenado se obtuvieron excelentes resultados con las dos velocidades de giro de broca probadas. Para el moldurado, los resultados para las dos especies fueron excelentes en ambos cortes. En el torneado se encontró que no existe influencia del contenido de humedad para Q. laurina, mientras que para Q. affinis se clasificó como buena para un contenido de humedad menor y excelente para el mayor contenido de humedad. Y para el lijado los resultados fueron excelentes. De acuerdo a los resultados de las pruebas, las dos especies son apropiadas para ser utilizadas por la industria maderera para la elaboración de productos terminados de alta calidad.

  15. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents from Artemisia mongolica Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxue You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activities of the Artemisia mongolica essential oil against Lasioderma serricorne and to isolate active constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. mongolica was obtained by hydrodistillation and 36 components were identified with GC-MS. Eucalyptol (39.88%, (S-cis-verbenol (14.93%, 4-terpineol (7.20%, (−-camphor (6.02%, and α-terpineol (4.20% were found to be major components. With a further isolation process, five constituents obtained from the essential oil were identified as eucalyptol, verbenol, 4-terpineol, camphor, and α-terpineol. In the progress of assay, it showed that L. serricorne adults had different sensitivities to the crude essential oil and isolated constituents. 4-Terpineol exhibited strongest contact activity against L. serricorne, showing the LD50 value of 8.62 μg/adult. Moreover, camphor and α-terpineol showed stronger fumigant activity (LC50=2.91 and 3.27 mg/L air, resp. against L. serricorne than crude essential oil and other constituents. In addition, the essential oil, eucalyptol, verbenol, and α-terpineol showed comparable repellency against L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil and isolated compounds have potential to provide more efficient and safer natural insecticides or repellents for control of insects in food and Chinese medicinal materials preservation.

  16. The taxonomic status of the Mexican oak Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus) El estatus taxonómico del encino mexicano Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Sección Quercus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Jeffrey R.; Patricia Dolores Dávila-Aranda; Richard Spellenberg; M. Socorro González-Elizondo

    2011-01-01

    Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus) has a complex taxonomic and nomenclatural history. Intensive sampling of oaks at the type locality of Q. undata Trel. in Durango, Mexico and evaluation of herbarium specimens and plants in the field indicate that Q. undata represents variation in Quercus chihuahuensis Trel. in white oak communities where introgressive hybridization among Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., and a third white oak, Q. arizonica Sarg. made species identifi...

  17. CLIMATIC FACTORS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF QUERCUS ILEX - COMMUNITIES IN TRIESTE PROVINCE (NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FURLANETTO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal area called "Cernizza" (near Duino. ca 15 km NW from Trieste, at an altitude between 0 and 40 m. is located a wood vegetation complex characterized by Quercus ilex and Carpinus orientalis. The bedrocks of this site is carbonatic. This wood vegetation does not occur in other sites or the Trieste province, where deciduous oak woods (Q. pubescells, Q. petraea s.1. are dominant both on arenaceus and on carbonatic rocks. Other Quercus ilex communities are occurring only as scrubs on the calcareous coastal cliffs characterized by primitive lithosoils. In order to detect if this wood community might be an expression of the c1imate dominating this particular zone, some Duino's c1imatic data, relative lo a record period of 9 years. have been compared with the Trieste's ones. The analysed parameters were the following: air temperature. rainfall, evaporation. wind speed and relative humidity. From the comparison of these paramenters it emerged that the Duino's climate is more humid than the Trieste's one. Only in springtime Duino is less rainy than Trieste according lo the analysis of the monthly mean values of precipitation. From the ecophysiological point of view, a study of the seasonal changes of the root hydraulic conductance in some forest trees (Nardini el al .. 1998 has pointed out the superiority of Quercus ilex compared to Quercus pubescens, as regards the competitive ability of the seedlings during the spring. For this reason, the smaller spring rainfall could explain the occurrence of Quercus ilex stands not only in the neighbourhood of Duino but also at the beginning of the large valleys characterized by S•N direction in the South Eastern Alps.

  18. CLIMATIC FACTORS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF QUERCUS ILEX - COMMUNITIES IN TRIESTE PROVINCE (NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CODOGNO

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal area called "Cernizza" (near Duino. ca 15 km NW from Trieste, at an altitude between 0 and 40 m. is located a wood vegetation complex characterized by Quercus ilex and Carpinus orientalis. The bedrocks of this site is carbonatic. This wood vegetation does not occur in other sites or the Trieste province, where deciduous oak woods (Q. pubescells, Q. petraea s.1. are dominant both on arenaceus and on carbonatic rocks. Other Quercus ilex communities are occurring only as scrubs on the calcareous coastal cliffs characterized by primitive lithosoils. In order to detect if this wood community might be an expression of the c1imate dominating this particular zone, some Duino's c1imatic data, relative lo a record period of 9 years. have been compared with the Trieste's ones. The analysed parameters were the following: air temperature. rainfall, evaporation. wind speed and relative humidity. From the comparison of these paramenters it emerged that the Duino's climate is more humid than the Trieste's one. Only in springtime Duino is less rainy than Trieste according lo the analysis of the monthly mean values of precipitation. From the ecophysiological point of view, a study of the seasonal changes of the root hydraulic conductance in some forest trees (Nardini el al .. 1998 has pointed out the superiority of Quercus ilex compared to Quercus pubescens, as regards the competitive ability of the seedlings during the spring. For this reason, the smaller spring rainfall could explain the occurrence of Quercus ilex stands not only in the neighbourhood of Duino but also at the beginning of the large valleys characterized by S•N direction in the South Eastern Alps.

  19. Prolonged diapause of specialist seed-feeders makes predator satiation unstable in masting of Quercus crispula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeto, Kaoru; Ozaki, Kennichi

    2003-11-01

    Quercus crispula (= Q. mongolica var. grosseserrata) is the predominant tree species in cool temperate, mixed broadleaf/conifer forests in northern Japan. We compared 11 years of data on acorn production in a population of Q. crispula, with data on seed-insect populations, to try to answer the following questions: (1) Does Q. crispula show a regular pattern of masting? (2) How long do principal seed predators remain in diapause? (3) How do the seed predators affect the pattern of predator satiation? Q. crispula showed a tendency to alternate bearing, with significant synchrony between individual trees. The principal acorn-feeding insects ( Curculio spp. weevils), which infested 25%-70% of matured acorns, generally exhibited a prolonged diapause of 2 years. No significant negative relationship was found between the rate of injury by the weevils and the density of mature acorns, indicating that simple predator satiation fails due to the synchrony of the life-cycle of acorn-feeding insects and the periodical production of acorns. However, the rate of injury by the weevils was negatively correlated with the relative abundance of mature acorns to the number of weevil larvae that had matured 2 years previously. Thus, the proportion of sound acorns notably increased in a rich crop after a disturbance in alternate bearing. Prolonged diapause of specific seed predators is critical in determining the peak year of sound-seed production.

  20. ( Quercus spp. ) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five species, including: Quercus robur, Quercus macranthera, Quercus infectoria, Quercus magnosquamata and Quercus libani were collected from Northwest forests of Iran and analyzed. Each tree was judged as a genuine type of each species according to the morphological structures. 10 RAPD primers reproducibly and ...

  1. Fuel Wood: A Conventional Source Of Energy In Mountains Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... camara in tropical region; Anogeissus latifolia, Acacia catechu and Carissa spinarum in sub-tropical region; and Quercus leucotrichophora, Myrica esculenta and Pyracantha crenulata in temperate region. Keywords: Fuel wood consumption, altitudes, Garhwal Himalaya, season. Journal of Environmental Extension Vol.

  2. Pollen morphology of Quercus (subgenus Quercus, section Quercus in Iran and its systematic implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Panahi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, pollen morphology of 9 (4 spp. and 5 subspp. taxa representing lobed leaved oaks of Iran in the family of Fagaceae has been examined and illustrated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of acetolysed material. Detailed pollen morphological characteristics are given for Quercus section. The pollen grains are single, isopolar, radially symmetrical, tricolpate, tricolporoidate or tricolporate. Pollens were studied to show all possible characteristics like shape, size, apertures, wall thickness, etc., with special reference to the specific features of each pollen type such as structural, sculptural and suprasculptural patterns. There is considerable variation in pollen morphology between taxa so that, three types of pollen shape, five types of structural pattern, two types of sculptural pattern, five types of suprasculptural pattern and three types of perfora distribution are defined. Furthermore, the relationship between pollen morphology and taxonomy is discussed. Overall, pollen characters are shown to be a useful and informative tool for assessing taxonomic position within Quercus section in Iran.

  3. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  4. The taxonomic status of the Mexican oak Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus El estatus taxonómico del encino mexicano Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Sección Quercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Bacon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus has a complex taxonomic and nomenclatural history. Intensive sampling of oaks at the type locality of Q. undata Trel. in Durango, Mexico and evaluation of herbarium specimens and plants in the field indicate that Q. undata represents variation in Quercus chihuahuensis Trel. in white oak communities where introgressive hybridization among Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., and a third white oak, Q. arizonica Sarg. made species identification difficult. Endlich's type specimen of Q. undata, as designated by Trelease, was apparently destroyed in bombing raids on Berlin during World War II, and we propose herein as lectotype the Trelease illustration of the type. An epitype is also designated in support of the lectotype, given that some features cannot be critically observed on the illustration. The long peduncles of the specimen illustrated by Trelease indicate a close relation to Q. chihuahuensis.Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus tiene una compleja historia taxonómica y de nomenclatura. Un muestreo intensivo de los encinos en la localidad tipo de Q. undata en Durango, México y análisis de ejemplares en herbario y en el campo indican que Q. undata representa variación en Q. chihuahuensis Trel. en los sitios donde la hibridación introgresiva entre Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., y un tercer encino blanco, Q. arizonica Sarg., dificultan la identificación de especies. El ejemplar tipo designado por Trelease aparentemente fue destruido en el bombardeo de Berlín durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, por lo que se propone como lectotipo a la ilustración del tipo en la obra de Trelease. Se designa también un epitipo dado que algunos rasgos no pueden ser críticamente observados en la ilustración. Los largos pedúnculos del espécimen ilustrado por Trelease indican la relación cercana a Q. chihuahuensis.

  5. Evolution of ellagitannins in Spanish, French, and American oak woods during natural seasoning and toasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadahía, E; Varea, S; Muñoz, L; Fernández De Simón, B; García-Vallejo, M C

    2001-08-01

    The evolution of tannins in Spanish oak heartwood of Quercus robur L., Quercus petraea Liebl.,Quercus pyrenaica Wild., and Quercus faginea Lam. was studied in relation to the processing of wood in barrel cooperage. Their evolution was compared with that of French oak of Q. robur (Limousin, France) and Q. petraea (Allier, France) and American oak of Quercus alba L. (Missouri), which are habitually used in cooperage. Two stages of process were researched: the seasoning of woods during 3 years in natural conditions and toasting. Total phenol and total ellagitannin contents and optical density at 420 nm of wood extracts were determined. The ellagitannins roburins A-E, grandinin, vescalagin, and castalagin were identified and quantified by HPLC, and the molecular weight distribution of ellagitannins was calculated by GPC. During the seasoning process the different ellagitannin concentrations decreased according to the duration of this process and in the same way as those in French and American woods. The toasting process also had an important influence on the ellagitannin composition of wood. Roburins A-E, grandinin, vescalagin, and castalagin decreased during this process in the Spanish wood species, in the same proportion as in the French and American ones. Also, the seasoning and toasting processes lead to qualitative variations in the structure of ellagitannins, especially in the molecular weight distribution, as was evidenced by GPC analysis of their acetylated derivatives.

  6. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  7. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  8. Effect of Moisture Sorption State on Vibrational Properties of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxiong Lu; Jiali Jiang; Yiqiang Wu; Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vibrational properties and corresponding anisotropicity in wood during different states of moisture sorption. Samples of maple (Acer spp.) and red oak (Quercus rubra Michx.f.) were moisture conditioned by the adsorption process from an ovendried state and by the desorption process...

  9. Estudio cariológico de Quercus humboldtti Bonpl Caryological study of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado de Coral Cecilia

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comprobó que la especie del roble Ouercus humboldtii Bonpl. tiene 2 n= 24 cromosomas, al igual que la mayoría de las especies estudiadas de Quercus. Utilizando pretratamiento y tinción con orceina lactopropiónica fue posible obtener el cariotipo e ideograma.Using lactopropionic orceine for a previus tintion we obtained the Caryotype and ideogram of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. and we observed that it has 2 n = 24 chromosomes as most studied species of Quercus do.

  10. Molecular diversity among Turkish oaks ( QUERCUS ) using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, three species of evergreen oaks known as Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex and Quercus aucheri were studied in all area located and made the comparison within and among species studied using ten RAPD markers. As a result; it can be stated that the presence of the three species in Ilex section is clear. Furthermore ...

  11. (Quercus spp.) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Quercus is one of the most important woody genera of the Northern hemisphere and considered as one of the main forest tree species in Iran. In this study, genetic relationships in the genus Quercus, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was examined. Five species, including: Quercus robur,.

  12. Large-scale patterns of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Quercus pyrenaica regeneration in central-western Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Rolo, Víctor; Moreno, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale;...

  13. Effects of Thinning and Water Supply Manipulation on the Productivity of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    Full Text Available Management is an effective tool for increasing the productivity of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. This species has been widely planted in China, especially in sandy lands. However, optimization of management practices had not been fully explored. We established a system dynamic model to evaluate the effects of thinning and of manipulation of water supply on the productivity and population density of a Mongolian pine forest (17 scenarios in total. Different levels of thinning increased the mean biomass of Mongolian pine over no-management to a range from 202 to 256 t·ha-1. Increasing water supply decreased the mean biomass of Mongolian pine to a range from 176 to 199 t·ha-1. These results indicated that thinning at different levels may lead to an increase in biomass accumulation, while manipulating water supply may decrease biomass. Further, thinning appeared more effective than increasing water supply in efforts at maintaining high productivity of Mongolian pine forests. Moreover, the highest biomass occurred in a scenario with a thinning intensity of 30% in over-mature trees, indicating that this thinning intensity was the most effective choice for to the maintenance of the highest biomass in Mongolian pine forests. This study informs about the interactions between Mongolian pine and forest management, and provides guidelines for the practice of management of this forest type.

  14. Volatile compounds in Spanish, French, and American oak woods after natural seasoning and toasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadahía, Estrella; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Jalocha, Jerzy

    2003-09-24

    The volatile composition (volatile phenols, phenolic aldehydes, furanic compounds, lactones, phenyl ketones, and other related compounds) of Spanish oak heartwood of Quercus robur, Quercus petraea,Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea was studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in relation to the processing in barrels cooperage and in relation to the French oak of Quercus robur (Limousin) and Quercus petraea (Allier) and American oak of Quercus alba (Missouri), which are habitually used in cooperage. The volatile composition of seasoned oak woods varied according to individual trees, species, and origins, and the differences were more significant in Spanish species with respect to American species than with respect to French species. The toasting process influenced the volatile composition of wood. It led to high increases in the concentration of volatile phenols, furanic aldehydes, phenyl ketones, and other related structures, but the effect on w-lactones levels depended on species and origin. The volatile composition in Spanish oak species evolved during toasting like in French and American oak, but quantitative differences were found, especially important in American species with respect to European species.

  15. Seed Biology and Technology of Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo

    1987-01-01

    The genus Quercus,known as oak, includes worldwide some 500 species with 58 of these species in the United States, making it this country's largest genus of native trees (Little 1979). Oak is therefore an important group of temperate-zone forest trees. In addition, oaks are significant components of many of the major forest types of the South (Burns 1983)and are...

  16. Growth, ectomycorrhization and biochemical parameters of Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survival of the seedlings under these drought conditions was due to two strategies: osmotic adjustment through soluble sugars and proteins accumulations in leaves and an increase in carbon discrimination which enhances the water use efficiency (WUE). Keywords: Quercus suber, growth, drought, ectomycorrhization, ...

  17. WOOD WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-01-01

    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  18. Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berahou, A; Auhmani, A; Fdil, N; Benharref, A; Jana, M; Gadhi, C A

    2007-07-25

    The antibacterial activity of different extracts of Quercus ilex bark (Fagaceae) was studied in vitro against seven reference strains of bacteria by using a disc-diffusion method and agar-dilution method. The ethyl acetate extract (QE), n-butanol extract (QB) and final aqueous layer (QA) were effective against all bacterial strains tested at MICs ranging from 128 to 512 microg/ml. The n-hexane extract (QH) and dichloromethane extract (QD) showed no activity.

  19. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  20. Functional Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cronhjort, Yrsa (ed.); Hughes, Mark (ed.); Paakkanen, Mikko (ed.); Sahi, Karola (ed.); Tukiainen, Pekka (ed.); Tulamo, Tomi (ed.); Vahtikari, Katja (ed.)

    2016-01-01

    Design has been recognized as a key discipline to bring ideas to the market. In addition to current research on human perceptions and the functional capacities of wood, this publication demonstrates the potential of wood in various applications. The designs are the results of three design courses, implemented during 2015 and 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. The Masters student courses included two Wood Studios at Aalto University’s School of Arts, Design and Architecture and the Integrate...

  1. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  2. Een vergelijkend ecologisch onderzoek in opstanden van Quercus borealis Michx F. en Quercus robur L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, J.G.P.M.

    1957-01-01

    Extensive investigations into the biotic, edaphic and climatic factors of the growth site and timber production figures showed that Quercus borealis Michx.f. was a very useful hardwood species for the Netherlands, especially on well drained but moist sites. The great-adaptability of this

  3. Characterization of the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Oak Wood Species Used in Cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Alamo-Sanza, María; Cárcel, Luis Miguel; Nevares, Ignacio

    2017-01-25

    The oxygen that wine receives while aged in barrels is of interest because it defines the reactions that occur during aging and, therefore, the final properties of the wine. This study is intended to make up for the lack of information concerning the oxygen permeability of eight different woods of Quercus alba L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. commonly used. In addition, it shows how oxygen transfer evolves with the liquid contact time during testing under similar aging conditions to those in wine barrels. French oak woods permitted a higher oxygenation rate than American ones in all cases. A decrease in the oxygen entry caused by impregnation of the wood during the process was observed in all of the species studied. This process is determined by the thickness of the flooded wood layer containing free water, although differently in the two species, possibly due to the anatomical structure and the logging process for each.

  4. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  5. Estudio morfométrico de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae Morphometric study of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorismilda Martínez-Cabrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio morfométrico con la finalidad de contribuir en la delimitación taxonómica de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis. Para ello, se revisó material de herbario y se recolectó material en 11 poblaciones distribuidas en los estados de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas y Veracruz, en México, incluyendo 2 poblaciones simpátricas. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales y discriminante mostraron que los caracteres que contribuyeron a agrupar los individuos en su respectiva especie son los relacionados con el tamaño del fruto, en particular el diámetro de la bellota, de la nuez y de la cúpula. La bellota de Q. sartorii es de menor tamaño que la de Q. xalapensis. La variación detectada no se atribuyó a la latitud o altitud. El fenograma mostró la separación de 2 grupos que corresponden a los individuos de las 2 especies estudiadas, si los caracteres del fruto son incluidos. Además, de los caracteres cuantitativos ya mencionados, 3 del patrón de venación y 2 anatómicos contribuyeron a reconocer los individuos de cada especie. Estas diferencias se mantuvieron en los individuos de las poblaciones simpátricas, por lo que los resultados apoyaron la distinción de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis.A morphometric study was carried out in order to evaluate morphological variation of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis and to contribute to their taxonomic delimitation. Herbarium specimens and material of 11 populations from Mexico in the states of Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz, including 2 sympatric populations, were studied. Characters from foliar architecture, fruits and anatomical features of periderm and wood were analyzed through multivariate and phenetic methods. Principal component and discriminant analyses showed that fruit characters such as acorn, nut, and cupule diameters contributed to group individuals in their species, the acorn of Q. sartorii being smaller than that of Q

  6. The oak (Quercus) biodiversity of California and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Nixon

    2002-01-01

    Twenty species of oak (Quercus) are known from California. The white oak group is the most diverse, and includes a complex of scrub oak species that are often encountered in chaparral, mixed forest and desert margin habitats. The Protobalanus group (e.g., Quercus chrysolepis) is a unique and distinctive clade of western North...

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Quercus L. (Fageceae) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ProBook

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... The classification of the species of Quercus by. Hedge and Yaltırık (1982), two Turkish authors, has been of great contribution to the research in this field. Before the classification of Hedge and Yaltırık, many intraspecific taxa were classified as species and species concept for Quercus taxa was quite narrow ...

  8. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Genetic diversity among 25 natural populations of three different species of Quercus in Jordan at morphological and molecular levels using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers was assessed. Significant morphological and molecular variations among and within 25 Quercus populations ...

  9. Studies on Wound Healing Properties of Quercus infectoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the wound healing activity of the selected Indian medicinal plant Quercus infectoria. Method: Ethanol extract of the shade-dried leaves of Quercus infectoria was studied for its effect on wound healing in rats, using incision, excision and dead-space wound models, ...

  10. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  11. Changes in low molecular weight phenolic compounds in Spanish, French, and American oak woods during natural seasoning and toasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadahía, E; Muñoz, L; Fernández de Simón, B; García-Vallejo, M C

    2001-04-01

    The evolution of low molecular weight polyphenols in Spanish oak heartwood of Quercus robur,Quercus petraea, Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea was studied by HPLC, in relation to the processing of wood in barrel cooperage. The polyphenolic composition of Spanish woods subjected to natural seasoning for 3 years and to the toasting process was studied in relation to those of French oak of Q. robur (Limousin) and Q. petraea (Allier) and American oak of Q. alba (Missouri), which are habitually used in cooperage. The concentrations of benzoic and cinnamic acids and aldehydes of Spanish woods increased during seasoning depending on the duration of this process and in the same way as those of French and American woods. The process having the main influence on the phenolic composition of wood was the toasting. It led to high increases in the concentration of phenolic aldehydes and acids, especially cinnamic aldehydes (sinapic and coniferylic aldehydes), followed by benzoic aldehydes (syringaldehyde and vanillin) and benzoic acids (syringic and vanillic acids). This polyphenolic composition in Spanish oak species evolved during toasting as in French and American oak, but quantitative differences were found, which were especially important in American species with respect to the others.

  12. Quercus ilex L.: How season, Plant Organ and Extraction Procedure Can Influence Chemistry and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Lila; Babou, Louiza; Zaidi, Farid; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Grosso, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Quercus species have a plethora of applications, either in wine and wood industries, in human and animal nutrition or in human health. In order to improve the knowledge on this genus, the aim of the present study was to correlate, for the first time, the phenolic composition of different Quercus ilex L. plant tissues (leaves in two maturation stages, acorns, teguments and cotyledons) and different extraction procedures with scavenging and anticholinesterase activities. The hydromethanolic and aqueous extracts obtained showed strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide radical, leaves exhibiting higher total phenolic content and revealing the best antioxidant properties, followed by tegument and acorns. Concerning the phenolic profile, fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD, ranging from 1568.43 to 45,803.16 mg/kg dried extract. The results indicate that Q. ilex can be a source of strong antioxidant phenolic compounds with possible interest for food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  14. Simulating ocean acidification and CO2 leakages from carbon capture and storage to assess the effects of pH reduction on cladoceran Moina mongolica Daday and its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaosheng; Wang, Youshao; Yan, Changzhou

    2016-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of pH reduction in seawater as a result of increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, laboratory-scale experiments simulating the scenarios of ocean acidification (OA) and CO2 leakages of carbon capture and storage (CCS) were performed using the model organism Moina mongolica Daday. The LpH50s calculated in cladoceran toxicity tests showed that M. mongolica exhibited intermediate sensitivity to OA, which varied among species and with ontogeny, when compared with different phyla or classes of marine biota. Survival, reproduction and fecundity of parthenogenetic females were evaluated after 21-day exposures. Results showed that increased acidity significantly reduced the rate of reproduction of M. mongolica resulting in a decreased intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) across the gradients of pH reduction. The analysis of macromolecule contents in neonates suggested that nutritional status in progeny from all broods were significantly reduced as seawater pH decreased, with increasing magnitude in latter broods, except the contents of protein from two former broods and lipids from the first brood. Our findings clearly showed that for this ecologically and economically important fish species, the negative effects of pH reduction on both "quantity" and "quality" of progeny may have far-reaching implications, providing direct evidence that OA could influence the energetic transfer of marine food web and ecosystem functions in acidified oceans in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wood as an adherend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  16. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

    2009-04-22

    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives.

  17. Wood Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Layos Mayr, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the amount of wood that could potentially be harvested in a country can be accomplished using several approaches. A simple indicator is the balance between annual fellings and Net Annual Increment. However, this indicator does not take into account the actual age-class distribution of

  18. Antimicrobial effects of Quercus ilex L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllüce, M; Adigüzel, A; Oğütçü, H; Sengül, M; Karaman, I; Sahin, F

    2004-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract of Quercus ilex L. (Pirnal oak) leaves were tested in vitro against a wide range of human and plant-associated microorganisms. A total of 132 microbial organisms belonging to 55 bacteria and five fungi and yeast species were studied using a disc-diffusion method and microdilution assays. The results were evaluated as inhibition zones around the disc impregnated with Q. ilex extract at a concentration of 300 micro L/mL. The results showed that Q. ilex did not have any antifungal activities against Alterneria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillum spp., whereas there were inhibition effects on the growth of all Candida albicans isolates. In total 97 bacterial strains (74%) were found to be resistant to Q. ilex extract. The remaining 35 (27%) strains of seven different bacteria genera including Brucella, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were susceptible to the extract tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract ranged from 125 to 500 micro L/mL. These results suggest that Q. ilex possesses compounds with antibacterial and anticandidal properties. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Pollen viability in Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batos Branislava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of viability (germination rate and the length of pollen tubes of fresh pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. pollen grains was studied in vitro on a medium containing 15% sucrose. Spatial variability was studied by sampling fresh pollen grains from a total of thirteen trees at four different sites in the area of Belgrade (Košutnjak, Banovo Brdo, Ada Ciganlija and Bojčin Forest in a single year (2011. In order to assess temporal variability and determine the effects of climate change on a small time scale, we studied the viability of the pollen grains collected from one tree at the Banovo Brdo site in six different years (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2011 and 2012. Interindividual variability was tested on the pollen grains sampled from eight trees at Ada Ciganlija in 2004. The percentage values of the pollen grain germination rate and the pollen tube length showed no statistically significant differences between the sites. However, the studied characteristics of the pollen grain viability (germination rate and pollen tube length showed statistically significant differences in both temporal (between the pollen collection years and interindividual variability. This type of research makes a valuable contribution to pedunculate oak breeding programs through the identification of trees with stable production and a good quality of pollen. Furthermore, it can be important in defining the patterns of spatial, temporal and individual variability of pollen grain viability under the influence of climate factors, which are showing compelling changing trends from year to year.

  20. Structure elucidation and properties of different lignins isolated from acorn shell of Quercus variabilis Bl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Yang, Lina; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu

    2017-09-25

    Chemical and structure properties of Ethanol lignin (EL), alkali lignin (AL), milled wood lignin (MWL) and cellulase enzymatic lignin (CEL) extracted from acorn shell of Quercus variabilis Bl. was studied by GPC, TG, SEM, FT-IR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135 NMR, 2D-HSQC and functional groups measurement. Results indicated that AL had a lower quantity of ArOH (2.19mmol/g) in four lignin samples. TG results proved the existence of a less thermally stable domain within the lignin polymer. SEM, FT-IR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135 NMR and 2D-HSQC confirmed the lignin structural characters of the extracted samples, it was found that the relative content of β-O-4' linkage in MWL (51.15%) was lower than that of in EL(55.83%), AL (57.93%) and CEL (64.81%), suggesting that β-O-4' linkage was cleaved greatly during the milled wood lignin isolation process. AL had a higher S/G ratio than EL, MWL and CEL. The indentified substructures are plotted depended on the spectrogams. The differences in the composition of the lignin samples further supported that the deposition of lignin in the shell of Q. variabilis is inhomogeneous. In short, these findings will enhance our understanding of native lignin in acorn shell and theoretical foundation is laid for the further study of degradation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The diversification of terpene emissions in Mediterranean oaks: lessons from a study of Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis and its hybrid Quercus afares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Saskia; Bracho-Nuñez, Araceli; Mir, Céline; Zimmer, Ina; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lumaret, Roselyne; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Staudt, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Interspecific gene flow is common in oaks. In the Mediterranean, this process produced geographical differentiations and new species, which may have contributed to the diversification of the production of volatile terpenes in the oak species of this region. The endemic North African deciduous oak Quercus afares (Pomel) is considered to be a stabilized hybrid between the evergreen Quercus suber (L.) and the deciduous Quercus canariensis (Willd.), presumably being monoterpene and isoprene emitters, respectively. In a common garden experiment, we examined the terpene emission capacities, terpene synthase (TPS) activities and nuclear genetic markers in 52 trees of these three oak species. All but one of the Q. suber and Q. canariensis trees were found to be genetically pure, whereas most Q. afares trees possessed a mixed genotype with a predominance of Q. suber alleles. Analysis of the foliar terpene emissions and TPS activities revealed that all the Q. canariensis trees strongly produced isoprene while all the Q. suber trees were strong monoterpene producers. Quercus afares trees produced monoterpenes as well but at more variable and significantly lower rates, and with a monoterpene pattern different than that observed in Q. suber. Among 17 individuals tested, one Q. afares tree emitted only an insignificant amount of terpenes. No mixed isoprene/monoterpene emitter was detected. Our results suggest that the capacity and pattern of volatile terpene production in Algerian Q. afares populations have strongly diverged from those of its parental species and became quantitatively and qualitatively reduced, including the complete suppression of isoprene production.

