Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer
PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS......: With a cut-off of 3 on the distress thermometer, 77% of women with breast cancer reported distress, whereas when the cut-off was 7, 43% were distressed. The mean distress score was 5.4 (SD, 3.1). The most frequently reported problems were worry (77%) and nervousness (71%). Distress was significantly...
F Moradi Manesh
Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.
Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.
The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard
To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1) = 33 with preterm birth; n(2) = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Álvarez, Carmen; Hernández-Lloreda, Maria José
The objective of this study is to compare psychological distress (body image disturbance,self-esteem, depression, and anxiety) in women with breast or gynecological cancer treated by radical surgery. Additionally, another objective is to analyze the association between psychological distress and sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and social support to produce a prediction model for the outcome measures. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 100 women who had undergone radical surgery for breast or gynecological cancer. Both groups were divided into the following: younger than 50 years old and 50 years old or older. Body Image Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. Age had a significant main effect on psychological distress but the type of cancer did not.Younger women showed significantly greater distress than older women (p-valuesself-esteem, the variables were: being younger, post-adjuvant therapy side effects,and dissatisfaction with social support. And for higher anxiety, the sole variable included was post-adjuvant therapy side effects. Both mastectomy and hysterectomy/oophorectomy cause similar psychological distress in younger women, but mastectomy causes greater distress in older women than hysterectomy/oophorectomy.
Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A
Previous research has shown that lymphoedema impacts negatively on an individual, including psychological distress and body image disturbance, particularly for younger women. This study identified psychological factors associated with distress in women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema and determined whether age moderated the specific relationship between body image disturbance and distress. Australian women (n = 166) diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphoedema were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organisation and lymphoedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online survey assessing lymphoedema-related cognitions (personal control, perceived treatment effectiveness, and consequences of lymphoedema), perceived ability to self-regulate lymphoedema-related negative affect, body image disturbance, psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress), and demographic/medical information. Beliefs about the consequences, perceived effectiveness of treatment and controllability of lymphoedema, perceived ability to self-regulate negative affect, body image disturbance, and number of lymphoedema symptoms were correlated with depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that body image disturbance was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, and perceived treatment effectiveness was associated with stress. Age was a significant moderator of the relationship between body image disturbance and depression and anxiety, with older women with greater body image disturbance more distressed. Health professionals need to be aware that women diagnosed with lymphoedema are at risk of experiencing psychological distress, particularly arising from body image disturbance and beliefs that treatment cannot control lymphoedema. Furthermore, older women may be at an increased risk of anxiety and depression arising from body image disturbance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M
Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community
Button, Susan; Thornton, Alexandra; Lee, Suzanne; Shakespeare, Judy; Ayers, Susan
Women may not seek help for perinatal psychological distress, despite regular contact with primary care services. Barriers include ignorance of symptoms, inability to disclose distress, others' attitudes, and cultural expectations. Much of the evidence has been obtained from North American populations and may not, therefore, extrapolate to the UK. To understand the factors affecting women's decision to seek help for perinatal distress. Meta-synthesis of the available published qualitative evidence on UK women's experiences of seeking help for perinatal distress. Systematic searches were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, and Academic Search Complete. Searches of grey literature and references were also conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported qualitative data on UK women's experiences of perinatal distress and contact with healthcare professionals. The synthesis was conducted using meta-ethnography. In all, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Metasynthesis identified three main themes: identifying a problem, the influence of healthcare professionals, and stigma. These themes build on current understanding of help seeking by identifying the need for women to be able to frame their experience, for healthcare professionals to educate women about their roles, the need for continuity of care, and the way that being seen as a 'bad mother' causes women to self-silence. Perinatal care provision needs to allow for continuity of care and for staff training that facilitates awareness of factors that influence women's help seeking. Further research is required, particularly in relation to effective means of identifying perinatal psychological distress. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Qin, Shouxue; Tan, Yanping; Lu, Bingyan; Cheng, Yuqing; Nong, Yanli
The objective of this study is to explore the psychological distress of HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy, and analyze the possible influencing factors. A total of 194 HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy were enrolled for this study by a convenient sampling method during June 2012-August 2016. Participants completed questionnaires including Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Berger HIV Stigma Scale (BHSS), Distress Thermometer (DT) and Problem List (PL), and to determine the cut-off value of DT in the group. The positive detection rate of psychological distress in the HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy was 69.1%, and the highest frequency of PL was the emotional problems. The positive detection rate of anxiety was 60.8%, the positive detection rate of depression was 54.1%, and the discrimination score was 113.16 ± 19.21. Spearman relevant analysis showed that psychological distress score was positively correlated with anxiety, depression and discrimination score (p HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy have higher incidence of psychological distress, and the psychological distress is not inferior to cancer patients. The influencing factors are mainly related to the infection and pregnancy characteristics, and have nothing to do with the general social demographic characteristics. The DT can be used as a screening tool to quickly identify psychological distress of the group.
Hye-Sook Shin, PhD, RN
Conclusion: The study found cultural characteristics of middle-aged Korean women in psychologic distress. Health care providers should consider marital satisfaction, self-actualization, nutrition, and interpersonal relations, in particular, among Korean middle-aged women.
Takaki, Jiro; Hibino, Yuri
The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540) at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%). The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6). The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p women should devote themselves to their household duties" those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that "married life without children is favorable" and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.
Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.
den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Vos, Joël; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad
Clarification of the role of several aspects of self-concept regarding psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer will help to target counselling and psychosocial interventions more appropriately. In this study, we aimed (1) to examine the role of general self-esteem and specific aspects of self-concept (i.e. stigma, vulnerability, and mastery) in psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer and (2) to compare the relative importance of these self-concept aspects in psychological distress in women with low versus high self-esteem. General and breast-cancer-specific distress, self-esteem, self-concept, and demographics were assessed in 246 women being at risk of hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. In the total study group, self-esteem was negatively associated with general distress. Furthermore, feeling stigmatized was strongly associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, and to a lesser degree with general distress. In women with low-self esteem, feelings of stigmatization were strongly associated with higher levels of both breast-cancer-specific and general distress, while a sense of mastery was associated with less general distress. For women with high self-esteem, feelings of both stigmatization and vulnerability were associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, whereas there were no significant associations with general distress. Psychosocial interventions or support groups for women at risk of hereditary breast cancer should focus on self-esteem and feelings of stigmatization and isolation, and consequently tailor the interventions on specific items for respective women. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how family-related opinions and stressful situations are related to psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from female patients undergoing infertility treatment (n = 2540 at 70 infertility treatment institutions in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis was 635 (response rate, 25.0%. The family-related opinions and stressful situations were evaluated using the original questions. Psychological distress was assessed using a self-report measure, the Kessler Six-question Psychological Distress Scale (K6. The K6 scores of the following participants were significantly (p < 0.05 and independently high: those with more frequent miscarriage/stillbirth/abortions, those with repeated miscarriages as the cause of infertility, those with infertility of unknown causes, those living with no child, those having a low joint income with their partner, those with the opinion that “women should devote themselves to their household duties” those who had considered stopping treatment, those without the opinion that “married life without children is favorable” and those who had experienced stressful situations such as inadequate explanation by doctors, frustration of multiple failed attempts, differences of opinion with the partner, and lack of knowledge regarding when to stop treatment. Family-related opinions and stressful situations associated with psychological distress in women undergoing infertility treatment are outlined. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention of and care for psychological distress in female patients undergoing infertility treatment.
Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E
This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress.
Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Plazaola-Castaño, Juncal; Montero-Piñar, María Isabel; Escribá-Agüir, Vicenta
Studies have shown that some sociodemographic factors, such as marital status, employment status or social class, can affect mental health in different ways for each gender. However, up until now, few research projects have tried to ascertain if the role that reproductive work or psychosocial factors play in mental health is different for men and women. The aim of this study is to assess the differences between men and women in terms of how reproductive work, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors are linked to psychological distress in Spain. A cross-sectional study of 29,478 male and female adults using data gathered for the Spanish National Health Survey 2006 was carried out. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-12. The independent variables analyzed were: sociodemographic, psychosocial (family functionality and functional social support) and those related to reproductive work (living with or being in charge of different types of people needing care and number of hours devoted to caregiver tasks). Different independent logistic regression models were developed for men and women. In general, with the exception of men who were more prone to psychological distress if they were signed off work for 3 months or more, no major differences were observed regarding the effect of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics on psychological distress. With regard to reproductive work, the likelihood of psychological distress doubles in both sexes when the person lives with someone who needs care. In women, a greater number of hours devoted to caring for another person is associated with an increase in distress. Men play a less frequent role in caregiving, but the impact on psychological distress is similar to that in women. Women experienced more psychological distress when they had to live with or be in charge of a disabled person or different types of persons needing care, while men were not affected by this. Major differences have been identified in
Bleiker, E M; Pouwer, F; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
The present prospective study aimed at (1) investigating the frequency of high levels of psychological distress in women with early-stage breast cancer almost two years after diagnosis and (2) identifying characteristics associated with long-term distress. One hundred and seventy women participated...... of surgery). At the second measurement, subjective distress was assessed for a second time by means of the Impact of Events Scale (IES). Almost two years after diagnosis, 16% of the women reported a high level of psychological distress as measured by the Intrusion scale (IES). Best predictors of a high level...
Honda, Ayumi; Abe, Yasuyo; Date, Yutaka; Honda, Sumihisa
There has been considerable interest in Japanese society in the problem of work-related stress leading to depressive symptoms, and an increasing number of primary houseworkers maintain paid employment. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential impact of multiple roles associated with psychological distress among Japanese workers. We studied 722 men and women aged 18-83 years in a cross-sectional study. The K10 questionnaire was used to examine psychological distress. The proportion of participants with psychological distress was higher in women (17.8%) compared with men (11.5%). Having three roles significantly decreased the risk of psychological distress [women: odds ratio (OR), 0.37-fold; men: OR, 0.41] compared with only one role. In working married women, there was significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.27), and those with childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.38) than those with only an employment role. Similarly, working married men who had childrearing or caregiving responsibilities for elderly parents had significantly less psychological distress (OR, 0.41) than those who had only an employment role. The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.
Pasch, Lauri A; Gregorich, Steven E; Katz, Patricia K; Millstein, Susan G; Nachtigall, Robert D; Bleil, Maria E; Adler, Nancy E
To examine whether psychological distress predicts IVF treatment outcome as well as whether IVF treatment outcome predicts subsequent psychological distress. Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Five community and academic fertility practices. Two hundred two women who initiated their first IVF cycle. Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months' follow-up. IVF cycle outcome and psychological distress. In a binary logistic model including covariates (woman's age, ethnicity, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, and time interval), pretreatment depression and anxiety were not significant predictors of the outcome of the first IVF cycle. In linear regression models including covariates (woman's age, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, assessment point, time since last treatment cycle, and pre-IVF depression or anxiety), experiencing failed IVF was associated with higher post-IVF depression and anxiety. IVF failure predicts subsequent psychological distress, but pre-IVF psychological distress does not predict IVF failure. Instead of focusing efforts on psychological interventions specifically aimed at improving the chance of pregnancy, these findings suggest that attention be paid to helping patients prepare for and cope with treatment and treatment failure. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715 have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing
Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne
Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health
Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne
Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health
Delany-Brumsey, A; Joseph, NT; Myers, HF; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE
This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and ...
Hess, Rosanna F; Ross, Ratchneewan; GilillandJr, John L
Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent mixed-methods design-correlational cross-sectional and qualitative descriptive-guided the study. Fifty-eight infertile Malian women participated: 52 completed the Psychological Evaluation Test specific for infertility and a question on general health status, and 26 were interviewed in-depth. Over 20% scored above the cut-off point for psychological distress, and 48% described their general health as poor. There was no significant difference between women with primary vs. secondary infertility. The study found that infertile women lived with marital tensions, criticism from relatives, and stigmatization from the community. They experienced sadness, loneliness, and social deprivation. Coping strategies included traditional and biomedical treatments, religious faith and practices, and self-isolation. Health care professionals should provide holistic care for infertile women to meet their physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs.
HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20...
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.
Aichberger, Marion C; Bromand, Zohra; Rapp, Michael A; Yesil, Rahsan; Montesinos, Amanda Heredia; Temur-Erman, Selver; Heinz, Andreas; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam
Discrimination is linked to various health problems, including mental disorders like depression and also has a negative effect on the access to mental health care services. Little is known about factors mitigating the association between ethnic discrimination and mental distress. The present study examined the extent of the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and psychological distress among women of Turkish origin residing in Berlin, and explored whether this association is moderated by acculturation strategies while controlling for known predictors of distress in migrant populations. A total of 205 women of Turkish origin participated in the study. 55.1% of the participants reported some degree of ethnic discrimination. The degree of reported discrimination varied according to acculturation. The highest level of ethnic discrimination was found in the second generation separated group and both generations of the marginalized group. Further, the results indicate an association between ethnic discrimination and distress while adjusting for known socio-demographic predictors of distress, migration-related factors, and neuroticism (B = 5.56, 95% CI 2.44-8.68, p acculturation strategy, showing an association only in the separated group. The findings highlight the effects of ethnic discrimination beyond the influence of known risk factor for psychological distress in migrants, such as unemployment, being single, having a limited residence permit or the presence of personality structures that may increase vulnerability for stress responses and mental disorders.
Full Text Available EnglishThe effect of employment on women's psychological well being has become animportant issue in the sociology of mental health. Although work-for-pay is thought to have an overallpostiive impact on women's psychological well being, not all women equally experience this positiveeffect. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of transitions in employment status onchanges in psychological distress among women in two types of family setting: lone parent families andmarried couple families (including common-law unions. Using a framework which combines a longitudinaldesign with a structural equation modelling multigroup analysis, the current study indicates clearlythat the employment transitions and employment stability have no uniform effect on the mental healthof all mothers. Specifically, transition into employment offers a significant reduction in feelings ofdistress only among married mothers. Single mothers, in contrast are found to experience a significantincrease in the level of distress when they move out of employment. The results of this study point tosome advantages of longitudinal research designs over cross-section designs.FrenchL'effet de l'emploi sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes est devenu unequestion importante en sociologie de santé mentale. Bien que le travail payé aitun impact positif global sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes, pas toutesles femmes éprouvent également cet effet positif. L'objectif de cette étude estd'évaluer l'effet des transitions dans le statut d'emploi sur des changements de ladétresse psychologique parmi des femmes dans deux types de famille: famillesà un seul parent et familles à couple mariés (y compris les mariages de fait. Enutilisant un cadre qui combine une analyse longitudinale avec une équationstructurale modelant plusieurs groupes, l'étude actuelle indique clairement queles transitions d'emploi et la stabilité d'emploi n'ont pas un effet uniforme sur lasant
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.