  2. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented.

  3. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  4. TOLERANCIA AL FUEGO EN Quercus magnoliifolia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENCon el objetivo de conocer la respuesta de Quercus magnoliifolia al fuego en mortalidad y rebrotación, se aplicó una quema prescrita intensa, en fajas a favor de viento y pendiente, a una parcela de 0.5 ha en el estado de Guerrero, México, en abril de 2009. La quema inició a las 10:20 y duró 1 h 26 min. Se midieron las variables meteorológicas temperatura (25-28 °C, humedad relativa (33-24%, y velocidad del viento (7-25 km/h; y de comportamiento del fuego (largo de llama, de 0.5 a 3 m.Seis meses después se midieron variables de la estructura del arbolado y de severidad de la quema. El análisis de datos involucró regresión logarítmica y regresión logística. Los valores estructurales medios fueron: altura (11.2 m, diámetro normal (12. 2 cm y altura de copas (6.8 m. Se halló relación logarítmica directa entre el largo de llama y la velocidad del viento (R2=0.65. No hubo mortalidad producto de la quema, pero 33 % de los árboles rebrotaron. Las variables explicativas de la probabilidad de rebrotación fueron: altura (p=0.0159, diámetro normal (p=0.0394y altura a la base de copas (p=0.0487. La cicatriz sobre el tronco alcanzó 2.6 m y el chamuscado de copas 62 %, en promedio. La especie muestra resistencia a fuego poco severo, gracias a su corteza, y tolerancia a fuego más severo. Las quemas prescritas contribuirían a reducir impactos negativos de incendios en el arbolado.

  5. Considerations for Sustainable Biomass Production in Quercus-Dominated Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Yan, Shuai; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2013-04-01

    Our current energy system is mainly based on carbon (C) intensive metabolisms, resulting in great effects on the earth's biosphere. The majority of the energy sources are fossil (crude oil, coal, natural gas) and release CO2 in the combustion (oxidation) process which takes place during utilization of the energy. C released to the atmosphere was once sequestered by biomass over a time span of millions of years and is now being released back into the atmosphere within a period of just decades. In the context of green and CO2 neutral Energy, there is an on-going debate regarding the potentials of obtaining biomass from forests on multiple scales, from stand to international levels. Especially in the context of energy, it is highlighted that biomass is an entirely CO2 neutral feedstock since the carbon stored in wood originates from the atmospheric CO2 pool and it was taken up during plant growth. It needs systems approaches in order to justify this statement and ensure sustainability covering the whole life-cycle from biomass production to (bio)energy consumption. There are a number of Quercus woodland management systems focussing solely on woody biomass production for energetic utilization or a combination with traditional forestry and high quality timber production for trades and industry. They have often developed regionally as a consequence of specific demands and local production capacities, which are mainly driven by environmental factors such as climate and soil properties. We assessed the nutritional status of a common Quercus-dominated forest ecosystem in northern Austria, where we compared biomass- with belowground C and nutrient pools in order to identify potential site limits if the management shifts towards systems with a higher level of nutrient extraction. Heterogeneity of soils, and soil processes are considered, as well as other, growth-limiting factors (e.g. precipitation) and species-specific metabolisms and element translocation.

  6. HOW DISCRETE ARE OAK SPECIES? INSIGHTS FROM A HYBRID ZONE BETWEEN QUERCUS GRISEA AND QUERCUS GAMBELII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel J; Preszler, Ralph W; Williams, Joseph; Fenchel, Sandra; Boecklen, William J

    1997-06-01

    The white oaks Quercus gambelii and Q. grisea overlap in distribution in New Mexico and Arizona. Within the region of overlap, there are numerous instances of contact between the two taxa. In some areas of contact morphologically, intermediate trees are common, whereas in others, morphologically intermediate trees are rare or absent. We describe a set of RAPD markers that distinguish between the two species and use these markers to examine patterns of gene exchange in an area of contact in the San Mateo Mountains of New Mexico. The markers are highly coincident with morphology and confirm that hybridization between the two species takes place. Despite the occurrence of hybrids, both species remain distinct, even in areas of sympatry, and marker exchange appears to be limited. © 1997 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Wood colors and their coloring matters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    A number of colored specialty woods, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany and amboyna, and commercially important woods, such as morus, logwood, Brazilwood, Japanese yellowwood, blackwood, kwila, red beech and myrtle beech, exhibit a wide range of colors from black, violet, dark red, reddish brown, to pale yellow. These colors are not only due to colored pigments contained in extractives from those woods but also to insoluble polymers. Wood and bark from many species of both hardwood and softwood trees contain many types of flavonoid compounds. Research on flavonoids has been conducted mainly from two points of view. The first is chemotaxonomy with flavonoid compounds as taxonomic markers, and the second relates to the utilization of woods for pulp and paper and the use of tannins from bark for wood adhesives. Most chemotaxonomic studies have been conducted on flavonoids in the extracts from softwoods such as Podocarpus, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Taxus, Libocedrus, Tsuja, Taxodium, Sequoia, Cedrus, Tsuga, Abies and Picea. Hardwood chemotaxonomic studies include those on Prunus and Eucalyptus species. Studies on flavonoids in pulp and paper production were conducted on Eucalyptus woods in Australia and woods from Douglas fir in the USA and larch in Japan. Flavonoids as tannin resources from black wattle tannin and quebracho tannin have been used commercially as wood adhesives. Flavonoids in the bark from radiata pine and southern pine, from western and eastern hemlock, southern red oak and Quercus dentata are also discussed. In addition, the distribution of flavonoids among tree species is described, as is the first isolation of rare procyanidin glycosides in nature.

  8. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Quercus L. (Fageceae) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ProBook

    2016-10-05

    Oct 5, 2016 ... A dendrogram representing phylogenetic relationships between 18 Quercus populations. DISCUSSION. Different DNA markers are widely used to reveal polymorphism within and among plant species (Gonzalez-. Rodriguez et al., 2004; Yu et al., 2005; Coelho et al.,. 2006; Faltusova et al., 2011; Ardi et al., ...

  10. Molecular diversity among Turkish oaks (QUERCUS) using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aykut

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... Tovar-Sanchez and Oyama, 2004; Olfat and. Pourtahmasi, 2010; Maryam Ardi et al., 2012). Govaerts and Frodin (1998) state that the genus Quercus ... well known that extensive hybridization behaviors may occur among species (Bacilieri et al., 1996; Manos et al., 1999; Samuel, 1999; Jensen et al., 2009;.

  11. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sessile oak ( Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) genetic variability in Serbia was estimated applying cpDNA universal primer pairs. Five different haplotypes were detected in the analyzed sample material from populations in Serbia. The areas in West and Southwest Serbia, with all their specificities, represent an ...

  12. Mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of Quercus garryana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariene Southworth; Elizabeth M. Carrington; Jonathan L. Frank; Peter Gould; Connie A. Harrington; Warren D. Devine

    2009-01-01

    Oak woodland regeneration and restoration requires that seedlings develop mycorrhizas, yet the need for this mutualistic association is often overlooked. In this study, we asked whether Quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial inoculation or access to a mycorrhizal network of other ectomycorrhizal hosts. We...

  13. Interspecific variation in functional traits of oak seedlings (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana, Quercus virgiliana) grown under artificial drought and fire conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, D; Tognetti, R; Scippa, G S; Congiu, T; Baesso, B; Terzaghi, M; Montagnoli, A

    2015-07-01

    To face summer drought and wildfire in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, plants adopt different strategies that involve considerable rearrangements of biomass allocation and physiological activity. This paper analyses morphological and physiological traits in seedlings of three oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana and Quercus virgiliana) co-occurring under natural conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate species-specific characteristics and the response of these oak seedlings to drought stress and fire treatment. Seedlings were kept in a growth chamber that mimicked natural environmental conditions. All three species showed a good degree of tolerance to drought and fire treatments. Differences in specific biomass allocation patterns and physiological traits resulted in phenotypic differences between species. In Q. ilex, drought tolerance depended upon adjustment of the allocation pattern. Q. trojana seedlings undergoing mild to severe drought presented a higher photosystem II (PSII) efficiency than control seedlings. Moreover, Q. trojana showed a very large root system, which corresponded to higher soil area exploitation, and bigger leaf midrib vascular bundles than the other two species. Morphological and physiological performances indicated Q. trojana as the most tolerant to drought and fire. These characteristics contribute to a high recruitment potential of Q. trojana seedlings, which might be the reason for the dominance of this species under natural conditions. Drought increase as a result of climate change is expected to favour Q. trojana, leading to an increase in its spatial distribution.

  14. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  15. Plastome data reveal multiple geographic origins of Quercus Group Ilex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cosimo Simeone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences from the plastome are currently the main source for assessing taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in flowering plants and their historical biogeography at all hierarchical levels. One major exception is the large and economically important genus Quercus (oaks. Whereas differentiation patterns of the nuclear genome are in agreement with morphology and the fossil record, diversity patterns in the plastome are at odds with established taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships. However, the extent and evolutionary implications of this incongruence has yet to be fully uncovered. The DNA sequence divergence of four Euro-Mediterranean Group Ilex oak species (Quercus ilex L., Q. coccifera L., Q. aucheri Jaub. & Spach., Q. alnifolia Poech. was explored at three chloroplast markers (rbcL, trnK/matK, trnH-psbA. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed including worldwide members of additional 55 species representing all Quercus subgeneric groups. Family and order sequence data were harvested from gene banks to better frame the observed divergence in larger taxonomic contexts. We found a strong geographic sorting in the focal group and the genus in general that is entirely decoupled from species boundaries. High plastid divergence in members of Quercus Group Ilex, including haplotypes shared with related, but long isolated oak lineages, point towards multiple geographic origins of this group of oaks. The results suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and repeated phases of asymmetrical introgression among ancestral lineages of Group Ilex and two other main Groups of Eurasian oaks (Cyclobalanopsis and Cerris caused this complex pattern. Comparison with the current phylogenetic synthesis also suggests an initial high- versus mid-latitude biogeographic split within Quercus. High plastome plasticity of Group Ilex reflects geographic area disruptions, possibly linked with high tectonic activity of past and modern distribution

  16. Plastome data reveal multiple geographic origins of Quercus Group Ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Grimm, Guido W; Papini, Alessio; Vessella, Federico; Cardoni, Simone; Tordoni, Enrico; Piredda, Roberta; Franc, Alain; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the plastome are currently the main source for assessing taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in flowering plants and their historical biogeography at all hierarchical levels. One major exception is the large and economically important genus Quercus (oaks). Whereas differentiation patterns of the nuclear genome are in agreement with morphology and the fossil record, diversity patterns in the plastome are at odds with established taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships. However, the extent and evolutionary implications of this incongruence has yet to be fully uncovered. The DNA sequence divergence of four Euro-Mediterranean Group Ilex oak species (Quercus ilex L., Q. coccifera L., Q. aucheri Jaub. & Spach., Q. alnifolia Poech.) was explored at three chloroplast markers (rbcL, trnK/matK, trnH-psbA). Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed including worldwide members of additional 55 species representing all Quercus subgeneric groups. Family and order sequence data were harvested from gene banks to better frame the observed divergence in larger taxonomic contexts. We found a strong geographic sorting in the focal group and the genus in general that is entirely decoupled from species boundaries. High plastid divergence in members of Quercus Group Ilex, including haplotypes shared with related, but long isolated oak lineages, point towards multiple geographic origins of this group of oaks. The results suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and repeated phases of asymmetrical introgression among ancestral lineages of Group Ilex and two other main Groups of Eurasian oaks (Cyclobalanopsis and Cerris) caused this complex pattern. Comparison with the current phylogenetic synthesis also suggests an initial high- versus mid-latitude biogeographic split within Quercus. High plastome plasticity of Group Ilex reflects geographic area disruptions, possibly linked with high tectonic activity of past and modern distribution ranges, that did not

  17. Sorption of lipophilic organic compunds to wood and implications for their environmental fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Miglioranza, S.B.; Mosbæk, Hans

    2001-01-01

    The sorption from water to wood (KWood) of 10 organic chemicals (logKOW, 1.48-6.20) was experimentally determined for oak (Quercus robur) and basket willow (Salix viminalis). Linear regression yielded log KWood ) -0.27 (( 0.25) + 0.632 (( 0.063)log KOW for oak (r ) 0.90, n ) 27) and log KWood ) -...... time. If metabolism inside the stem occurs, wood can serve as a “safe sink” for environmental chemicals. This might be of use in phytoremediation....

  18. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152).

  19. Spatial pattern of Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens recruitment in Pinus halepensis dominated woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lookingbill, T.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Nicholas School of the Environment; Zavala, M.A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    2000-08-01

    European Mediterranean landscapes have undergone changes in structure in recent years as a result of widespread agricultural land abandonment and cessation of silvicultural regimes. Studies concerning the regeneration dynamics of dominant forest species have become critical to the prediction of future landscape trends in these changing forest stands. Quercus ilex (holm oak) and Q. pubescens (downy oak) are considered to be the terminal point of secondary succession in extensive areas of the Mediterranean region. Recent studies, however, have suggested the existence of recruitment bottlenecks in oak genet populations as a result of current management regimes. In this study, we present evidence of the successful establishment of Q. ilex and Q. pubescens in Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) woodlands. We investigate the distribution patterns and spatial relationships among oak recruits and resident pines. Established P. halepensis is randomly distributed throughout the study area. Oak seedlings are positively associated with pine trees, suggesting that P. halepensis individuals provide safe sites for oak genet recruitment. We show that spatial patterns of recruitment are in agreement with the general model of spatial segregation described for other Mediterranean plant communities, with seeder species colonizing large openings after disturbance, followed by a more aggregated recruitment of resprouter species.

  20. Investigation Of The Color Changing Properties Of Wood Stain Derived From Pinar Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop an environmentally friendly wood stain derived pinar (Quercus aucheri leaves and determine the color stability of this stain when exposed to UV light irradiation. Wood stains derived from pinar leaves were prepared from aqueous solution with %3 iron (FeSO4.7H2O , % 5 alum ((KAl(SO42.12H2O, and % 10 vinegar mordant mixtures. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky and oak (Quercus petraea L. wood specimens were used as staining substrates. After treatment with the stain, the wood panels were exposed to UV light irradiation for periods of 100, 200, and 300 hours and determinated the total color changes was according to ISO 2470 standards. Results showed that wood stain derived from pinar extract provided some color stability after UV irradiation. According to results, Scots pine specimens treated with the pinar extract + iron mixture provided the smallest total color changes. Meanwhile the highest total color change provided on the Scots pine treated with pinar extract+alum mixture.

  1. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Soto-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE and organic extract (OE. The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1±12.0 GAE/g. Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC; OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg and the extracts (50 mg/kg were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets.

  2. Quercus faginea in the Mounts of Tlemcen (North-west Algeria: State of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Berrichi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a summary of the dendrometric characteristics, the microscopic image and the physic-mechanical properties of wood and principally leaves morphology for to show the existence of zeen oak (Quercus faginea population in the far North West of Algeria with specific characters. The morphology of 400 mature leaves taken from 10 trees at the 4 exposures shows that the length of the leaf blade is about 8.568 cm, the width is 4.955 cm, its perimeter about 14.280 cm and its surface area 15.14 cm2. The mature leaf is composed of 20 lobes; the length of the six largest lobes is about 3.098 cm and the angles of their ribs 51.352°. The morphological characters studied have relatively high variability between the four aspects. Leaves at southern aspect have the lowest vegetative values. In contrast, at eastern aspect trees have large leaves with vegetative characters developed.

  3. IMPREGNATION OF WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of wood based structural panel and lumber composites become to increase since the wood supply is changing due to the limit of larger dimension solid sawn lumber and insufficient solid woods with enough high strength as well. As we substitute wood composites for solid wood in protected application, these composite must show resistance to wood-destroying organisms such as fungi and insects. Accordingly, the exterior structural composites is required to be treated with preservatives. This paper provides an understanding of preservative treated wood composites. The objectives of this paper includes studying how to add preservative to wood composites, examining additive effect on glue-line and evaluating the best method of manufacturing wood composites treated with preservatives.

  4. First discovery of Quercus feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Schuster, Jack

    2013-11-18

    Despite the high taxonomic diversity of oaks in Mexico and Central America, no Quercus feeding Nepticulidae have ever been recorded from the region. Here, we present seven species whose larvae are leaf-miners of Quercus (section Lobatae) in Guatemala. Except Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers 1875), which was previously known from the United States, all other discovered species are new. We describe and name five new species (Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lauta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sublauta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); the remaining new species is described but left unnamed because of lack of adults (i. e. moths and genitalia are described from developed pupae). All seven treated species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia.

  5. Why does Quercus suber species decline in Mediterranean areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Naem Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cork oak (Quercus suber L. is a prevalent tree species in the Mediterranean climate zones of western Europe and north Africa with a quite narrow geographical range of distribution, as compared with the other Mediterranean evergreen oak species such as Quercus calliprinos (holly oak and Quercus ilex (holm oak. This species offers the ecological, economic and social importance, including their biodiversity and sustainable forest production in these areas. The increase of mean annual temperature and rainfall extremes during recent decades follows the trends predicted by present climate change models projecting a higher frequency of droughts and intense rain events in the Mediterranean climate areas. Nevertheless, various biotic and abiotic factors, including climate change (increased frequency and rigor of high temperature and drought and related physiological decline of trees, increases in the outbreaks of disease, and an excessive development of forest resources has been recognized as main factors to induce a cork oak forest decline. In general, sustainable cork oak forest management and proper agroforestry activity that can generate income for local people through local community participation would be the ways to prevent cork oak forest decline in northern Tunisia.

  6. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  7. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  8. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  9. BVOC emission pattern from Quercus robur under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, O.; Dewulf, J.; Joó; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Muller, J. J.; van Langenhove, H.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past decades biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have been widely studied not only for better understanding their functions, biosynthesis and regulation, but also because they have great impact on regional and global air quality [1]. Since all BVOCs react with hydroxyl radicals (OH●) and may also react with nitrate radicals (NO3●) and ozone (O3), they contribute to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study we focus on Quercus robur which is a widely spread tree species in Europe and known as a strong isoprene emitter. We aimed to investigate seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from Quercus robur under field conditions and to explore the intra-species variations within Quercus robur trees as both are of great importance for accurate modeling and regional inventories. Measurements were performed during a period from May till October 2009 at the campus of Ghent University (Belgium) using a dynamic branch enclosure system. Experiments were conducted on four potted Quercus robur trees with a varying 1-1.5 m height. Samples were collected on Tenax TA-Carbotrap adsorbent tubes and analyzed by TD-GC-MS. Isoprene was the predominant compound released by Quercus robur (QR1) with a pronounced seasonal emission. The normalized emission rates for isoprene calculated according to Guenther’s algorithm (standard conditions of temperature 30°C and PAR 1000 µmol m-2 s-1) varied from 29.89 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in Spring (May) to 28.62 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in Fall (October) reaching peak of 105.51 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in August. Apart from isoprene, through the whole measurement period trans-β-ocimene and β-caryophyllene were the only BVOC emitted in detectable range (sum of the emissions varied between 0.15 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in July and 0.24 µg h-1 g(DW)-1 in October). No clear seasonal pattern was observed for those compounds. In May when acorns where developing on enclosed branch, emissions of limonene and β-farnesene were also observed. The

  10. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06912 Crude ... Drug Quercus bark (JP17); Quercus acutissima bark; Quercus cortex...; Bokusoku; Oak bark Tannic acid [CPD:C13452], Quercitrin [CPD:C01750], Starch [CPD:C00369], Sucrose [CPD:C00089], Fat ... Quercus... acutissima [TAX:58330], Quercus serrata [TAX:103482], Quercus mongolica var. crispula [TAX:213178], Quercus...ory: 5100 ... Fagaceae (beech family) Quercus acutissima or other related species bark; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs ... PubChem: 51091254 ...

  11. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  12. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  13. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  14. Energy from wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.I. Zerbe

    2004-01-01

    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  15. Wood Formation in Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Mauriat; Gregoire Le Provost; Phillippe Rozenberg; Sylvain Delzon; Nathalie Breda; Bruno Clair; Catherine Coutand; Jean-Christoph Domec; Thierry Fourcaud; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Raul Herrera; Jean-Charles Leple; Nicolas Richet; Jean-Francois Trontin; Christophe Plomion

    2014-01-01

    Among the ecosystem services provided by forests, wood provisioning takes a central position. Wood and derived products have played a critical role in the evolution of human kind and demand for raw material is increasing in a foreseeable future. Wood is used for energy production, construction and a wide variety of products for which different properties are required....

  16. Delta(13)C and tree-ring width reflect different drought responses in Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrio, J P; Florit, A; Vega, A; Serrano, L; Voltas, J

    2003-12-01

    Holm oak (Quercus ilexL.) and Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensisMill) are representative of two different functional types of trees extensively found in the Mediterranean: evergreen sclerophyllous and drought-adapted conifers. The former is considered a partially drought-tolerant species, whereas the latter is a typically drought-avoiding, water-saving species. We postulated that contrasting strategies in response to water deficits in Q. ilex and P. halepensis would lead to a differential sensitivity to changes in water availability. To test this hypothesis, we compared the response of both species in growth rate (measured as radial increments) and intrinsic water use efficiency WUE(i), as inferred from carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) in wood samples] among sites from different provenance regions in NE Spain. We found significant differences in Delta(13)C and growth among provenance regions, partly explained by contrasting water availability. Wood Delta(13)C was positively related with precipitation and the ratio between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (P/ E). However, these relationships were stronger in P. halepensis (for P / E, r(2)=0.67, P ilex ( r(2)=0.42, P ilex. We concluded that P. halepensis was more sensitive than Q. ilex to water availability, showing faster increase in WUE(i) in response to water stress. We also found that the effect of north/south aspect on Delta(13)C and growth was site-specific, and unrelated to climatic variables.

  17. Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodidae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Su Lee; Robert A. Haack; Won Il. Choi

    2011-01-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We...

  18. Impact of stereoide fungi on decomposition of oak wood and possibility of its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Milenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four stereoide fungi, causers of decay of oak wood, have been investigated as follows: Stereum hirsutum, Chondrostereum purpureum, Stereum rugosum and Xylobolus frustulatus. The field tests have been undertaken in order to determine the influence of the stereoide fungi on the wood of Sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Austrian oak (Quercus robur. Artificial inoculations with mycelia have been provoked in vital standing trees, as well as in laying trunks. The appearance of dying back symptoms, the rate of mycelia spread through the stem, speed of wound callusing and appearance of fruit bodies or decay symptoms, have been observed. The protection possibility of trunks has been tested as well by using preservatives based on chromo-cupric boron salts, dichlorfluanide and chlorinepyriphos, cupric naphtenates, as well as with antiseptic paste. Microscopically analysis of attacked oak wood has been performed by utilizing of scanning electron (SEM and standard optical microscope providing normal, fluorescence, polarized and UV light, so that anatomical changes of the wood structure elements influenced by fungal activity have been noted.

  19. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  20. Hábitat y distribución de cinco especies de Quercus (Fagaceae en la Meseta Central de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Alvarez-Moctezuma

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el hábitat de las especies del subgénero Lepidobalanus en la Meseta Central de Chiapas e identificar las principales variables que condicionan su distribución. En 258 parcelas se utilizó un índice de dominancia, basado en la abundancia y cobertura de las especies, para conocer la distribución de Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis. Además se midieron las variables ambientales: altitud, precipitación de noviembre a abril (PPNA, exposición, pendiente, intensidad de extracción de leña y pastoreo. Se utilizó el Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis para la evaluación estadística de los datos. Se encontró una relación negativa entre el índice de dominancia de Q. peduncularis y Q. segoviensis con la altitud y la PPNA. El índice de dominancia de Q. rugosa y Q. segoviensis mostró correlación con la exposición y la intensidad de extracción de leña. La altitud fue la variable ambiental que condiciona la distribución diferencial de las especies, seguida por la PPNA. El resultado de este estudio sugiere que hay hábitat diferenciados para Q. peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera y Q. segoviensis determinados por variables naturales (altitud y PPNA, aunque también las variables culturales (pastoreo y extracción de leña pueden condicionar la distribución y abundancia de estas especies.We describe the habitat of species within the Fagaceae subgenus Lepidobalanus (genus Quercus and identify environmental variables related to their distribution in the Meseta Central of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. In 258 plots a dominance index was used, combining tree density and crown cover, for Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha, Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera and Q. segoviensis. The following variables were measured: altitude, precipitation from November through April (PPNA, exposure, slope, fuel-wood harvesting and grazing. Detrended Canonical

  1. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  2. The Quercus feeding Stigmella species of the West Palaearctic: new species, key and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The species of the Stigmella ruficapitella group occurring in the Western Palaearctic and feeding on Quercus are reviewed. We recognise 19 species, five of which are described as new: Stigmella fasciata sp. n. on Quercus pubescens from Slovenia, Croatia, Greece and Turkey, S. cocciferae sp. n. on Q.

  3. Page 1 The Genus Quercus in the Korewa Deposits of Kashmir 247 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Genus Quercus in the Korewa Deposits of Kashmir 247 in the Central Almora division at an altitude of 9,500 ft., it occurs with. Betula alnoides, Pyrus lanata, Quercus dilatata, Acer Caesium, Abies Pindrow,. Meliosma dilleniaefolia, Pyrus foliolosus, Rhododendron arboreum, Betula utilis, Rosa macrophylla, Salix elegans ...

  4. Myxomycetes from the bark of the evergreen oak Quercus ilex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrigley de Basanta, Diana

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of 81 moist chamber cultures of bark from living Quercus ilex trees are reponed. A total of 37 taxa are cited, extending the number of species found on this substrate to 55. The presence of Licea deplanata on the Iberian Península is confirmed. Seven new records are included for the province of Madrid. Some data are contributed on species frequency and incubation times.Se presentan los resultados de 81 cultivos en cámara húmeda de corteza de Quercus ilex vivo. Se citan 37 táxones, que amplían a 55 el número de especies de mixomicetes encontrados sobre este sustrato. Se confirma la presencia en la Península Ibérica de Licea deplanata, y se incluyen siete nuevas citas para la provincia de Madrid. Se aportan datos sobre frecuencia de aparición y tiempos de incubación de algunas especies.

  5. Seasonal changes in carbon and nitrogen compound concentrations in a Quercus petraea chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Angélique; Barthes, Laure; Delpierre, Nicolas; Dufrêne, Éric; Fresneau, Chantal; Bazot, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Forest productivity declines with tree age. This decline may be due to changes in metabolic functions, resource availability and/or changes in resource allocation (between growth, reproduction and storage) with tree age. Carbon and nitrogen remobilization/storage processes are key to tree growth and survival. However, studies of the effects of tree age on these processes are scarce and have not yet considered seasonal carbon and nitrogen variations in situ. This study was carried out in a chronosequence of sessile oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.) for 1 year to survey the effects of tree age on the seasonal changes of carbon and nitrogen compounds in several tree compartments, focusing on key phenological stages. Our results highlight a general pattern of carbon and nitrogen function at all tree ages, with carbon reserve remobilization at budburst for growth, followed by carbon reserve formation during the leafy season and carbon reserve use during winter for maintenance. The variation in concentrations of nitrogen compounds shows less amplitude than that of carbon compounds. Storage as proteins occurs later, and mainly depends on leaf nitrogen remobilization and root uptake in autumn. We highlight several differences between tree age groups, in particular the loss of carbon storage function of fine and medium-sized roots with tree ageing. Moreover, the pattern of carbon compound accumulation in branches supports the hypothesis of a preferential allocation of carbon towards growth until the end of wood formation in juvenile trees, at the expense of the replenishment of carbon stores, while mature trees start allocating carbon to storage right after budburst. Our results demonstrate that at key phenological stages, physiological and developmental functions differ with tree age, and together with environmental conditions, influence the carbon and nitrogen concentration variations in sessile oaks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  6. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  7. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  8. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  9. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  10. Natural hybridization and hybrid zones between Quercus crassifolia and Quercus crassipes (Fagaceae) in Mexico: morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Oyama, Ken

    2004-09-01

    Hybrid zones provide interesting systems to study genetic and ecological interaction between different species. The correct identification of hybrids is necessary to understand the evolutionary process involved in hybridization. An oak species complex occurring in Mexico formed by two parental species, Quercus crassifolia H. & B. and Q. crassipes H. & B., and their putative hybrid species, Q. dysophylla, was analyzed with molecular markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPDs]) and morphological tools in seven hybrid zones (10 trees per taxa in each hybrid zone) and two pure sites for each parental species (20 trees per site). We tested whether geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric site of a parental species increases its morphological and genetic similarity with its parent. Seventeen morphological traits were measured in 8700 leaves from 290 trees. Total DNA of 250 individuals was analyzed with six diagnostic RAPD primers. Quercus crassifolia differed significantly from Q. crassipes in all the examined characters. Molecular markers and morphological characters were highly coincident and support the hypothesis of hybridization in this complex, although both species remain distinct in mixed stands. Clusters and a hybrid index (for molecular and morphological data) showed that individuals from the same parental species were more similar among themselves than to putative hybrids, indicating occasional hybridization with segregation in hybrid types or backcrossing to parents. Evidence does not indicate a unidirectional pattern of gene flow.

  11. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  12. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  13. INVESTIGATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF PEDUNCULATE OAK WOOD AFFECTED BY OAK DECLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru LICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of damaging agents, as biotic and abiotic factors, has as effect the deterioration in the appearance of the foliage of affected trees and then, progressive death of branches. Large numbers of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and sessile oak (Quercus petraea trees are declining in the Central Romania. Depending on the deterioration of the foliage and of the branches, five grades of infestation levels of oak trees were determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of wood obtained from those infested trees by analysing the cellulose and lignin content, physical properties such as moisture content, density, shrinkage from fibre saturation moisture content, permeability of wood to water, and mechanical properties, such as MOE, MOR for static stresses, tensile strength perpendicular to the grains, shearing strength and Janka hardness perpendicular to the grains. The more representative samples of trees affected by oak decline for the five grades of infestation levels of trees were randomly selected and harvested. They were cut into logs and then sampled for the chemical, physical and mechanical testing. The results of this study showed that the poor quality of wood resulted from the logs affected by oak decline at the final stage (five grade of infestation level could not be used for furniture and other wooden products manufacturing.

  14. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  15. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  16. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  17. Catalytic Rapid Pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis over Nanoporous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Koo Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic rapid pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis, a Korean native tree species, was carried out using Py-GC/MS. Mesoporous MFI, which has both nanopores and micropores, and three nanoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and γ-Al2O3, were used as the catalyst. The acid sites of mesoporous MFI were strong Brønsted acid sites, whereas those of nanoporous materials were mostly weak acid sites. The composition of the product bio-oil varied greatly depending on the acid characteristics of the catalyst used. Phenolics were the most abundant species in the bio-oil, followed by acids and furanics, obtained over Al-MCM-41 or Al-SBA-15 with weak acid sites, whereas aromatics were the most abundant species produced over mesoporous MFI with strong acid sites, followed by phenolics. Aromatics, phenolics, and furanics are all important chemicals contributing to the improvement of bio-oil quality.

  18. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners.......The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...

  19. Ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joët, Thierry; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Dussert, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    Several widespread tree species of temperate forests, such as species of the genus Quercus, produce recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) seeds. However, the ecological significance of seed desiccation sensitivity in temperate regions is largely unknown. Do seeds of such species suffer from drying during the period when they remain on the soil, between shedding in autumn and the return of conditions required for germination in spring? To test this hypothesis, the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest was used as a model system. The relationships between the climate in winter, the characteristics of microhabitats, acorn morphological traits, and the water status and viability of seeds after winter were then investigated in 42 woodlands sampled over the entire French distribution of the species. The percentages of germination and normal seedling development were tightly linked to the water content of seeds after the winter period, revealing that in situ desiccation is a major cause of mortality. The homogeneity of seed response to drying suggests that neither intraspecific genetic variation nor environmental conditions had a significant impact on the level of desiccation sensitivity of seeds. In contrast, the water and viability status of seeds at the time of collection were dramatically influenced by cumulative rainfall and maximum temperatures during winter. A significant effect of shade and of the type of soil cover was also evidenced. The findings establish that seed desiccation sensitivity is a key functional trait which may influence the success of recruitment in temperate recalcitrant seed species. Considering that most models of climate change predict changes in rainfall and temperature in the Mediterranean basin, the present work could help foresee changes in the distribution of Q. ilex and other oak species, and hence plant community alterations.

  20. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  1. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  2. Scaling allometric relationships in pure, crowded, even-aged stands: do tree shade-tolerance, repro-ductive mode and wood productivity matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Gafta; Florin Crişan

    2013-01-01

    Tree allometric relationships are likely to be influenced by species tolerance to shade, nutrient availability and plant ontogenetic origin. The aim of this paper was to test to what extent these factors affect the scaling exponents of two allometric relationships in pure, even-aged, canopy-closed forest stands: stem diameter (D) versus stem height (H) and versus stem density (N). Data were collected by tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea), wood productivity clas...

  3. Drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and autumn recovery in two Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Gazarini, L C; David, T S; David, J S; Rodrigues, A; Maroco, J; Chaves, M M

    2010-08-01

    Responses of leaf water relations and photosynthesis to summer drought and autumn rewetting were studied in two evergreen Mediterranean oak species, Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia and Quercus suber. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ(lPD)), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A) at ambient conditions were measured seasonally over a 3-year period. We also measured the photosynthetic response to light and to intercellular CO₂ (A/PPFD and A/C(i) response curves) under water stress (summer) and after recovery due to autumn rainfall. Photosynthetic parameters, Vc(max), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) rate, were estimated using the Farquhar model. RuBisCo activity, leaf chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf carbohydrate concentration were also measured. All measurements were performed in the spring leaves of the current year. In both species, the predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate peaked in spring, progressively declined throughout the summer and recovered upon autumn rainfall. During the drought period, Q. ilex maintained a higher predawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance than Q. suber. During this period, we found that photosynthesis was not only limited by stomatal closure, but was also downregulated as a consequence of a decrease in the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) in both species. The Vc(max) and J(max) increased after the first autumnal rains and this increase was related to RuBisCo activity, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll concentration. In addition, an increase in the TPU rate and in soluble leaf sugar concentration was observed in this period. The results obtained indicate a high resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus to summer drought as well as good recovery in the following autumn rains of these evergreen oak species.

  4. Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings.

  5. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  6. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    conditions. The indicator values for nitrogenous nutrients significantly correlated with measured nitrogen content in Xanthoria parietina thalli sampled from the investigated Quercus trees. Indicator values for some species are critically evaluated, and it is suggested that indicator values can serve...

  7. Conservation biogeography of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) in Mexico and Central America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrés Torres-Miranda; Isolda Luna-Vega; Ken Oyama

    2011-01-01

    .... In this study, we analyzed patterns of distribution of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) occurring in Mexico and Central America to determine areas of species richness and endemism to propose areas of conservation. Methods...

  8. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  9. Structure and Function of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many cell types and chemistries acting together to serve the needs of living plant. Attempting to understand wood inthe context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants-conduction of water from the...

  10. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Fredalina Basri; Liy Si Tan; Zaleha Shafiei; Noraziah Mohamad Zin

    2011-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-p...

  11. Tvorba marketingovej stratégie internetového obchodu Quercus

    OpenAIRE

    Krahulcová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on creation of new marketing strategy for company QUERCUS' electronic store. Theoretical part deals with basic concepts of marketing and strategic marketing planning. It further introduces marketing mix specifics on the internet, basic aspects of electronic commerce and consumer behavior on internet. Practical part includes introduction of company QUERCUS, e-shop SWOT analysis, brief characteristic of current marketing strategy and finally proposal of new marketing s...

  12. Zdravje nižinskih gozdov doba (Quercus robur L.) v GGE Ravensko

    OpenAIRE

    Kelenc, Janja

    2014-01-01

    Diplomska naloga obravnava stanje dobovih gozdov v gozdnogospodarski enoti Ravensko. Poleg geografske razširjenosti in ogroženosti hrastov (Quercus spp.)v Sloveniji, je bil predmet raziskave diplomske naloge dob (Quercus rubor L.). Zaradi rezultatov že objavljenih raziskav obsežnega propadanja hrastov, je jedro naloge določanje dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na vitalnost doba. V diplomski nalogi so obravnavani in predstavljeni biotski dejavniki. Raziskovalni del naloge vsebuje analizo nabranih plodo...

  13. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  14. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  15. Adenocarcinoma and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraub, S; Belon-Leneutre, M; Mercier, M; Bourgeois, P

    1989-12-01

    The relation of adenocarcinoma of the facial sinuses and exposure to wood dust has been recognized for 20 years. As the tracheobronchial mucosa is similar to that lining the sinuses, a link between bronchial adenocarcinoma and wood dust exposure has been postulated. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study was conducted, based on all the histologically proven cases of adenocarcinoma of the lung reported to the tumor registry of the Doubs region of France from 1978 to 1985 and random population controls matched for age and residence. A questionnaire on occupational exposure and tobacco consumption was completed by 53 cases and 160 controls. Exposure to wood was similar for both groups, the crude relative risk (odds ratio) being 1.06; adjustment for tobacco consumption did not modify this value. Exposure to wood dust does not seem to be an occupational risk factor in the genesis of bronchial adenocarcinoma.

  16. Does the structure of wood contribute to understanding the oaks decline phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Tulik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cambium is a meristematic tissue which produces wood centriphugaly and phloem centripetaly. In the structure of wood and phloem, data concerning developmental processes taking place in the cambium is recorded. The history of the cambium is encoded in the dimensions, numbers and arrangements of the wood and phloem cells. For investigations, the wood is usually preferred because it is durable and such data could remain unchanged for centuries, whereas in the phloem due to distorted processes, it deranges after a few years. In broadleaves, the wood is composed of vessels, tracheids, fibers and parenchyma cells. The process of the wood formation consists of the cambial cell derivatives expansion, lignification of its walls and programmed cell death. Since the seventies of the nineteenth century, the process of declining oaks taking place in Europe on a regular basis has been observed. Oak decline is a complex process that involves interactions of both biotic and abiotic factors leading to increased trees mortality. The main goal of the studies is the examination of the structure of wood in declining oaks (Quercus robur L. in respect to physiological (conductive role of this tissue. It is known that on the level of the wood structure, water transport efficiency depends on the diameter of vessels - the main elements of the hydraulic conductivity system. Any reduction of the vessels lumen causes the reduction of the water transport to the organs of the trees body and, therefore, influences organisms survival rate. Anatomical analyses were carried out on wood samples (comprising all annual rings formed during the 30-40 years life of the analyzed trees collected at breast height from the main stem of healthy, weakened and dead oaks. The anatomical traits of the wood like as the width of the annual increments, the diameter and density of early wood vessels were measured. The results which are described in the paper by Tulik (2014 revealed that

  17. Wood - a carbon depot

    OpenAIRE

    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  18. Chemical characterization and extractives composition of heartwood and sapwood from Quercus faginea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available Heartwood and sapwood of Quercus faginea were evaluated in relation to summative chemical composition and non-polar and polar extracts composition, including an assessment of antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP. Twenty trees from two sites in Portugal were analysed. Heartwood had approximately two times more solvent extractible compounds than sapwood (on average 19.0% and 9.5%. The lipophilic extractible compounds were below 1%, and most of them were polar e.g. ethanol-soluble compounds corresponded to 65% of total extractives in heartwood and 43% in sapwood. Lignin content was similar in sapwood and heartwood (28.1% and 28.6% of extractive-free wood respectively as well as the sugar composition. Site did not influence the chemical composition. The lipophilic extractible compounds from both sapwood and heartwood included mainly saturated fatty acids (23.0% and 36.9% respectively and aromatic compounds were also abundant in sapwood (22.9%. The ethanol-water extractibles had a high content of phenolic substances (558.0 and 319.4 mg GAE/g extract, respectively of heartwood and sapwood. The polyphenolic composition was similar in heartwood and sapwood with higher content of ellagitannins (168.9 and 153.5 mg tannic acid/g of extract in sapwood and heartwood respectively and very low content of condensed tannins. The antioxidant activity was very high with IC50 of 2.6 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml for sapwood and heartwood respectively, as compared to standard antioxidants (IC50 of 3.8 μg/ml for Trolox. The ferric reducing ability was 2.8 and 2.0 mMol Trolox equivalents/g extract of heartwood and sapwood respectively. The variability between trees was low and no differences between the two sites were found. Q. faginea showed a very good potential for cooperage and other applications for which a source of compounds with antioxidant properties is desirable.

  19. Microsatellite Primer Development for Post Oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B. Chatwin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata. This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  20. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Quercus acutissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y W; Lee, B C; Lee, S K; Jang, S S

    1994-03-01

    Immature embryos of Quercus acutissima were collected weekly beginning 5 weeks post-fertilization and cultured on modified MS(Murashige and Skoog) medium containing 1,000 mg/l glutamine and 5 mM proline with different combinations of IBA(0.5-10.0 mg/l) and BA(0 or 1.0 mg/l) in light. The highest percentage of embryogenic cultures occurred on the medium containing 0.5 mg/l IBA or 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l IBA. Four weeks after initiation, the embryogenic cultures were transferred to MS medium without plant growth regulators and cultured for 4 weeks. The somatic embryos were then transferred to germination medium. The best germination results were achieved from WPM(Woody Plant Medium) containing 0.1 mg/l BA. Plantlets from somatic embryos were incubated on WPM supplemented with 0.2 mg/l BA for 4 weeks and plantlets with well developed shoots and roots were transplanted to perlite and peat moss(1∶1, v/v) mixtures and placed in a culture room. After being hardened off for 8 weeks, they were transferred outdoors where they grew.

  2. Effect of hybridization of the Quercus crassifolia x Quercus crassipes complex on the community structure of endophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Oyama, Ken

    2006-04-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric areas of parental species increases their morphological and genetic similarity with them. In the present work, we explored whether the endophagous fauna of hybrid plants show the same pattern. We studied the canopy species richness, diversity and composition of leaf-mining moths (Lepidoptera: Tischeridae, Citheraniidae) and gall-forming wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) associated with two species of red oaks (Quercus crassifolia and Quercus crassipes) and their interspecific hybrid (Quercusxdysophylla Benth pro sp.) in seven hybrid zones in central Mexico, during four seasons in 2 years. The study was conducted on 194 oak trees with known genetic status [identified by leaf morphology and molecular markers (random amplified polymorphic DNAs)], and the results indicate a bidirectional pattern of gene flow. Hybrid plants supported intermediate levels of infestation of gall-forming and leaf-mining insects compared to their putative parental species. The infestation level of leaf-mining insects varied significantly following the pattern: Q. crassifolia>hybrids>Q. crassipes, whereas the gall-forming insects showed an inverse pattern. A negative and significant relationship was found between these two types of insect guilds in each host taxa, when the infestation percentage was evaluated. It was found that 31.5% (n=11) of the endophagous insects were specific to Q. crassipes, 22.9% (n=8) to Q. crassifolia, and 8.6% (n=3) to hybrid individuals. The hybrid bridge hypothesis was supported in the case of 25.7% (n=9) of insects, which suggests that the presence of a hybrid intermediary plant may favor a host herbivore shift from one plant species to another. Greater genetic diversity in a hybrid zone is associated with greater diversity in the endophagous community. The geographic proximity of hybrid plants to the allopatric site of a parental species increases their similarity in

  3. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp. persica on human pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Quercus brantii subsp. persica is used in folk medicine to treat infections in Iran. There is not available report on the anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp.  persica. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Quercus brantii subsp. persica against bacterial biofilms. Methods: Eighty biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Quercus brantii subsp. persica fruits aqueous extraction (QBAE was prepared though maceration method. Chemical analysis to distinguish the main components of the QBAE was carried out using thin-layer chromatography. The antibacterial effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and broth microdilution methods. The antibiofilm effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined using a microtiter assay. Results: The Quercus brantii subsp. persica exhibited bacterial growth inhibition and bactericidal activity on the majority of the strains at concentrations between 0.2 and 1.2 mg/mL. The average of biofilm formation inhibition by Quercus brantii subsp. persica at a minimum inhibitory concentration MIC50 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus strains were 35%, 45%, 57% and 61%, respectively. coumarins, phenols, terpenes and steroids were found in the QBAE by TLC. Conclusion: The results showed that Quercus brantii subsp. persica aqueous extraction was effective against the tested microorganisms and showed anti-biofilm activity which can be a basis for future studies to investigate for new anti-biofilm drugs.

  4. Development of Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Markers for Chinese Oaks (Quercus Subgenus Quercus and Assessment of Their Utility as DNA Barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. However, the lack of efficient and universal markers often brings particular challenges for genetic studies across different plant groups. In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima in Fagaceae were compared to explore universal cpDNA markers for the Chinese oak species in Quercus subgenus Quercus, a diverse species group without sufficient molecular differentiation. With the comparison, nine and 14 plastid markers were selected as barcoding and phylogeographic candidates for the Chinese oaks. Five (psbA-trnH, matK-trnK, ycf3-trnS, matK, and ycf1 of the nine plastid candidate barcodes, with the addition of newly designed ITS and a single-copy nuclear gene (SAP, were then tested on 35 Chinese oak species employing four different barcoding approaches (genetic distance-, BLAST-, character-, and tree-based methods. The four methods showed different species identification powers with character-based method performing the best. Of the seven barcodes tested, a barcoding gap was absent in all of them across the Chinese oaks, while ITS and psbA-trnH provided the highest species resolution (30.30% with the character- and BLAST-based methods, respectively. The six-marker combination (psbA-trnH + matK-trnK + matK + ycf1 + ITS + SAP showed the best species resolution (84.85% using the character-based method for barcoding the Chinese oaks. The barcoding results provided additional implications for taxonomy of the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus, basically identifying three major infrageneric clades of the Chinese oaks (corresponding to Groups Quercus, Cerris, and Ilex referenced to previous phylogenetic classification of Quercus. While the morphology-based allocations proposed for the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus were challenged. A low variation rate of the chloroplast genome, and

  5. Development of Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Markers for Chinese Oaks (Quercus Subgenus Quercus) and Assessment of Their Utility as DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Vázquez, Lucía; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Zhanlin; Zhao, Guifang

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. However, the lack of efficient and universal markers often brings particular challenges for genetic studies across different plant groups. In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima) in Fagaceae were compared to explore universal cpDNA markers for the Chinese oak species in Quercus subgenus Quercus, a diverse species group without sufficient molecular differentiation. With the comparison, nine and 14 plastid markers were selected as barcoding and phylogeographic candidates for the Chinese oaks. Five (psbA-trnH, matK-trnK, ycf3-trnS, matK, and ycf1) of the nine plastid candidate barcodes, with the addition of newly designed ITS and a single-copy nuclear gene (SAP), were then tested on 35 Chinese oak species employing four different barcoding approaches (genetic distance-, BLAST-, character-, and tree-based methods). The four methods showed different species identification powers with character-based method performing the best. Of the seven barcodes tested, a barcoding gap was absent in all of them across the Chinese oaks, while ITS and psbA-trnH provided the highest species resolution (30.30%) with the character- and BLAST-based methods, respectively. The six-marker combination (psbA-trnH + matK-trnK + matK + ycf1 + ITS + SAP) showed the best species resolution (84.85%) using the character-based method for barcoding the Chinese oaks. The barcoding results provided additional implications for taxonomy of the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus, basically identifying three major infrageneric clades of the Chinese oaks (corresponding to Groups Quercus, Cerris, and Ilex) referenced to previous phylogenetic classification of Quercus. While the morphology-based allocations proposed for the Chinese oaks in subg. Quercus were challenged. A low variation rate of the chloroplast genome, and complex

  6. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  7. Shade, leaf growth and crown development of Quercus rubra, Quercus velutina, Prunus serotina and Acer rubrum seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Kurt W.

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to determine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-cloth tents. Eight shade treatments (94, 70, 57, 45, 37, 27, 20 and 8% of full sunlight) with three replications each were used. Measurements were made on seedlings harvested at the end of the first and second growing seasons. In the second year, shading significantly decreased the number of leaves for all species except black cherry, but only significantly decreased leaf area in northern red oak. Shading significantly decreased average leaf size of red maple. Average leaf size of black cherry was largest in the intermediate shade treatments and decreased significantly with increased and decreased shade. Leaf weight/leaf area (mg cm(-2)) increased significantly in a quadratic pattern with decreasing shade for all four species. Leaf area ratio (cm(2) g(-1)) decreased significantly with decreasing shade for all species except red maple in the first year and black oak in the second year. Total branch development increased significantly with decreasing shade in red maple and northern red oak, whereas indeterminate branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in black cherry, and short branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in red maple.

  8. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-05

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  10. Implications of foliar terpene content and hydration on leaf flammability of Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, G A; Peñuelas, J; De Lillis, M; Llusià, J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the implications of foliar hydration and terpene content on leaf flammability in two widely distributed forest species of the Mediterranean basin, Quercus ilex, which does not store terpenes, and Pinus halepensis, a terpene-storing species. The experiments were carried out in plants grown under different water regimes that generated a wide range of foliar hydration and terpene contents. We monitored the temperatures and time elapsed to reach the smoke, pyrolysis and flame phases. Smoke appeared much earlier (37 versus 101 s) and at lower temperatures (96 versus 139 degrees C) in Quercus ilex than in Pinus halepensis. Quercus ilex reached pyrolysis earlier than Pinus halepensis (278 versus 338 s) but at the same temperature (365-371 degrees C). There were no significant differences in time elapsed nor in temperature for flammability (386-422 s; 505-487 degrees C in both species). Quercus ilex had lower water hydration than Pinus halepensis (41 versus 100%) and the leaf content of terpenes in Quercus was three orders of magnitude lower. The results of this study show no differences in the flame phase between the two species and the absence of a significant relationship between temperature and elapsed time of the different flammability phases in relation to monoterpene content; thus indicating that the role of monoterpenes in flammability phases is smaller than that of the water content. This, however, does not exclude the effects of terpene content on plant combustibility and fire propagation once fires start.

  11. Comparative mapping between quercus and castanea using simple-sequence repeats (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, T; Casasoli, M; Russell, K; Akkak, A; Meddour, H; Plomion, C; Villani, F; Kremer, A

    2004-02-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from Quercus and Castanea were used for comparative mapping between Quercus robur (L.) and Castanea sativa (Mill.). We tested the transferability of SSRs developed in Quercus to Castanea and vice-versa. In total, 47% (25) of the Quercus SSRs and 63% (19) of the Castanea SSRs showed a strong amplification product in the non-source species. From these 44 putative comparative anchor tags, 19 (15 from Quercus and 4 from Castanea) were integrated in two previously established genetic linkage maps for the two genera. SSR loci were sequenced to confirm the orthology of the markers. The combined information from both genetic mapping and sequence analysis were used to determine the homeology between seven linkage groups, aligned on the basis of pairs or triplets of common markers, while two additional groups were matched using a single microsatellite marker. Orthologous loci identified between Q. robur and C. sativa will be useful as anchor loci for comparative mapping studies within the Fagaceae family.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial, activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana eSarwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of Quercus incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Quercus incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Quercus incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55 and Aspergillus flavus (28 mm ± 0.45. Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Quercus incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  13. Wood stakes as an index of soil organic matter decomposition in a climatic gradient along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgensen, M. F.; Page-Dumroese, D. S.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; M-Mena, M.; Rey, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) decomposition is a critical factor in assessing the possible impacts of future climate change and management on soil carbon cycling and sequestration. Soil OM decomposition is a function of abiotic (e.g. moisture, temperature, nutrient content, pH), and biotic (microbial biomass, functional diversity) conditions, which makes this soil process ideally suited to study across a range of soil and climatic conditions. We used wood stakes of four tree species (Populus alba, Populus tremuloides, Pinus halenensis, Pinus taeda) as standard indices of OM decomposition rates on the soil surface and in the mineral soil of three sites along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast with different soils, land use and climatic conditions: 1) Quercus suber forest - 700 mm rainfall /year, 2) Quercus coccifera and Pinus halepenis forest - 300 mm rainfall/year, and 3) tussock grasses - 150 mm rainfall /year. Our results show significant differences in wood stake decomposition as a function of climatic conditions, land use management, and wood stake species.

  14. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  15. Quercus ilex L. carbon sequestration capability related to shrub size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratani, Loretta; Catoni, Rosangela; Varone, Laura

    2011-07-01

    CO(2) sequestration capacity of Quercus ilex L., an evergreen species developing in shrub and forest communities widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, was analysed. Experiments were carried out in the period of January to December 2009 on 20 shrubs of different size, growing at the Botanical Garden of Rome. At shrub level, the largest differences concern total photosynthetic leaf surface area per shrub and shrub volume. Shrubs structure significantly contribute to reduce total irradiance and air temperature below the canopy. Leaf mass per area is higher in sun leaves than in shade ones (20 ± 1 and 12 ± 2 mg cm( -2), respectively). Sun leaves are also characterised by the highest leaf thickness (78% higher in sun than in shade leaves), the spongy parenchyma thickness (71% higher in sun than in shade leaves) and the highest adaxial cuticle thickness (7.2 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 0.5 μm, respectively). Net photosynthetic rates (P (N)) of sun and shade leaves are the highest in spring, and shade leaves contribute 6% to the whole shrub P (N). Q. ilex CO(2) sequestration depends on shrub size. In particular, the CO(2) sequestration per shrub was 0.20 ± 0.02 Kg CO(2) year( -1) in small shrubs, and it was 75% and 98% lower than in medium and large ones. The highest CO(2) sequestration is measured in spring, decreasing 77% during drought. Q. ilex may play a significant role in mitigating carbon dioxide concentration and lowering air and soil temperature in areas around the Mediterranean Basin.

  16. Water deficit disrupts male gametophyte development in Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Olga; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Chuine, Isabelle

    2018-01-19

    Tree species distribution, and hence forest biodiversity, rely on the reproductive capacity of trees which is currently affected by climate change. Drought-induced pollen sterility could increase as a consequence of more intense and more frequent droughts projected for temperate and Mediterranean regions and threaten the sexual regeneration of trees in these regions. To evaluate this possibility, we examined the effect of long-term partial rainfall exclusion (-27% of precipitation) on male reproductive development in holm oak, Quercus ilex, one of the most important and widespread tree species of the Mediterranean region. We examined anther area, pollen production, pollen abortion as well as viable pollen production in control and dry treatments. Microscopic examinations revealed significant differences in pollen development between trees in the dry and the control treatments, even though anthesis occurred before the annual drought onset. Our results demonstrate that anthers collected from Q. ilex trees in the dry treatment, which experienced long-term increased drought stress especially during the summer time were the same size as anthers in the control treatment, but displayed 25% pollen abortion and almost 20% reduction in pollen production. Subsequently, the number of viable pollen grains in anthers from dry treatment was 35% less than in control. These results suggest a carry-over effect of drought stress on pollen production that could reduce the reproductive success of Q. ilex. The results of this study have broad implications for better understanding of the determinants of tree reproduction by masting and anticipate the outcomes of expected drought increase in the Mediterranean on forest dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  18. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  19. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  20. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  1. TCP HolyWood

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Núñez Mori

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  2. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  3. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  4. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  5. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  6. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  7. Ovalbumin as a Wood Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Holly Satori; Zhu Rongxian; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Use of proteins to bond wood dominated industrial production until the middle of the 20th century (1). The ensuing creation of the plywood and glulam beam industries allowed for more efficient use of wood resources than is possible with solid wood products. Many protein sources have been used as adhesives, including plant (soybean) and animal (blood, fish scales,...