The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…
Geirdal, Amy Østertun; Reichelt, Jon G; Dahl, Alv A; Heimdal, Ketil; Maehle, Lovise; Stormorken, Astrid; Møller, Pål
To examine psychological distress in women at risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer (FBOC) or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) with absence of demonstrated mutations in the family (unknown mutation). Two-hundred and fifty three consecutive women at risk of FBOC and 77 at risk of HNPCC and with no present or past history of cancer. They were aware of their risk and had received genetic counseling. Comparisons were made between these two groups, normal controls, and women who were identified to be BRCA1 mutation carriers. The questionnaires Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Impact of Event Scale (IES) were employed to assess psychological distress. No significant differences concerning psychological distress were observed between women with FBOC and women with HNPCC. Compared to mutation carriers for BRCA1, the level of anxiety and depression was significantly higher in the FBOC group with absence of demonstrated mutation. Compared to normal controls, the level of anxiety was higher, while the level of depression was lower in the groups with unknown mutation. Women in the absence of demonstrated mutations have higher anxiety and depression levels than women with known mutation-carrier status. Access to genetic testing may be of psychologically benefit to women at risk for FBOC or HNPCC.
Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Chiumento, Anna; Dherani, Mukesh; Bristow, Katie; Sikander, Siham; Rahman, Atif
The public health significance of maternal mental health is well established. Armed conflicts expose populations to events that could have long-term negative consequences for mental health of pregnant women and their children. This study explores the prevalence and associated risk factors for psychological distress of women during pregnancy, including exposure to past conflict-related potentially traumatic events, in a population exposed to armed conflict in the Swat region of Pakistan. A community-based cross-sectional survey of 349 pregnant women in two union councils in Swat was conducted. Psychological distress was measured using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). Conflict-related potentially traumatic events (PTEs) were measured through an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Information was also collected on major life events (Life Events Checklist), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and demographic and socio-economic variables. Prevalence of current psychological distress was 38.1 % (95 % CI: 33.1, 43.3). Psychological distress was significantly associated with three or more potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced during the conflict (OR = 2.62, 95 % CI: 1.22, 5.61); three or more major life events in the year following the conflict (OR = 3.25, 95 % CI: 1.82, 5.82) and inversely associated with family support (OR = 0.91, 95 % CI: 0.88, 0.95). This is one of the first community based cross sectional surveys in Swat valley, Pakistan to assess the prevalence of psychological distress during pregnancy in an area affected by conflict. Over a third of women show evidence of significant psychological distress. Exposure to potentially traumatic events remained independently associated with psychological distress 1 year after conflict ended, suggesting that conflict exposure may have long-term impacts upon maternal mental health. Combining this with findings relating to the cumulative
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.
Manne, Sharon; Sherman, Marne; Ross, Stephanie; Ostroff, Jamie; Heyman, Richard E.; Fox, Kevin
This study examined associations between couple communication about cancer and psychological distress and relationship satisfaction of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. One hundred forty-eight couples completed a videotaped discussion of a cancer-related issue and a general issue. Patients completed measures of psychological distress…
Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L
Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.
Saurel-Cubizolles, M J; Romito, P; Ancel, P Y; Lelong, N
To analyse the relation between unemployment and the psychological distress of mothers one year after childbirth. Multicentric survey concerning births occurring between September 1993 and July 1994. In France: two maternity units in the Parisian area and one in Champagne-Ardennes, in the east of France, comprising both urban and rural areas. Primipara and secondipara women were interviewed three times: at birth by a face to face interview, five months and 12 months after the birth, by postal questionnaires, with a 83% response rate for the two postal questionnaires. The analysis includes 632 women who answered all three stages of the survey. Psychological distress was mainly assessed one year after birth by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. After adjustment for unwanted pregnancy, marital conflicts, marital status, hospitalisation of the baby during the last year, lack of confiding relationship, depressive or anxious troubles before pregnancy, age, educational level and parity, unemployed women had an excess of psychological distress compared with employed women (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.13). The ratios for housewives were very close to those of employed women. Among the unemployed women, 60% had recently been without a job, since a few months before or after the birth. An excess of psychological distress among unemployed compared with employed women was observed in all social groups defined by the current or last occupation, but with various extents. Psychological distress was specially linked to the employment status in the group of women with the more qualified occupations. Even after a birth, when women are very much involved in their maternal role, those seeking a job have worse mental health than those in a stable situation, either employed or housewives. In France, the unemployment rate among young women is high. It is specially important that social regulations protecting employment during and after pregnancy are adequately applied. Employers
West, Lindsey M.
With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…
Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, J. J.; Roza, S. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Schmidt, H. G.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Verhulst, F. C.; Tiemeier, H.
Background. Previous research suggests, though not consistently, that maternal psychological distress during pregnancy leads to adverse birth outcomes. We investigated whether maternal psychological distress affects fetal growth during the period of mid-pregnancy until birth. Method. Pregnant women
Karjula, Salla; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Auvinen, Juha; Ruokonen, Aimo; Puukka, Katri; Franks, Stephen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tapanainen, Juha S; Jokelainen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Piltonen, Terhi T
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased psychological distress, obesity and hyperandrogenism being suggested as key promoters. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety/depression and their coexistence in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. The roles of obesity, hyperandrogenism, and awareness of PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based follow-up. Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with 15-year follow-up. At age 31, a questionnaire-based screening for oligoamenorrhea (OA) and hirsutism (H): 2188 asymptomatic (controls), 331 OA, 323 H, and 125 OA plus H (PCOS). Follow-up at age 46: 1576 controls, 239 OA, 231 H, and 85 PCOS. Questionnaire-based screening for anxiety and depression symptoms (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25) and previously diagnosed/treated depression at ages 31 and 46. Body mass index (BMI), serum testosterone/free androgen index, and awareness of polycystic ovaries/PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed. Population-based prevalence of anxiety and/or depression in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. Anxiety and/or depression symptoms, their coexistence, and rate of depression were increased at ages 31 and 46 in women with PCOS or isolated H compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not associate with increased anxiety or depression symptoms. The awareness of PCOS was associated with increased anxiety. Women with PCOS or isolated H present more often with anxiety and/or depression symptoms and their coexistence compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not provoke psychological distress in PCOS. The awareness of PCOS increased anxiety but did not associate with severe anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
Mak, Vivian W M; Chan, Calais K Y
Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone. We recruited 40 women in a special Hong Kong prison unit for female offenders with psychological distress. Half of them received eight sessions of CBT followed by eight sessions of PPI; the other half received the same interventions in the reverse order. We recruited another 35 women who received only 'treatment as usual' (TAU) in the same unit. We used various clinical scales to assess the women's psychological distress or well-being before and after the interventions or at similar time points for the comparison women. All intervention group women showed a significant reduction in psychological distress and enhancement in psychological well-being after each intervention alone compared to the TAU women. There were no significant differences between CBT and PPI in this respect. Receiving both treatments, however, did yield significantly more improvement than either intervention alone in reducing depressive thoughts and enhancing global judgement of life satisfaction, self-perceived strengths and hopeful thinking style. Our findings provide preliminary empirical support for the effectiveness of psychological interventions with psychologically distressed women in prison. It would be important now to conduct a full, randomised trial to determine optimal length and combinations of treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lam, W W T; Yoon, S W; Sze, W K; Ng, A W Y; Soong, I; Kwong, A; Suen, D; Tsang, J; Yeo, W; Wong, K Y; Fielding, R
Most women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) show little distress, but about one in ten show persistent distress over time. It remains unclear if meanings ascribed by patients to ABC differentiate these distress trajectories. This qualitative study (a) compared illness meanings of ABC between women with persistent psychological distress and those with low/transient distress, and (b) examined how illness meanings might influence coping strategies. The sample was drawn from a prior quantitative study exploring psychological distress trajectories following ABC diagnosis. Overall, 42 Cantonese- or Mandarin-speaking Chinese women diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic ABC were recruited based on their distress trajectory status (low-stable, transient, or persistent distress). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed following grounded theory approach using simultaneous analysis. Women with persistent distress viewed their diagnosis as another blow in life, the illness was global, permeating every aspect of their life. Maladaptive rumination and thought suppression were common responses to illness demands. These women had poor social support. A sense of demoralization stood out in their narratives. In contrast, women with transient/low-stable distress encapsulated the illness, with minimum impacts of their life. They did not evidence dysfunctional repetitive thoughts. Living in a supportive environment, they were able to accept and/or live in the present-moment. Rumination, thought suppression, social constraints, and pre-existing exposure to life stress may be potential risks for chronic distress in response to advanced breast cancer. Persistent and transient distress responses to cancer may have different underpinnings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress is a widespread indicator of mental health and mental illness in research and clinical settings. A recurrent finding from epidemiological studies and population surveys is that women report a higher mean level and a higher prevalence of psychological distress than men. These differences may reflect, to some extent, cultural norms associated with the expression of distress in women and men. Assuming that these norms differ across age groups and that they evolve over time, one would expect gender differences in psychological distress to vary over the life-course and over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a psychological distress scale, the K6, across gender in different age groups and over a twelve-year period. Methods This study is based on data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (C-NPHS. Psychological distress was assessed with the K6, a scale developed by Kessler and his colleagues. Data were examined through multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Increasing levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were assessed cross-sectionally with data from cycle 1 (n = 13019 of the C-NPHS and longitudinally with cycles 1 (1994-1995, 4 (2000-2001 and 7 (2006-2007. Results Higher levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were reached only after the constraint of equivalence was relaxed for various parameters of a few items of the K6. Some items had a different pattern of gender non invariance across age groups and over the course of the study. Gender differences in the expression of psychological distress may vary over the lifespan and over a 12-year period without markedly affecting the construct validity of the K6. Conclusions This study confirms the cross-gender construct validity of psychological distress as assessed with the K6 despite differences in the expression of some symptoms in women and in men over
Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio
The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.
Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young
Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed diet-distress association in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea, as well as other various ethnic minority immigrants in Korea. Copyright 2010 American
Effrig, Jessica C.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Locke, Benjamin D.
Treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking transgender college students were examined with regard to victimization and psychological distress. Findings showed that transgender college students had elevated rates of distress as compared with college students who identified as men or women. Results indicated that treatment-seeking and non-treatment…
van Dooren, Silvia; Seynaeve, Caroline; Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; de Koning, Harry J.; Tibben, Aad
In this article we determined the course of psychological distress during a breast cancer surveillance program in women at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer (BC). The sample comprised of 357 unaffected women (mean age 40.5 years) adhering to a surveillance programme
Schützmann, Karsten; Brinkmann, Lisa; Schacht, Melanie; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
Evaluation of psychological distress has received relatively little attention in research on persons with disorders of sex development (DSD). Results of previous studies varied considerably, but most studies did not find increased levels of psychological distress. We conducted a pilot study based on a sample of 37 persons with diverse forms of DSD recruited via various strategies. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was used to assess self-reported psychological distress. Psychological distress varied broadly across all diagnostic subgroups. Overall, the BSI Global Severity Index indicated higher distress in the sample of persons with DSD compared to a non-clinical norm population of women, with an effect size of d = 0.67. According to predefined BSI criteria, 59% of participants were classified as a clinical case. Self-harming behavior and suicidal tendencies were also assessed and compared to a community based sample of women, including subgroups of traumatized women with a history of physical or sexual abuse. The prevalence rates of self-harming behavior and suicidal tendencies in the DSD sample exceeded the rates of the non-traumatized comparison subgroup, with rates comparable to the traumatized comparison groups of women with physical or sexual abuse. As possible explanations for the higher distress found here compared to most previous studies, differences in measures and sample recruitment are discussed. Our results suggest that adults with DSD are markedly psychologically distressed with rates of suicidal tendencies and self-harming behavior on a level comparable to non-DSD women with a history of physical or sexual abuse, but sample recruitment procedures do not permit a firm generalization.
Liang, Belle; West, Jennifer
Relational health refers to interpersonal interactions that are growth-fostering or mutually empathic and empowering. Poor relational health increases an individual's risk for developing psychological distress. Alexithymia is the inability to recognize and express one's own internal emotional experience. In this study, the associations of relational health, psychological distress, and alexithymia were examined by surveying 197 female undergraduate psychology students. Support was found for the hypothesis that alexithymic symptoms mediate the direct effect of poor relational health on psychological distress. The importance of assessing relational health and tailoring counseling interventions for people with low relational health and alexithymic symptoms is discussed. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Full Text Available Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women's health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh.We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women's groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women's and children's health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011.We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8 compared to control (5.3, 1.2, the difference was not significant (β 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08.Despite promising results in India, participatory women's groups focused on women's and children's health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N
African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.
Caroline S. Duchaine
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal
Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.
Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...
Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...
den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad
Hereditary breast cancer has a profound impact on individual family members and on their mutual communication and interactions. The way at-risk women cope with the threat of hereditary breast cancer may depend on the quality of family communication about hereditary breast cancer and on the perceived social support from family and friends. To examine the associations of family communication and social support with long-term psychological distress in a group of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. The study cohort consisted of 222 women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who previously participated in a study on the psychological consequences of either regular breast cancer surveillance or prophylactic surgery. General and breast cancer specific distress, hereditary cancer-related family communication, perceived social support, and demographics were assessed. Using structural equation modelling, we found that open communication about hereditary cancer within the family was associated with less general and breast cancer specific distress. In addition, perceived support from family and friends was indirectly associated with less general and breast cancer-specific distress through open communication within the family. These findings indicate that family communication and perceived social support from friends and family are of paramount importance in the long-term adaptation to being at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Attention for these issues needs to be incorporated in the care of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Coates, Rose; Ayers, Susan; de Visser, Richard
Women can experience a range of psychological problems after birth, including anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders. However, research has predominantly focused on depression. Qualitative work on women's experiences of postnatal mental health problems has sampled women within particular diagnostic categories so not looked at the range of potential psychological problems. The aims of this study were to explore how women experienced and made sense of the range of emotional distress states in the first postnatal year. A qualitative study of 17 women who experienced psychological problems in the first year after having a baby. Semi-structured interviews took place in person (n =15) or on the telephone (n =2). Topics included women's experiences of becoming distressed and their recovery. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were developed within each interview before identifying similar themes for multiple participants across interviews, in order to retain an idiographic approach. Psychological processes such as guilt, avoidance and adjustment difficulties were experienced across different types of distress. Women placed these in the context of defining moments of becoming a mother; giving birth and breastfeeding. Four superordinate themes were identified. Two concerned women's unwanted negative emotions and difficulties adjusting to their new role. "Living with an unwelcome beginning" describes the way mothers' new lives with their babies started out with unwelcome emotions, often in the context of birth and breastfeeding difficulties. All women spoke about the importance of their postnatal healthcare experiences in "Relationships in the healthcare system". "The shock of the new" describes women's difficulties adjusting to the demands of motherhood and women emphasised the importance of social support in "Meeting new support needs". These findings emphasise the need for exploration of psychological processes such as
Mose, Stephan; Budischewski, Kai Michael; Rahn, Angelika Notburga; Zander-Heinz, Anja Christina; Bormeth, Sabine; Boettcher, Heinz Dietrich
Purpose: To confirm our assumptions regarding factors that apparently cause psychological distress related to adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients and to evaluate variables that can predict therapy-associated distress. Methods and Materials: Between January 1997 and April 1998, 111 women (33-84 years) with early-stage breast cancer were irradiated (56 Gy) after breast-conserving surgery. Patients were given self-assessment questionnaires on the first and last day of radiotherapy. Statistical analysis was performed using the structural equation model LISREL, variance analysis, and regression analysis. Results: The internal subject-related factors (coping, radiation-related anxiety, physical distress, psychological distress) reciprocally influenced each other, whereas external radiotherapy-specific factors (environmental influence, confidence in the medical staff) were causally related to coping, anxiety, and distress. Fifty-three percent of the women felt distressed because cancer affected the breast; 48% were initially afraid of radiotherapy. For 36%, anxiety was not reduced during treatment. Highly distressed women were identified by the following parameters: ≤58 years; initial anxiety; they were affected by having breast cancer, were negatively affected by environmental factors, and did not find distraction helpful. Conclusion: Despite considerable individual variability in breast cancer patients, it seems possible to identify women who run a high risk of therapy-associated distress. In these patients, psychosocial support is necessary to reduce treatment-related anxiety and to stabilize confidence in the medical staff
Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent ...
Jodoin, Mélanie; Bergeron, Sophie; Khalifé, Samir; Dupuis, Marie-José; Desrochers, Geneviève; Leclerc, Bianca
Provoked vestibulodynia is a female genital pain condition that results in sexual dysfunction and impacts negatively on the couple. Although patients' causal attributions have been linked to worse psychosexual outcomes, no study has documented the male partners' perspective of this distressing problem and its potential influence on their psychosexual adaptation. To identify whether male partners' attributions for vestibulodynia are possible predictors of their dyadic adjustment, sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and psychological distress, as well as of women's pain and sexual functioning. Thirty-eight women with vestibulodynia first completed measures of pain intensity and sexual functioning. Male partners responded to mailed questionnaires assessing their own attributions for genital pain as well as their psychological distress, relationship adjustment, sexual functioning, and sexual satisfaction. Women completed the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Attributions of male partners were measured using an adapted version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)-Partner Version. Men also filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Sexual History Form (SHF), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX). All four negative attribution dimensions and higher levels of women's pain intensity successfully predicted increased psychological distress in male partners. Higher levels of both internal and global attributions were associated with men's poorer dyadic adjustment, whereas global and stable attributions were related to their lower sexual satisfaction. Attributions failed to significantly predict sexual functioning in male partners and women's pain and sexual functioning. Evaluation and treatment of sexual pain problems should involve both partners and should explore the role of negative attributions.
Thomas, Claudia; Benzeval, Michaela; Stansfeld, Stephen
To explore the extent to which the mental health effects of transitions into unemployment, or other forms of non-employment, and vice versa, are mediated by financial changes. Longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2000. There were 89,264 person-years of observation from 14,686 individuals aged > or =16 years. Main outcome measure was psychological distress measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Transitions to unemployment were associated with increased risk of psychological distress for men (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.50 to 3.98)) and for women (OR 2.60 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.43)). Women who left work to look after the family were also more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.05)). A reduced risk of psychological distress was seen for transitions from unemployment to paid employment for men (OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.68)) and for women (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.40)). Financial difficulty partially mediated these relationships: men who became unemployed and were worse off financially were more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 4.19 (95% CI 3.20 to 5.50)) than men who were not (OR 1.48 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.33)). Conversely, the beneficial health effect for people who left unemployment and became employed was confined to those who were better off financially (OR 0.34 (0.25 to 0.48) for men). Changes in employment status have both direct and indirect effects, through changes in financial circumstances, on subsequent psychological distress. The results support the view that the direction of causation runs from employment transitions to financial difficulties and psychological distress.
Ando, Noriko; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kuranami, Masaru; Okazaki, Shigemi; Nakatani, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Miyaoka, Hitoshi
The objective of this study was to determine how age and psychological characteristics assessed prior to diagnosis could predict psychological distress in outpatients immediately after disclosure of their diagnosis. This is a longitudinal and prospective study, and participants were breast cancer patients and patients with benign breast problems (BBP). Patients were asked to complete questionnaires to determine levels of the following: trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), negative emotional suppression (Courtauld Emotional Control Scale), life stress events (Life Experiences Survey), and psychological distress (Profile of Mood Status) prior to diagnosis. They were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring psychological distress after being told their diagnosis. We analyzed a total of 38 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 95 women diagnosed with a BBP. A two-way analysis of variance (prior to, after diagnosis × cancer, benign) showed that psychological distress after diagnosis among breast cancer patients was significantly higher than in patients with a BBP. The multiple regression model accounted for a significant amount of variance in the breast cancer group (model adjusted R(2) = 0.545, p psychological distress after diagnosis, and might have prospects as a screening method for psychologically vulnerable women. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth
Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Aberdeen, Scotland. 12 500 live-births (6282 boys) between 1950 and 1956, who were followed up in the years 2001-2003 at age 46-51 with a postal questionnaire achieving a response rate of 64% (7183). Psychological distress at age 46-51 (questionnaire). Childhood intelligence and SES and education had indirect effects on psychological distress at midlife, mediated by adult SES. Adult SES was the only variable to have a significant direct effect on psychological distress at midlife; the effect was stronger in men than in women. Alternative measurement specifications of SES (reflective and formative) resulted in greatly different model parameters and fits. Even though formative operationalisations of SES are theoretically appropriate, SES is better specified as reflective than as a formative latent variable in the context of life-course modelling.
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed
We assessed the mediating role of education in the association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood using longitudinal data collected in three waves, from 1994 to 2008, in the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a cohort that is representative of men and women from Tromsø. Education was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Ordinary least square regression analysis was used to assess the associations between childhood disadvantage, education, and psychological distress in adulthood. The indirect effects and the proportion (%) of indirect effects of childhood disadvantage (via education) on psychological distress in adulthood were assessed by mediation analysis. Childhood disadvantage was associated with lower education and higher psychological distress in adulthood (p childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood was mediated by education. Childhood disadvantages were measured retrospectively. The association between childhood disadvantage and psychological distress in adulthood is primarily independent of education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.
Jin-Hee Park, RN, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Purpose: Psychological distress is a significant and ongoing problem for breast cancer. These mental health problems are often neglected as they are not always properly understood. This study was performed to explore the trajectory of psychological distress over 1 year since breast cancer surgery and to identify the associated factors for the trajectory. Methods: One hundred seventeen women who underwent surgery for breast cancer completed the psychological distress thermometer and problem lists from after surgery to 12 months after surgery. Information on their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was also obtained. Group-based trajectory modeling was performed to identify the distinct trajectories of psychological distress. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of psychological distress trajectories. Results: A two-group linear trajectory model was optimal for modeling psychological distress (Bayesian information criterion = −777.41. Group-based trajectory modeling identified consistently high-distress (19.4% and low-decreasing distress (80.6% trajectories. Old age, depression, nervousness, and pain were significant predictors of consistently high-distress trajectory. Conclusion: Our results indicate that distinct trajectory groups can be used as a screening tool to identify patients who may be at an increased risk of psychological distress over time. Screening for psychological distress during disease diagnosis is important and necessary to identify patients who are at an increased risk of elevated distress or at risk of experiencing psychological distress over time. Keywords: anxiety, breast neoplasms, depression, pain, psychological stress
Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne
Purpose Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Methods Articles were included if: a) they ...
Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Abbott, Pamela
This paper examines the relationship between psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. These countries have been subjected to highly stressful and extensive social change associated with the transition out of communism. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (n = 10,406) in November 2001. Distress was measured by 12 psychological distress symptoms. Health lifestyles focused on measures of alcohol consumption, smoking and diet. We found that females carried a much heavier burden of psychological distress than males, but this distress did not translate into greater alcohol consumption and smoking for these women or for men. The greatest influence of distress on health lifestyle practices was on daily diets in that both less distressed females and males consumed a more balanced diet than more distressed persons. Our findings suggest that it is the normative demands of a particular lifestyle, rather than distress, that principally shapes the pattern of heavy male drinking. This is an important finding as some sources indicate heavy drinking is largely responsible for the health crisis in the former socialist states.
Gelberg, L; Linn, L S
Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting.
Factors associated with psychological distress following colposcopy among women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology: a prospective study within the Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears (TOMBOLA).
Sharp, Linda; Cotton, Seonaidh; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Gray, Nicola; Thornton, Alison; Cruickshank, Margaret; Little, Julian
Little is known about psychological after-effects of colposcopy and associated investigations and treatment in women with low-grade abnormal cervical cytology. We investigated psychological distress following colposcopy and related procedures. Nine hundred and eighty-nine women aged 20-59 years with routine cytology showing low-grade abnormalities were recruited to the Trial of Management of Borderline and other Low-grade Abnormal smears and attended colposcopy. If the cervical transformation zone (TZ) was colposcopically abnormal, women had immediate loop excision or diagnostic punch biopsies, with treatment if these showed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3). Women completed socio-demographic and psychosocial questionnaires at recruitment and before colposcopy. Six weeks after their last procedure, women completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with significant psychological distress (IES ≥ 9). Analyses were stratified by colposcopic impression. The response rate was 74%. Six weeks after the last procedure, 86 (21%) of 391 women with a normal TZ had significant distress compared with 144 (42%) of 337 with an abnormal TZ. In both groups, significant distress was associated with anxiety pre-colposcopy and pain or discharge afterwards. Additional variables predicting distress in women with a normal TZ were worries about having sex and dissatisfaction with support from others. In women with an abnormal TZ, additional predictors of distress were younger age, CIN2/3, bleeding following colposcopy and worries about having cancer. Substantial proportions of women experience psychological distress after colposcopy and related procedures, even when the colposcopy is normal. This is an important cost of cervical screening. Interventions to alleviate these adverse psychological effects are required. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lacey, Rebecca E; Bartley, Mel; Pikhart, Hynek; Stafford, Mai; Cable, Noriko
An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n=10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent-child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0-16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter's Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect=33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.
Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne
with depression in the general population. METHODS: We examined 73,367 20-100 year old men and women from two large population-based studies, the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We measured plasma fibrinogen and recorded symptoms of psychological distress, use......OBJECTIVES: Low-grade systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of depression. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory marker fibrinogen are associated with psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication, and with hospitalization...... of antidepressant medication, and hospitalization with depression in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, a stepwise increase in fibrinogen percentile categories was associated with a stepwise increase in risk of psychological distress, use of antidepressant medication...
Molina, Yamile; Beresford, Shirley A A; Espinoza, Noah; Thompson, Beti
To explore ethnic differences in psychological distress and social withdrawal after receiving an abnormal mammogram result and to assess if coping strategies mediate ethnic differences. Descriptive correlational. Two urban mobile mammography units and a rural community hospital in the state of Washington. 41 Latina and 41 non-Latina Caucasian (NLC) women who had received an abnormal mammogram result. Women completed standard sociodemographic questions, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the social dimension of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire, and the Brief COPE. Ethnicity, psychological distress, social withdrawal, and coping. Latinas experienced greater psychological distress and social withdrawal compared to NLC counterparts. Denial as a coping strategy mediated ethnic differences in psychological distress. Religious coping mediated ethnic differences in social withdrawal. Larger population-based studies are necessary to understand how ethnic differences in coping strategies can influence psychological outcomes. This is an important finding that warrants additional study among women who are and are not diagnosed with breast cancer following an abnormal mammogram. Nurses may be able to work with Latina patients to diminish denial coping and consequent distress. Nurses may be particularly effective, given cultural values concerning strong interpersonal relationships and respect for authority figures.
Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Pasierb, D; Romero-Cardiel, M A
The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of mental distress at the end of pregnancy and after birth and the impact of selected socio-demographic and obstetric factors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample is consisted of 351 puerperal women at the age of 18 and over. Sociodemographic, obstetric variables were collected to detect significant psychological distress; the instrument used was General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. The prevalence of significant mental distress amounted to 81.2%, mostly related to social relationship and anxiety. The women who affirmed having more stress during pregnancy had too significantly increased emotional distress before the birth as well as during early puerperium, increasing somatic symptoms (p Psychological distress at the end of a full-term pregnancy and in the postpartum period occurs frequently and was associated mainly with stress experienced during pregnancy and parity. It is advisable to perform proper assessment of stress and significant psychological distress at the early stage of pregnancy and repeatedly later on until delivery. Information and support from professionals can help to decrease and prevent their negative impact on maternal and fetal health, as observed in the current evidence.
Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.
This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761
Schrier Agnes C
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing body of evidence of an association between cardiovascular risk factors and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these associations are similar in ethnic minority groups. Methods A random urban population sample, aged 18+, stratified by ethnicity (484 native Dutch subjects, 383 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 316 Moroccan-Dutch subjects, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, was interviewed with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10 in combination with measurements of several cardiovascular risk factors. The association of psychological distress (defined as a K10 score above cut-off of 20 with cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL cholesterol levels or diabetes, ethnicity and their interaction was analyzed using logistic regression analyses, stratified by gender and adjusted for age. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly associated with psychological distress in any of the gender/ethnic groups, with the exception of a positive association of obesity and hypertension with psychological distress in native Dutch women and a negative association of hypertension and psychological distress in Turkish men. Interaction terms of cardiovascular risk factors and ethnicity were approaching significance only in the association of obesity with the K10 in women. Conclusion In this cross-sectional multi-ethnic adult population sample the majority of the investigated cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with psychological distress. The association of obesity with psychological distress varies by gender and ethnicity. Our findings indicate that the prevention of obesity and psychological distress calls for an integrated approach in native Dutch women, but not necessarily in Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch women, in whom these problems may be targeted separately.
Haugstad, Gro Killi; Wojniusz, Slawomir; Kirste, Unni Merete; Kirschner, Rolf Steinar; Lilleheie, Ingvild; Haugstad, Tor Sigbjørn
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) represent a longstanding pain syndrome that affects large numbers of women worldwide. However, no standardized guidelines for PVD treatment exist. In a cross-sectional pilot study we examined 30 PVD patients on multidimensional parameters including pain, psychological distress and quality of movement, in order to obtain a broader understanding of the somatic and psychological symptoms in PVD, and for the future to develop better interventions. Additionally, we compare the findings to previously published results regarding the same parameters in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Thirty women with PVD recruited from a tertiary care university clinic of gynecology were assessed for demographic data, pain intensity (VAS), psychological distress (GHQ-30 and Tampa scale of Kinesophobia) and quality of movement (standardized Mensendieck test, SMT). Average age of the PVD women was 24.7±3.60 years, 60% of them were in permanent relationships, all were nulliparous, none had been subjected to surgical procedures, 100% were working full or part time and 90% were educated to at least undergraduate level. Mean VAS score was 7.77±1.97 (mean±SD), kinesiophobia 24.4±3.95 and anxiety domain of GHQ-30 9.73±4.06. SMT scores were particularly low for the domains of respiration and gait (less than 50% of optimal scores). PVD women display reduced quality of movement, especially for gait and respiration patterns, increased level of anxiety and high average pain scores. These findings are similar to what we have previously reported in CPP patients. However, in contrast to CPP group, PVD women are on average younger, have higher work participation, higher education level and have not been subjected to surgical procedures. Since PVD women display similar, although somewhat less severe, symptom profile than CPP, we suggest that a multidimensional approach to treatment, such as "somatocognitive therapy" should be investigated in this group as it has
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...
Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D
Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended.