  8. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-02-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability.

  9. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Respiration Rates of Above- and Belowground Woody Debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Jomura

    Full Text Available As a large, long-term pool and source of carbon and nutrients, woody litter is an important component of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the factors that regulate the rate of decomposition of coarse and fine woody debris (CFWD of dominant tree species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. Respiration rates of dead stems, branches, and coarse and fine roots of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula felled 4 years prior obtained in situ ranged from 20.9 to 500.1 mg CO2 [kg dry wood](-1 h(-1 in a one-time measurement in summer. Respiration rate had a significant negative relationship with diameter; in particular, that of a sample of Q. crispula with a diameter of >15 cm and substantial heartwood was low. It also had a significant positive relationship with moisture content. The explanatory variables diameter, [N], wood density, and moisture content were interrelated. The most parsimonious path model showed 14 significant correlations among 8 factors and respiration. Diameter and [C] had large negative direct effects on CFWD respiration rate, and moisture content and species had medium positive direct effects. [N] and temperature did not have direct or indirect effects, and position and wood density had indirect effects. The model revealed some interrelationships between controlling factors. We discussed the influence of the direct effects of explanatory variables and the influence especially of species and position. We speculate that the small R2 value of the most parsimonious model was probably due to the omission of microbial biomass and activity. These direct and indirect effects and interrelationships between explanatory variables could be used to develop a process-based CFWD decomposition model.

  10. Changes in the structural indices of annual shoots of Quercus rubra under anthropogenic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the important problems of large cities. In connection with this, comprehensive study of the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions of tree species, introduced in the process of landscaping, to various environmen tal factors is required. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of urban technogenic environmental pollution on the anatomical characteristics of Quercus rubra Linnaeus, 1753 annual shoots. The object of research was 35-year-old plants of Q. rubra, which grew in a non-polluted site (conditionally clean zone, the Botanical Garden of DNU (plot 1, and in a polluted site (roadside planting (plot 2 of Dnipro City. Industrial emissions of the city’s western, northeastern and northwest industrial complexes also have an effect on plants, depending on the wind direction. For anatomical research, the annual shoots were taken at the tips of the vegetation from the south-eastern side of the model trees at a height of 2 m and fixed in 70% alcohol. Cross sections were made at a distance of 1 cm from the beginning of growth. Phloroglucine was used to dye the cells. The influence of industrial and automobile emissions on the structural parameters of Q. rubra shoots was investigated. We established that the membrane thickened evenly in both control and experimental plants. Cork thickness of Q. rubra shoots growing in the roadside plantation was higher than in plants of the Botanical Garden by 57.5%. Increasing its thickness in plants exposed to atmospheric air pollution has an adaptive value. Q. rubra shoots have a tabulate type of collenchyma, the tangent walls of whose cells thicken. The collenchyma cells of the control variant of shoots are larger. This tissue was thicker in Q. rubra shoots from the polluted site by 26.8% compared to those from the non-polluted zone. The parenchyma cells of the primary cortex were large and contained chloroplasts. The thickness of this histological element on the shoot

  11. Identification of coniferous woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Francis Kukachka

    1960-01-01

    The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

  12. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  13. Chapter 3: Wood Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  14. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. History of wood machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  16. Harvesting wood for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  17. The role of prescribed burning in regenerating Quercus macrocarpa and associated woody plants in stringer woodlands in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Henry A. Wright

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the range of Quercus macrocarpa, fire historically played an important role in maintaining Quercus stands. However, little is known about the role of fire in maintaining stringer Quercus stands on the western edge of its distribution. This research suggests that prescribed burning could be used to rejuvenate woody plants...

  18. Structure of herbivore communities in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecklen, William J; Spellenberg, Richard

    1990-11-01

    We examined patterns of density and species diversity for leaf-mining Lepidopterans and gall-forming Hymenopterans in two oak (Quercus spp.) hybrid zones: Quercus depressipes x Q. rugosa and Q. emoryi x Q. coccolobifolia. In both species complexes, hybrid hosts typically supported significantly lower densities and species diversity of parasites than did parental types. This contradicts the findings of Whitham (1989) that suggested that hybrid hosts may act as parasite sinks both in ecological and evolutionary time. We discuss features of hybrid zones that are likely to influence patterns of herbivory.

  19. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87Sr/86Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87Sr/86Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  20. Lignin‐Retaining Transparent Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light‐transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high‐lignin‐content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK−1, and work‐tofracture of 1.2 MJ m−3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy‐saving buildings. PMID:28719095

  1. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    A somatic embryogenesis protocol for plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was established from immature cotyledon explants. Embryogenic callus cultures were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 3% sucrose, 0.24% Phytagel™, and various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) after 4 weeks of...

  2. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore García Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  3. The effect of seed size variation in Quercus pacifica on seedling establishment and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario B. Pesendorfer

    2015-01-01

    Quercus pacifica, the island scrub-oak, is the dominant species in oak chaparral on the three largest California Channel Islands. While the population on Santa Cruz Island has experienced a strong recovery, the populations on Santa Rosa and Santa Catalina islands are of conservation concern, and managers are actively restoring oak habitat by...

  4. A bibliography for Quercus garryana and other geographically associated and botanically related oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Melanie A. Kallas

    2002-01-01

    Interest in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook., commonly known as Oregon white oak or Garry oak, has increased in recent years as scientists, resource managers, and the general public focus attention on a forest type in decline. To aid those interested in learning what has previously been reported on this species, we have compiled a comprehensive bibliography for Q....

  5. Underplanting to sustain future stocking of oak (Quercus) in temperate deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Emile S. Gardiner; Callie J. Schweitzer; John M. Kabrick; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are one of the most important tree taxa in the northern hemisphere. Although they are dominant in mixed species forests and widely distributed, there are frequent reports of regeneration failures. An adequate population of large oak advance reproduction is a critical prerequisite to successful oak regeneration, and hence...

  6. An analysis of phenotypic selection in natural stands of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery W. Stringer; David B. Wagner; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Daniel B. Houston

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of growth and stem quality parameters of 19-year-old progeny from superior and comparison trees indicates that rigorous phenotypic selection of trees in natural stands may not be an efficient method of parent tree selection for Quercus rubra L. Total tree height, dbh, number of branches in the butt log, fork height, and number of mainstem...

  7. Whole-transcriptome response to water stress in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Gugger; Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez; Jessica W. Wright; Victoria L. Sork; Jörg-Peter Schnitzler

    2016-01-01

    Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née...

  8. Growth and Seed Production of Sawtooth Oak (Quercus acutissima) 22 Years After Direct Seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C.G. Goelz; D.W. Carlson

    1997-01-01

    Sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima Carruth.) was direct seeded at two locations, one with a poorly drained clay soil and the other with a well-drained silty clay loam. For comparison, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii Palmer) was direct seeded on the poorly drained clay soil. On the well-drained silty clay loam, sawtooth oak was 18 ft...

  9. Growth and biomass distribution of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings as influenced by light availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; John D. Hodges

    1998-01-01

    Cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings were established and raised in the field under four light levels (100 percent. 53 percent, 27 percent or 8 percent of full sunlight) to study the effects of light availability on their shoot growth, biomass accumulation. and biomass distribution. After two growing seasons, greatest stem growth was observed on seedlings...

  10. Underplanting cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings on a bottomland site in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2006-01-01

    We initiated a study on a bottomland site in the southern United States to examine the effects of Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunberg) control and seedlings of two root classes on survival and growth of underplanted cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings. Three honeysuckle control treatments were assigned to...

  11. Photosynthetic light response of flooded cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda) seedlings grown in two light regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Ken W. Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Two-year-old cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings raised in full or partial (27 percent) sunlight were flooded for 30 days to study the effects of light availability and root inundation on photosynthetic light response. Compared with seedlings receiving full sunlight, seedlings receiving partial sunlight developed leaves...

  12. Ex-situ conservation of Quercus oglethorpensis in living collections of arboreta and botanical gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Lobdell; Patrick G. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Quercus oglethorpensis (Oglethorpe oak) is an endangered species native to the southeastern United States. It is threatened by land use changes, competition, and chestnut blight disease caused by Cryphonectria parasitica. The species is distributed sparsely over a linear distance of ca. 950 km. Its range includes several...

  13. Consequences of salinity and freezing stress for two populations of Quercus virginiana Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; Jessica A. Savage; I-Yu Huang; Jeannine. Cavender-Bares

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is of increasing concern in coastal forests where rising sea levels could lead to dramatic shifts in ecosystem composition. To investigate how inundation may impact coastal ecosystems, we examined the sensitivity of Quercus virginiana Mill., a dominant tree in the southeastern U.S., to increased soil salinity and examined whether high...

  14. Concentric Ring Method for generating pollen maps. Quercus as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Valencia, Rosa Mª; Del Río, Sara; Vega, Ana Mª; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Mandrioli, Paolo; Fernández-González, Delia

    2017-01-15

    Mapping pollen concentrations is of great interest to study the health impact and ecological implications or for forestry or agronomical purposes. A deep knowledge about factors affecting airborne pollen is essential for predicting and understanding its dynamics. The present work sought to predict annual Quercus pollen over the Castilla and León region (Central and Northern Spain). Also to understand the relationship between airborne pollen and landscape. Records of Quercus and Quercus pyrenaica pollen types were collected at 13 monitoring sites over a period of 8years. They were analyzed together with land use data applying the Concentric Ring Method (CRM), a technique that we developed to study the relationship between airborne particle concentrations and emission sources in the region. The maximum correlation between the Quercus pollen and forms of vegetation was determined by shrubland and "dehesa" areas. For the specific Qi pyrenaica model (Q. pyrenaica pollen and Q. pyrenaica forest distribution), the maximum influence of emission sources on airborne pollen was observed at 14km from the pollen trap location with some positive correlations up to a distance of 43km. Apart from meteorological behavior, the local features of the region can explain pollen dispersion patterns. The method that we develop here proved to be a powerful tool for multi-source pollen mapping based on land use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  16. Additivity in tree biomass components of Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao P. Carvalho; Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    In tree biomass estimations, it is important to consider the property of additivity, i.e., the total tree biomass should equal the sum of the components. This work presents functions that allow estimation of the stem and crown dry weight components of Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees. A procedure that considers additivity of tree biomass...

  17. Effects of moisture and nitrogen stress on gas exchange and nutrient resorption in Quercus rubra seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Francis Salifu; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2008-01-01

    The effects of simulated soil fertility at three levels (poor, medium, and rich soils) and moisture stress at two levels (well watered versus moisture stressed) on gas exchange and foliar nutrient resorption in 1+0 bareroot northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings were evaluated. Current nitrogen (N) uptake was labeled with the stable isotope

  18. Variability of the chloroplast DNA of sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer, 1967 in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer, 1967 in Serbia is estimated applying cpDNA universal primer pairs that were characterized by a high informative level for chloroplast genome variability assessment in previous investigations. Five different haplotypes were detected in the analyzed sample material from populations in Serbia.

  19. Effect of acorn burying depth on germination, seedling emergence and development of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; Guo, Ke; Li, Rui

    2001-01-01

    Acorns of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata are often predated by small mammals and birds in natural forests. These animals not only eat the acorns during the acorn ripening season, but also cache and hoard most of the remaining acorns on the forest floor in the soil for their future use. These

  20. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  1. Mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  2. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  3. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  4. Controlling mold on wood Pallets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2012-01-01

    THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

  5. Chapter 1: Wood and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisopher D. Risbrudt

    2013-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking, as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence of this use...

  6. Wood products and green chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Key message Green chemistry for and from wood has developed numerous industrial products, namely biosourced, green wood adhesives and preservatives, foams, composite matrices, laminates, hard and flexible plastics, flexible films, and abrasive grinding discs, and their number is still growing.IntroductionThis review addresses (1) the elimination of toxic aldehydes from the most common wood panel adhesive, the one based on urea, itself a natural product, (2) biosourced ...

  7. Effect of size, seasoning and toasting in the volatile compounds in toasted oak wood and in a red wine treated with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E; del Alamo, M; Nevares, I

    2010-02-15

    The increasing demand for wood for barrel-making in addition to the rapid extension of alternative aging system, have led to looking into the possibility of utilizing Spanish oak. Quercus pyrenaica is the species that predominates in Spain, and the chemical composition of its heartwood (ellagitannins, low molecular weight phenolic and volatile compounds) and its incidence in characteristics of wine are similar to that of other species that are of recognized oenological quality for barrel-making, showing only quantitative differences with respect to French (Quercus petraea) and American (Quercus alba) species. However, at present, the quantity of good quality wood that we can obtain from the Q. pyrenaica Spanish forest is limited. Hence, in the short term, and considering the high chemical oenological quality of Q. pyrenaica wood, we propose the utilizing of chips, segments, staves, and other oak alternatives for wine aging, which would be obtained from wooden remnants from barrel-making as well as from trees with small diameters or physical defects which would normally be inappropriate for cooperage. With regards to the latter idea, studies on special chip-making processes, and other oak wood pieces are being carried out, especially focused on reducing seasoning time, and to toasting optimization as a function of wood piece size, in addition to its behaviour when incorporated into the different alternative aging systems. We present in this study the effect of seasoning way (traditional or unconventional) on volatile composition of Q. pyrenaica chips and staves at three toasting levels (light, medium and heavy), and the evolution of the wood-released aromatic composition of a Spanish artificially aged wine, using these alternative products. The wines showed in general small differences in their oak-derived characteristics, which were more related to the wood piece size and the toasting intensity than to the seasoning way, and they could be linked with the

  8. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  9. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  10. Effect of Wood Preservatives on Surface Properties of Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of wood preservatives (waterborne and organicborne on the performance of surface finishing properties is investigated. Sapwood of scots pine, (Pinus sylvestris L., oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. specimens (300 × 100 × 15 mm along the grain were impregnated with aqueous solution of 2% CCA, 2% Tanalith E, 1% boric acid, and Immersol aqua. Surface roughness, dry film thickness, adhesion strength, gloss measurement, scratch, and abrasion resistance were determined according to related standards for treated and untreated samples. The results indicated that surface roughness and adhesion strength depended on wood species and the chemical composition of preservatives. Generally, waterborne wood preservatives increased the surface roughness of wood while the organic-based wood preservatives decreased it. The organic-based wood preservatives decreased adhesion but they increased gloss value. Wood preservatives did not affect the scratch resistance which was found to depend on properties of the coating. All the wood preservatives increased abrasion resistance.

  11. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  12. Extractives content in cooperage oak wood during natural seasoning and toasting; influence of tree species, geographic location, and single-tree effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussot, Franck; De Jéso, Bernard; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick

    2002-10-09

    The chemical composition of cooperage oak wood is highly variable, depending upon the tree species (Quercus robur L. versus Quercus petraea Liebl.), its geographic location, and the single-tree effect. In the process of cask-making, natural seasoning and toasting contribute strongly to the modification of the oak wood chemical composition and therefore influence wine cooperaging. HPLC and GC quantification of ellagitannins and volatile compounds such as whiskey-lactones, eugenol, and vanillin over a sample set of 61 pedunculate oaks and 72 sessile oaks originating from six different forests showed that natural drying leads to a decrease of the ellagitannins and total extractives content level and a quasi constant level of the volatile compounds. Toasting (medium type) drastically enhanced the loss of ellagitannins and the gain in volatile compounds. Statistical treatment showed that the species effect remained significant throughout the process of drying and toasting, but not the provenance. The poor correlation with ring width of extractives levels measured on fresh timber remained unchanged as did the single-tree effect, with high variability found for all chemical parameters. These results provide further evidence that cooperage oak selection should not be based solely on the wood grain or the provenance but rather on a species-provenance combination.

  13. Estudio morfométrico de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae) Morphometric study of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dorismilda Martínez-Cabrera; Fernando Zavala-Chávez; Teresa Terrazas

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio morfométrico con la finalidad de contribuir en la delimitación taxonómica de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis. Para ello, se revisó material de herbario y se recolectó material en 11 poblaciones distribuidas en los estados de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas y Veracruz, en México, incluyendo 2 poblaciones simpátricas. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales y discriminante mostraron que los caracteres que contribuyeron a agrupar los individuos en su re...

  14. Properties of seven Colombian woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff

    1981-01-01

    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  15. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  16. Wood anatomy of the Rhizophoraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 127 samples of 65 species of all 18 genera of the Rhizophoraceae is described in detail; features not observed here, but recorded in the literature are added. Wood anatomically several groups can be recognized. Three distinct groups are very homogeneous, coinciding with the

  17. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  18. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  19. WOOD CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE 179

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... permeability, swellability in organic liquids and organic liquid separation potentials. The ... currently employed to deal with some of these wastes, ... a waste. This is because the wood has poor mechanical strength and cannot be used as structural support in most buildings. Although used as fuel(fire wood) ...

  20. Metal bats more like wood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardiner, Andy

    2011-01-01

    ... Coefficient of Resolution (BBCOR), which brings bats even closer to duplicating the properties of wood. "I would have preferred to go more slowly," said Mark Marquess, who has two national championships during his 35 years as Stanford's coach. "Everyone likes the idea of becoming more like wood, but let's say all our games were 2-1 and our attendanc...

  1. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  2. Living and Dead Aboveground Biomass in Mediterranean Forests: Evidence of Old-Growth Traits in a Quercus pubescens Willd. s.l. Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Badalamenti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, human impact has deeply simplified most of the forest ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin. Here, forests have seldom had the chance to naturally develop a complex and multilayered structure, to host large and old trees and rich biological communities, approaching old-growth conditions. Also for this reason, limited information is currently available about Mediterranean old-growth forests, particularly with regard to deadwood. The main aim of this work is to help fill this critical knowledge gap. In Sicily (Italy, we identified a Quercus pubescens forest that seemed to show some typical old-growth features. Total living volume (360 m3 ha−1 and basal area (34 m2 ha−1 were, respectively, about 6 and 3 times higher than the averages recorded in the regional forest inventory for this forest type. Deadwood was particularly abundant, exceeding the threshold of 30 m3 ha−1, mainly represented by lying dead elements. Dead to live wood ratio reached 9%, a value close to the threshold of 10% considered for Mediterranean old-growth forests. As the investigated forest showed some typical old-growth traits, it deserves to be fully protected and could be a permanent monitoring area for studying deadwood and stand dynamics in mature Mediterranean stands.

  3. Fuel wood properties of some oak tree species of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetei, Shougrakpam Bijen; Singh, E J; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Five indigenous oak tree species, i.e., Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC., Lithocarpus fenestratus (Roxb.) Rehder, Lithocarpus pachyphyllus (Kurz) Rehder, Lithocarpus polystachyus (Wall. ex A.DC.) Rehder and Quercus serrata Murray were estimated for their wood properties such as calorific value, density, moisture content and ash content from a sub-tropical forest of Haraothel hill, Senapati District, Manipur. Wood biomass components were found to have higher calorific value (kJ g(-)) than bark components. The calorific values for tree species were found highest in L. pachyphyllus (17.99 kJ g(-1)) followed by C. indica (17.98 kJ g1), L. fenestratus (17.96 kJ g"), L. polystachyus (17.80 kJ g(-1)) and Q. serrata (17.49 kJ g(-1)). Calorific values for bole bark, bole wood and branch bark were found significantly different (F > 3.48 at p = 0.05) in five oak tree species. Percentage of ash on dry weight basis was found to be highest in Q. serrata (4.73%) and lowest in C. indica (2.19%). Ash content of tree components gives a singnificant factor in determining fuelwood value index (FVI). Of all the five oak tree species, Q. serrata exhibited highest value of wood density (0.78 g cm-) and lowest was observed in C. indica (0.63 g cm(-3)). There was significant correlation between wood density (p L. pachyphyllus (898.41)> L. polystachyus (879.02)> L. fenestratus (824.61)> Q. serrata (792.50). Thus, the present study suggests that C. indica may be considered as a fuelwood oak tree species in Manipur.

  4. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition......The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...

  5. Origin of Petrified Wood Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mustoe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil forests have world-wide distribution, commonly preserving mineralized wood that displays vivid hues and complex color patterns. However, the origin of petrified color has received little scientific attention. Color of silicified wood may be influenced by the presence of relict organic matter, but the most significant contribution comes from trace metals. This study reports quantitative analysis of trace metals in 35 silicified wood samples, determined using LA-ICP-MS spectrometry. The most important of these metals is Fe, which can produce a rainbow of hues depending on its abundance and oxidation state. Cr is the dominant colorant for bright green fossil wood from Arizona, USA and Zimbabwe, Africa. Complex color patterns result from the progressive nature of the fossilization process, which causes wood to have varying degrees of permeability during successive episodes of permineralization. These processes include simple diffusion, chromatographic separation, infiltration of groundwater along fractures and void spaces, and oxidation/reduction.

  6. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, F. [Dip. Scienze Biologiche e Ambientali, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, via Port' Arsa 11, 82100 Benevento (Italy)], E-mail: flavia.denicola@unisannio.it; Maisto, G. [Dip. Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Prati, M.V. [Istituto Motori del CNR, via Marconi 8, 80125 Naples (Italy); Alfani, A. [Dip. Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves. - Different Quercus ilex leaf accumulation of trace elements and PAHs.

  7. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: calatayud_viclor@gva.e [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose [Laboratorio de Anatomia e Histologia Vegetal ' Julio Iranzo' , Jardin Botanico, Universitat de Valencia, c/Quart 80, 46008 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Reig-Arminana, Jose [Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD{sub 1.6}) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  8. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  9. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  10. Taxonomic and functional diversity of a Quercus pyrenaicaWilld. Rhizospheric microbiome in the Mediterranean mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo-Díaz, JF; Fernández-González, AJ; Villadas, PJ; Toro, N; Tringe, SG; Fernández-López, M

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 by the authors. Altitude significantly affects vegetation growth and distribution, including the developmental stages of a forest. We used shotgun Illumina sequencing to analyze microbial community composition and functional potential in melojo-oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) rhizospheric soil for three different development stages along an altitudinal gradient: (a) a low altitude, non-optimal site for forest maintenance; (b) an intermediate altitude, optimal site for a forest; and (c) ...

  11. PRODUCTOS FORESTALES NO MADERABLES ASOCIADOS A BOSQUES DE ROBLE Quercus humboldtii Bonpl EN LA VEGA, CAUCA

    OpenAIRE

    ALEJANDRA POTOSÍ GUTIÉRREZ; JUAN CARLOS VILLALBA MALAVER; LIZETH YURANY ARBOLEDA PINO

    2017-01-01

    The Oak Forest (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl) are affected by inappropriate uses, despite the many natural resources they have and have been feedstock of local communities to develop their daily activities. Therefore, Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) from the Oak Forest were identified in the municipality of La Vega, Cauca Department, to classify them according to the use given by the communities. The information was obtained through field observation techniques, interviews and oral communicati...

  12. Effects of provenance and seed size on seedling survival and mophology of Quercus pontica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aksu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of provenance and seed size on seedling survival and growth of Quercus pontica. The study showed that seed parameters showed significant differences among provenances. Provenance and seed size affected seedling survival and seedling morphology. Bigger seed size increased seedling survival, and also the large sized seed showed significant higher seedling height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and Dickson Quality Index in 1+0 seedlings.

  13. Genea, Genabea and Gilkeya gen. nov.: ascomata and ectomycorrhiza formation in a Quercus woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Trappe, James M; Rizzo, David M

    2006-01-01

    Genea and Genabea are considered ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbionts of higher plants, but because of their hypogeous habit, dark coloration and the small size of their ascomata, relatively little is known about these genera. Ascomata of six morphological species of Genea and one of Genabea were frequently collected at a single site in xeric Quercus woodlands of California's Sierra Nevada foothills. While most collections were easily referred to known species, those putatively identified as Genea harknessii and Genea arenaria were problematic. Genea harknessii collections appeared relatively homogenous based on morphology, but significant ITS variation revealed by rDNA sequencing suggested cryptic species diversity. Specimens of G. arenaria approximated the brief, original species description except for abundant clumps of septate setae formed at the apex of peridial warts. To verify the identity of this species we reexamined the holotype and analyzed morphology and ITS sequences of G. arenaria ascomata from a wide geographic range. To authenticate the EM status of Genea and Genabea with Quercus we collected healthy EM of Quercus douglasii and Quercus wislizenii and compared their ITS sequences to those from ascomata. We detected nine distinct ITS types of Genea and Genabea on roots. Two new species described here as Genea bihymeniata sp. nov. and Genea cazaresii sp. nov., were discovered during study of herbarium specimens. A phylogenetic analysis of 28 s rDNA from Genea and Genabea indicated three distinct lineages: Genea, Genabea and a third represented by Genea intermedia. For the latter we propose Gilkeya gen. nov. to accommodate the single known species, Gilkeya compacta comb. nov. A dichotomous key to all known Genea, Genabea and Gilkeya spp. from western North America is presented.

  14. Anatomical structure of pericarp and seed skin of Quercus species introduced in St. Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Lavrentyev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of anatomical study of pericarp and seed skin of 8 species from 3 sections and 7 subsections of subgenus Euquercus of genus Quercus introduced in Saint-Petersburg are given. The structure of pericarp is peculiar not only in limits of sections but inside of subsections as well. The results of research may be of practical importance for species identification in arboreal collections. The study was supported by RFBR, grant 13-04-00852.

  15. Effects of Insect Predation on Hypocotyl Survival and Germination Success of Mature Quercus variabilis Acorns

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi, FUKUMOTO; Hisashi, KAJIMURA; Laboratory of Forest Protection, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University:Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

    2000-01-01

    The rates of hypocotyl and radicle survival and of germination success were investigated in mature acorns of Quercus variabilis Blume in relation to endosperm loss due to seed insects. The acorns were damaged by curculio weevils (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) and moths, including tortricid moths (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae); the former were more abundant than the latter. Acorns damaged by curculio weevils showed a significantly lower germination rate when there was a large endosperm loss than th...

  16. Seasonal Dynamics of Mobile Carbon Supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the Upper Elevational Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (treeline formation. PMID:22479567

  17. Effects of different mechanical treatments on Quercus variabilis, Q. wutaishanica and Q. robur acorn germination

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Y; Hou L; Li Q

    2015-01-01

    Delayed and uneven germination of acorns has a negative effect on seedling quality and yield in seedlings. To address this issue, the effects of different mechanical treatments were studied, including a control (CK), removal of cup scar (RS), removal of pericarp (RP), removal of pericarp and 1/2 of the cotyledon (HC) and removal of pericarp and 2/3 cotyledon (TC), on the germination of Quercus variabilis, Q. wutaishanica and Q. robur acorns and pericarp thickness. The results showed that (1) ...

  18. Influence of Pericarp, Cotyledon and Inhibitory Substances on Sharp Tooth Oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) Germination

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu; Guangquan Liu; Qingmei Li; Yong Liu; Longyu Hou; Guolei Li

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) (STO), mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS), removing the pericarp (RP), and cutting off 1/2 (HC) and 2/3 (TC) cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis) seeds (CCS) were also investigated for CCS cultivat...

  19. Coppice Woods and Pollard Trees in the Visual Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacina Jan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sprouting capacity of some broadleaves has been used for their regeneration since ancient times. Often concurrently with taking advantage of sprouting stools, the trees used to be shaped also by pruning their stems, namely on pasturelands and in grazing forests. The activity of woodcutters and shepherds was obviously rather common in warmer climates with broadleaved stands because coppice and pollard trees appear relatively often in the visual arts from ancient works through the period if the Italian and German Renaissance up to the romantic and realistic landscape painting of the 19th century overlapping into the 20th century. For centuries, most frequently illustrated in European and Czech paintings have been pollard willows (Salix spp.. Other coppice and pollard tree species identified in paintings are oaks (Quercus spp., hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, European beech (Fagus sylvatica, European chestnut (Castanea sativa, and rarely other species, too. Artists apparently often used bizarrely shaped woods to increase the dramatic atmosphere of their landscape sceneries as well as figural compositions, and the coppice and pollard trees had certainly also a symbolic meaning in some of their works.