Staneva, Aleksandra A; Morawska, Alina; Bogossian, Fiona; Wittkowski, Anja
Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy is a potential risk factor for various birth complications. This study aimed to explore psychological factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. Symptoms of psychological distress, individual characteristics, and medical complications were assessed at two time points antenatally in 285 women from Australia and New Zealand; birth outcomes were assessed postpartum, between January 2014 and September 2015. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relation of psychological distress to adverse birth outcomes. Medical complications during pregnancy, such as serious infections, placental problems and preeclampsia, and antenatal cannabis use, were the factors most strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, accounting for 22 percent of the total variance (p pregnancy and an orientation toward a Regulator mothering style were associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, after controlling for medical complications, these were no longer associated. Our study results indicate that antenatal depressive and/or anxiety symptoms were not independently associated with adverse birth outcomes, a reassuring finding for women who are already psychologically vulnerable during pregnancy.
Daphne C. Watkins
Full Text Available Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites. Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14 and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97 experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05 and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95. Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.
Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia; Midouhas, Emily; Ploubidis, George B
There is much research to suggest that maternal psychological distress is associated with many adverse outcomes in children. This study examined, for the first time, if it is related to children's affective decision-making. Using data from 12,080 families of the Millennium Cohort Study, we modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal psychological distress in early-to-middle childhood (3-11 years) on child affective decision-making, measured with a gambling task at age 11. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal psychological distress (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal distress typology predicted decision-making but only in girls. Specifically, compared to girls growing up in families with never-distressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high maternal psychological distress showed more risk-taking, bet more and exhibited poorer risk-adjustment, even after correction for confounding. Most of these effects on girls' decision-making were not robust to additional controls for concurrent internalising and externalising problems, but chronically high maternal psychological distress was associated positively with risk-taking even after this adjustment. Importantly, this association was similar for those who had reached puberty and those who had not. Given the study design, causality cannot be inferred. Therefore, we cannot propose that treating chronic maternal psychological distress will reduce decision-making pathology in young females. Our study suggests that young daughters of chronically distressed mothers tend to be particularly reckless decision-makers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual’s needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.
Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah
We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.
Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Christensen, Jane; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of psychological wellbeing over time among women who have been treated for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify distinct patterns of distress, anxiety, and depression in such women. METHODS: We invited 426 consecutive women with newly...... diagnosed primary breast cancer to participate in this study, and 323 (76%) provided information on distress ('distress thermometer') and on symptoms of anxiety and depression ('hospital anxiety and depression scale'). Semiparametric group-based mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories...... of distress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms assessed the week before surgery and four and eight months later. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in the distinct groups. RESULTS: Although no sub-group of women with chronic severe anxiety or depressive symptoms...
Ussher, Jane M.; Perz, Janette
This study examined gender differences in self-silencing, the relationship between self-silencing and psychological distress, and reasons for self-silencing in informal cancer carers (329 women, 155 men), using a mixed-method design. Men reported greater self-silencing than women on the Silencing the Self Scale; however, women reported higher…
Byles, Julie E; Gallienne, Lucy; Blyth, Fiona M; Banks, Emily
As populations age, psychological distress in late life will become of increasing public health and social importance. This study seeks to bridge the gap in information that exists about psychological distress in late life, by exploring the prevalence of psychological distress among a very large sample of older adults to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effect of these factors on the associations between measures of psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. We analyzed self-reported data from 236,508 men and women in the New South Wales 45 and Up Study, to determine the impact of age and gender, and the modifying effects of these factors on associations between psychological distress and sociodemographic and comorbid conditions. Higher education, married status, and higher income were associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Although overall prevalence of psychological distress is lower at older ages, this increases after age 80, and is particularly associated with physical disabilities. Some older people (such as those requiring help because of disability and those with multiple comorbid health conditions) are at increased risk of psychological distress. These findings have implications for both healthcare providers and policy-makers in identifying and responding to the needs of older people in our aging society.
Kim, Jiyeon; Youn, Soyoung; Choi, Byeongil; Jung, Kyung Hae; Ahn, Seung Do; Hwang, Sook Yeon; Chung, Seockhoon; Lee, Jaedam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) as a screening tool for the breast cancer patients with psychological distress. All of 64 patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Patients' depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) when the DDS was applied to the partipicants. Depressed patients used more enclosure in the Feeling drawings ( P = 0.002) and tilt in Free drawings ( P = 0.048). Patients with anxiety drew a picture over 67% of the paper ( P = 0.015) in Tree drawing and more medium pressure ( P = 0.049) in Feeling drawings. Thirty four subjects (77.3%) of unstable emotion group used over 67% of the space ( P = 0.002). More Landscapes were observed in the Feeling drawings of unstable patients ( P = 0.042). These results suggested that DDS could be used as a supplemental screening tool for psychological distress in breast cancer patients.
Health-Related Quality of Life, Subjective Health Complaints, Psychological Distress and Coping in Pakistani Immigrant Women With and Without the Metabolic Syndrome : The InnvaDiab-DEPLAN Study on Pakistani Immigrant Women Living in Oslo, Norway.
Hjellset, Victoria Telle; Ihlebæk, Camilla M; Bjørge, Benedikte; Eriksen, Hege R; Høstmark, Arne T
The increasingly high number of immigrants from South-East Asia with The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is an important challenge for the public health sector. Impaired glucose is essential in MetS. The blood glucose concentration is not only governed by diet and physical activity, but also by psychological distress which could contribute to the development of MetS. The aim of this study is to describe health-related quality of life, subjective health complaints (SHC), psychological distress, and coping in Pakistani immigrant women, with and without MetS. As a part of an randomized controlled intervention study in Oslo, Norway, female Pakistani immigrants (n = 198) answered questionnaires regarding health related quality of life, SHC, psychological distress, and coping. Blood variables were determined and a standardized oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The participants had a high score on SHC and psychological distress. About 40% of the participants had MetS, and this group showed significantly lower general health, lower physical function, and more bodily pain, than those without MetS. Those with MetS also had more SHC, depressive symptoms, higher levels of somatisation, and scored significantly lower on the coping strategy of active problem solving. Pakistani immigrant women seem to have a high prevalence of SHC and psychological distress, especially those with MetS.
O'Neill, Suzanne C; Rini, Christine; Goldsmith, Rachel E; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Cohen, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Marc D
Few data are available regarding the long-term psychological impact of uninformative BRCA1/2 test results. This study examines change in distress from pretesting to 12-months post-disclosure, with medical, family history, and psychological variables, such as pretesting perceived risk of carrying a deleterious mutation prior to testing and primary and secondary appraisals, as predictors. Two hundred and nine women with uninformative BRCA1/2 test results completed questionnaires at pretesting and 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-disclosure, including measures of anxiety and depression, cancer-specific and genetic testing distress. We used a mixed models approach to predict change in post-disclosure distress. Distress declined from pretesting to 1-month post-disclosure, but remained stable thereafter. Primary appraisals predicted all types of distress at 1-month post-disclosure. Primary and secondary appraisals predicted genetic testing distress at 1-month as well as change over time. Receiving a variant of uncertain clinical significance and entering testing with a high expectation for carrying a deleterious mutation predicted genetic testing distress that persisted through the year after testing. As a whole, women receiving uninformative BRCA1/2 test results are a resilient group. For some women, distress experienced in the month after testing does not dissipate. Variables, such as heightened pretesting perceived risk and cognitive appraisals, predict greater likelihood for sustained distress in this group and could be amenable to intervention.
O'Connor, M; O'Brien, K; Waller, J; Gallagher, P; D'Arcy, T; Flannelly, G; Martin, C M; McRae, J; Prendiville, W; Ruttle, C; White, C; Pilkington, L; O'Leary, J J; Sharp, L
To estimate prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects and investigate associations between these and subsequent psychological distress. Longitudinal survey. Two hospital-based colposcopy clinics. Women with abnormal cytology who underwent colposcopy (±related procedures). Questionnaires were mailed to women 4, 8 and 12 months post-colposcopy. Details of physical after-effects (pain, bleeding and discharge) experienced post-colposcopy were collected at 4 months. Colposcopy-specific distress was measured using the Process Outcome-Specific Measure at all time-points. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to identify associations between physical after-effects and distress over 12 months, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables. Prevalence of post-colposcopy physical after-effects. Associations between the presence of any physical after-effects, awareness of after-effects, and number of after-effects and distress. Five-hundred and eighty-four women were recruited (response rate = 73, 59 and 52% at 4, 8 and 12 months, respectively). Eighty-two percent of women reported one or more physical after-effect(s). Multiple physical after-effects were common (two after-effects = 25%; three after-effects = 25%). Psychological distress scores declined significantly over time. In adjusted analyses, women who experienced all three physical after-effects had on average a 4.58 (95% CI: 1.10-8.05) higher distress scored than those who experienced no after-effects. Women who were unaware of the possibility of experiencing after-effects scored significantly higher for distress during follow-up. The prevalence of physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures is high. The novel findings of inter-relationships between awareness of the possibility of after-effects and experiencing multiple after-effects, and post-colposcopy distress may be relevant to the development of interventions to alleviate post-colposcopy distress. Experiencing multiple
Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel
The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.
Hardin, S B; Weinrich, M; Weinrich, S; Hardin, T L; Garrison, C
To ascertain the effects of a natural disaster on adolescents, 1482 South Carolina high school students who were exposed to Hurricane Hugo were surveyed 1 year after the disaster. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire measuring Hugo exposure, nonviolent and violent life events, social support, self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Results showed that the students reported minimal exposure to the hurricane and psychological distress variables approximated national norms. As exposure increased, adolescents reported increased symptoms of psychological distress; i.e., anger, depression, anxiety, and global mental distress. Females and white students experienced higher levels of distress. In most cases, other stressful life events were at least as strong a predictor of psychological distress as was exposure to the hurricane. Self-efficacy and social support were protective.
Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne
Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.
Full Text Available Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development.Articles were included if: a they were observational studies published in English; b the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline (January, 1990-March, 2014. We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form.Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes.Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.
Yeung, D Y; Tang, C S
This study aims at investigating the impact of individual and contextual job characteristics of control, psychological and physical demand, and security on psychological distress of 193 Chinese single working women in Hong Kong. The mediating role of job satisfaction in the job characteristics-distress relation is also assessed. Multiple regression analysis results show that job satisfaction mediates the effects of job control and security in predicting psychological distress; whereas psychological job demand has an independent effect on mental distress after considering the effect of job satisfaction. This main effect model indicates that psychological distress is best predicted by small company size, high psychological job demand, and low job satisfaction. Results from a separate regression analysis fails to support the overall combined effect of job demand-control on psychological distress. However, a significant physical job demand-control interaction effect on mental distress is noted, which reduces slightly after controlling the effect of job satisfaction.
Ikizler, Ayse S; Szymanski, Dawn M
We investigated (1) the moderating role of religiosity in the link between religious affiliation and ethnic discrimination and (2) the moderating roles of religiosity, ethnic identity, and family connectedness in the relations between ethnic discrimination and psychological distress. Our sample consisted of 122 (60% women, 40% men) Middle Eastern/Arab Americans (MEAAs), ranging in age from 18 to 82 years old, who completed an online survey. Muslim identification predicted discrimination for MEAAs with high but not low religiosity. Higher levels of discrimination, more family connectedness, the interaction of discrimination and religiosity, and the interaction of discrimination and family connectedness were unique predictors of psychological distress. Religiosity is a risk factor for experiencing ethnic discrimination among Muslim identified MEAAs. MEAAs who have high religiosity and low to moderate levels of family connectedness are vulnerable to psychological distress associated with ethnic discrimination. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Versteeg, Henneke; Baumert, Jens; Kolb, Christof
The present study examined whether female patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) report more psychological distress than male patients, and whether somatosensory amplification mediates this relationship. Design: Consecutive ICD patients (N = 241; 33% women) participating in...
Brouwers, Corline; van den Broek, Krista C; Denollet, Johan
A subset of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) reports psychological distress and poor quality of life (QoL). Gender is one of the factors that has been proposed to explain individual differences in these outcomes. In this viewpoint, we (1) review the evidence for gender...... disparities in psychological distress and QoL in ICD patients by means of a systematic review, and (2) provide recommendations for future research and clinical implications. A systematic search of the literature identified 18 studies with a sample size ≥ 100 that examined gender disparities in anxiety....../depression and QoL in ICD patients (mean prevalence of women = 21%; mean age = 62 years). Our review shows that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that gender per se is a major autonomous predictor for disparities in psychological distress and QoL in ICD patients. Women had a higher prevalence of anxiety...
Ando, Noriko; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kuranami, Masaru; Okazaki, Shigemi; Wada, Mei; Yamamoto, Kenji; Todoroki, Keiko; Watanabe, Masahiko; Miyaoka, Hitoshi
The objective of this study was to determine how psychological characteristics, subjective symptoms, a family history of breast cancer, and age impact psychological distress in outpatients at the first hospital visit prior to breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were prediagnosed women with complaints of breast symptoms who either came to our hospital directly, or with a referral from another clinic. Patients were asked to complete questionnaires to determine the following: trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), negative emotional suppression (Courtauld Emotional Control Scale), life stress events (Life Experiences Survey), and psychological distress (Profile of Mood States). We examined subjective symptoms (lumps, pain, abnormal nipple discharge, or deformed nipple) and family history of breast cancer based on answers to the interview sheet filled out by patients on their first visit. We analyzed a total of 154 patients who completed the questionnaires out of 237 eligible patients. A significant model was obtained by multiple regression analysis (adjusted R (2) = 0.574, p < 0.01) in which the standard partial regression coefficients for trait anxiety, suppression of anxiety, negative life change events, positive life change events, and subjective symptoms were statistically significant (beta = 0.623, 0.133, 0.155, 0.108, and 0.124, respectively; p < 0.05). Psychological distress prior to diagnosis was higher in patients who had high trait anxiety, suppression of anxiety, many life stress events, and subjective symptoms. In particular, trait anxiety had a large impact on psychological distress, underscoring the need for and importance of adequate psychological care.
Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie
The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.
Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B
Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.
ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping
The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058
Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R
Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with
Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo
Purpose A large group of women (20–30 %) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological di...... of anxiety or depression. Participants with poor financial status, previous psychological problems, or high levels of fatigue may be at increased risk of psychological distress. Such individuals may benefit most from psychosocial interventions....... and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non......-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15 %) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7 %) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive...
den Heijer, M.; Seynaeve, C.; Timman, R.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Vanheusden, K.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.E.; Tibben, A.
Purpose: To explore the course of psychological distress and body image at long-term follow-up (6-9 years) after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction (PM/BR) in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, and to identify pre-PM risk factors for poor body image on the long-term. Methods:
Heijer, M. den; Seynaeve, C.; Timman, R.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Vanheusden, K.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.; Menke-Pluijmers, M.B.; Tibben, A.
PURPOSE: To explore the course of psychological distress and body image at long-term follow-up (6-9 years) after prophylactic mastectomy and breast reconstruction (PM/BR) in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, and to identify pre-PM risk factors for poor body image on the long-term. METHODS:
Lopes, Claudia S; Araya, Ricardo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo
In developing countries, traditional sources of employment and work practices have changed rapidly and work environment has appeared as an important factor associated with an increased prevalence of mental disorders in these countries. To investigate the association between job strain and other work characteristics with psychological distress, and to estimate the contextual effects of different working environments on psychological distress, using cross-sectional data from an occupational cohort. The subjects were 3,574 non-faculty civil servants working at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Work characteristics were measured by the modified version of the Karasek model and through questions about night shift work and occupational status. After adjusting for age, education, income and other work characteristics, low social support at work and high job strain were associated with psychological distress. For low social support, the association was stronger in men (Prevalence Ratio = 2.02; 95% Confidence Interval 1.6-2.6) than in women (PR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.2-1.4). High job strain was similarly significant in both women (PR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.2-1.7) and men (PR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Men having a routine non-manual work presented 29% more psychological distress than those undertaking professional roles. Night shift work did not show significant association with psychological distress. In the multilevel analysis, the prevalence of psychological distress did not vary significantly across work units. Job strain and poor support at work seem important psychological stressors in the workplace in Brazil. Our findings are comparable to those found in more developed countries, providing additional evidence of an association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and psychological distress, being thus useful for policymakers in planning and promoting
Full Text Available Psychological distress have been found to be high and influence negatively nurses’ and teachers’ work. In this nine-year project, we present the first longitudinal study comparing psychological distress from 1467 students and young professionals in nursing and teaching. Psychological distress was measured with GHQ 12 at the start and the end of their studies and three and six years after graduation. Both descriptive statistics and estimated models were used to assess psychological distress over time. Psychological distress increased significantly in both groups during education. The reduction of psychological distress was significant among the nurses, and they clearly showed a “healthy worker effect” when coming into clinical work. The teachers had a small and non-significant reduction in the same period and did not show a positive effect after starting pedagogical work.
Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne M; Campbell, Tavis S; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole L; Carlson, Linda E; Madsen, Joshua W; Dimidjian, Sona
Clinically significant psychological distress in pregnancy is common, with epidemiological research suggesting that between 15 and 25 % of pregnant women experience elevated symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Untreated psychological distress in pregnancy is associated with poor obstetrical outcomes, changes in maternal physiology, elevated incidence of child physical and psychological disorders, and is predictive of maternal postpartum mood disorders. Despite the wide-ranging impact of antenatal psychological distress on mothers and their children, there is a gap in our knowledge about the most effective treatments that are available for psychological distress experienced in pregnancy. Additionally, no trials have focused on potential physiological changes that may occur as a result of receiving mindfulness training in pregnancy. The proposed trial will determine the effectiveness of an 8-week modified Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) intervention delivered during pregnancy. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with repeated measures will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of MBCT to treat psychological distress in pregnancy. A sample of 60 consenting pregnant women aged 18 years and above will be enrolled and randomized to the experimental (MBCT) or control (treatment as usual) condition. Primary (e.g., symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety), secondary (cortisol, blood pressure (BP), heart rate variability (HRV), and sleep) and other outcome data (e.g., psychological diagnoses) will be collected via a combination of laboratory visits and at-home assessments from both groups at baseline (T 1 ), immediately following the intervention (T 2 ), and at 3 months postpartum (T 3 ). Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sample characteristics. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Hierarchical linear models will be used to test intervention effects on primary and secondary outcomes. The trial is expected
Sherman, Kerry A; Winch, Caleb J; Borecky, Natacha; Boyages, John
To establish whether altered protocol characteristics of streamlined StepDown breast assessment clinics heightened or reduced the psychological distress of women in attendance compared with standard assessment. Willingness to attend future screening was also compared between the assessment groups. Observational, prospective study of women attending either a mammogram-only StepDown or a standard breast assessment clinic. Women completed questionnaires on the day of assessment and 1 month later. Women attending StepDown (136 women) or standard assessment clinics (148 women) at a BreastScreen centre between 10 November 2009 and 7 August 2010. Breast cancer worries; positive and negative psychological consequences of assessment (Psychological Consequences Questionnaire); breast cancer-related intrusion and avoidance (Impact of Event Scale); and willingness to attend, and uneasiness about, future screening. At 1-month follow-up, no group differences were evident between those attending standard and StepDown clinics on breast cancer worries (P= 0.44), positive (P= 0.88) and negative (P = 0.65) consequences, intrusion (P = 0.64), and avoidance (P = 0.87). Willingness to return for future mammograms was high, and did not differ between groups (P = 0.16), although higher levels of unease were associated with lessened willingness to rescreen (P = 0.04). There was no evidence that attending streamlined StepDown assessments had different outcomes in terms of distress than attending standard assessment clinics for women with a BreastScreen-detected abnormality. However, unease about attending future screening was generally associated with less willingness to do so in both groups; thus, there is a role for psycho-educational intervention to address these concerns.
Leung, Janni; Atherton, Iain; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; McLaughlin, Deirdre
The aim of this study is to examine the association between optimism and psychological distress in women with breast cancer after taking into account their self-rated general health. Data were aggregated from the Scottish Health Survey (2008 to 2011) to derive a nationally representative sample of 12,255 women (11,960 cancer-free controls, and 295 breast cancer cases identified from linked cancer registry data). The explanatory variables were optimism and general health, and the outcome variable was symptoms of psychological distress. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, with optimism entered in step 1 and general health entered in step 2. In an unadjusted model, higher levels of optimism were associated with lower odds of psychological distress in both the control group (OR = 0. 57, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.60) and breast cancer group (OR = 0. 64, 95 % CI = 0.47-0.88). However, in a model adjusting for general health, optimism was associated with lower odds of psychological distress only in the control group (OR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.44-0.57), but not significantly in the breast cancer group (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.32-4.11). In the breast cancer group, poor general health was a stronger associate of psychological distress (OR = 4. 98, 95 % CI = 1.32-18.75). Results were consistent after adjusting for age, years since breast cancer diagnosis, survey year, socioeconomic status, education, marital status, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. This research confirms the value of multicomponent supportive care interventions for women with breast cancer. Specifically, it suggests that following breast cancer diagnosis, health care professionals need to provide advice and signpost to services that assist women to maintain or improve both their psychological and general health.
Lipton, Michelle G; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan; Rustin, Malcolm H A; Clayton, William J
While unwanted facial hair is clearly distressing for women, relatively little is known about its psychological impact. This study reports on the psychological and behavioral burden of facial hair in women with suspected polycystic ovary syndrome. Eighty-eight women (90% participation rate) completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning hair removal practices; the impact of facial hair on social and emotional domains; relationships and daily life; anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale); self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale); and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Women spent considerable time on the management of their facial hair (mean, 104 min/week). Two thirds (67%) reported continually checking in mirrors and 76% by touch. Forty percent felt uncomfortable in social situations. High levels of emotional distress and psychological morbidity were detected; 30% had levels of depression above the clinical cut off point, while 75% reported clinical levels of anxiety; 29% reported both. Although overall quality of life was good, scores were low in social and relationship domains--reflecting the impact of unwanted facial hair. Unwanted facial hair carries a high psychological burden for women and represents a significant intrusion into their daily lives. Psychological support is a neglected element of care for these women.
Evans, David; Mallet, Luc; Flahault, Antoine; Cothereau, Catherine; Velazquez, Sébastien; Capron, Loïc; Lejoyeux, Michel
The psychological well-being of employees is a priority in occupational health. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress among employees of a large French company, to calculate the associations between distress and stressors in the workplace and private life domains, and to explore confounding across stressor domains. 8,058 employees of the French national railways company completed a nation-wide survey in 2006 (94.3 % participation). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and 21 potential stressors and socio-demographic factors by a self-administered questionnaire. Stressors were summarized in scores for work pressure, workplace conflict, and personal life domains. Risk ratios (RRs) between psychological distress and stressors were calculated using robust-variance Poisson regression. The prevalence of psychological distress was 32.8 % (95 % CI 31.8-33.9 %), higher among women (48.9 %, 95 % CI 46.5-51.7 %) than men (30.1 %, 95 % CI 29.0-31.2 %). Each stressor domain was associated with distress in the final model containing likely confounders and all three domains (RR highest vs. lowest level-work pressure: men 1.55, 95 % CI 1.42-1.70, women 1.42, 95 % CI 1.23-1.63; work conflict: men 2.63, 95 % CI 2.38-2.91, women 1.98, 95 % CI 1.70-2.30; life concerns: men 2.04, 95 % CI 1.86-2.23, women 1.53, 95 % CI 1.32-1.78). The mutually adjusted RRs for the stressor domains were smaller than the unadjusted RRs. Almost one-third of all employees and one-half of female employees experienced psychological distress. All three stressor domains were associated with psychological distress and adjustment reduced the association size, suggesting possible over-estimation if one or more domains are omitted from the survey.
Ndjaboue, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Talbot, Denis; Vézina, Michel
Prospective studies which evaluated whether the effects of chronic exposure to psychosocial work factors on mental health persisted over time are scarce. For the first time, this study evaluated: 1) the effect of chronic exposure to effort-reward imbalance over 5years on the prevalence of high psychological distress among men and women, and 2) the persistence of this effect over time. Overall, 1747 white-collar workers from three public organizations participated in a prospective study. Psychological distress and effort-reward imbalance were measured using validated questionnaires at baseline, and at 3- and 5-year follow-ups. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of high psychological distress were estimated using log-binomial regression according to baseline and repeated exposure. Compared to unexposed workers, those with repeated exposure to effort-reward imbalance had a higher prevalence of high psychological distress. Workers exposed only at some time-points also had a higher prevalence. The deleterious effect of repeated exposure observed at the 3-year follow-up persisted at the 5-year follow-up among women (PR=2.48 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.97-3.11) and men (PR=1.91 95% CI 1.20-3.04). These effects were greater than those found using a single baseline measurement. The current study supported a deleterious effect of repeated exposure to effort-reward imbalance on psychological distress, and a lack of adaptation to these effects over time among men and women. Since psychological distress may later lead to severe mental problems, current results highlight the need to consider exposure to these adverse work factors in primary and secondary preventions aimed at reducing mental health problems at work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan
Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.
African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434
Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas
Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.
Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Faulkner, Guy E; Irving, Hyacinth M
To examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a school-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Self-reported data of demographics, weight status, physical activity, screen-time, diet, substance use, and psychological distress were derived from a representative sample of 2935 students in grades 9 to 12 (M(age) = 15.9 years) from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Overall prevalence of psychological distress was 35.1%. Significant associations were shown between psychological distress and the following: being female, tobacco use, not meeting physical activity and screen-time recommendations, and inadequate consumption of breakfast and vegetables. These findings highlight the need for targeting greater physical health promotion for adolescents at risk of mental health problems.
Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A study to assess the psychological distress of married women due to their spousal violence under alcohol dependence. This study is aimed at studying partner violence, various coping styles and psychological distress among spouses of men with alcohol dependence and to explore the association between partner violence and coping behaviour. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 wives of alcohol dependent individuals in the age range of 20-50 years, who were divided into two groups based on the duration of drinking of their husbands. They were assessed by GHQ-12, Measure of Wife Abuse, Coping with Drinking Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results: Partner alcohol use was associated with increased psychological distress in their spouses and they have used both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. Conclusion: Alcohol plays a role in partner violence and spousal mental distress resulting in loss of their coping resources.
Kearns, Megan C; Edwards, Katie M; Calhoun, Karen S; Gidycz, Christine A
Research suggests that many sexual assault survivors do not disclose their experience, which may increase associated distress. Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm has been shown to ameliorate psychological and physical distress in individuals exposed to stressful events. The current study assessed the effectiveness of this paradigm with sexual assault survivors (N = 74). College women with a history of sexual assault wrote about their most severe victimization or about how they spend their time (control). Then 73 women (98.6%) completed a 1-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that across writing sessions, the disclosure group reported greater reductions in negative mood immediately post-writing. However, both groups showed significant reductions in physical complaints, psychological distress, and traumatic stress symptoms at the 1-month follow-up, suggesting no added benefit to disclosure of a sexual assault using a brief written paradigm.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Zamorski, Mark A; Colman, Ian
We examined the overlap between mood and anxiety disorders and psychological distress and their associations with functional status in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel. Data on Regular Forces personnel ( N = 6700) were derived from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of the CAF personnel. Current psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler K10 scale. Past-month mood and anxiety disorders were assessed using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite Diagnostic Interview. The prevalence of psychological distress was the same as that of any past-month mood or anxiety disorder (7.1% for each). A total of 3.8% had both distress and past-month mood or anxiety disorder, 3.3% had past-month disorder without psychological distress, while another 3.3% had psychological distress in the absence of a past-month mood or anxiety disorder. After adjusting for age, sex, marital, education, income, language, element, rank, and alcohol use disorder, individuals with both psychological distress and past-month mood and anxiety disorders exhibited the highest levels of disability, days out of role, and work absenteeism relative to those with neither mental disorders nor psychological distress. Relative to individuals with both disorder and distress, those who endured distress in the absence of mental disorder exhibited lower, but meaningful, levels of disability compared with those with neither disorder nor distress. Disability is most severe among CAF personnel with both distress and past-month mood and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, distress in the absence of disorder is prevalent and is associated with meaningful levels of disability.
scale as a reliable tool for assessment of quality of marital relationship in patients on long-term hemodialysis . Iran J Kidney Dis, 3(4), 242-245...A. J. (1989). Spouse criticism and support: their association with coping and psychological adjustment among women with rheumatoid arthritis ...experience for patients , partners, family members, and close friends. Breast cancer patients not only face the psychological distress of a life
Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria
Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.
Nielsen, M B; Einarsen, S
Exposure to workplace sexual harassment (SH) has been associated with impaired mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the relationship are lacking. To examine gender differences in prospective associations between SH and psychological distress. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2005 in a representative sample of Norwegian employees. Follow-up data were collected in 2007. SH was measured with the Bergen Sexual Harassment Scale. Psychological distress was measured with the 25 item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) with cases of psychological distress defined as having a mean score of Workplace measures against SH would be expected to lead to a reduction in mental disorders. The finding that psychological distress predicts SH among men may indicate either a vulnerability factor or a negative perception mechanism.
Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A
This study investigates associations between psychological distress and workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes. The Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was distributed to employees of 58 large employers. A total of 60,556 full-time employees were eligible for analysis. The HPQ probed whether the respondent had, in the past 30-days, a workplace accident, success or failure ("yes" or "no"). Psychological distress was quantified using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale and categorised into low, moderate and high psychological distress. Three binomial logistic regressions were performed with the dependent variables being workplace accident, success or failure. Covariates in the models were K6 category, gender, age, marital status, education level, job category, physical health and employment sector. Accounting for all other variables, moderate and high psychological distress significantly (P work failures and decrease the OR of workplace successes at similar levels. As the prevalence of moderate psychological distress is approximately double that of high psychological distress moderate distress consequentially has a greater workplace impact.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B
African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
The aim of this study is to determine the separate effects of social class, income, education and area of residence on psychological distress. The study also assesses whether the association between prevalence of high score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) and social class is independent of other variables. Psychological distress was assessed by means of the GHQ 12. The study covered 1,092 adults aged 15 years or more living in two different quarters of Antalya. Social class status was defined by occupational position, with income, education and area of residence treated as confounders. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the data. Large inequalities in psychological distress by all variables were observed. Psychological distress was significantly associated with class status, after adjusting for income, education, area of residence and other potential confounders (age, sex and marital status). Class inequalities in psychological distress were observed between blue-collar workers/unqualified employees and bourgeoisie. These findings support the view that the recent widening of inequalities among social classes in Turkey pose a substantial threat to health.