  20. Communities of tree vegetation and wood-destroying fungi in parks of the Kyiv city, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkova Olena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selected forestry parameters were investigated in the system of tree vegetation and wood-destroying fungi in parks of the Kyiv city along a gradient of recreational transformation. We investigated vitality, age structure and health conditions of woody plants (Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Carpinus betulus L., Frangula alnus Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L., Sambucus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., and species, systematic, trophic and spatial compositions of xylotrophic fungi (27 species of xylotrophs representing 22 genera, 16 families, 6 orders of divisions Basidiomycota; class Agaricomycetes. The results showed that the communities of tree vegetation and xylotrophic fungi in parks depend on the degree of recreational transformation of the environment. Vitality, age structure and health conditions of trees altered species composition of xylotrophs.

  1. Relationship between LAI of Quercus persica and Pistacia atlantica with Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Poorghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is a key variable in primary production and carbon cycling in ecosystems. It is used as an important predictor to explain the processes of forest ecology, forest management, and remote sensing studies. Most of the remote sensing instruments such as LAI-2000 and Fisheye photography are based on three-dimensional space and they consider the geometry of the crown to estimate LAI. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between spectral behaviour of Quercus persica and Pistacia atlantica with two-dimensional and three-dimensional LAI. To estimate LAI, a box (0.5× 0.5× 0.5 meters was placed in the four directions of the crown and all the leaves were harvested. In situ spectral measurements of leaves were done with ASD Fieldspec spectroradiometer. The results of partial least squares regression to model LAI form spectral data of Quercus persica showed maximum regression coefficient at visible and near infrared wavelengths for both LAI3D and LAI2D. The coefficient of determination (R2 between the measured and estimated LAI2D and LAI3D values for Quercus persica was 0.16 and 0.23 respectively, and for Pistacia atlantica was 0.15 and to 0.42, respectively. Generally, LAI3D showed better relationship with spectral reflectance for both species.

  2. Fungal species isolated from Quercus castaneifolia in Hyrcanian Forests, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOODARZ HAJIZADEH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kavosi MR, Feridon F, Hajizadeh G. 2013. Fungal species isolated from Quercus castaneifolia in Hyrcanian Forests, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 61-66. In order to isolate and identify of fungi associated with Quercus castaneifolia seed, sampling carried out in Shast-Kalate, Ghorogh, Loveh and Golestan forest. Collected seeds sterilized and then separated sections including: outer section of seed (crust and inner seed section (endosperm. Each section of seed tissue is cultured on potato dextrose agar media. After sub-culture and providing of the fungi pure cultures, various species isolated and identified by spores characteristics, their size and color, including: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia affinis, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichothecium roseum, Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, Penicillium implicatum, P. fellutanum, Diplodia sp. Nigrospora gossypi, Alternaria alternata , Fusarium oxysporum and Beltrania santapaui. The most frequency of fungus in Shast-Kalate forest was P. implicatum by 74% of frequency within seed section, the most frequency in Ghorogh and Loveh Forest was P. fellutanum with 63 and 66% of frequency within seed section respectively and the most frequency in Golestan forest was B. santapaui by 51% of frequency outer seed section. The result showed diversity of the fungi on the outer seed section is higher than within seed section. The results also showed during several isolation a saprophyte fungus always could be finding on the acorn seeds. This is the comprehensive report on fungi associated with Quercus castaneifolia seed in Hyrcanian forest, North of Iran.

  3. Uso estructural del hábitat por una comunidad de aves en bosques de rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica, Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, Jesús M.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence on the bird community of 9 structural zones in two plots of Iberian oak-woodland (Quercus pyrenaica with differences in vegetation structure was studied. Bird utilization of vegetation was measured by taking samples of each observed individual every 30 seconds, specifying the zone used as a food resource. Existence of a preferential selection in tree top and shrub was verified in the "Monte" plot, whereas tree top and ground in "Dehesa" plot were the preferential zones. The incidence of the seasons in the utilization of some zones (tree top, shrub and air was proven, while others zones (ground and trunks maintained an uniform level of utilization all year round. Shrub is used more in Iberian-oak forest than in other evergreen Quercus woods, while the opposite happens for the ground. The hardest period for birds in the study forest in the winter, while in other evergreen Mediterranean woods It is the summer.

    Depto. de Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Salamanca, 37071- Salamanca, España [es] Se estudia la influencia que ejercen sobre la comunidad de aves, las 9 zonas estructurales definidas dentro de dos parcelas de rebollar que presentan diferente estructura de su vegetación. La utilización del medio se midió observando cada individuo a intervalos de 30 segundos, anotando la zona sobre la que se encontraba buscando alimento. Se comprueba la selección preferencial de la copa de los árboles y del matorral en la parcela "Monte" y de la copa y el suelo en la parcela "Dehesa". Se pone de manifiesto la incidencia de la estacionalidad sobre la selección de algunos sustratos (copa de árboles, matorral y aire, mientras que otros mantienen una utilización más uniforme durante todo el año (suelo y troncos. El matorral es más ampliamente empleado en el rebollar que en bosques de Quercus perennes ibéricos, mientras que sucede lo contrario respecto al empleo del suelo. El invierno

  4. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery...

  5. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  6. Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Peggy Konkol

    1987-01-01

    This paper was prepared for anyone who wants to know more about enhancing wood’s physical properties, from the amateur wood carver to the president of a forest products company. The authors describe chemical and physical treatments of wood that enhance the strength, stiffness, water repellency, and stability of wood. Five types of treatments are described: 1. water-...

  7. Physical properties and moisture relations of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Simpson; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wood species for a product, the value of appearance- type properties,...

  8. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  9. Wood Condition Assessment Manual: Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Robert H. White

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes information on condition assessment of in-service wood, including visual inspection of wood and timbers, use of ultrasound and probing/boring techniques for inspection, and assessment of wood and timbers that have been exposed to fire. The report also includes information on assigning allowable design values for in-service wood.

  10. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  11. Fire resistance of exposed wood members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2004-01-01

    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  12. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Collect wood flour or chips from the lathe or table saw or vertical sander from other machines that produce the desired wood particles/ sawdust. If it is possible grind appropriate dry wood for use. Note: Wood flour or chips from cherry, maple (temperate trees) mahogany, teak and walnut (ekom in Ibibio ...

  13. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  14. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  15. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  16. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  17. Oxalate analysis methodology for decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; William Kenealy; Patricia K. Lebow

    2008-01-01

    Oxalate from partially decayed southern pine wood was analyzed by HPLC or colorimetric assay. Oxalate extraction efficiency, assessed by comparing analysis of whole wood cubes with ground wood, showed that both wood geometries could be extracted with comparable efficiency. To differentiate soluble oxalate from total oxalate, three extraction methods were assessed,...

  18. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  19. Wood Scrap Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated Utah's sawmill residue, logging residue and pinyon-juniper resource for use as an energy resource to replace supplement conventional fuels now in use. This was accomplished by analyzing existing and future supplies of wood suitable for energy use on a renewable basis and the cost effectiveness of using wood as compared to coal, natural gas, and propane. The promotion of the use and development of wood as a renewable resource to reduce Utah's dependency for selected residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial markets for conventional non-renewable forms of energy is also considered. 84 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  20. USANS study of wood structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, Christopher J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: Chris.Garvey@ansto.gov.au; Knott, Robert B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Searson, Matthew [Centre for Horticulture and Plant Sciences, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney (Australia); Conroy, Jann P. [Centre for Horticulture and Plant Sciences, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 A{sup -1}. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.

  1. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  2. Cellular aspects of wood formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fromm, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    With today's ever growing economic and ecological problems, wood as a raw material takes on increasing significance as the most important renewable source of energy and as industrial feedstock for numerous products...

  3. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2. ... Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, 4th Cross Street, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India; Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, ...

  4. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-01-01

    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity......). They are distributed across all biogeographical regions, but more abundantly in the Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Substantial ecological values are revealed in terms of landscape level biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics, and genetic resources. Social-cultural values are related to aesthetic values...

  5. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  6. Wood siding : installing, finishing, maintaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.C. Feist; A.E. Oviatt

    1983-01-01

    Wood siding is put on houses for many good reasons. One reason is that it will keep the bright new “face” of any home attractive for many years to come. In fact, given reasonable care, wood siding will retain its beauty for centuries, as has been amply proved by its performance on houses that date back to early colonial times. It also has great versatility; and the...

  7. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limit...

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  9. Fractal dimension does not adequately describe the complexity of leaf margin in seedlings of Quercus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the complexity of leaf margin in a set of Quercus tree species using fractal dimension estimated by the box-counting method (FDb. Leaves were sampled from seedlings in a set of 15 Quercus species with a wide range of leaf morphology (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q.faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber, and Q. velutina. To describe leaf-edge roughness, we used simple indices: P/L - the ratio of leaf perimeter (P to maximum leaf length (L along the main nerve; P/A - the ratio of leaf perimeter to leaf-blade area (A and its dimensionless version (P/A0'; and WM/Wm -the ratio of maximum distance from the lobe tip to the main nerve (WM to minimum distance from the lobe incision to the main nerve (Wm. There was a strong positive relationship between FDb and P/A. Clustering analysis revealed the existence of three groups of leaves, namely those with: smooth or spiny margins (e.g., Q. coccifera, Q. velutina, shallow lobes (e.g., Q. petraea, and deep lobes (e.g., Q. pyrenaica. In the studied Quercus species, the ratio WM/Wm is a simple and suitable leaflobation index. It is suggested that the flux rate along the leaf edge is related to the complexity of this boundary.Se ha cuantificado la complejidad del margen de las hojas de varias especies arboreas del genero Quercus utilizando la dimension fractal estimada mediante el modo del recuento de cajas (FDb. Se tomaron hojas procedentes de plantulas pertenecientes a 15 especies de Quercus con un amplio rango de morfologfa foliar (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber y Q. velutina. Se usaron varios Indices sencillos para describir la complejidad del borde de la hoja: P/L, la relation entre el perimetro foliar (P y la longitud

  10. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rousan, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI, and Quercus calliprinus (QC. Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%, linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%, campesterol (3.6-4.5%, and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8. The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la composición de aceites de bellota de tres especies del grupo del roble blanco del Mediterráneo, Quercus Aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI y Quercus calliprinus (QC. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por el contenido de aceite, parámetros físico-químicos del aceite, perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, compuestos fenólicos y esteroles. El contenido de aceite, expresado en peso seco encontrado fue de 3,40 a 7,51%. Las constantes físico-químicas fueron: densidad 0,912-0,922, índice de refracción 1,4529 a 1,4645, extinción espec

  11. A guide to residential wood heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Wood heating has a long history in Canada. Currently over three million Canadian households use wood-burning appliances for heating, or just to enjoy the ambience of a wood fire. This guide is one of a series of guides on renewable energy systems for residential use, compiled to assist Canadian householders to make informed decisions on renewable energy. This particular guide focuses on such matters as how to maintain the safety and efficiency of a wood heating system; how to purchase and store fuel wood; how to use fire management techniques for cleaner, virtually smokeless fires; and provides tips on what to ask when consulting wood-heating professionals. tabs., figs.

  12. Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to (i evaluate the feasibility of replacing n-hexane with ethanol for the extraction of oil from Quercus suber fruits and (ii optimize, at lab scale, sample preparation and extraction time for both solvents used (n-hexane vs. anhydrous ethanol. For both solvents, the effect of the conditioning process on extraction yield was evaluated. Therefore, a full factorial design was used as a function of four variables: dehulling (with vs. without husks, and thermal treatment of the crushed material (40ºC vs. 75ºC, at different times (5 min vs. 120 min and pressures (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Higher oil yields were obtained with n-hexane when dehulled fruits were conditioned under atmospheric pressure. Better yields were obtained with n-hexane, when dehulled material was treated at 75ºC for 90 min. Ethanol was not adequate for oil extraction from Quercus fruits, since other materials rather than oil were also extracted.El objetivo de este estudio fue (i evaluar la posibilidad de reemplazar el n-hexano por el etanol para la extracción del aceite de los frutos de Quercus suber y (ii optimizar, a escala de laboratorio, la preparación de la muestra y el tiempo de extracción para ambos solventes (n-hexano vs. etanol anhidro. Para ambos solventes, se ha evaluado el efecto del proceso de acondicionamiento en el rendimiento de la extracción. Para ello, se ha empleado un diseño factorial completo como función de cuatro variables: descascarillado (con vs sin cascarilla, y tratamiento térmico del material triturado (40ºC vs. 75ºC, a diferentes tiempos (5 min vs. 120 min y presiones (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Los rendimientos más elevados de extracción de aceite se obtuvieron con n-hexano cuando los frutos descascarillados se acondicionaron a presión atmosférica. Cuando el material descascarillado fue tratado a 75ºC por 90 min, se obtuvieron mejores rendimientos con n-hexano. El etanol demostró no ser adecuado para la

  13. The Quercus pubescens relic forest on the Gennargentu Mountains (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citterio G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent human impact has determined a strongly alteration of the Quercus pubescens forest on the Gennargentu Mountains in Sardinia. At the present, in this area the oak is represented by ancient single trees which can be considered relict and monumental individuals of the ancient forest. In this study, the space/time succession of oaks stands were analized in 1977 and 1997 years by GIS software and by multitemporal cartographic analyses. Some data about the stand structure are also reported.

  14. Genotypic variability of morphological characteristics of English oak (Quercus robur L acorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the acorn morphology (length, diameter and mass analyzed in seventeen English oak genotypes (Quercus robur Lfrom the English Oak Clonal Seed Orchard Banov Brod (Srem,Vojvodina. The highest values of acorn mass and length were measured in genotype 5. The largest diameters were measured in genotypes 6 and 21. Genotype 35 had the lowest acorn mass, length and diameter. The results from this study should serve as guidelines for the selection of trees yielding fruits possessing the desirable morphological characteristics.

  15. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Xia; William L. Harrower; Roy Turkington; Hong-Yu Tan; Zhe-Kun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006?2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collectio...

  16. Presencia de flores hermafroditas en Quercus rugosa (Fagaceae en el Estado de México (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero, Silvia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hermaphroditic flowers of Quercus rugosa Née are reported for the first time from Xochitla Ecological Reserve (Tepotzotlán municipality, State of Mexico. Their floral structure is described and supporting photographs and illustrations are provided.Se da a conocer la presencia de flores hermafroditas en Quercus rugosa Née de poblaciones localizadas en la Reserva Ecológica Xochitla, municipio de Tepotzotlán, Estado de México. Se describe su morfología y se aportan fotografías e ilustraciones que la documentan.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  18. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...... reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104 – 105 K/s) was as low as 1 to 6 % on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17 % for slow pyrolysis (10 - 20 K/min); char yield decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents...

  19. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  20. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  1. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  2. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  3. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  4. Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert E. Rowlands

    2003-01-01

    Commercial wood flour, the most common wood-derived filler for thermoplastics, is produced in a mixture of particle sizes and generally has a lower aspect ratio than wood and other natural fibers. To understand how wood flour and fiber characteristics influence the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites, we first investigated the effect of different sizes of...

  5. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  6. Pathogenicity of Armillaria Isolates Inoculated on Five Quercus Species at Different Watering Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Metaliaj

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available One of three fungal isolates of Armillaria mellea (Vahl: Fr. P. Kummer, A. gallica Marxm. et Romagn. and A. tabescens (Scop.: Fr. Emel. was inoculated on 1,440 three-year-old potted seedlings of five Quercus species (Q. cerris L., Q. ilex L., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and Q. trojana Webb. grown at different watering regimes in a greenhouse. Inoculum was represented by a piece of an oak branch colonised with the fungus (or sterile, as a control, which was attached to the unwounded main root of each oak seedling. During the growing season, differences in water availability among seedlings were measured monthly using minimum water potential assessments on noninoculated seedlings receiving an equal amount of water. Although all three Armillaria isolates induced infection, the A. mellea isolate was most pathogenic in all cases, while the A. gallica isolate showed a statistically equal degree of pathogenicity only on the least watered seedlings. Of the Quercus species, Q. ilex showed the greatest number of infected seedlings, Q. robur the smallest. Reducing the water supply to potted oak seedlings could be a useful indicator for detecting differences in pathogenicity between Armillaria species.

  7. Particulate Matter deposition on Quercus ilex leaves in an industrial city of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrigna, G; Sæbø, A; Gawronski, S; Popek, R; Calfapietra, C

    2015-02-01

    A number of studies have focused on urban trees to understand their mitigation capacity of air pollution. In this study particulate matter (PM) deposition on Quercus ilex leaves was quantitatively analyzed in four districts of the City of Terni (Italy) for three periods of the year. Fine (between 0.2 and 2.5 μm) and Large (between 2.5 and 10 μm) PM fractions were analyzed. Mean PM deposition value on Quercus ilex leaves was 20.6 μg cm(-2). Variations in PM deposition correlated with distance to main roads and downwind position relatively to industrial area. Epicuticular waxes were measured and related to accumulated PM. For Fine PM deposited in waxes we observed a higher value (40% of total Fine PM) than Large PM (4% of total Large PM). Results from this study allow to increase our understanding about air pollution interactions with urban vegetation and could be hopefully taken into account when guidelines for local urban green management are realized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  9. Post-fire ecological restoration of a mixed Pinus-Quercus forest in northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alanís-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se desarrolló en un bosque de Pinus-Quercus en el Parque Ecológico Chipinque (noreste de México, el cual fue afectado por un incendio forestal y sometido a tratamiento de restauración ecológica. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el establecimiento artificial de Pinus pseudostrobus (Lindl. y analizar el efecto de las barreras de retención de suelo después de 10 años de su instalación. Para ello se estableció un área de estudio con tratamiento de restauración ecológica y otra área sin tratamiento en las que se muestreó la comunidad vegetal y la profundidad del suelo. De acuerdo con los resultados, se registró 35 % de supervivencia de la plantación, la cual se considera como no aceptable. Las barreras de retención de suelo tuvieron efecto positivo, pues incrementaron la profundidad del suelo hasta 25 %. Con la investigación se concluye que las técnicas de restauración post-incendio aplicadas han sido eficaces, ya que incorporan una especie clave de ecosistemas maduros y evitan la pérdida de suelo por arrastre, por lo que se recomienda su uso en rodales de Pinus-Quercus afectados por incendios en la Sierra Madre Oriental.

  10. Clonal population structure and genetic variation in sand-shinnery oak,Quercus havardii (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, S G; McGinley, M A; Werth, C R

    1998-11-01

    We investigated clonal population structure and genetic variation in Quercus havardii (sand-shinnery oak), a deciduous rhizomatous shrub that dominates vegetation by forming uninterrupted expanses of ground cover over sandy deposits on the plains of western Texas, western Oklahoma, and eastern New Mexico. Isozyme electrophoresis (15 loci coding 11 enzymes) was used to recognize and map clones arrayed in a 2000-m transect (50-m sample intervals) and a 200 × 190 m grid (10-m sample intervals). Ninety-four clones were discovered, 38 in the transect and 56 in the grid, resulting in an estimated density of ∼15 clones per hectare. Clones varied greatly in size (∼100-7000 m), shape, and degree of fragmentation. The larger clones possessed massive interiors free of intergrowth by other clones, while the smaller clones varied in degree of intergrowth. The population maintained substantial levels of genetic variation (P = 60%, A = 2.5, H(exp) = 0.289) comparable to values obtained for other Quercus spp. and for other long-lived perennials. The population was outcrossing as evidenced by conformance of most loci to Hardy-Weinberg expected genotype proportions, although exceptions indicated a limited degree of population substructuring. These data indicate that despite apparent reproduction primarily through vegetative means, Q. havardii possesses conventional attributes of a sexual population.

  11. Biomass and nutrient content of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stem and branches in a mixed stand in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Frédéric; Jonard, Mathieu; Ponette, Quentin

    2010-05-01

    Accurate estimates of the amounts of nutrients immobilised in the organs and tissues of different tree species are of prime importance to make appropriate tree species selection and determine the harvesting regime that will ensure forest sustainability. Sixteen sessile oaks (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) (64-129years; stem diameters: 17-57cm) and twelve beeches (Fagus sylvatica L.) (43-86years; stem diameters: 9-50cm) were destructively sampled from a mixed stand located on an acid brown soil in southern Belgium. Statistical models were developed to investigate the differences in nutrient concentrations between tree species, between aboveground tree compartments of the same species, and between tissues of the same compartment. For stem tissues, vertical concentration profiles were described using a versatile equation. Allometric equations were used to predict biomass and nutrient content of tree compartments based on tree dimensions. Broadly speaking, nutrient concentrations tended to be somewhat higher for oak compared with beech, but the amplitude and the direction of inter-species differences varied greatly, depending on the nutrient and the tree compartment. For both species, living branch nutrient concentrations tended to decrease with increasing branch diameter, except for Ca (oak) and Mg (beech). Nutrient concentrations were consistently higher in bark than in wood; this difference between tissues was quite pronounced for Ca, particularly in the case of oak. The biomass and nutrient content equations were used to investigate the effects of tree species and harvesting regime on nutrient exports at harvesting. For equivalent harvesting scenarios, beech was found to induce higher Mg exports than oak, and inversely for Ca. Assuming stand clear cutting, complete tree harvesting would increase average nutrient exports from 65% (Ca) to 162% (P) compared with a stem-only harvesting scenario. These results provide valuable information in the current context of the

  12. Diversidade funcional em sistemas de montado: fluxo de nutrientes em Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Functional diversity in “montado” systems: nutrients fluxes in Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes dos ciclos de nutrientes em montados de Quercus rotundifolia Lam., relacionados com a precipitação foram estudados na região de Évora, de Novembro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2000. A precipitação bruta, o gotejo a diferentes distâncias do tronco e o escorrimento ao longo do tronco das árvores foram quantificados de modo contínuo, sendo colhidas amostras semanalmente para se proceder à respectiva caracterização química. A quantidade de nutrientes transferidos para o solo através das diferentes soluções foi também determinada. Verificou-se um acréscimo da concentração das espécies iónicas no gotejo em relação à precipitação bruta, o qual foi ainda mais manifesto no escorrimento ao longo do tronco. Estudaram-se, igualmente, as características físico-químicas do solo sob e fora da influência da copa destas árvores, num montado relativamente esparso. Além disso, também se avaliou a quantidade das camadas orgânicas e a quantidade de nutrientes aí retidos. As características físicas e químicas do solo apresentaram, de um modo geral, uma diferenciação positiva em resultado da presença das árvores. Avaliou-se a taxa de mineralização de N nas áreas sob e fora da acção do coberto das árvores, tendo-se observado uma mais elevada disponibilidade deste nutriente nas áreas do sob coberto.Nutrient cycling in Quercus rotundifolia Lam. systems, regarding precipitation was studied at Évora (Southern Portugal, since November of 1996 until December of 2000. The amounts of gross rainfall, throughfall (at different distances from the tree trunk and stemflow were measured continuously and samples for chemical analysis were collected weekly. The concentration of nutrients was higher in the throughfall than in the gross rainfall, especially in the areas closer to the tree trunk. Nutrients transferred to soil, through bulk rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were quantified. The highest concentration of nutrients

  13. Feedbacks between earlywood anatomy and non-structural carbohydrates affect spring phenology and wood production in ring-porous oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Lis, Gonzalo; García-González, Ignacio; Rozas, Vicente; Olano, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play a central role in the construction and maintenance of a tree's vascular system, but feedbacks between the NSC status of trees and wood formation are not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate multiple dependencies among wood anatomy, winter NSC, and phenology for coexisting temperate (Quercus robur) and sub-Mediterranean (Q. pyrenaica) oaks along a water-availability gradient in the NW Iberian Peninsula. Sapwood NSC concentrations were quantified at three sites in December 2012 (N = 240). Leaf phenology and wood anatomy were surveyed in 2013. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the interplay among hydraulic diameter (Dh), winter NSC, budburst date, and earlywood vessel production (EVP), while the effect of Dh and EVP on latewood width was assessed by using a mixed-effects model. NSC and wood production increased under drier conditions for both species. Q. robur showed a narrower Dh and lower soluble sugar (SS) concentration (3.88-5.08 % dry matter) than Q. pyrenaica (4.06-5.57 % dry matter), but Q. robur exhibited larger EVP and wider latewood (1403 µm) than Q. pyrenaica (667 µm). Stem diameter and Dh had a positive effect on SS concentrations, which were related to an earlier leaf flushing in both species. Sapwood sugar content appeared to limit EVP exclusively in Q. pyrenaica. In turn, Dh and EVP were found to be key predictors of latewood growth. Our results confirm that sapwood SS concentrations are involved in modulating growth resumption and xylem production in spring. Q. pyrenaica exhibited a tighter control of carbohydrate allocation to wood formation than Q. robur, which would play a role in protecting against environmental stress in the sub-Mediterranean area.

  14. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  15. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  16. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  17. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-01-01

    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by mea...

  18. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  19. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  20. Wood properties affecting finish service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Charles. Jourdain; George I. Daisey; Robert W. Springate

    2000-01-01

    Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth conditions, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Some of the more important wood properties as they relate to wood finishing are discussed, e.g., growth rate, density, knots, extractives, juvenile...

  1. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  2. Using a wood stove to heat greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2009-01-01

    The Red Lake Tribal Forestry Greenhouse in Red Lake, MN, utilizes four types of outdoor furnaces for heating through the fall, winter, and spring. The WoodMaster® is a highly efficient, wood-fired furnace that provides forced-air heat to the greenhouse. The HeatmorTM furnace is an economical wood-fired alternative that can provide lower...

  3. Effects of phosphoramides on wood dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin. Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability of phosphoramide-reacted wood, wood was reacted with a mixture which was derived from compounding phosphorus pentoxide and each of 12 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines in N,N-dimethylformamide. Dimensional stability of such reacted wood was analyzed by antishrink efficiency (ASE) using the water-soak method....

  4. Use of wood in buildings and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell C. Moody; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    In North America, most housing and commercial structures built prior to the 20th century used wood as the major structural material. The abundant wood resource formed the basic structure for most houses, commercial buildings, bridges, and utility poles. Today, houses and many light commercial and industrial buildings are made using modern wood structural materials....

  5. Balsa wood as an energy dissipator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to determine response of balsa wood in variety of environmental conditions. Response is dependent upon state of balsa wood as well as environment to which it is exposed, but certain combinations of conditions serve to increase significantly energy-dissipating capacity of wood relative to its normal capacity.

  6. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  7. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  8. Effects of Acid Deposition on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since acid deposition increases the rate of deterioration of unpainted wood, it can also affect the performance of paint applied to this weathered wood. In tests conducted near Madison, Wisconsin, smooth-planed wood was allowed to weather before painting. Exposure for as little as 2 weeks shortened the service life of the subsequently applied paint. The paint bond was...

  9. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  10. Wood structure and adhesive bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking...

  11. Reusing remediated CCA-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    Options for recycling and reusing chromated-copper-arsenate- (CCA) treated material include dimensional lumber and round wood size reduction, composites, and remediation. Size reduction by remilling, shaving, or resawing CCA-treated wood reduces the volume of landfilled waste material and provides many options for reusing used treated wood. Manufacturing composite...

  12. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  13. Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests.

  14. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  15. China: changing wood products markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Junchang Liu; James Granskog; Jianbang Gan

    1998-01-01

    In the 1980's, China emerged as the world's second largest importer of forest products and the second largest importer of U.S. forest products. However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from >/=448 million to >/=33 million. Little is known about the reasons that caused this decline. Less is probably known...

  16. Microwave drying of wood strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanben Du; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of microwave drying of wood strands with different initial moisture contents and geometries were investigated using a commercial small microwave oven under different power inputs. Temperature and moisture changes along with the drying efficiency were examined at different drying scenarios. Extractives were analyzed using gas chromatography=mass...

  17. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  18. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  19. Wood quality of white willow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

  20. Progress report on the evaluation of the susceptibility of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest ecosystem to Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Moralejo; Enrique Descals

    2006-01-01

    In preliminary studies on the susceptibility of plant members of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest, detached leaves of several woody species were highly susceptible when inoculated with zoospore suspensions of local isolates of Phytophthora ramorum (Moralejo and Hernández 2002). Since then, there have been reports of natural...

  1. Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States - a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Douglass Jacobs; Ken McNabb; Gary W. Miller; V. Baldwin; G. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Although natural regeneration is often the best method for establishing new oak (Quercus spp.) stands, there are increasingly more situations in which high potential for oak regeneration failure dictates the use of artificial regeneration including direct seeding and planting seedlings. Additionally, afforestation planting programs frequently...

  2. Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, susceptibility and response to goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, injury in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Nancy E. Grulke; Miles Daly; Cesar Godinez; Susan L. Schilling; Philip J. Riggan; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    Oak mortality is often associated with a complex of decline factors. We describe the morphological and physiological responses of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, in California to an invasive insect, the goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and evaluate drought as a...

  3. Early results from a newly-established provenance test in Valley Oak (Quercus lobata) show significant population differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica W. Wright; Victoria L. Sork

    2017-01-01

    Valley oak (Quercus lobata) is a majestic, endemic California native oak, found throughout California's foothills, valleys and flood plains. It is threatened because: Contracted range due to housing and agriculture.Low recruitment in existing stands as a function of land use and...

  4. Shade, leaf growth, and crown development of Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Prunus serotina, and Acer rubrum seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to detennine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-clotht...

  5. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    uptake capacity of Rb+ and NH4+ by these fine roots under standardized conditions in the laboratory. The study was performed in monocultures of oak (Quercus robur L.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] on sandy soil in a tree species trial in Denmark...

  6. The influence of cultural treatments of the long-term survival and growth of planted Quercus rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; Kim C. Steiner

    2011-01-01

    A northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantation testing 20 nursery stock and planting methods was used to evaluate treatments 3, 6, 10, and 17 years after planting. Survival over all treatments was 92 percent at age 3 and declined to 74 percent, 56 percent, and 39 percent at ages 6, 10, and 17, respectively. At age 17, survival was highest for...

  7. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  8. Does habitat matter in an urbanized landscape? The birds of the Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystem of southeastern Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Feldman; Pamela G. Krannitz

    2002-01-01

    Garry oak (Quercus garryana) was once a dominant habitat type on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia but urbanization has severely fragmented and reduced its occurrence. This study tests whether bird abundance in remnant patches of Garry oak and adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is related to Garry oak volume...

  9. High-light acclimation in Quercus robur L.seedlings upon over-topped a shaded environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Jensen; Emile S. Gardiner; Kevin C. Vaughn

    2012-01-01

    High developmental plasticity at the seedling-level during acclimation to the light environment may be an important determinant of seedling establishment and growth in temperate broadleaf forests, especially in dense understories where spatial light availability can vary greatly. Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings were raised beneath a...

  10. Winter variation in physiological status of cold stored and freshly lifted semi-evergreen quercus nigra seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa C. Goodman; Douglass F. Jacobs; Kent G. Apostol; Barrett C. Wilson; Emile S. Gardiner

    2009-01-01

    Water oak (Quercus nigra L.) is a tardily deciduous species commonly planted in afforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA. Field performance is often marked by low survival rates and top dieback, which may be associated with poor physiological quality of planting stock.

  11. Photosynthesis and xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in leaves of Quercus rubra and Q. alba seedlings of different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Dianpeng Xu; Paul P. Kormanik; Clanton C. Black

    1997-01-01

    Two and three years after the outplanting of 1-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra, NRO) and white oak (Q. alba, WO) nursery stocks, the highest net photosynthetic rates (Amax) were observed from seedlings growing on a clearcut site, followed by those under a pine stand. Both NRO and WO...

  12. Previously unrecorded damage to oak, Quercus spp., in southern California by the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Steven Seybold

    2008-01-01

    A new and potentially devastating pest of oaks, Quercus spp., has been discovered in southern California. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), colonizes the sapwood surface and phloem of the main stem and larger branches of at least three species of...

  13. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  14. Effects of above- and below-ground competition from shrubs on photosynthesis, transpiration and growth in Quercus robur L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. Jensen; Magnus Lof; Emile S. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    For a tree seedling to successfully establish in dense shrubbery, it must maintain function under heterogeneous resource availability. We evaluated leaf-level acclimation in photosynthetic capacity, seedling-level transpiration, and seedling morphology and growth to gain an understanding of the effects of above- and below-ground competition on Quercus robur seedlings....

  15. Potential effects of sudden oak death on small mammals and herpetofauna in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Tempel; William D. Tietje

    2006-01-01

    Within San Luis Obispo County, California, coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) woodlands provide important habitat for many wildlife species (see Tietje and others, this volume). Unfortunately, many of these woodlands are at high risk of sudden oak death (SOD) infection should the pathogen (Phytophthora ramorum) become established...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide plant extract...

  17. Análisis cariológico de ocho especies de encinos (Quercus, Fagaceae en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Maya, Saúl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyotype analyses of eight species of the Quercus genus were performed and are reported here. Five species (Q. candicans, Q. crassifolia, Q. elliptica, Q. hintonii and Q. urbanii belong to the Lobatae section and three (Q. frutex, Q. obtusata and Q. rugosa to the Quercus section. This is the first report of the chromosome numbers of all of them except Q. rugosa, and demonstrate that they are diploid (2n = 2x = 24 and the karyotypes are moderately asymmetrical.Se han realizado los estudios cariológicos de ocho especies del género Quercus, de las cuales cinco (Q. candicans, Q. crassifolia, Q. elliptica, Q. hintonii y Q. urbanii pertenecen a la sección Lobatae y tres (Q. frutex, Q. obtusata y Q. rugosa a la sección Quercus. Se indica por primera vez el número cromosómico de todas ellas excepto Q. rugosa. En todos los casos se trata de diploides (2n = 2x = 24 con cariotipos moderadamente asimétricos.

  18. Distribution of Quercus agrifolia mycorrhizae deep within weathered bedrock: a potential mechanism for transport of stored water

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bornyasz; R. Graham; M. Allen

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern California, Quercus agrifolia distribution closely matches regions of granitic regolith. High annual evapotranspiration demand and inherent shallow soil conditions lead to a dependence on a deep rooting system and an ability to access water from deep within the regolith. Most of the plant available water in weathered granitic rock is...

  19. Establishing a range-wide provenance test in valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) at two California sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annette Delfino-Mix; Jessica W. Wright; Paul F. Gugger; Christina Liang; Victoria L. Sork

    2015-01-01

    We present the methods used to establish a provenance test in valley oak, Quercus lobata. Nearly 11,000 acorns were planted and 88 percent of those germinated. The resulting seedlings were measured after 1 and 2 years of growth, and were outplanted in the field in the winter of 2014-2015. This test represents a long-term resource for both research...

  20. Recalcitrant Behavior of Cherrybark Oak Seed: An FT-IR Study of Desiccation Sensitivity in Quercus pagoda Raf. Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Sowa; Kristina F. Connor

    2003-01-01

    The recalcitrant behavior of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) acorns was examined in terms of effects of moisture content on seed storage longevity and (short term) seed germination. Seed samples collected over two consecutive years were fully hydrated, then subjected to drying under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity on the...

  1. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  2. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  3. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF WOOD RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES ON WOOD QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Ünver

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood raw material production without barked round is 3.5 billion m3 in the world. According to their amounts, industrial wood products set out log, fiber chip and pulp wood respectively in. Wood raw material produced in Turkey is not enough for market demand, so 9% of industrial wood demand has been imported. For this reason, the quality loses are as important as the quantity loses, which can be occurred during wood raw material production. Both preserving of continuity of forest sources and saving of addition to country economy are important during wood raw material production. To reduce the quality losses on the wood raw material is possible with the usage of developed techniques, taking into consideration sector demand, storing of wood raw material by suitable conditions and being worked the experienced worker.

  5. Leaf accumulation of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Maisto, G; Prati, M V; Alfani, A

    2008-05-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were collected four times in one year at six urban sites and one remote area in order to determine trace element and PAH accumulation through concomitant analyses of unwashed and water-washed leaves. Both unwashed and washed leaves showed the highest amounts of trace elements and PAHs in the urban area. Unwashed leaves showed greater differences between urban and remote areas and among the urban sites than washed leaves for trace element and PAH concentrations. Water-washing resulted in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in leaf concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, V and Zn. By contrast, Cd and total PAH concentrations showed no differences between unwashed and washed leaves.

  6. Proteotyping of Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) provenances through proteomic analysis of acorn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, José Valero; Fernández, Raquel González; Valledor, Luis; Cerrillo, Rafael Ma Navarro; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics has become a powerful tool to characterize biodiversity and natural variability in plant species, as well as to catalogue and establish phylogenetic relationships and distances among populations, provenances or ecotypes. In this chapter, we describe the standard proteomics workflow that we currently use in cataloguing Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) populations. Proteins are extracted from acorn flour or pollen by TCA/acetone or TCA/acetone-phenol methods, resolved by one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and gel images are captured and analyzed by appropriate software and statistical packages. Quantitative or qualitative variable bands or spots are subjected to MS analysis in order to identify them and correlate differences in the protein profile with the phenotypes or environmental conditions.

  7. Experimental minimum threshold for Phytophthora cinnamomi root disease expression on Quercus suber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Socorro SERRANO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus suber seedlings were potted in soils infested with increasing concentrations of Phytophthora cinnamomi chlamydospores and submitted to weekly flooding for 3 months to favour root infections. Increasing quantities of chlamydospores led to an exponential increase in their ability to germinate. Root symptoms (necrosis and/or absence of feeder roots were significantly more severe than those recorded in uninfested soil only for plants potted in soils infested with 61 cfu g-1 or more. Although generated using potting mix, this minimum threshold represents a tool for checking the potential infectivity of infested soils or to assess the effectiveness of some control methods to reduce soil inoculum. However, a low level of root infection was recorded even at 3 cfu g-1. Therefore, long-term disease risk may be present whenever the pathogen is detectable in oak forest soils.

  8. Rapid Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles from Quercus incana and Their Antimicrobial Potential against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In current study, bioreduction of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4·3H2O was carried out using leaves extract of Quercus incana for nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrum (UV, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs were generally clumpy agglomerates of polydispersed particles, with an average size in the range 5.5–10 nm. The Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS qualitative analysis and FT-IR data supported the presence of bioactive compounds, which are responsible for the metal reduction and nanoparticles stabilization. The biocompatibility of synthesized GNPs was evaluated via antibacterial activity by using human bacterial pathogens. The results showed that synthesized GNPs showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all bacterial pathogens.

  9. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  10. RESISTENCIA AL IMPACTO DE LA MADERA DE DIEZ ENCINOS (Quercus MEXICANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dávalos-Sotelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los valores de resistencia al impacto o tenacidad de la madera de diez especies de encinos mexicanos de los estados de Jalisco, México, Puebla y Veracruz ensayados en condición verde con una máquina tipo FPL. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en los valores entre los individuos de la misma especie que crecen en diferentes estados, por lo que puede establecerse un valor común. Existe un efecto directamente proporcional de la densidad básica sobre la tenacidad, el cual se acentúa al incluir los valores del espesor de la pared celular como una variable independiente adicional en los análisis de regresión múltiple. Finalmente, en este trabajo se incluyen los valores de las características anatómicas, físicas y mecánicas de la madera de Quercus crassipes.

  11. Assessment of physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of Quercus pyrenaica honeydew honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantal Rodríguez Flores, M; Escuredo, Olga; Carmen Seijo, M

    2015-01-01

    Consumers are exhibiting increasing interest in honeydew honey, principally due to its functional properties. Some plants can be sources of honeydew honey, but in north-western Spain, this honey type only comes from Quercus pyrenaica. In the present study, the melissopalynological and physicochemical characteristics and the antioxidant properties of 32 honeydew honey samples are described. Q. pyrenaica honeydew honey was defined by its colour, high pH, phenols and flavonoids. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyse the influence of the production year on the honey's physicochemical parameters and polyphenol content. Differences among the honey samples were found, showing that weather affected the physicochemical composition of the honey samples. Optimal conditions for oak growth favoured the production of honeydew honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in formaldehyde contents of germinating acorns of Quercus cerris L. under low temperature stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Z I; Albert, L; Varga, S

    1998-01-01

    Acorns of Quercus cerris L., after saturation with water and storage at -20 degrees C, were studied for changes in their contents of endogenous formaldehyde and its potential precursor and generator compounds. For the measurement of formaldehyde, after conversion to formaldemethone and some methyl acceptor and donor substances, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used. First, the amount of formaldehyde was drastically decreased. Having reached a minimum value within three to five days of the beginning of low temperature storage, a higher steady-state than the control acorns was recorded. Trigonelline and gamma-amino-butyric acid in seedleaf extracts were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

  13. Influence of wood structure on wood properties of tropical species

    OpenAIRE

    Baar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The presented thesis is focused on aesthetical and acoustic properties of tropical wood. The discussed tropical species are utilized in Europe mainly for their unusual appearance and colour in joinery and furniture production. The irreplacable acoustic properties like low internal friction predestine specific species for production of musical instruments. The colour of six selected tropical species - jatoba (Hymenea courbaril L.), massaranduba (Manilkara bidentata A. Chev.), muiracatiara (Ast...

  14. Nomenclatura popular de Quercus (Fagaceae: en los valles meridionales de Cantabria (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo de Santayana, Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the Ethnotaxonomy and Ethnonomenclature of southern Cantabria Quercus (Q- faginea subsp. faginea, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur is presented. An extensive vocabulary associated with these popular species has been compiled. The analysis of this lexicón shows the richness and complexity of folk plant taxonomy and nomenclature. In total 28 vernacular ñames, which are different forms of 12 principal lexemes, have been compiled. Maps with the geographical distribution of the ñames let us delimit lingüistical áreas. An analysis of this rich lexicón is also presented. The meaning of the ñames, often polisemic, theiretymologies and geographical distribution is studied.Se presenta un estudio sobre la etnotaxonomía y etnonomenclatura de los Quercus (Q. faginea subsp. faginea, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robar que viven en el S de Cantabria. Se ha desarrollado un abundante léxico en tomo a estas especies tan cotidianas, que sirve de ejemplo para estudiar la complejidad y riqueza de la nomenclatura popular. Se han recopilado 28 nombres vernáculos, variantes de 12 lexemas principales. Se han realizado mapas de distribución de los nombres recopilados que permiten delimitar zonas lingüísticas. Además se presenta un análisis de este rico léxico en el que se hace hincapié en su significado, muchas veces polisémico, etimología y distribución geográfica.

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P<0.05 against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63 mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.31–1.25 mg/mL and 0.31–2.50 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens.

  16. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Tan, Liy Si; Shafiei, Zaleha; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63 mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.31–1.25 mg/mL and 0.31–2.50 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens. PMID:22203875

  17. Clipping herbaceous vegetation improves early performance of planted seedlings of the Mediterranean shrub Quercus coccifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aubenau

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested how the conditions resulting from alternative management strategies addressed to mitigate abiotic and biotic limitations to plant establishment affect the performance of planted Quercus coccifera seedlings. This species is a xerophytic and heliophillous Mediterranean shrub, of interest for the restoration of abandoned farmland. We hypothesised that release from herb competition by clipping would allow Q. coccifera seedlings to cope more efficiently with water shortage by adjusting their mass allocation pattern. We established three environments of herb competition: absence of competition (AC, reduced competition by clipping (RC, and total competition (TC; and applied two irrigation treatments: low and high irrigation. We measured soil moisture at different depths, above- and below-ground herb biomass, and evaluated seedling responses, such as mortality, growth, biomass allocation, and morphological and physiological features. The TC treatment reduced water availability more than the RC treatment, in agreement with the highest water stress of seedlings under TC conditions. Irrigation increased above- and below-ground herb biomass, whereas clipping reduced herb production. Release of herb competition by clipping increased seedling survivorship by one order of magnitude and resulted in a growth rate comparable to the absence of competition. This growth was mostly related to carbon gain allocated to roots. The competition intensity imposed by treatments was related to a parallel reduction in total plant leaf area, biomass allocated to leaves and shoot:root ratio, and an increase in biomass allocated to roots and leaf mass area. The negative effects of herbs on Q. coccifera seedlings seem the result of competition for both water and light, in contrast with previous research with more mesic Quercus species, for which competition is primarily for water. Clipping of herbs is a feasible technique that greatly improved seedling performance, and

  18. A comparative study of oak (Quercus, Fagaceae) seedling physiology during summer drought in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahall, Bruce E; Tyler, Claudia M; Cole, E Shelly; Mata, Catarina

    2009-04-01

    Natural recruitment of oaks appears to be declining throughout the northern hemisphere. Summer drought poses a potentially important barrier to oak recruitment in southern California. To evaluate this barrier, we grew evergreen Quercus agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata from seeds near parental trees. We measured water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange during these seedlings' fourth and fifth summers and compared them to neighboring adults. Most seedlings had substantially lower values for predawn xylem pressure potential (Ψ(pd)), minimum photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency (Φ(PSIIMIN)), maximum quantum efficiency for PSII under dark-adapted leaf conditions (Fv/Fm), and maximum photosynthetic assimilation (Amax), and higher values for maximum nonphotochemical quenching (NPQmax) than did conspecific adults. The high, unvarying Ψ(pd) values of the adults suggest they use perennially available groundwater. Quercus lobata seedlings commonly had lower values for Ψ(pd) than did Q. agrifolia, and values for Ψ(pd) and Φ(PSIIMIN) were significantly related to size in Q. lobata but not in Q. agrifolia. These data suggest important interspecific differences in root architecture. Lower values for Φ(PSIIMIN), Fv/Fm, and higher NPQmax in Q. agrifolia indicate that Q. agrifolia seedlings were usually under more stress than Q. lobata, which typically had higher Amax rates than did Q. agrifolia seedlings. Diurnal photosynthesis curves were quite flat for Q. agrifolia, but they peaked in the morning for Q. lobata. Established seedlings appeared to be under more stress than adults, but this stress did not appear severe enough to cause death. Access to perennially available groundwater may be crucial for the seedling to sapling transition.

  19. Acorns of introduced Quercus rubra are neglected by European Jay but spread by mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Bieberich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra L.; native in North America is regarded as an invasive species in Central Europe, where it is the most common non-indigenous broad-leafed tree species in forestry. The species’ impact on native ecosystems and thus its future management are discussed controversially. Because dispersal is an important step in an invasion process, we studied whether European Jays (Garrulus glandarius L. and mice, both main dispersers of native oaks in Europe, mediate the dispersal of Q. rubra seeds. Morphological characteristics of Q. rubra and native Q. robur L. acorns were quantified according to their implications for dispersal. We tested experimentally whether and to what extent mice and jays collect acorns of both oak species and if their behavior depends on choice options (dual choice vs. no-choice. Acorns were offered on feeding platforms, controlled by scouting cameras. Results showed that Q. rubra acorns have a thicker pericarp, a rounder shape and a higher dry weight compared to acorns of Q. robur. In the behavioral assays jays avoided acorns of Q. rubra if they were offered together with those of Q. robur (dual choice as well as when Q. rubra acorns were offered alone (no-choice. This selection behavior could be caused by the differences in morphological traits observed between the acorns of the two species. In contrast to jays, mice took acorns of both oak species likewise indicating that seed morphology does not affect the attractiveness of Red Oak acorns for rodents. In conclusion, Quercus rubra is collected by animals in Central Europe to a considerable amount but dispersal should be restricted to moderate distances mediated by mice, leading mainly to stabilizing and increasing existing populations rather than founding of new ones.

  20. Requirements for in vitro rooting of Quercus robur and Q. rubra shoots derived from mature trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M C; San-Jose, M C; Ballester, A; Vieitez, A M

    1996-08-01

    Stabilized shoot cultures initiated from crown material of six adult Quercus robur L. trees and from basal epicormic shoots of a Quercus rubra L. tree showed good in vitro rooting capacity. An initial five-day dark period generally improved the rooting response but was detrimental to plantlet quality. There were clonal differences in rooting capacity. The concentration and exposure time of the indolebutyric acid (IBA) treatment were critical for root induction. In both species, best rooting efficiency was achieved by culture in medium containing 25 mg l(-1) IBA for 24 h and subsequent transfer to an auxin-free medium containing 1% activated charcoal. For all clones tested, the charcoal benefited both shoot quality and root system development, the latter being enhanced by the formation of many lateral roots. Total root system area and length, measured with a digital image analyzer, were significantly greater in medium containing charcoal than in medium lacking charcoal. Because darkening the basal part of the shoots with aluminum foil during the rooting phase only caused a small increase in rooting, we conclude that the large effect of charcoal on rooting was the result of adsorption of inhibitory compounds from the medium or the explant or both, rather than of basal darkening. Other factors affecting the rooting response of Q. robur were: (a) the position on the tree of the material from which cultures were initiated (the topophysical effect); and (b) shoot quality. Recycling the same horizontally placed explant on multiplication medium allowed three successive crops of shoots to be obtained, and rootability was typically maintained from crop to crop.

  1. Symptoms of the naturalisation of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. in Polish forests

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    Danielewicz Władysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L., the natural range of which embraces southern Europe and Asia Minor, belongs to trees rarely introduced into Polish forests. Tree stands where it appears, established before the Second World War, can be found in some 20 localities, mostly in the western part of the country. Because this species is capable of a natural renewal in a woodland environment, a research was made to find in what conditions and how far it undergoes spontaneous naturalisation. Three study sites were chosen in the forests of central Wielkopolska. An inventory was made of mature stands of the Turkey oak and its generative renewal. Plant communities in which the young generation of Q. cerris usually appears were characterised. It was found that self-sown seedlings of this species grew at a distance of up to 2,500 m from parent trees. The highest number and the greatest density of specimens of the secondary generation of the Turkey oak were found at ‘Racot’, which is a 100-hectare, mid-field woodland island where mesotrophic habitats predominate and where about 50% of the area is occupied by communities with manmade pine tree stands. At all sites, Q. cerris penetrates primarily this type of deformed phytocoenoses, developing mostly on former farmland. It has become a permanent component of the underbrush and undergrowth in them, and in some places, it also makes up the tree layer. It was observed that in the study area, it penetrated the woodland environment much more effectively than Quercus rubra, considered an invasive species. The expansion of the Turkey oak in several of the examined localities can be regarded as a basic manifestation of its naturalisation in places where there are phytocoenoses with pine stands in broad-leaf forest habitats in the neighbourhood of parent trees.

  2. Evidence for hybridization and introgression within a species-rich oak (Quercus spp. community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkeldey Reiner

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of interspecific gene flow is crucial for the understanding of speciation processes and maintenance of species integrity. Oaks (genus Quercus, Fagaceae are among the model species for the study of hybridization. Natural co-occurrence of four closely related oak species is a very rare case in the temperate forests of Europe. We used both morphological characters and genetic markers to characterize hybridization in a natural community situated in west-central Romania and which consists of Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto, respectively. Results On the basis of pubescence and leaf morphological characters ~94% of the sampled individuals were assigned to pure species. Only 16 (~6% individual trees exhibited intermediate morphologies or a combination of characters of different species. Four chloroplast DNA haplotypes were identified in the study area. The distribution of haplotypes within the white oak complex showed substantial differences among species. However, the most common haplotypes were present in all four species. Furthermore, based on a set of 7 isozyme and 6 microsatellite markers and using a Bayesian admixture analysis without any a priori information on morphology we found that four genetic clusters best fit the data. There was a very good correspondence of each species with one of the inferred genetic clusters. The estimated introgression level varied markedly between pairs of species ranging from 1.7% between Q. robur and Q. frainetto to 16.2% between Q. pubescens and Q. frainetto. Only nine individuals (3.4% appeared to be first-generation hybrids. Conclusion Our data indicate that natural hybridization has occurred at relatively low rates. The different levels of gene flow among species might be explained by differences in flowering time and spatial position within the stand. In addition, a partial congruence between phenotypically and genetically intermediate individuals was

  3. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  4. Serpula lacrymans, Wood and Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, S C; Eastwood, D C

    2012-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the causative agent of dry rot timber decay in buildings, is a Basidiomycete fungus in the Boletales clade. It owes its destructiveness to a uniquely well-developed capacity to colonize by rapid mycelial spread from sites of initial spore infection, coupled with aggressive degradation of wood cellulose. Genomic methods have recently elucidated the evolution and enzymic repertoire of the fungus, suggesting that it has a distinctive mode of brown rot wood decay. Using novel methods to image nutrient translocation, its mycelium has been modeled as a highly responsive resource-supply network. Dry rot is preventable by keeping timber dry. However, in established outbreaks, further mycelial spread can be arrested by inhibitors of translocation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  6. Mercury Distribution and Seasonal and Inter annual Variation of Mercury in Oak (Quercus ilex L.) in Almadenejos (Ciudad Real, Spain); Distribucion y Variacion Estacional e Interanual de Mercurio en La Encina (Quercus ilex L.) en el Municipio de Almadenejos (Ciudad Real)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Alonso, J.; Sierra, M. J.; Millan, R.

    2014-10-01

    Plants that are exposed to environmental pollutants are able to accumulate them in their organs depending on plant species, type of organ or age among others. Evergreen plants can hold stems and leaves of the different age over the same branch. Thus, the amount of contaminants of these former organs could vary with its age because the contamination exposure time is different. The aim of this study is to know in a tree species, the mercury (Hg) distribution in it and the variation of Hg concentration in leaves and stems between consecutive years and along the same year. In order to carry this objective out, three different trees of Quercus ilex L. were selected and two branches were taken from each of them. Such trees are located in Almadenejos, a village from the Almaden mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain), an area well known due to the developed Hg mining activities for centuries. Considering each branch and each year, on average the results show that leaves had higher Hg concentration than stems. Furthermore, the lowest Hg concentration was measured in fruit (acorn). With regard to ageing effect on Hg concentration and taking into account each branch separately, the results show that the older leaves had higher Hg concentration than younger ones. Nevertheless, the oldest stems had not always higher Hg concentration than youngest ones. A seasonal variation in Hg content appeared both in leaves and in stems in 2010, increasing in 6.2 times on average, in about six months. This result suggests that this kind of organs should be analyzed in winter months. Finally, the results show a very high positive correlation between the Hg of the bark and the Hg of the wood in the sampled branches. Such result suggests that if bark is sampled and its Hg content is analyzed, we could know the Hg content in the big branches or in the trunk, avoiding the cutting of the branches or the whole tree. (Author)

  7. Host preference and species richness of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi in a cool temperate area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Tsutomu; Abe, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    We examined the species richness and host utilization patterns of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi (polypores and related fungi) in an old-growth beech and oak forest in a cool, temperate area of Japan. Coarse woody debris (CWD) > or = 20 cm diam within a 6 ha plot was surveyed in Sep 2002. Tree genus, diameter, decay class and tree part of CWD samples were recorded. Fruiting bodies of aphyllophoraceous fungi that arose from the CWD were surveyed three times and identified to species. In total 256 CWD samples from 12 tree genera were surveyed with Quercus being the most frequent followed by Castanea and Fagus. From 196 CWD samples we recorded 436 wood-inhabiting fungi belonging to 63 species. Fifteen fungal species had at least 10 records, with Hymenochaete rubiginosa, Daedalea dickinsii, Xylobolus frustulatus, Rigidoporus cinereus and the small form of Fomes fomentarius being the most frequent. The number of fungal species that appeared on Fagus was significantly larger than that on Castanea, when the number of fruiting bodies collected was at least 50. The occurrences of the 15 dominant fungal species, except Trametes versicolor, were related to traits of the CWD. Tree genus was a predictor variable that affected the appearance of 11 of the 15 species of wood-inhabiting fungi. Only the tree part was selected for the models of Rigidoporus eminens, Schizopora flavipora and Stereum ostrea. Our results suggest that tree genus and tree part are important factors determining fungal community structure because these were selected as complementary predictor variables. Both oak and beech appear to be the most important tree genera for maintaining wood-inhabiting fungal species richness because the fungal flora formed on oak CWD is nearly complementary to those on chestnut, with low fungal species richness.

  8. Chapter 02: Basic wood biology—Anatomy for identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    Before the topics of using a hand lens, preparing wood for observation, and understanding the characters used in wood identification can be tackled, a general introduction to the biology of wood must be undertaken. The woods in commercial trade in Central America come almost exclusively from trees, so the discussion of wood biology is restricted to trees here, though...

  9. Status of Wood Processing and Storage in Nigeria | Ohagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work showcases wood processing and storage operations in Nigeria. The importance of wood as a multipurpose biomaterial were discussed as well as its nature, characteristics, lumbering pattern and other product derived from wood. The available wood/timber in Nigeria as well as the unit operations in wood ...

  10. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore aims to highlight the potentials of wood waste as a viable resource for economic growth and sustainable development and thereby pique the people's interest in the proper management and harnessing of wood waste. Keywords: Sustainable development, Wood waste, Wood waste management, Wood ...