Background: Physical illness is commonly associated with psychological distress that may be a direct effect of the illness or an adjustment in coping with the physical illness or its treatment. Little is known about psychological distress of patients on general wards in developing countries. Objectives: This study aimed to ...
Krieger, Nancy; Kaddour, Afamia; Koenen, Karestan; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Barbeau, Elizabeth M
Few studies have simultaneously included exposure information on occupational hazards, relationship hazards (eg, intimate partner violence) and social hazards (eg, poverty and racial discrimination), especially among low-income multiracial/ethnic populations. A cross-sectional study (2003-2004) of 1202 workers employed at 14 worksites in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts investigated the independent and joint association of occupational, social and relationship hazards with psychological distress (K6 scale). Among this low-income cohort (45% were below the US poverty line), exposure to occupational, social and relationship hazards, per the 'inverse hazard law,' was high: 82% exposed to at least one occupational hazard, 79% to at least one social hazard, and 32% of men and 34% of women, respectively, stated they had been the perpetrator or target of intimate partner violence (IPV). Fully 15.4% had clinically significant psychological distress scores (K6 score ≥ 13). All three types of hazards, and also poverty, were independently associated with increased risk of psychological distress. In models including all three hazards, however, significant associations with psychological distress occurred among men and women for workplace abuse and high exposure to racial discrimination only; among men, for IPV; and among women, for high exposure to occupational hazards, poverty and smoking. Reckoning with the joint and embodied reality of diverse types of hazards involving how people live and work is necessary for understanding determinants of health status.
Keohane, Aisling; Richardson, Noel
Underpinning a general pattern of higher suicide rates in men is the assumption that men do not ask for help or utilize the health-care system during times of psychological distress. There has been a failure to grapple with the dynamic of when, how and from whom men might ask for help during times of psychological distress, and what key barriers or enabling factors are likely to influence potential help-givers' capacity or willingness to offer help to men in psychological distress. The aim of this study was to investigate how masculine norms impact men's help-seeking as well as care givers' behaviors and willingness to support men in need of psychological help or perceived to be at risk of suicide. Focus groups ( n = 13) were used with "high-risk suicide" groups of men and community gatekeepers. The principles of grounded theory were used for data analysis. Three themes emerged: "negotiating ways to ask for, offer and accept help without compromising masculinity"; "making and sustaining contact with men in psychological distress"; and "navigating roles responsibilities and boundaries to support men in psychological distress." Approaches to suicide prevention need to take account of how masculine norms shape men's willingness to ask for and accept help during times of psychological distress as well as care givers willingness to offer help. The findings address a gap in the literature by looking beyond men's help-seeking as a passive, one dimensional construct, to a more dynamic triad of help-seeking/giving/taking behaviors that are embedded in the sociocultural context of men's lives.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced placental circulation, which could lead to lower birthweight. Studies investigating this in humans show mixed results, which may be partially due to type, strength and timing of distress. In addition, the arterial vascular resistance measures often used as outcome measures do not detect smaller changes in placental volume blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effect of a specific stressor, with increased levels of stress early in pregnancy, on the fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 74 pregnant women with a congenital malformation in a previous fetus or child. Psychological distress was assessed twice, around 16 and 30 weeks' gestation. Psychometric measures were the General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance, and arousal. Placental circulation was examined at 30 weeks, using Doppler ultrasonography, primarily as fetoplacental volume blood flow in the umbilical vein, normalized for abdominal circumference; secondarily as vascular resistance measures, obtained from the umbilical and the uterine arteries. RESULTS: Maternal distress in second but not third trimester was associated with increased normalized fetoplacental blood flow (P-values 0.006 and 0.013 for score > mean for depression and intrusion, respectively. Post-hoc explorations suggested that a reduced birthweight/placental weight ratio may mediate this association. Psychological distress did not affect vascular resistance measures in the umbilical and uterine arteries, regardless of adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with a previous fetus or child with a congenital malformation, higher distress levels in second trimester were associated with third trimester fetoplacental blood flow that
Bowers, Jennifer; Lo, Johnny; Miller, Peta; Mawren, Daveena; Jones, Brooklyn
To assess the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress in a sample of remote mining and construction workers in Australia. Design, setting: A cross-sectional, anonymous Wellbeing and Lifestyle Survey at ten mining sites in South Australia and Western Australia, administered at meetings held during 2013-2015. 1124 employees at remote construction, and open cut and underground mining sites completed the survey. General psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, K10) and self-reported overall mental health status; work, lifestyle and family factors correlated with level of psychological distress. The final sample comprised 1124 workers; 93.5% were men, 63% were aged 25-44 years. 311 respondents (28%) had K10 scores indicating high/very high psychological distress, compared with 10.8% for Australia overall. The most frequently reported stressors were missing special events (86%), relationship problems with partners (68%), financial stress (62%), shift rosters (62%), and social isolation (60%). High psychological distress was significantly more likely in workers aged 25-34 years (v ≥ 55 years: odds ratio [OR], 3.2; P = 0.001) and workers on a 2 weeks on/1 week off roster (v 4 weeks on/1 week off: OR, 2.4; P mental health problems were at the greatest risk of high/very high psychological distress (v not stressed: OR, 23.5; P mental ill health in these workers need to be addressed, and the stigma associated with mental health problems reduced.
Payne, Nicola; Seenan, Susan; van den Akker, Olga
This study examined experiences and psychological distress about fertility treatment in people combining work and treatment. Five hundred and sixty-three participants in the UK completed an online survey asking about difficulties in combining work and treatment; workplace disclosure, support, absence and policy; and psychological distress about treatment. Absence from work and perceptions that treatment has an impact on work and career prospects were reported by the majority of participants and this was related to the psychological distress of treatment. Around three quarters of participants disclosed to their employer and colleagues. The key reason for disclosure was needing to ask for absence from work and the main reason for non-disclosure was privacy. Workplace policy relating to managing fertility treatment and support from colleagues and their employer was related to reduced psychological distress but workplace policy was reported by less than one quarter of participants. Difficulties experienced in combining work and treatment suggest that support is needed. Specific workplace policy, guidance for supervisors and flexibility in fertility clinic times should help support employees during treatment and reduce psychological distress, thereby potentially influencing physical health and treatment outcomes.
Scant information exists on the complex interaction between resources and stressors and their subsequent influence on the psychological distress of older adults in India. Within the framework of resource theory, the present study examined the various pathways through which resources and stressors influence psychological distress by testing four models - the independence model, the stress-suppression model, the counteractive model and the resource-deterioration model. The independence model posits that resources and stressors have a direct relationship with psychological distress. The stress-suppression model hypothesizes that stressors mediate the influence of resources on psychological distress. The counteractive model postulates that stressors mobilize resources, which in turn influence psychological distress. The resource-deterioration model states that stressors deplete resources and subsequently exacerbate distress. In the present study, resources include social support, religiosity and mastery; stressors include life events, abuse and health problems. Psychological distress was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Interviews were conducted among 400 adults aged 65 years and above, randomly selected from the electoral list of urban Chennai, India. The battery of instruments was translated into Tamil (local language) by back-translation. Structural Equation Modeling was conducted to test the three models. The results supported the stress-suppressor model. Resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress. As such there is a need to identify and strengthen the resources available to older adults in India.
Full Text Available Hui Chien Ong,¹ Norhayati Ibrahim,² Suzaily Wahab³ ¹Biomedical Science Programme, ²Health Psychology Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, ³Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress. “Community rejection” was found to be positively associated with psychological distress. In case of coping subscales, psychological distress had a positive correlation with substance use, use of emotional support, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame, while it was negatively correlated with “positive reframing”. Behavioral disengagement was the best predictor of psychological distress among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, followed by positive reframing, use of emotional support, self-blame, and venting. Health practitioners can use adaptive coping strategies instead of maladaptive for caregivers to help ease their distress and prevent further deterioration of psychological disorders. Keywords: family caregivers, social stigma, coping skills, psychological stress, schizophrenia
Sharpley, Christopher; Hussain, Rafat; Wark, Stuart; Mcevoy, Mark; Attia, John
Social support is proposed as a coping mechanism against anxiety and depression amongst older persons, but few data have examined how this occurs. This study assessed the contributions of two sub-components of social support as mediators against psychological distress-broadly defined as anxiety and depression. 1,560 men and 1,758 women from the Hunter Community Study (Australia) completed the Duke Social Support Scale and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. The Duke Social Support Scale examined the amount of social interaction and satisfaction with social interactions. Significant mediating effects of social support were found in the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale items measuring depression but not anxiety. Satisfaction with social support was a significant predictor of Kessler Psychological Distress Scale total score and Sadness items, but the amount of social support was not a predictor of stress. Social support may assist with symptoms of depression, i.e., specific sadness/depressed mood, but not necessarily with anxiety. Implications for policy and service delivery were discussed.
Corning, Alexandra F.
The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was investigated within a social comparison theory framework. Predictions of a variant of social comparison theory--relative deprivation theory--as well as predictions from the stress-buffering literature pertaining to the moderating effects of self-esteem were tested…
Coumaravelou Saravanan; Rajiah Kingston
Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress a...
Su Hyun Park
Full Text Available Psychological distress has been correlated with higher levels of nicotine dependence. To date, the possible association between individuals' levels of psychological distress and e-cigarette use has not been investigated, despite the dramatic growth of e-cigarette use in the US. We examined this possible association using a nationally representative sample of US adults.A total of 36,697 adults from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS were included. The Kessler 6 scale was used to measure psychological distress. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between level of psychological distress and e-cigarette use.Both e-cigarette and cigarette use varied according to level of psychological distress as well as multiple socio-demographic characteristics. In a multivariate model, psychological distress was significantly associated with the following groups: (a exclusive e-cigarette ever-use (aOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.6, 8.6, (b current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes (aOR = 4.6; 95% CI = 3.1, 6.7, (c former cigarette use and ever use of e-cigarette (aOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8 and (d current use of cigarettes only (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.7, 2.6.These are the first data to demonstrate that, as is true for cigarettes, e-cigarette use is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of this relationship and to evaluate the long-term positive and negative consequences of such use.
Ritsner, M; Ponizovsky, A
A large community sample, cross-sectional and in part longitudinal design, and comparison groups was used to determine the timing of psychological distress among immigrants. A total of 2,378 adult immigrants from the former Soviet Union to Israel completed the self-administered questionnaire Talbieh Brief Distress Inventory. The aggregate levels of distress and six psychological symptoms--obsessiveness, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and paranoid ideation--were compared at 20 intervals covering 1 to 60 months after resettlement. The level of psychological distress was significantly higher in the immigrants than that of Israeli natives but not in the potential immigrant controls. A two-phase temporal pattern of development of psychological distress was revealed consisting of escalation and reduction phases. The escalation phase was characterized by an increase in distress levels until the 27th month after arrival (a peak) and the reduction phase led to a decline returning to normal levels. The 1-month prevalence rate was 15.6% for the total sample, and for highly distressed subjects it reached 24% at the 27th month after arrival, and it declined to 4% at the 44th month. The time pattern of distress shared males and females, married and divorced/widowed (but not singles), as well as subjects of all age groups (except for immigrants in their forties). The two-phase pattern of distress obtained according to cross-sectional data was indirectly confirmed through a longitudinal way. Claims of early euphoric or distress-free period followed by mental health crisis frequently referred to in the literature on migration was not supported by this study.
Richard A Bryant
Full Text Available Gender-based violence (GBV represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+ that lay community workers can be taught to deliver.In this single-blind, parallel, randomised controlled trial, adult women who had experienced GBV were identified through community screening for psychological distress and impaired functioning in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio either to PM+ delivered in the community by lay community health workers provided with 8 days of training or to facility-based enhanced usual care (EUC provided by community nurses. Participants were aware of treatment allocation, but research assessors were blinded. The primary outcome was psychological distress as measured by the total score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 assessed at 3 months after treatment. Secondary outcomes were impaired functioning (measured by the WHO Disability Adjustment Schedule [WHODAS], symptoms of posttraumatic stress (measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist [PCL], personally identified problems (measured by Psychological Outcome Profiles [PSYCHLOPS], stressful life events (measured by the Life Events Checklist [LEC], and health service utilisation. Between 15 April 2015 and 20 August 2015, 1,393 women were screened for eligibility on the basis of psychological distress and impaired functioning. Of these, 518 women (37% screened positive, of whom 421 (81% were women who had experienced GBV. Of these 421 women, 209 were assigned to PM+ and 212 to EUC. Follow-up assessments were completed on 16 January 2016. The primary
Hope, S; Power, C; Rodgers, B
Lone mothers have been shown to have higher levels of psychological distress than married mothers, but it is not clear how this difference arises. Using data from the 1958 British birth cohort followed to age 33, we investigated alternative explanations for the excess distress of lone mothers. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for distress (measured using the Malaise Inventory) in lone vs married mothers. Odds ratios were adjusted to assess the contribution of explanatory factors. At age 33, psychological distress was greater among lone than married mothers (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97, 3.41). The odds ratio decreased to 1.43 (95% CI 1.02, 2.01) after adjustment for all explanatory factors (prior psychological distress, age of youngest child and number of children in the household, and contemporary measures of financial hardship, employment, and social support). Attenuation of the odds ratio was most marked after taking account of financial hardship. Psychological distress was greater among divorced mothers than never married mothers, though not significantly (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 0.88, 3.28). This difference was not explained by the factors examined, and was not due to the immediate distress associated with a recent divorce. Elevated psychological distress of lone mothers appears to be related to financial hardship, while other explanations, including social support and selection, have a more modest impact. Not all of the elevated psychological distress among lone mothers was accounted for, particularly among divorced lone mothers.
Ostamo Aini I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors associated with low social status have been proposed as one possible explanation for the socio-economic gradient in health. The aim of this study is to explore whether different indicators of psychological distress contribute to socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality. Methods The data source is a nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional survey, "Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population" (AVTK. The survey results were linked with socio-economic register data from Statistics Finland (from the years 1979-2002 and mortality follow-up data up to 2006 from the Finnish National Cause of Death Register. The data included 32451 men and 35420 women (response rate 73.5%. Self-reported measures of depression, insomnia and stress were used as indicators of psychological distress. Socio-economic factors included education, employment status and household income. Mortality data consisted of unnatural causes of death (suicide, accidents and violence, and alcohol-related mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model. Results In unnatural mortality, psychological distress accounted for some of the employment status (11-31% and income level (4-16% differences among both men and women, and for the differences related to the educational level (5-12% among men; the educational level was associated statistically significantly with unnatural mortality only among men. Psychological distress had minor or no contribution to socio-economic differences in CHD mortality. Conclusions Psychological distress partly accounted for socio-economic disparities in unnatural mortality. Further studies are needed to explore the role and mechanisms of psychological distress associated with socio-economic differences in cause-specific mortality.