  11. Comparison of palaeobotanical observations with experimental data on the leaf anatomy of durmast oak [Quercus petraea (Fagaceae)] in response to environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurschner, W.M; Stulen, G; Wagner, F.; Kuiper, P.J C

    To test whether stomatal density measurements on oak leaf remains are reliable tools for assessing palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], under changing Late Miocene palaeoenvironmental conditions, young seedings of oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.) were grown at elevated vs. ambient

  12. A 548-Year Tree-Ring Chronology of Oak (Quercus spp.) for Southeast Slovenia and its Significance as a Dating Tool and Climate Archive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katarina Čufar; Martín De Luis; Martin Zupančič; Dieter Eckstein

    2008-01-01

    Tree-ring series of oak, from both living trees (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and historic timbers in southeastern Slovenia were assembled into a 548-year regional chronology spanning the period A.D. 1456–2003...

  13. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  14. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  15. Hábitat y distribución de cinco especies de Quercus (Fagaceae) en la Meseta Central de Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    J.G. Alvarez-Moctezuma; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; J. de Jong, B H; Soto-Pinto, M L

    2015-01-01

    We describe the habitat ofspecies within .the Fagaceae subgenus Lepidobalanus (genus Quercus) and identify environmental variables relatedto their distribution in the Meseta Central of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. In 258 plots adortúnance index was used, combining tree density arid crown cover, for Quercus peduncularis, Q. polymorpha,Q. rugosa, Q. sebifera and Q.segoviensis. The following variables were measmed:. altitude, pre' cipitatioh from November through April (PPNA), exposure, slope, fuel...

  16. Designated fiber stress for wood poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Robert O. Kluge

    2005-01-01

    Wood poles have been used to support utility distribution lines for well over 100 years. Over that time, specifications for a “wood utility pole” have evolved from the closest available tree stem more than 15 ft in length to straight, durable timbers of lengths ranging up 125 ft and base diameters of as much as 27 in. The continued success of wood poles in this...

  17. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  18. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  19. Wood Energy Potential in Northwestern South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. McMinn

    1986-01-01

    The quantity of unused wood in an Ill-county area in northwestern South Carolina was projected to be more than 16 million tons annually. Wood that is unsuitable for products other than fuel amounts to nearly 9 million tons annually.The most likely energy demand by industrial plants that are good candidates for wood fuel systems is 1.5 million tons annually.Maximum...

  20. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  1. Wood-rotting fungi of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

  2. Durable wood bonding with epoxy adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Although wood was one of the earliest materials to be adhesively bonded, the factors that contribute to strong wood bonds are still not well understood. Wood is a very complex substrate in that it is non-uniform in most aspects. On the macro scale, it is a porous structure with different sized and shaped voids for fluid flow. The structural cells contain four different...

  3. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  4. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    - The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulati...

  5. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulation in...

  6. Novel perspectives in wood certification and forensics: dry wood as a source of DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Petit, Rémy J.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of wood for human societies can hardly be understated. If dry wood were amenable to molecular genetic investigations, this could lead to major applications in wood forensics, certification, archaeology and palaeobotany. To evaluate the potential of wood for molecular genetic investigations, we have attempted to isolate and amplify, by PCR, DNA fragments of increasing size corresponding to all three plant genomes from different regions of 10 oak logs. Stringent procedures to avo...

  7. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  8. Tropical-wood-induced bullous erythema multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S; Chen, K R; Pratchyapruit, W O; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of bullous erythema multiforme caused by an exotic wood, pao ferro (Machaerium scleroxylon). A 25-year-old female, a luthier (guitar maker) who often handles a variety of woods, developed bullous erythema multiforme. A patch test confirmed a positive reaction to one of the exotic woods, pao ferro. A subsequent accidental short contact with pao ferro 5 months following the first incidence induced a similar exudative erythema. Exotic woods such as pao ferro should be added to the list of contact allergens that can induce bullous erythema multiforme. Copyright (R) 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Wood chemistry in the service of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, V.S.

    1982-06-01

    This paper was presented to the general assembly of the Lativan Acadmey of Sciences on the theme of implementaion of the domestic food supply programme. The research work of the Institute of Wood Chemistry, Riga, in this direction is summarized, mainly with regard to wood hydrolysis for fodder production, and utilization of the lignin obtained as a byproduct. Other projects have been concerned with tree leaf fodder, the oleoresin-based fungicide Selmid, improved wood for farm buildings, and related topics outside the wood industry such as straw of improved digestibility to ruminats, and plastic structures.

  10. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...... conservation policies and management approaches for wood-pastures....

  11. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  12. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment...

  13. ESTRUCTURA Y COMPOSICIÓN FLORÍSTICA DE DOS COMUNIDADES CON PRESENCIA DE QUERCUS (FAGACEAE EN EL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana E. Rubio-Licona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizaron en términos de estructura, diversidad y composición florística, doscomunidades de Quercus del Estado de México. Se evaluaron la densidad y el área basal de los árboles del dosel, la cobertura del estrato arbustivo y se tomó registro de las especies herbáceas. Los atributos de la vegetación fueron empleados para calcular el valor de importancia relativa de las especies. El número de taxas y el valor de diversidad de las dos comunidades fueron similares. En la localidad de Cieneguillas de González, Temascaltepec, se encuentra un bosque mesófilo de montaña donde el encino de mayor importancia estructural es Quercus candicans; las otras especies de importancia fueron Clethra mexicana, Ternstroemia lineata, Pinus pseudostrobus y Pinus leiophylla. En la localidad de Llano del Huilo, Villa del Carbón, existe un bosque de encino-pino donde Quercus crassifolia posee el valor de importancia más alto, seguido por Pinus teocote, Quercus obtusata, Quercus candicans, Quercus crassipes y Arbutus xalapensis. El estrato arbustivo, aunque más diverso en el bosque mesófilo de montaña, tuvo mayor cobertura en el bosque de encino-pino.

  14. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  15. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  16. Soil degradation in wooded rangelands of southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, S.; Lavado Contador, J. F.; Gómez Gutiérrez, Á.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents a review on soil degradation studies carried out since 1990 in wooded rangelands in Extremadura. In the semiarid and subhumid parts of the south-western Iberian Peninsula open evergreen woodlands dominated by Quercus species are widespread (dehesas and montados). They are composed of grasslands with a varying degree of tree cover, ranging from treeless to more than 80 individuals per hectare. In some areas shrubs form a third component of the vegetation. Dehesas are subject to a complex exploitation system with agro-silvo-pastoral land use. The dominant soil degradation phenomena include different forms of water erosion and physical and biological degradation. Regarding soil erosion and surface hydrology, research has been carried out at different spatial scales. Sheetwash and overland flow were investigated along hillslopes and in microplots, whereas gully erosion and runoff production were monitored in small experimental catchments. Recently, physical and biological degradation has been studied in a large number of farms, representing the most important types of rangelands in the region of Extremadura. This included a rapid appraisal of degradation features, the determination of soil properties and a study on the distribution and activity of gullies. Soil degradation varies strongly with regard to the natural factors, but also with respect to land use and management. Sheetwash (interrill erosion) is the dominant process on hillslopes, with a mean soil loss rate of 0.63 t ha-1. However rainfall variation and land management, especially livestock density, produce changes in soil cover. With low to moderate livestock densities and during prolonged periods with low rainfall (droughts), the vegetation cover may be strongly reduced, provoking high soil losses, whereas during normal or humid periods interrill erosion is low. Excessive stocking rates may exacerbate sheetwash, producing severe soil degradation, regardless of rainfall conditions. In

  17. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical

  18. Phytosociological description of Quercus petraea forest stands with Chamaecytisus hirsutus and Erica carnea in the Vipavska brda (southwestern Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dakskobler, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a phytosociological study of Quercus petraea stands, whose herb layer is dominated by Erica carnea in the flysch hills of Vipavska brda and on the margins of the Vrhe plateau (southwestern Slovenia). We have determined that they are a long-term degradation stage on beech forest sites from the association Seslerio autumnalis-Fagetum. Based on comparisons with similar sessile oak stands from associations Melampyro vulgati-Quercetum petraeae, Seslerio autumnalis-Quercetum petraeae a...

  19. Pre-dispersal seed removal of fleshy fruits and Quercus coccifera (Fagaceae) acorns in a recently burned Mediterranean habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gabriela; Bas, Josep M.; Pons, Pere

    2015-01-01

    The seed fate in early successional habitats can determine plant composition and regeneration capacity after disturbance. Predispersalseed removal has been poorly studied in Mediterranean habitats, especially in burned and logged habitats. We assessed it for two years in pine forests with experiments excluding vertebrates from fleshy fruits (infructescences of Smilax aspera and Rubia peregrina) and acorns (branches of Quercus coccifera). We compared one unburned and one burned area (control)....

  20. Interazioni pianta–micorriza–insetto: il modello Quercus sp.–Tuber sp.–Leiodes cinnamomea (Panzer)

    OpenAIRE

    Di Santo, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    L’attività di ricerca, svolta con approccio multidisciplinare, ha riguardato l’interazione tra tartufo e ambiente, in particolare il rapporto tra tartufo, insetti ad esso infeudati, piante simbionti e comunità vegetale, secondo il modello Tuber aestivum Vitt. (Tartufo nero estivo) - Quercus pubescens Willd. (roverella) - Leiodes cinnamomea (Panzer). Il rapporto tra tartufo e comunità vegetale è stato analizzato conducendo rilievi fitosociologici in una tartufaia a T. aestivum, per mettere ...

  1. Efectos del ataque de fitófagos perforadores en el fruto de la encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Cano Sánchez, Esperanza; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1996-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizan pruebas de germinación de frutos de encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) afectadas por los fitófagos Curculio elephas Gyll. (COL., CURCULIONIDAE) y las especies del género Cydia, C. penkleriana (D. & Schiff.) y C. fagiglandana (Zel.) (LER, TORTRICIDAE). También recoge una serie de mediciones del fruto cuya finalidad es valorar los daños directos de estas especies.

  2. Lichens of red oak Quercus rubra in the forest environment in the Olsztyn Lake District (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of 63 species of lichens and 4 species of lichenicolous fungi recorded on the bark of red oak (Quercus rubra L. in Poland is given. Literature data and the results of field studies conducted in the forest in the Olsztyn Lake District between 1999 and 2005 are used in the report. Fifty-five taxa, including lichens rare in Poland, for instance Lecanora albella, Lecidella subviridis, Ochrolechia turneri, were recorded.

  3. Yeast-like microorganisms in the scale insect Kermes quercus (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccomorpha: Kermesidae). Newly acquired symbionts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadło, Elżbieta; Michalik, Katarzyna; Michalik, Anna; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Scale insects, like other plant sap-consumers, are host to symbiotic microorganisms which provide them with the substances missing from their diet. In contrast to most scale insects, Kermes quercus (Linnaeus) was regarded as asymbiotic. Our histological and ultrastructural observations show that in the body of the feeding stages of K. quercus collected in two locations (Warsaw and Cracow), numerous yeast-like microorganisms occur. These microorganisms were localized in the cytoplasm of fat body cells. The yeast-like microorganisms were observed neither in other organs of the host insect nor in the eggs. These microorganisms did not cause any damage to the structure of the ovaries and the course of oogenesis of the host insect. The females infected by them produced about 1300 larvae. The lack of these microorganisms in the cytoplasm of eggs indicates that they are not transmitted transovarially from mother to offspring. Molecular analyses indicated that the microorganisms which reside in the body of K. quercus are closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi Cordyceps and Ophiocordyceps, which belong to the Sordariomycetes class within the Ascomycota. The role of yeast-like microorganisms to their host insects remains unknown; however, it has been suggested that they may represent newly acquired symbionts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Quercus Species on Lipid Peroxidation and Brain Histology Following Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zareh Ghafri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The production of free radicals and lipid peroxidation are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the ethanol extract of Quercus species on lipid peroxidation and the histology of the gyrus dentatus after rat cerebral ischemia. Methods: In the present experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Experimental groups 1 and 2 received 500 and 1000 mg kg hydro alcoholic extract of Quercus and control group were given distilled water at the same time, respectively. In all groups, both sides of common carotid artery was blocked and then opened for 15 minutes. After fifteen days, the mice were killed and the right and left hemisphere were used to determine the level of malondialdehyde by histological studies. Data were analyzed by one-way AOVA. Results: The average number of granular cells in the dentate gyrus of experimental groups were 32.5±1.5, 31.2±2.8, respectively, which was not significantly different in comparison to the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Hydro alcoholic extract of Quercus species inhibit lipid peroxidation by preventing the process of reducing ischemia-reperfusion after injury of nerve cells

  5. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrońska-Pilarek, Dorota; Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy.

  6. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Wrońska-Pilarek

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd. and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees. Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy.

  7. Propagación in vitro de encinos mexicanos (Quercus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Silvestre Delgadillo-Díaz de León

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de ofrecer una alternativa a los sistemas convencionales de propagación, se desarrolló un protocolo para la multiplicación in vitro de cuatro especies mexicanas deQuercus, las cuales son explotadas para la producción de madera y carbón y están actualmente amenazadas. Se describe la inducción de brotes múltiples a partir de embriones cigóticos deQuercus castanea,Q. eduardii,Q. resinosayQ. rugosacultivados en medio de Murashige y Skoo-genriquecido con 6-bencilaminopurina (BA o cinetina. Los resultados mostraron que ambas citocininas afectaron la regeneración de brotes, donde la BA mostró la mayor efi ciencia. La mayor frecuencia de proliferación de brotes se observó enQ. castaneayQ. eduardii(91.7%, dando promedios de 6.3 y 6.5 brotes por explante al utilizar 3.0 y 4.0 mg l-1de BA, respectivamente. ParaQ. resinosa, la mejor respuesta fue obtenida con BA a 3.0 mg l-1produciendo 3.8 brotes por explante. Finalmente,Q. rugosaprodujo 3.6 brotes por explante con 1.0 mg l-1de BA. Los brotes fueron separados de las plántulas y transferidos a un medio basal a la mitad de su concentración enriquecido con 10.0 mg l-1de ac. indolbutírico por dos a cinco días, y luego transferidos a medio a la mitad de su concentración para su enraizamiento. Bajo estas condiciones, el 100, 100, 66.7 y 83.3% de los brotes deQ. castanea,Q. eduardii,Q. resinosayQ. rugosageneraron raíces, respectivamente. Las plántulas fueron aclimatadas a suelo en condiciones de invernadero de manera exitosa con frecuencias de sobrevivencia de 80% paraQ. castanea, 83.3% paraQ. eduardii, 73.3% paraQ. resinosa, y 70.0% paraQ. rugosa. Este método de propagación in vitro puede contribuir a la producción de plantas con fines de reforestación apoyando así la conservación y uso racional de estas especies.

  8. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  9. Beech wood – correlations between the quality of trees, logs and sawn wood

    OpenAIRE

    Marenče, Jurij; Gornik Bučar , Dominika; Šega, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The research addresses beech wood, from a standing tree to sawn wood. It focuses on the quality evaluation of individual trees and its impact on the later products made of the respective wood. For the needs of observing the quality of standing trees, the current 5-class scale for quality evaluation of the Slovenia Forest Service (SFS) was used. To evaluate the wood assortment, the SIST EN 1316-1:2013 standard was applied, while the evaluation of sawn wood was performed as per the rules of ...

  10. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  12. Wood properties from roundwood to timber engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Eberhardsteiner, J.; Winter, W.; Fadai, A.; Pöll, M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring and assessing wood properties during the production chain is getting more and more important for an optimal use of the resource. Over the years, research has been performed with the focus on establishing important wood properties, with the final goal of an

  13. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  14. The market for wood picnic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry A. Sesco

    1969-01-01

    Most of the picnic structures in six north-central states studied were constructed of wood. Service life of structure varied greatly. Vandalism and decay were the major reasons for repairing and replacing picnic tables. More than half the tables were made by the recreation agencies themselves. These results describe a market that existing and potential wood...

  15. Wood anatomy of the Neotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter Ben J.H.; Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1981-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 47 genera of the neotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail. The wood anatomy of the neotropical part of this pantropical family supports the subdivision into two groups: the subfamily Memecyloideae (the genus Mouriri) and the subfamily Melastomatoideae (all other

  16. Wood and fish residuals composting in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Thomas Richard; Jesse A. Micales

    2002-01-01

    The unique climates and industrial mix in southeast and south central Alaska are challenges being met by the region's organics recyclers. OMPOSTING wood residuals in Alaska has become increasingly important in recent years as wood processors and other industrial waste managers search for environmentally sound and profitable outlets. Traditionally, Alaska?s...

  17. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - #2...

  18. Chapter 01: Wood identification and pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    Wood identification is a combination of art and science. Although the bulk of this manual focuses on the scientific characteristics used to make accurate field identifications of wood, the contribution of the artistic component to the identification process should be neither overlooked nor understated. Though the accumulation of scientific knowledge and experience is...

  19. Wood Sculpture in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, Joyce

    1972-01-01

    The article discusses various approaches used by first to fifth graders in designing, constructing and sculpting wood pieces. In this case, small wooden parts were donated by a local factory. Article includes useful hints, such as that soft woods are better for younger children, trial and error methods increase enjoyment. (PD)

  20. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  1. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  2. Micromechanical measurement of wood substructure properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Troy W. Schmidt; Roderic S. Lakes; Steven M. Cramer

    2002-01-01

    The annual rings of softwoods are visually obvious and represent cylindrical layers of primarily cellulosic material that possess significantly different properties. For simplicity, wood construction products are designed assuming a material homogeneity that does not exist. As rapidly grown plantation trees are used for wood products, fewer rings are contained in an...

  3. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2010-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only our most widely used building material but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. As described in the many chapters of this handbook, efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees can range from a minimally processed log at...

  4. Surface thermodynamic parameters of modified wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrovskaya Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy characteristics of modified wood are studied in the paper. Application of this approach during the study of wooden materials allows forecasting the efficiency of modifiers for surface layer of wood. Phosphites, the efficient fire-retarders, were applied as modifiers. Using the example of a number of ethers with various alkoxy substituents of phosphorus atom, we have made an attempt to associate surface thermodynamic properties of modified wood and formation of properties for fire-, bio- and smoke protection. The dependence of change of energy characteristics and surface structure of wood on the nature of modifiers is determined. To study energy characteristics of wood, modified by various compounds, the following characteristics were used: σ surface tension and ΔG free enthalpy gradient. Easy Drop setting and the corresponding software were used to determine these values. According to the obtained data, the conclusion is made about the influence of modifiers on energy characteristics of wood. The high degree of modification (% P causes bigger change of Gibbs energy, which determines formation of high-level fire-, bio- and smoke protection. Diethyl phosphite is the most efficient modifier. Formation of fire-protective properties stipulates long-term operation of wood and wood-based materials.

  5. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  6. Ultrasound Transmission Times in Biologically Deteriorated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Adam Senalik; Robert J. Ross; Rodney DeGroot

    2015-01-01

    The use of a variety of stress wave transmission techniques for the in-service condition assessment of deteriorated wood is well documented. This paper summarizes results from an extensive study designed to examine the relationship between ultrasound transmission times and the deterioration of exposed wood. Two hundred seventy (270) southern pine lumber specimens were...

  7. Wood anatomy of the Palaeotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the palaeotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail on the basis of 134 samples of 107 species from 36 genera. On the wood anatomy, three subfamilies are recognized, Memecyloideae, Melastomatoideae, and Crypteronioideae. The Memecyloideae stand out through their

  8. Turbulence and Araki-Woods factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, A.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    Using Baire category techniques we prove that Araki-Woods factors are not classifiable by countable structures. As a result, we obtain a far reaching strengthening as well as a new proof of the well-known theorem of Woods that the isomorphism problem for ITPFI factors is not smooth. We derive as ...

  9. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  10. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2013-01-01

    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  11. Chapter 16: Soy Proteins as Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Christopher G. Hunt; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Protein adhesives allowed the development of bonded wood products such as plywood and glulam in the early 20th century. Petrochemical-based adhesives replaced proteins in most wood bonding applications because of lower cost, improved production efficiencies, and enhanced durability. However, several technological and environmental factors have led to a resurgence of...

  12. Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Purvis, C.R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This demonstration project converts wood energy to electrical power, uses waste and alleviates pollution. The 1 MWe plant operates a reciprocating engine-generator set on synthetic gas from a down-draft wood gasifier. This paper discusses plant descriptions, operational characteristics, performance data, and needed modifications. (author)

  13. (Maryland) wood heating project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The following recommendations and suggestions may be made to the homeowner and small business that might use supplemental wood heat up to 150,000 Btu requirement: (1) The cost of firewood must be kept as low as possible. If costs presently are much over $90/cord there must be very efficient use of the equipment. An owner may be willing to write off the cost of his own labor, but that can rather quickly turn sour if they are not used to heavy work and have the proper equipment to work with. (2) Care must be taken in selecting manufacturer and dealer so that parts and warranty repair are available in the future. We have run into this problem and an owner must beware. (3) A wood or wood/coal furnace is a much better investment than a large wood stove. Costs are less and heat distribution is superior. (4) A small moderately priced stove is better for heating a small area. (5) Wood units must burn hot for satisfactory combustion and heat production. (6) Burning a wood unit in moderate weather creates more problems than it solves. (7) Follow the instructions in the provided manual to the letter. (8) Study wood heat principals before investing in equipment. (9) Insulated chimneys are superior to all others from a practical standpoint. (10) Satisfaction comes only with adequate research and planning all aspects of wood burning. If all personnel involved are not dedicated to its use, results will be less than desirable.

  14. NeighbourWoods for Better Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan

    This publication aims to contribute to the development af NeighbourWoods through socially-inclusive planning, design and management. It presents experiences from an international project supported by the European Commission which evaluated and developed approaches and tools to assist NeighbourWood...

  15. Analysis of acetylated wood by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, C.; Beckers, E.P.J.; Militz, H.; Veenendaal, van W.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of acetylated solid wood were investigated earlier, in particular the anti-shrink efficiency and the resistance against decay. This study focuses on the possible changes and damage to the wood structure due to an acetylation process leading to weight per cent gains of up to 20%.

  16. The wood structure of Dicranostyles (Convolvulaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1969-01-01

    The anatomy of the mature wood of three species of the South American genus of woody climbers Dicranostyles Bth. is described and compared with that of the secondary wood of other genera of the Convolvulaceae. The stems are characterized by the occurrence of concentric rings of included phloem

  17. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  18. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.

    1983-01-01

    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the

  19. Wood energy markets, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the 2012 International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, in this chapter we consider in some depth the sustainability of wood energy. To do so, we evaluate the traditional economic, environmental and social dimensions of the sustainability concept. We also address how public policy has influenced wood energy sustainability across the UNECE region.

  20. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  1. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  2. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  3. Do photosynthetic limitations of evergreen Quercus ilex leaves change with long-term increased drought severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Misson, Laurent; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Martin, Nicolas K; Rambal, Serge

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal drought can severely impact leaf photosynthetic capacity. This is particularly important for Mediterranean forests, where precipitation is expected to decrease as a consequence of climate change. Impacts of increased drought on the photosynthetic capacity of the evergreen Quercus ilex were studied for two years in a mature forest submitted to long-term throughfall exclusion. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured on two successive leaf cohorts in a control and a dry plot. Exclusion significantly reduced leaf water potential in the dry treatment. In both treatments, light-saturated net assimilation rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)), maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)), mesophyll conductance to CO2 (g(m)) and nitrogen investment in photosynthesis decreased markedly with soil water limitation during summer. The relationships between leaf photosynthetic parameters and leaf water potential remained identical in the two treatments. Leaf and canopy acclimation to progressive, long-term drought occurred through changes in leaf area index, leaf mass per area and leaf chemical composition, but not through modifications of physiological parameters.

  4. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tropospheric ozone effects on chemical composition and decomposition rate of Quercus ilex L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Fagnano, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2011-02-01

    We determined the effects of tropospheric ozone on the chemical composition of Quercus ilex L. leaves and their decomposition, with a view to assessing the influence of ozone on nutrient cycling and the sustainability of Mediterranean holm oak forests. Forming one of the most widespread thermophilous vegetation communities in the area, Q. ilex is a dominant and widespread evergreen oak in the Mediterranean, where concentrations of tropospheric ozone are particularly high. The dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, lignin and cellulose concentrations were monitored for six months during the decomposition of leaves from plants subjected to controlled ozone exposure in open-top chambers. Ozone-exposed leaves, compared to unexposed leaves, showed no significant differences in C, N, lignin and cellulose concentrations prior to the incubation in mesocosms. However, during decomposition, leaves from plants exposed to ozone lost C significantly more slowly and showed a higher C/N ratio than unexposed leaves. Ozone exposure significantly slowed down the decomposition rate, indicating a negative effect of tropospheric ozone on nutrient cycling, which may reduce long-term sustainability of the holm oak forest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Drought enhances folivory by shifting foliar metabolomes in Quercus ilex trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Oravec, Michal; Mateu-Castell, Laia; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Parella, Teodor; Ogaya, Romà; Urban, Otmar; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-05-01

    At the molecular level, folivory activity on plants has mainly been related to the foliar concentrations of nitrogen (N) and/or particular metabolites. We studied the responses of different nutrients and the whole metabolome of Quercus ilex to seasonal changes and to moderate field experimental conditions of drought, and how this drought may affect folivory activity, using stoichiometric and metabolomic techniques. Foliar potassium (K) concentrations increased in summer and consequently led to higher foliar K : phosphorus (P) and lower carbon (C) : K and N : K ratios. Foliar N : P ratios were not lowest in spring as expected by the growth rate hypothesis. Trees exposed to moderate drought presented higher concentrations of total sugars and phenolics and these trees also experienced more severe folivory attack. The foliar increases in K, sugars and antioxidant concentrations in summer, the driest Mediterranean season, indicated enhanced osmoprotection under natural drought conditions. Trees under moderate drought also presented higher concentrations of sugars and phenolics; a plant response to avoid water loss. These shifts in metabolism produced an indirect relationship between increased drought and folivory activity. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF - Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.cat; Penuelas, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF, Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha{sup -1}) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest.

  8. Instantaneous and historical temperature effects on alpha-pinene emissions in Pinus halepensis and Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Josep-Salvador; Llusia, Joan; Niinemets, Ulo; Noe, Steffen M; Penuelas, Josep

    2011-01-01

    We compared the role of instantaneous temperature and temperature history in the determination of alpha-pinene emissions in Mediterranean conifer Pinus halepensis that stores monoterpenes in resin ducts, and in Mediterranean broad-leaved evergreen Quercus ilex that lacks such specialized storage structures. In both species, alpha-pinene emission rates (E) exhibited a significant exponential correlation with leaf temperature and the rates of photosynthetic electron transport (Jco2+o2) started to decrease after an optimum at approximately 35 degrees C. However, there was a higher dependence of E on mean temperature of previous days than on mean temperature of current day for P. halepensis but not for Q. ilex. Jco2+o2 showed a maximum relationship to mean temperature of previous 3 and 5 days for P. halepensis and Q. ilex respectively. We conclude that although the best correlation of emission rates were found for instantaneous foliar temperatures, the effect of accumulated previous temperature conditions should also be considered in models of monoterpene emission, especially for terpene (see text) species.

  9. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardans, J; Peñuelas, J

    2007-06-01

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 gha(-1)) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters.

  10. Change in hydraulic traits of Mediterranean Quercus ilex subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Longepierre, Damien; Huc, Roland; Rambal, Serge

    2010-08-01

    Mediterranean tree species experience unpredictable climate environments and severe summer droughts and they may be impaired by the trend of decline in precipitation projected as a consequence of global climate change. The response of Quercus ilex to drought was studied by measuring hydraulic traits of trees growing in a mature forest subjected to partial throughfall exclusion for 6 years. We measured hydraulic conductivity, xylem vulnerability to embolism, and anatomical features in branches and roots. Xylem vulnerability to embolism was higher in the dry treatment than in the control treatment, P₅₀ of branches was on average -3.88 +/- 0.80 MPa for the control treatment compared with -3.41 +/- 0.80 MPa for the dry treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. A similar difference between treatments was observed for roots, which exhibited lower P₅₀ values. This change of xylem vulnerability to embolism was not linked to modification of the hydraulic conductivity or vessel anatomy, which remained unaffected by the throughfall exclusion treatment. The xylem density of branches was lower in the dry treatment. The hydraulic conductivity was correlated with the mean vessel diameter of xylem, but the P₅₀ was not. The main response of trees from the dry treatment to reduced water availability appeared to be a reduction in the transpiring leaf area, which resulted in significantly increased leaf-specific conductivity.