Pâquet, Myriam; Bois, Katy; Rosen, Natalie O; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Charbonneau-Lefebvre, Véronique; Bergeron, Sophie
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most frequent cause of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) and is associated with negative psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners. PVD is often misdiagnosed or ignored and many couples may experience a sense of injustice, due to the loss of their ability to have a normal sexual life. Perceiving injustice has been documented to have important consequences in individuals with chronic pain. However, no quantitative research has investigated the experience of injustice in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between perceived injustice and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression among women with PVD and their partners. Women diagnosed with PVD (N = 50) and their partners completed questionnaires of perceived injustice, pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual distress, and depression. (1) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale; (2) Female Sexual Distress Scale; (3) Beck Depression Inventory-II; and (4) McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. After controlling for partners' age, women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater sexual distress, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher level of perceived injustice was associated with their own greater depression, and the same pattern was found for partners. Women's higher perceived injustice was not associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction but partners' higher perceived injustice was associated with their own lower sexual satisfaction. Perceived injustice was not associated with women's pain intensity. Results suggest that perceiving injustice may have negative consequences for the couple's sexual and psychological outcomes. However, the effects of perceived injustice appear to be intra-individual. Targeting perceived injustice could enhance the efficacy of psychological interventions for women with PVD and their partners
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that participants who had only an employment role had an increased risk of psychological distress. The degree of psychological distress was not determined solely by the number of roles. It is important to have balance between work and family life to reduce role conflict and/or role submersion, which in turn may reduce the risk of psychological distress.
Full Text Available Psychological distress among higher education students is of global concern. Students on programmes with practicum components such as nursing and teacher education are exposed to additional stressors which may further increase their risk for psychological distress. The ways in which these students cope with distress has potential consequences for their health and academic performance. An in-depth understanding of how nursing/midwifery and teacher education students experience psychological distress and coping is necessary to enable higher education providers to adequately support these students.This mixed method study was employed to establish self-reported psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, coping processes (Ways of Coping Questionnaire and lifestyle behaviour (Lifestyle Behaviour Questionnaire of a total sample (n = 1557 of undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students in one university in Ireland. Individual interviews (n = 59 provided an in-depth understanding of students experiences of psychological distress and coping.A significant percentage (41.9% of respondents was psychologically distressed. The factors which contributed to their distress, included study, financial, living and social pressures. Students used varied coping strategies including seeking social support, problem solving and escape avoidance. The positive relationship between elevated psychological distress and escape avoidance behaviours including substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and unhealthy diet is of particular concern. Statistically significant relationships were identified between "escape-avoidance" and gender, age, marital status, place of residence, programme/year of study and lifestyle behaviours such as diet, substance use and physical inactivity.The paper adds to existing research by illuminating the psychological distress experienced by undergraduate nursing/midwifery and teacher education students. It also
Fontein-Kuipers, Yvonne; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; Van Limbeek, Evelien; De Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne
Maternal distress is a public health concern. Assessment of emotional wellbeing is not integrated in Dutch antenatal care. Midwives need to understand the influencing factors in order to identify women who are more vulnerable to experience maternal distress. To examine levels of maternal distress during pregnancy and to determine the relationship between maternal distress and aetiological factors. A cross-sectional study including 458 Dutch-speaking women with uncomplicated pregnancies during all trimesters of pregnancy. Data were collected with questionnaires between 10 September and 6 November 2012. Demographic characteristics and personal details were obtained. Maternal distress was measured with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ). Behaviour was measured with Coping Operations Preference Enquiry-Easy (COPE-Easy). Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis were used. Just over 20 percent of the women in our sample (21.8%) had a heightened score on one or more of the EDS, STAI or PRAQ. History of psychological problems (B=1.071; p=.001), having young children (B=2.998; p=.001), daily stressors (B=1.304; p=birth (B=.636; p=order to give adequate advice about how to best cope with this condition. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lašaitė, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Žalinkevičius, Rimantas; Jurgevičienė, Nijolė; Radzevičienė, Lina
To determine whether or not diabetes distress varies by age of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) onset and/or gender. A total of 700 adult T1DM patients were randomly selected from the Lithuanian Diabetes Registry; 214 of them (30.6%) agreed to participate and were recruited for the study. Diabetes distress (emotional burden, physician-related distress, regimen-related distress, interpersonal distress) was compared in 105 (42 men and 63 women) patients with T1DM diagnosed during 0-18years of life, and in 109 (61 men and 48 women) with T1DM diagnosed in adulthood, using Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS). Adult childhood-onset T1DM women have higher regimen-related distress (36.3±21.3 vs 26.6±16.2, p=0.016) than adulthood-onset women. Adult childhood-onset T1DM women experience higher diabetes distress (higher emotional burden (27.0±22.0 vs 15.6±16.4, p=0.006), physician-related distress (34.4±33.9 vs 20.7±29.4, p=0.024), total diabetes distress (41.2±13.6 vs 34.8±10.9, p=0.011)) than childhood-onset men. Adulthood-onset T1DM women experience higher physician-related distress (39.2±37.6 vs 23.4±32.5, p=0.013), but lower regimen-related distress (26.6±16.2 vs 35.8±21.6, p=0.014) than adulthood-onset men. In conclusion our findings reinforce the interdependence of psychological and biomedical factors in influencing health outcomes and support the need to provide psychological assessment and support to patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nam, Gina E; Warner, Echo L; Morreall, Deborah K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Kinney, Anita Y; Fluchel, Mark
Few studies have examined distress in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. We evaluated the association of socioeconomic, demographic, and patient clinical factors on caregivers' self-reported psychological distress associated with having a child with cancer. N = 366 pediatric cancer caregivers completed a self-administered questionnaire from July 2010 to July 2012. The Impact of Event Scale (IES), along with two subscales "intrusion" and "avoidance" measured caregiver cancer-specific distress, with higher scores indicating greater distress. Multivariable linear regression models were used to calculate coefficients (β) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of IES by socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical factors. Average caregiver IES score was 31.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 16.9, range 0-75). Mean intrusion score was 18.1 (SD 9.8, range 0-35) and avoidance score was 12.8 (SD 9.0, range 0-40). Caregivers with household incomes psychological distress for caregivers of pediatric oncology patients. These findings underscore the importance of developing and testing interventions aimed at evaluating and addressing the psychosocial needs for high-risk caregivers in addition to those of patients.
Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C
Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.
Thomas, E G; Spittal, M J; Heffernan, E B; Taxman, F S; Alati, R; Kinner, S A
Understanding individual-level changes in mental health status after prison release is crucial to providing targeted and effective mental health care to ex-prisoners. We aimed to describe trajectories of psychological distress following prison discharge and compare these trajectories with mental health service use in the community. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was administered to 1216 sentenced adult prisoners in Queensland, Australia, before prison release and approximately 1, 3 and 6 months after release. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify K10 trajectories after release. Contact with community mental health services in the year following release was assessed via data linkage. We identified five trajectory groups, representing consistently low (51.1% of the cohort), consistently moderate (29.8%), high increasing (11.6%), high declining (5.5%) and consistently very high (1.9%) psychological distress. Mood disorder, anxiety disorder, history of self-harm and risky drug use were risk factors for the high increasing, very high and high declining trajectory groups. Women were over-represented in the high increasing and high declining groups, but men were at higher risk of very high psychological distress. Within the high increasing and very high groups, 25% of participants accessed community mental health services in the first year post-release, for a median of 4.4 contact hours. For the majority of prisoners with high to very high psychological distress, distress persists after release. However, contact with mental health services in the community appears low. Further research is required to understand barriers to mental health service access among ex-prisoners.
Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Larsen, Anelia; Vinding, Anker Lund; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind
Work intensification is a popular management strategy to increase productivity, but at the possible expense of employee mental stress. This study examines associations between ratings of work intensification and psychological distress, and the level of agreement between compared employee-rated and manager-rated work intensification. Multi-source survey data were collected from 3,064 employees and 573 company managers from the private sector in 2010. Multilevel regression models were used to compare different work intensification ratings across psychological distress strata. Distressed employees rated higher degree of total work intensification compared to non-distressed employees, and on three out of five sub ratings there were an increased prevalence of work intensification in the case group. In general, there was poor agreement between employee and company work intensification rating. Neither manager-rated work intensification nor employee/manager discrepancy in work intensification ratings was associated with psychological distress. Distressed employees had a higher total score of employee/manager agreed work intensification, and a higher prevalence of increased demands of labour productivity. This study demonstrates higher ratings of employee/manager agreed work intensification in distressed employees compared to non-distressed employees, challenging previous findings of reporting bias in distressed employees' assessment of work environment.
Cheney, Ann M
This study is one of the first to examine the narrative links connecting social change, contested gender norms, body image, and eating disordered practices among southern Italian women. The research is based on 16 months of fieldwork, and I compare and contrast the stories of 23 educated women in southern Italy to highlight the contentious realities of entering adolescence in conservative social contexts where gender relations and value systems are undergoing rapid transformations. I examine how these young women dealt with conflicting cultural expectations of womanhood and whether it affected their emotional, psychological, and physical well-being. Their stories shed light on how parental control, community surveillance, and conflicts in developing gender identities and maturing womanly bodies contributed to their emotional distress. Distressed young women used rebellion and manipulation and control of food and the body to negotiate unjust social relations, specifically gender relations, that delegitimized their selves and, in some cases, their bodies.
Stein Dan J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight of evidence suggests that women who freely choose to terminate a pregnancy are unlikely to experience significant mental health risks, however some studies have documented psychological distress in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the aftermath of termination. Choice of anaesthetic has been suggested as a determinant of outcome. This study compared the effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation, administered for elective surgical termination, on outcomes of pain, cortisol, and psychological distress. Methods 155 women were recruited from a private abortion clinic and state hospital (mean age: 25.4 ± 6.1 years and assessed on various symptom domains, using both clinician-administered interviews and self-report measures just prior to termination, immediately post-procedure, and at 1 month and 3 months post-procedure. Morning salivary cortisol assays were collected prior to anaesthesia and termination. Results The group who received local anaesthetic demonstrated higher baseline cortisol levels (mean = 4.7 vs 0.2, more dissociative symptoms immediately post-termination (mean = 14.7 vs 7.3, and higher levels of pain before (mean = 4.9 vs 3.0 and during the procedure (mean = 8.0 vs 4.4. However, in the longer-term (1 and 3 months, there were no significant differences in pain, psychological outcomes (PTSD, depression, self-esteem, state anxiety, or disability between the groups. More than 65% of the variance in PTSD symptoms at 3 months could be explained by baseline PTSD symptom severity and disability, and post-termination dissociative symptoms. Of interest was the finding that pre-procedural cortisol levels were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms at both 1 and 3 months. Conclusion High rates of PTSD characterise women who have undergone surgical abortions (almost one fifth of the sample meet criteria for PTSD, with women who receive local anaesthetic experiencing more
Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi
Objectives The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort–reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. Design This study employed a prospective design. Setting An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). Participants 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Main outcome measures Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Results Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. Conclusions WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. PMID:28775183
Mita, Tatsuo; Nakai, Takashi; Murakami, Masaya; Kitamura, Noboru; Nishino, Naoki.
In an attempt to prevent psychological distress, such as discomfort, anxiety and fear, during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the following psychological measures were conducted: (1) improving psychological support to the patient by MRI technicians; (2) providing sufficient information to the patient about MRI imager and the purpose of MRI examination; (3) reassuring the patient by telling him or her that he or she can stop MRI examination at any time; (4) modifying the environment (such as music, paintings, and plants) for relaxation. The effectiveness of these psychological support items was evaluated in all MRI patients. The questionnaire was filled out by 143 patients (mean age, 49.4 years) before MRI and by 105 patients (mean age, 48.4 years) after MRI. Psychological distress during MRI was significantly reduced from 64.3% to 50.5% after the implementation of psychological measures. This was noticeable in female patients aged 60 years or older and patients undergoing MRI for the first time. The reported incidence of distress tended to decrease. The reported complaints of long examination time and palpitation during MRI were significantly reduced. These results indicated that the psychological measures (particularly, the shortening of MRI examination time) are useful in reducing psychological distress during MRI. (N.K.)
Chaaya, M. M.; Bogner, H. R.; Gallo, J. J.; Leaf, P. J.
To date there has been no previous research into a possible association between psychological distress and gynecologic symptoms in the Arab world. We hypothesized that psychological distress would be associated with specific gynecologic complaints as well as with psychosocial factors.
Salmon, Peter; Clark, Louise; McGrath, Elly; Fisher, Peter
Although health policy for cancer care promotes screening of patients for emotional distress, the utility and validity of screening have been questioned. Continued research to refine detection of distress or to evaluate outcomes of screening programmes is unlikely to end this controversy. Instead, we need to identify more fundamental research questions that address the validity or utility of screening in this context. We critically and selectively review research and policy literature on psychological screening in cancer care, drawing also from research literature about the nature of psychological needs in cancer care and from relevant literature on psychological screening in mental health. We identify three broad research questions: (i) Apart from intensity of distress, what further information should screening seek about the context of distress, psychological processes that promote distress and patients' own perspective on their needs? (ii) What are the implications of the contextual dependence of disclosure of emotional feelings, given that screening questions can be asked in contexts ranging from an impersonal questionnaire to dialogue with a trusted practitioner? (iii) How should a screen be responded to, given the inherent uncertainty associated with screening results and given that distress in a cancer context can indicate instrumental as well as psychological needs? Examining these questions will mean exchanging a diagnostic framework for screening, in which health need is indicated by the presence of a psychological disorder, for a public health framework, in which health need is identified from multiple perspectives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Govia, Ishtar O.
The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.
Flett, R; Biggs, H; Alpass, F
We examined perceptions of job-related tension among a non-random sample of 52 New Zealand rehabilitation service providers. We considered the relations between job tension and psychological distress and the extent to which feelings of self-esteem moderated this relationship. Major findings are that (a) there is a consistent positive relationship between job tension and general psychological distress; (b) there is a consistent negative relationship between self-esteem and both job tension and general distress; (c) self-esteem moderates the effect of job tension on general distress in that high levels of job tension were associated with increases in psychological distress among respondents with low self-esteem while among respondents with high-self esteem, job-related tension had little negative impact on feelings of psychological distress. Despite a number of limitations, the findings have a number of important implications for professional functioning among rehabilitation service providers and highlight the need for appropriate staff development and training initiatives which focus specifically on service provider wellbeing.
Knowlden, Adam P.; Hackman, Christine L.; Sharma, Manoj
Objective: College students are at an increased risk of mental distress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mental and lifestyle factors differed according to self-reported levels of psychological distress. Design and setting: A self-report questionnaire comprising the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale, Revised Life…
Tao, Wenting; Janzen, Bonnie L; Abonyi, Sylvia
Epidemiological studies have only recently begun to address the consequences of unpaid family work (ie., housework and child rearing) for mental health. Although research is suggestive of an association between the division of unpaid family work and psychological health, especially for women, additional research is required to clarify the conditions under which such a relationship holds. The purpose of the present study was to examine more nuanced relationships between the division of family work and psychological distress by disaggregating the family work construct according to type (housework/child rearing), control over scheduling, and evaluations of fairness. Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted in a Canadian city. Analyses were based on 293 employed parents (182 mothers and 111 fathers), with at least one preschool child, living in dual-earner households. Several multiple linear regression models were estimated with psychological distress as the outcome, adjusting for confounders. For mothers, more perceived time spent in child rearing (particularly primary child care) and high-schedule-control housework tasks (e.g. yard work) relative to one's partner, were associated with greater distress. For fathers, perceived unfairness in the division of housework and child rearing were associated with greater distress. Although methodological limitations temper firm conclusions, these results suggest that the gendered nature of household work has implications for the psychological well-being of both mothers and fathers of preschool children in dual-earner households. However, more longitudinal research and the development of theoretically-informed measures of family work are needed to advance the field.