  11. Leaf physiological responses to extreme droughts in Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Laurent; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rodriguez, Raquel; Letts, Matthew G

    2010-11-01

    Global climate change is expected to result in more frequent and intense droughts in the Mediterranean region. To understand forest response to severe drought, we used a mobile rainfall shelter to examine the impact of spring and autumn rainfall exclusion on stomatal (S(L) ) and non-stomatal (NS(L) ) limitations of photosynthesis in a Quercus ilex ecosystem. Spring rainfall exclusion, carried out during increasing atmospheric demand and leaf development, had a larger impact on photosynthesis than autumn exclusion, conducted at a time of mature foliage and decreasing vapour pressure deficit. The relative importance of NS(L) increased with drought intensity. S(L) and NS(L) were equal once total limitation (T(L) ) reached 60%, but NS(L) greatly exceeded S(L) during severe drought, with 76% NS(L) partitioned equally between mesophyll conductance (MC(L) ) and biochemical (B(L) ) limitations when T(L) reached 100%. Rainfall exclusion altered the relationship between leaf water potential and photosynthesis. In response to severe mid-summer drought stress, A(n) and V(cmax) were 75% and 72% lower in the spring exclusion plot than in the control plot at the same pre-dawn leaf water potential. Our results revealed changes in the relationship between photosynthetic parameters and water stress that are not currently included in drought parameterizations for modelling applications. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Temporal variations in PAH concentrations in Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) leaves in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Maisto, Giulia; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna

    2005-10-01

    Temporal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in leaves of a Mediterranean evergreen oak, Quercus ilex L., were investigated in order to assess the suitability of this species to biomonitor PAH air contamination. Leaf samples were collected at six sites of the urban area of Naples (Italy) and at a control site in the Vesuvius National Park, in May and September 2001, and in January and May 2002. PAH extraction was conducted by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In winter, leaf total PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, values 2-fold higher than in all the other samplings, reflecting the temporal trend reported for PAH air contamination in the Naples urban area. Moreover, leaf PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, a decrease in May 2002 after the winter accumulation. At the control site leaf PAH concentrations showed lower values and smaller temporal variations than at the urban sites. The findings support the suitability of Q. ilex leaves to monitor temporal variations in PAH contamination. The highest winter concentrations of total PAHs were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs that increased with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The medium molecular weight PAHs showed the same temporal trend both at the urban and remote sites.

  13. Changes in Ectomycorrhizal Diversity in a Declining Quercus ilex Coastal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Montecchio

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Oak decline is generally accepted to be the result of a dynamic interaction between oaks and a mix of abiotic and biotic causes, within which environmental stresses (drought, salinity, frost, low fertility may be important as predisposing factors. As a result of these interactions, trees gradually begin to show symptoms of general suffering, which below ground consist of functional and anatomical modifications to the rootlets and changes in the ectomycorrhizal status. The present study was performed in a coastal Quercus ilex forest, where decline symptoms appeared after heavy land reclamation in the adjoining areas, which caused a rapid lowering of the ground water level and the underground intrusion of seawater from the neighbouring Adriatic Sea into the forest itself. A forest survey including examination of rootlet features from asymptomatic and declining trees suggested that drought and salinity were involved in this decline. The relative frequency of the most recurrent ectomycorrhizal morphotypes distinguished clearly between asymptomatic, weakly declining and strongly declining trees, suggesting that the occurrence and distribution of only a limited number of morphotypes can give an indication of the severity of the decline. Moreover, of all the morphotypes observed only one third were found in all three decline classes, while the remaining two thirds were gradually replaced by others as the proportion of declining trees increased, where the number of morphotypes was greater. The hypothesis of an adaptive response of the ectomycorrhizal community to decline or to the predisposing factors of decline is discussed.

  14. Leaves of Quercus ilex L. as biomonitors of PAHs in the air of Naples (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfani, A.; Maistro, G.; Baldantoni, D. [Universita Federico II, Naples (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale; Prati, M.V. [Istituto Motori del CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by the GC-MS chromatography in the leaves of Quercus ilex L., an evergreen Mediterranean oak, to monitor the degree of pollution in the urban area of Naples compared to remote areas. Leaf samples were collected in July 1998 from four urban parks, six roadsides and two sites in remote areas. The total PAH contents in Q. ilex leaves ranged from 106.6 in a control site to 4607.5ng/g d.w. along a road with a high traffic flow. The mean concentrations factors (urban/control) were 3.8 for the parks and 15 for the roads. The contribution of carcinogenic PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b] fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) was higher in urban area and differed according to the site, ranging from 6.7% to 21.3%. The total PAH burden in control sites was dominated by the low molecular weight PAHs, whilst along the urban roads fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene among the measured PAHs showed the highest values. PAHs were positively correlated (P<0.01) to trace metals measured in a previous study. (Author)

  15. Detection of hybrids in nature: application to oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, C; Lorenzo, Z; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Lumaret, R; Guichoux, E; Petit, R J; Soto, A; Gil, L

    2009-05-01

    Powerful and accurate detection of first-generation (F1) hybrids and backcrosses in nature is needed to achieve a better understanding of the function and dynamics of introgression. To document the frequency of ongoing interspecific gene exchange between two Mediterranean evergreen oaks, the cork oak (Quercus suber) and the holm oak (Q. ilex), we analyzed 1487 individuals originating from across the range of the two species using eight microsatellite loci and two Bayesian clustering approaches (implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS). Simulated data were used to assess the differences between the two clustering methods and to back up the choice of the threshold value for the posterior probability to discriminate admixed from pure individuals. We found that the use of STRUCTURE resulted in the highest power to detect hybrids, whereas NEWHYBRIDS provided the highest accuracy. Irrespective of the approach, the two species were clearly distinguished as independent genetic entities without any prior information. In contrast with previous reports, we found no evidence for unidirectional introgression. The overall hybridization rate was very low (<2% of introgressed individuals). Only two individuals were identified as F1 hybrids and five as early backcrosses. This work shows that the combined application of the two complementary Bayesian approaches and their systematic validation with simulations, fit for the case at hand, helps gain resolution in the identification of admixed individuals.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in an urban area assessed by Quercus ilex leaves and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Alfani, A; Maisto, G

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the PAH contamination of Naples urban area, densely populated and with high traffic flow, by analyses of environmental matrices: soil and Quercus ilex leaves. Being some PAHs demonstrated to have hazardous effects on human health, the accumulation of carcinogenic and toxic PAHs (expressed as B(a)Peq) was evaluated in the leaves and soil. The main sources of the PAHs were discriminated by the diagnostic ratios in the two matrices. The urban area appeared heavily contaminated by PAHs, showing in soil and leaves total PAH concentrations also fivefold higher than those from the remote area. The soil mainly accumulated heavy PAHs, whereas leaves the lightest ones. Median values of carcinogenic PAH concentrations were higher in soil (440 ng g(-1) d.w.) and leaves (340 ng g(-1) d.w.) from the urban than the remote area (60 and 70 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively, for soil and leaves). Also, median B(a)Peq concentrations were higher both in soil and leaves from the urban (137 and 63 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively) than those from the remote area (19 and 49 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively). Different from the soils, the diagnostic ratios found for the leaves discerned PAH sources in the remote and urban areas, highlighting a great contribution of vehicular traffic emission as main PAH source in the urban area.

  17. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae), a novel spider species associated with Holm Oaks (Quercus ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Eduardo; Bonal, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel species Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae) collected in the province of Toledo (Central Spain). It was found during a systematic sampling campaign carried out in an agricultural landscape with isolated Holm oaks Quercus ilex and small forest patches. Its morphology and affinities with other species of the genus are discussed. Furthermore, one mitochondrial gene was sequenced to confirm species membership and its differentiation from other Cheiracanthium species. The molecular phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed a close relationship of Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei, with which it also shares morphological similarities. Nonetheless, the sparse sampling of the phylogeny, due to the low number of sequences available, impedes drawing any definitive conclusion about these relationships; it is first necessary to perform an extensive review of the genus worldwide and more thorough phylogenies. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. also shares certain ecological and phenological characteristics with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei. Like them, Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. is an obligate tree dweller that prefers a tree canopy habitat and reproduces primarily in late spring and summer. From a conservation perspective, the present study suggests the need to preserve isolated trees in agricultural landscapes. They are not only the refuge of common forest organisms but also of novel species yet to be discovered.

  18. Changes in the protein profile of Quercus ilex leaves in response to drought stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría-Zomeño, Sira; Ariza, David; Jorge, Inmaculada; Lenz, Christof; Del Campo, Antonio; Jorrín, Jesús V; Navarro, Rafael M

    2009-02-15

    To characterize the molecular response of holm oak to drought stress and its capacity to recover 9-month-old Quercus ilex seedlings were subjected to three treatments for a 14-d period: (i) continuous watering to field capacity (control plants, W), (ii) no irrigation (drought treatment, D), and (iii) no irrigation for 7d followed by a watering period of 7d (recovery treatment, R). In drought plants, leaf water potential decreased from -0.72 (day 0) to -0.99MPa (day 7), and -1.50MPa (day 14). Shoot relative water content decreased from 49.3% (day 0) to 47.7% (day 7) and 40.8% (day 14). Photosystem II quantum yield decreased from 0.80 (day 0) to 0.72 (day 7) and 0.73 (day 14). Plants subjected to water withholding for 7d reached, after a 7-d rewatering period, values similar to those of continuously irrigated control plants. Changes in the leaf protein pattern in response to drought and recovery treatments were analyzed by using a proteomic approach. Twenty-three different spots were observed when comparing the two-dimensional electrophoresis profile of control to both drought and recovered plants. From these, 14 proteins were identified from tryptic peptides tandem mass spectra by using the new Paragon algorithm present in the ProteinPilot software. The proteins identified belong to the photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, and stress-related protein functional categories.

  19. Metabolic responses of Quercus ilex seedlings to wounding analysed with nuclear magnetic resonance profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardans, J; Gargallo-Garriga, A; Pérez-Trujillo, M; Parella, T J; Seco, R; Filella, I; Peñuelas, J

    2014-03-01

    Plants defend themselves against herbivory at several levels. One of these is the synthesis of inducible chemical defences. Using NMR metabolomic techniques, we studied the metabolic changes of plant leaves after a wounding treatment simulating herbivore attack in the Mediterranean sclerophyllous tree Quercus ilex. First, an increase in glucose content was observed in wounded plants. There was also an increase in the content of C-rich secondary metabolites such as quinic acid and quercitol, both related to the shikimic acid pathway and linked to defence against biotic stress. There was also a shift in N-storing amino acids, from leucine and isoleucine to asparagine and choline. The observed higher content of asparagine is related to the higher content of choline through serine that was proved to be the precursor of choline. Choline is a general anti-herbivore and pathogen deterrent. The study shows the rapid metabolic response of Q. ilex in defending its leaves, based on a rapid increase in the production of quinic acid, quercitol and choline. The results also confirm the suitability of (1)H NMR-based metabolomic profiling studies to detect global metabolome shifts after wounding stress in tree leaves, and therefore its suitability in ecometabolomic studies. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity of a Quercus pyrenaica Willd. Rhizospheric Microbiome in the Mediterranean Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cobo-Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Altitude significantly affects vegetation growth and distribution, including the developmental stages of a forest. We used shotgun Illumina sequencing to analyze microbial community composition and functional potential in melojo-oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. rhizospheric soil for three different development stages along an altitudinal gradient: (a a low altitude, non-optimal site for forest maintenance; (b an intermediate altitude, optimal site for a forest; and (c a high altitude, expansion site with isolated trees but without a real forest canopy. We observed that, at each altitude, the same microbial taxa appear both in the taxonomic analysis of the whole metagenome and in the functional analysis of the methane, sulfur and nitrogen metabolisms. Although there were no major differences at the functional level, there were significant differences in the abundance of each taxon at the phylogenetic level between the rhizospheres of the forest (low and intermediate altitudes and the expansion site. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most differentially abundant phyla in forest soils compared to the expansion site rhizosphere. Moreover, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospirae phyla were more highly represented in the non-forest rhizosphere. Our study suggests that rhizospheric microbial communities of the same tree species may be affected by development stage and forest canopy cover via changes in soil pH and the C/N ratio.

  1. Impact of drought on seasonal monoterpene emissions from Quercus ilex in southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Michael; Rambal, Serge; Joffre, Richard; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2002-11-01

    We studied monoterpene emissions from the evergreen oak Quercus ilex exposed to different levels of summer drought to examine the seasonal variation of emissions in the Mediterranean area and to test the role of water limitations therein. Measurements were made in seven campaigns between June and January on intact leaves of mature trees growing in two adjacent sites, in one of which the natural water supply was reduced by a ground roof. In both sites, actual emission rates as well as light- and temperature-normalized emission rates (i.e., emission factor (EF)) significantly changed during the seasons: Mean EFs increased from June to July to a broad summer maximum between 5.2 and 9.4 nmol m-2 leaf area s-1 (12-21 μg g-1 leaf dry mass h-1), dropped in October and November and reached a minimum of about 0.77 nmol m-2 s-1 (1.7 μg g-1 h-1) in January. From June to July, mean EFs of the trees with reduced water supply were significantly lower than those of trees with normal water supply. The lowered EF in summer was paralleled by lower predawn water potentials, leaf transpiration, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance with respect to control trees. The results suggest that in natural Q. ilex habitats the seasonal evolution of EF follows a marked summer-winter cycle whose shape and intensity can be modified by summer drought.

  2. Soil development in OSL dated sandy dune substrates under Quercus robur Forest (Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Nierop, Ir. K.; Verstraten, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal dune landscapes are very dynamic. The present distribution of vegetation and soil is the result of over 2000 years of natural processes and human management. The initial soil development was controlled by an increase of the organic matter content, which consisted mainly of decomposed roots of grasses (rhizomull), and a decrease of the soil pH to 3-4 by decalcification. This stage was followed by the development of a deciduous forest, which was dominated by Quercus robur. Since 1600 AD, a large part of the deciduous forest that dominated the east side of the coastal dune landscape transferred in expensive residential areas and urbanizations. Nevertheless some parts of the oak forest belt remained. The present forest soils are acid and the controlling soil processes are leaching of sesquioxides and storage of organic matter in mormoder humus forms. The sustainability of ecosystems is closely related to the quality of the humus form, controlling nutrient cycling and water supply. Therefore, improve of knowledge of humus form development and properties is important. We applied soil micromorphology and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate more details of humus form development at two locations (Duivendrift and Hoek van Klaas) in the coastal dune area of the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (near Haarlem, the Netherlands). However, to understand forest soil development, including the organic matter composition in the humus form, the age of the substrate and the forest is required. Therefore, we used tradition techniques as pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating but also the recently introduced optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. Or in other words, the start of a stable period without sand drifting. In the Ah horizons we

  3. PRODUCTOS FORESTALES NO MADERABLES ASOCIADOS A BOSQUES DE ROBLE Quercus humboldtii Bonpl EN LA VEGA, CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA POTOSÍ GUTIÉRREZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oak Forest (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl are affected by inappropriate uses, despite the many natural resources they have and have been feedstock of local communities to develop their daily activities. Therefore, Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs from the Oak Forest were identified in the municipality of La Vega, Cauca Department, to classify them according to the use given by the communities. The information was obtained through field observation techniques, interviews and oral communication. 74 NTFPs were identified belonging to 10 categories of generic use of which stressed "Medicinal" and "Food and beverages" represented by 54,1% and 21,6%, respectively, of total products found. The most consumed foods correspond to the honey, infusion from the seeds of Q. humboldtii and callampas (Pleurotus ostreatus, about which, the physical-chemical composition has already been reported. It was recorded that the fruits of Panopsis rubra, are secondary foods consumed by people, whose proximate analysis revealed the contents of appreciable amounts of carbohydrate (85,43%, indicating that they can be very helpful as a supply of energy for the human being.

  4. Nutrient composition and starch characteristics of Quercus glandulifera Bl. seeds from China.

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    Li, Songnan; Zhou, Yibin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Shengnan

    2015-10-15

    The chemical composition and starch characteristics of acorn (Quercus glandulifera Bl.) were studied. The moisture content of acorn seeds was 7.55%. The crude fat, crude protein, dietary fiber, total ash, and nitrogen-free extract contents of acorn seed were 4.20%, 10.16%, 2.95%, 0.03%, and 82.66%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic were the most predominant fatty acids. UFA:SFA and SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratios were 2.6:1 and 1.25:1.34:1, respectively. The essential amino acid content from acorn seeds was low based on FAO reference values. Acorn seeds were a good source of Fe, Zn, and Mn. The contents of vitamins A and E were 1.40 mg RE/100g and 10.78 mg/100 g, respectively. Starch extracted from acorn seeds had round, triangle, and elliptical morphology with granule size of 3.3-126.2 μm. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin contents was 25.39:72.94. Acorn starch had a typical A-type crystal pattern with 23.53% relative crystallinity. The gelatinization temperature was 66.53 °C and the transition enthalpy was 4.33 J/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

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    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbon supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the upper elevational limit.

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    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (above sea level (a.s.l.) on Zheduo Mt., SW China. The tissue NSC concentrations along the elevational gradient varied significantly with season, reflecting the season-dependent carbon balance. The NSC levels in tissues were lowest at the beginning of the growing season, indicating that plants used the winter reserve storage for re-growth in the early spring. During the growing season, plants grown at the elevational limit did not show lower NSC concentrations compared to plants at lower elevations, but during the winter season, storage tissues, especially roots, had significantly lower NSC concentrations in plants at the elevational limit compared to lower elevations. The present results suggest the significance of winter reserve in storage tissues, which may determine the winter survival and early-spring re-growth of Q. aquifolioides shrubs at high elevation, leading to the formation of the uppermost distribution limit. This result is consistent with a recent hypothesis for the alpine treeline formation.

  7. Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. survey in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy by remote sensing

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    Rossini M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy show sensible damage conditions due to different environmental stresses: insect attacks, summer drought and air pollution. Knowing whether oaks are healthy or stressed can provide useful information in order to conserve the forest ecosystems and avoid the lost of valuable natural resources. Environmental stresses can affect tree biochemical and structural variables, such as the concentration, composition and efficiency in light harvesting of foliar pigments, and the Leaf Area Index (LAI. Interest in the use of these variables for forest condition assessment has recently increased because they can be indirectly estimated from remote observations at leaf and canopy level. In particular, in this research we found that total chlorophyll (Chl concentration, a biochemical variable related to crown discoloration rate, was the most suitable variable for the detection of pedunculate oak decline in the Ticino Park. A regression analysis between Chl concentration and optical indices computed from hyperspectral MIVIS data was performed in order to estimate Chl concentration from remote observations. The good correlation between field measurements of Chl concentration and MIVIS optical indices allowed the development of a model to map Chl concentration across the Ticino Park forested area. Promising results demonstrated that remotely sensed data can provide an accurate estimation of Chl concentration and indicated the potential of this technique for forest condition monitoring.

  8. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root associates of a Mediterranean ectomycorrhizal plant (Quercus ilex).

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    Bergero, R; Perotto, S; Girlanda, M; Vidano, G; Luppi, A M

    2000-10-01

    Mycorrhiza samples of neighbouring Quercus ilex and Erica arborea plants collected in a postcutting habitat were processed to see whether plants differing in mycorrhizal status harbour the same root endophytes. Three experiments were performed in parallel: (i) isolation, identification and molecular characterization of fungi from surface-sterilized roots of both plant species; (ii) re-inoculation of fungal isolates on axenic E. arborea and Q. ilex seedlings; (iii) direct inoculation of field-collected Q. ilex ectomycorrhizas onto E. arborea seedlings. About 70 and 150 fungal isolates were obtained from roots of Q. ilex and E. arborea, respectively. Among them, Oidiodendron species and five cultural morphotypes of sterile isolates formed typical ericoid mycorrhizas on E. arborea in vitro. Fungi with such mycorrhizal ability were derived from both host plants. Isolates belonging to one of these morphotypes (sd9) also exhibited an unusual pattern of colonization, with an additional extracellular hyphal net. Ericoid mycorrhizas were also readily obtained by direct inoculation of E. arborea seedlings with Q. ilex ectomycorrhizal tips. Polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the shared sterile morphotypes demonstrate, in the case of sd9, the occurrence of the same genet on the two host plants. These results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi associate with ectomycorrhizal roots, and the ecological significance of this finding is discussed.

  9. Foliage nitrogen turnover: differences among nitrogen absorbed at different times by Quercus serrata saplings

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    Ueda, Miki U.; Mizumachi, Eri; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen turnover within plants has been intensively studied to better understand nitrogen use strategies. However, differences among the nitrogen absorbed at different times are not completely understood and the fate of nitrogen absorbed during winter is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, nitrogen absorbed at different times of the year (growing season, winter and previous growing season) was traced, and the within-leaf nitrogen turnover of a temperate deciduous oak Quercus serrata was investigated. Methods The contributions of nitrogen absorbed at the three different times to leaf construction, translocation during the growing season, and the leaf-level resorption efficiency during leaf senescence were compared using 15N. Key Results Winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen significantly contributed to leaf construction, although the contribution was smaller than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen. On the other hand, the leaf-level resorption efficiency of winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen was higher than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen, suggesting that older nitrogen is better retained in leaves than recently absorbed nitrogen. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nitrogen turnover in leaves varies with nitrogen absorption times. These findings are important for understanding plant nitrogen use strategies and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems. PMID:21515608

  10. Weak trophic interactions among birds, insects and white oak saplings (Quercus alba)

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    Lichtenberg, J.S.; Lichtenberg, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than outside of bird exclosures in 1997. Insecticide significantly reduced arthropod densities and leaf damage to saplings, but there was no corresponding increase in sapling growth. Growth and biomass were greater for saplings in more open canopy environments for both years. Sap-feeder densities were higher on closed canopy than open canopy saplings in 1997, but canopy environment did not influence the effects of birds on lower trophic levels. Although previous studies have found birds to indirectly influence plant growth and biomass, birds did not significantly influence the growth or biomass of white oak saplings during our study.

  11. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

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    Vermani Archa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated. Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Results: Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. Conclusion: The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  12. A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

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    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype variability of leaf trichome and stoma characteristics. Leaves were sampled from seventeen pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, the Vojvodina Province. The pedunculate oak has hypostomatal leaves. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions and density of stomata. Genotype variability of stomatal dimensions was less pronounced in comparison with their density (CV = 8.88%. Stomata number ranged from 530 to 791 per mm2 of leaf area; genotypes 18 and 25 could be distinguished from the others for the highest stomata number per leaf unit area, genotype 35 for the lowest number. In all genotypes, only solitary eglandular trichomes were observed on the adaxial leaf surface while both solitary eglandular and uniseriate glandular hairs were present on the abaxial surface. Single glandular trichomes were observed in all genotypes, while some of them were characterized by the presence of two (genotypes 4, 5, 6, 16, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, and 85 or three (genotypes 16, 25, 35 hairs joined by their basal cells.

  13. Effectiveness of Quercus Branti Activated Carbon in Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions

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    Abdolmotaleb Seidmohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Dyes are one of the most contaminants in textile industrial wastewater that they are often carcinogenic, mutagenic and non-degradable. Therefore, with regard to environmental aspects, their removal from effluents is very essential. The purpose of this study was the perception of adsorption process and promotion of an economic technology for colored wastewater treatment. Therefore, activated carbon from Oak fruit bark was used as an effective and economic adsorbent. Materials & Methods: This study was performed at laboratory scale and batch system. At present study, the adsorbent surface properties was evaluated by use of the (FT-IR test and scanning electronic microscope (SEM. Also, effect of various operating parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature on dye removal from synthetic wastewater were studied. Results: In this study, maximum removal efficiency of methylene blue were achieved at optimal pH=6, reaction time 180 minutes, and adsorbent dose 2 gl-1. Methylene blue removal efficiency with initial concentration of 100 mg.l-1 was 91.08%. Conclusions: According to results, it was cleared that : Quercus branti activated carbon can be used as an effective and economic adsorbent in waste water treatment processes.

  14. Effects of germination inhibition on the dynamics of Quercus ilex stands

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    Junqing Li [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). Dept. of Forestry; Romane, F.J. [CNRS-CEFE, Montpellier (France)

    1997-05-01

    Germination of Quercus ilex L. in coppice stands of this species in the western Mediterranean Basin was examined and a germination inhibitory process is proposed to explain some germination traits. Germination rate and seedling biomass of Q. ilex were greatly modified by watering acorns with various concentrations of aqueous soil extracts from a Q. ilex coppice stand but also when the acorns were sown in soil from Q. ilex coppice stands. In the aqueous extract experiment, Q. ilex germination and seedling weight both decreased as the aqueous extract concentration increased. In the soil type experiment, Q. ilex soil decreased the Q. ilex germination rate. Comparative studies with Q. pubescens germination (this species, replaced by Q. ilex around 5000 B.P., is assumed to form the climax vegetation of the region) revealed that Q. pubescens was less sensitive to the aqueous extracts and soils of Q. ilex coppice stands. Inhibition of Q. ilex seed germination could be a major reason for the poor seed regeneration and suggested a possible comeback of Q. pubescens. 46 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Comparative anatomical analysis of the cotyledonary region in three Mediterranean Basin Quercus (Fagaceae).

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    Pascual, Gemma; Molinas, Marisa; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2002-03-01

    Anatomical changes at the cotyledonary node from the embryo to the seedling stage in Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex, and Q. humilis were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Mature embryos of Q. humilis possess 2-3 pairs of leaf primordia and a pair of cotyledonary buds, whereas in Q. coccifera and Q. ilex there are two incipient primordia, and cotyledonary buds are not observed until 1 wk after germination. In all three species the cotyledonary buds multiply, forming bud clusters, and a vascular connection is well established within 5-6 wk after germination. As development proceeds, the cotyledonary region becomes woody, but buds, which are exogenous in origin, never become embedded in the periderm. In comparison with Q. suber, another native Mediterranean Basin oak, the cotyledonary node is short and axillary buds are not present below the insertion of cotyledons. In addition, starch accumulation in the cotyledonary region is not observed from histological analysis in the three oaks. Therefore, in Q. coccifera, Q. ilex, and Q. humilis seedlings the cotyledonary node can be considered to be an important regenerative structure enabling them to resprout after the elimination of the shoot above the cotyledons, despite the absence of a lignotuberous structure.

  16. Global 5-methylcytosine alterations in DNA during ageing of Quercus robur seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Marcin; Plitta-Michalak, Beata P; Naskręt-Barciszewska, Mirosława; Barciszewski, Jan; Bujarska-Borkowska, Barbara; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the management of plant growth, development and response to stress factors, and several reports have indicated that DNA methylation plays a critical role in seed development and viability. This study examines changes in 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) levels in the DNA of seeds during ageing, a process that has important implications for plant conservation and agriculture. Changes in the global level of m(5)C were measured in mature seeds of oak, Quercus robur. The extent of DNA methylation was measured using a protocol based on two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Viability of seeds was determined by germination and seedling emergence tests. An ageing-related decrease in total m(5)C during storage of recalcitrant seeds was highly and significantly correlated with a decrease in seed viability, as reflected by a reduction in germination (r = 0·8880) and seedling emergence (r = 0·8269). The decrease in viability during ageing of Q. robur seeds is highly correlated with a global decline in the amount of m(5)C in genomic DNA, and it is possible that this may represent a typical response to ageing and senescence in recalcitrant seeds. Potential mechanisms that drive changes in genomic DNA methylation during ageing are discussed, together with their implications for seed viability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns.

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    Xia, Ke; Harrower, William L; Turkington, Roy; Tan, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-11-22

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006-2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collections. Annual acorn production was variable, but particularly low in 2011 and 2013. There was no trade-off between acorn production and acorn dry mass. However, acorns produced later in the season were significantly heavier. For most years: (i) the rate of weevil infestation was negatively density dependent (a greater proportion of acorns died with increased acorn density), (ii) the percentage germination of acorns was positively density dependent (proportionately more acorns germinated with increased density), and (iii) as the season progressed, the percentage of infested acorns declined while germination rates increased. Finally, (iv) maximum acorn production, percentage infestation and percentage germination were asynchronous. Although pre-dispersal mortality is important it is unlikely to be the primary factor leading to low recruitment of oak seedlings.

  18. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  19. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

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    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  20. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

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    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.