Li, Yuhui; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Liu-Qin; Liu, Songbo
This study examines the underlying mechanism of the crossover process in work teams. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that a leader's psychological distress positively influences subordinates' psychological distress through abusive supervision. We further hypothesize that team performance attenuates the association between a leader's psychological distress and abusive supervision. In addition, we expect that psychological capital attenuates the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress. Participants were drawn from 86 business teams, and multisource data were collected. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analysis. Results supported the crossover of psychological distress from leader to subordinates, and abusive supervision serves as a mediating mechanism. The positive relationship between a leader's distress and abusive supervision is stronger when team performance is lower. In addition, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress is stronger when subordinates' psychological capital is lower. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Llabre, Maria M; Hadi, Fawzyiah; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S
We tested a conceptual model of the effect of war-trauma exposure in childhood on psychological distress in young adulthood. Participants included 151 urban Kuwaiti children (51% female; M age = 10.62 years) exposed to the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis (assessed in 1993); participants also included 140 parents (81% female; M age mothers = 36.50 years; M age fathers = 41 years). In 2003, 120 participants were reassessed as young adults (50% female; M age = 21.19 years). The conceptual model was evaluated with structural equations. War-trauma exposure was associated with psychological distress in children and parents, but parents reported larger effects than children. Parents' psychological distress did not contribute to children's psychological distress. Children's psychological distress did not dissipate over time. Social support may function as a potential mediator of the effect of war-trauma exposure on psychological distress. Findings support the importance of early detection and treatment of children exposed to war trauma. Findings also implicate social support as a factor to consider in clinical interventions for children exposed to war trauma.
Curley, Maureen; Johnston, Celeste
Controversy over abortion inhibits recognition and treatment for women who experience psychological distress after abortion (PAD). This study identified the characteristics, severity, and treatment preferences of university students who experienced PAD. Of 151 females, 89 experienced an abortion. Psychological outcomes were compared among those who preferred or did not prefer psychological services after abortion to those who were never pregnant. All who had abortions reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and grief lasting on average 3 years. Yet, those who preferred services experienced heightened psychological trauma indicative of partial or full PTSD (Impact of Event Scale, M = 26.86 versus 16.84, p mental health problems. PAD appeared multi-factorial, associated with the abortion and overall emotional health. Thus, psychological interventions for PAD need to be developed as a public health priority.
Balogun, Olukunmi; Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji
To examine the association between alcohol use and psychological distress among adolescents in a range of developing countries. Secondary data analysis of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey was conducted using nationally representative data from 12 developing countries: Botswana, Grenada, Indonesia, Kenya, Myanmar, the Philippines, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Seychelles, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uganda. The surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2008 and involved 32,001 adolescents primarily aged 13-15 years. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the association between alcohol use and psychological distress. The prevalence of past 30-day alcohol use and lifetime drunkenness varied widely across countries, as did the occurrence of psychological distress (anxiety-induced sleeplessness and/or depression). The risk of psychological distress was significantly higher among adolescents when using alcohol in all countries except Myanmar. In nine of the 12 countries, past 30-day alcohol use was associated with psychological distress, while students who had been drunk at least once in their lifetime had an increased risk of experiencing psychological distress in 11 of the study countries. The high prevalence of alcohol use among adolescents and the strength of the association with psychological distress present a major public health challenge in developing countries. The urgent need to reduce adolescent alcohol use necessitates the implementation of context- and culture-specific strategies that reduce the physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hyphantis, T; Floros, G D; Goulia, P; Iconomou, G; Assimakopoulos, K
The Life Style Index (LSI) was designed to assess defense mechanisms, assuming that their use is related to specific emotional states and diagnostic concepts. Aiming to further investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the LSI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of specific defense mechanisms with dimensions of psychological distress and hostility features in three different populations. The sample comprised 1261 adults (410 healthy participants, 723 medical patients and 128 psychiatric patients). Along with defense mechanisms (LSI), Psychological Distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28) and Hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, HDHQ) were also assessed. The results showed that increased psychological distress is related with increased use of all defenses except Denial, with which psychological distress is negatively associated. Regression is constantly related with psychological distress and differentiates psychiatric patients from the other groups of participants, while Compensation and Reaction Formation are related to depressive symptomatology. In medical patients, Repression was found to increase the physical dimension of psychological distress and the social dysfunction. On the contrary,Denial was negatively associated with these dimensions of psychological distress. In the psychiatric patient and healthy participant samples, Projection plays the most detrimental role. Regarding hostility and direction of hostility, those who were found to introvert their hostility presented with higher scores in Denial, indicating that they possibly 'deny' their hostility, and the degree of the Denial was found to be negatively associated with the degree of Introverted Hostility. Those who directed their hostility towards the others, presented with higher rates of Projection, while neither Denial nor Reaction Formation seemed sufficient enough to temper the degree of Extroverted
Shepler, Dustin; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin
A sample of 791 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years were administered a series of measures to determine their sexual identity development status, global self-esteem, global psychological distress, sexual-esteem and sexual distress. As hypothesized, results indicated no significant difference in terms of psychological distress,…
Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard
and depression. DESIGN We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses of CRP levels in 4 clinically relevant categories using data from 2 general population studies. SETTING The Copenhagen General Population and the Copenhagen City Heart studies. PARTICIPANTS We examined 73 131 men and women aged 20......CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress...... to 100 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We ascertained psychological distress with 2 single-item self-reports and depression using self-reported antidepressant use, register-based prescription of antidepressants, and register-based hospitalization with depression. RESULTS In cross-sectional analyses...
William W. Dressler
Full Text Available Cultural consonance is the degree to which individuals approximate prototypes encoded in cultural models. Low cultural consonance is associated with higher psychological distress. Religion may moderate the association between cultural consonance and psychological distress. Brazil, with substantial variation in religion, is an important society for the examination of this hypothesis. Research was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, using a mixed-methods design. Measures of cultural consonance were derived using ethnographic methods and then applied in a survey of 271 individuals drawn from four distinct social strata. Low cultural consonance was associated with higher psychological distress in multiple regression analysis ( B = -.430, p < .001. Members of Pentecostal Protestant churches reported lower psychological distress independently of the effect of cultural consonance ( B = -.409, p < .05. There was no buffering effect of religion. Implications of these results for the study of religion and health are discussed.
Loose, Florence; Tiboulet, Marie; Maisonneuve, Christelle; Taillandier-Schmitt, Anne; Dambrun, Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and (physical and mental) health indicators among North African women and men living in France. This study included 82 North Africans, aged 18-64 years. Perceived discrimination was measured at both group level (PGD) and personal level (PPD). The physical health indicator was blood pressure. The mental health indicator was self-reported psychological distress. Multiple regression analyses showed that higher levels of PGD predicted higher blood pressure. PPD was not related to blood pressure. PPD was positively related to psychological distress among women, but not among men. PPD and PGD are associated with physical and mental health indicators in different ways among North African women and men in France. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah
Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.
Full Text Available Yu-Jie Chiou,1 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Liang-Jen Wang,2 Shau-Hsuan Li,3 Chun-Yi Lee,1 Ming-Kung Wu,1 Chien-Chih Chen,1 Yi-Shan Wu,1 Yu Lee1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3Department of Hematology-Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. Patients and methods: This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Results: Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1% were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43, and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58 were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3% with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%, followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%, depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%, and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%. Conclusion: Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not
Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few
Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi
The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Barry, Declan T; Mizrahi, Trina C
This study examined the relationship between guarded self-disclosure, psychological distress, and willingness to use psychological services if distressed among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Participants who endorsed overall guarded self-disclosure, self-concealment (i.e., unwillingness to reveal affect to others), or conflict avoidance (i.e., maintenance of harmony via suppression of feelings) were significantly more likely to report psychological distress and were significantly less likely to report willingness to use psychological services. While conflict avoidance was a significant independent predictor of psychological distress, self-concealment was a significant independent predictor of willingness to use psychological services. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of guarded self-disclosure, which appear to be differentially associated with psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services.
Jansen, Jens E; Haahr, Ulrik H; Lyse, Hanne-Grethe
involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes. Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver...... user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress. Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within......Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors...
Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Hargrave, Anita; Diaz, Avriel; Kenneson, Aileen; Madden, David; Romero, Moory M; Molina, Juan Pablo; Saltos, David Macias
On 16 April 2016, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck coastal Ecuador, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity, damages to infrastructure, and psychological trauma. This event coincided with the first outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) and co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We tested whether the degree of psychological distress was associated with the presence of suspected DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV (DCZ) infections three months after the earthquake. In July 2016, 601 household members from four communities in Bahía de Caráquez, Manabí Province, Ecuador, were surveyed in a post-disaster health evaluation. Information was collected on demographics, physical damages and injuries, chronic diseases, self-reported psychological distress, and DCZ symptoms. We calculated the prevalence of arbovirus and distress symptoms by community. ANOVA was used to compare the mean number of psychological distress symptoms between people with versus without suspected DCZ infections by age, gender, community and the need to sleep outside of the home due to damages. The prevalence of suspected DCZ infections was 9.7% and the prevalence of psychological distress was 58.1%. The average number of psychological distress symptoms was significantly higher among people with suspected DCZ infections in the periurban community of Bella Vista, in women, in adults 40-64 years of age and in individuals not sleeping at home ( p < 0.05). The results of this study highlight the need to investigate the interactions between psychological distress and arboviral infections following natural disasters.
Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J
Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24% disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6, depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2% respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers.
Ashmore, Jamile A; Friedman, Kelli E; Reichmann, Simona K; Musante, Gerard J
To evaluate the associations between weight-based stigmatization, psychological distress, and binge eating behavior in a treatment-seeking obese sample. Ninety-three obese adults completed three questionnaires: 1) Stigmatizing Situations Inventory, 2) Brief Symptoms Inventory, and 3) Binge Eating Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were used to evaluate the association between stigmatizing experiences, psychological distress and binge eating behavior. Stigmatizing experiences predicted both binge eating behavior (R(2)=.20, p<.001) and overall psychological distress (R(2)=.18, p<.001). A substantial amount of the variance in binge eating predicted by weight-based stigmatization was due to the effect of psychological distress. Specifically, of the 20% of the variance in binge eating accounted for by stigmatizing experiences, between 7% and 34% (p<.01) was due to the effects of various indicators of psychological distress. These data suggest that weight-based stigmatization predicts binge eating behavior and that psychological distress associated with stigmatizing experiences may be an important mediating factor.
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804
Namiki, Shunichi; Saito, Seiichi; Arai, Yoichi; Tochigi, Tatsuo; Numata, Isao; Ioritani, Naomasa
The objective of this study was to investigate: the level of psychological distress; and the relationships between the level of psychological distress and general or disease-specific HRQOL of Japanese men with localized prostate cancer following surgery or radiotherapy. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional survey of 253 men with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy and 87 with external beam radiotherapy were collected. The measures used four questionnaires including: the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Health Survey; The University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index; International Prostate Symptom Score; and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Mean anxiety and depression scores were 4.0 and 4.7, respectively (standard deviation, 3.3 and 3.7). On the anxiety section of HADS, 291 patients (85%) scored 7 points or less; and on the depression scale, 183 (54%) patients scored 4 points or less. Those 'cases' (HADS total, >10) with psychological distress scored lower in all domains of the general and disease related health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than the 'non-cases' (HADS total, ≤10) except for sexual domains. Logistic regression modeling suggested that the men who tended to experience moderate to high distress suffered from worse urinary and bowel symptoms. Most patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer experienced low levels of psychological distress after treatment. However, men who were experiencing urinary and bowel symptoms tended to suffer from moderate to higher distress compared with men reporting no or fewer such symptoms. (author)
Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Kroman, Niels
Sequelae such as pain, sensory disturbances and psychological distress are well known after treatment for invasive breast cancer (IBC). Patients treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) receive a similar treatment as low-risk IBC. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe prevalence......: 1.1–7.0, p = 0.02) and anxiety and depression (measured by HADStotal >15 OR of 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5–6.3, p = 0.003)) were significantly associated with moderate to severe pain. Approximately one-third of the patients reported sensory disturbances such as pins and needles (32%), numbness (37......%) and painful itch (30%) and 94 women (20%) reported anxiety ≥8, 26 (6%) depression and 51 (11%) reported distress. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study showed that women treated for DCIS suffered from pain, sensory disturbances and psychological impairment and had unmet rehabilitation needs. Further...
Johnson-Singh, Charisse M; Rostila, Mikael; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Forsell, Yvonne; Engström, Karin
Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born. This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances. Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual
Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.
Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge
Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits' coping styles and distress levels were associated. A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive-emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual distress in women attending the infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated sexual distress among 88 women who attended the infertility clinic in our institute between January and June 2015. All women who were experiencing primary or secondary infertility during the study sampling were included in the sudy. Sexual distress was measured using the Female sexual distress scale-revised (FSDS-R, a cross-validated patient-reported outcomes measure. Correlations of FSDS-R with patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Results: With the exceptions of the age of couples and serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels, no predictor of high sexual distress was found in the univariate analysis when comparing groups with regard to the FSDS-R cut-off score. The mean age of the sexually distressed women (33.6±5.8 years vs. 29.3±5.1 years and their partners (35.4±4.8 years vs. 31.6±4.2 years was significantly higher than those of the non distressed women, according to a FSDS-R score over 11 (p<0.05. The serum level of AMH was significantly lower in infertile women with high total sexual distress scores (1.4 vs. 7.6 ng/mL (p<0.001. Conclusion: In infertile women, age of woman, age of partner, and serum AMH levels are related with the hope of women to have a child despite an association with sexual distress. Serum AMH, which is perceived as necessary for fertility, had a significant inverse correlation with levels of sexual stress.
Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan
Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.
Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin
Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…
Kaaya, S F; Mbwambo, J K; Fawzi, M C Smith; Van Den Borne, H; Schaalma, H; Leshabari, M T
Several studies show depression is common during pregnancy. However, there is limited information in Tanzania on the magnitude of perceived distress during pregnancy and meanings ascribed to such distress. A descriptive survey collected data using unstructured interviews from 12 traditional practitioners and 10 peri-urban women with previous pregnancy related mental health concerns identified using a depression vignette. The objectives were to describe the sources and characteristics of distress during pregnancy, and idioms of distress that could inform cultural adaptation of depression screening tools. Narrative analysis showed an emergent category of "problematic pregnancies" framed women's recollections of prolonged periods of sadness. This experience was qualified using various idioms of distress that were differentially emphasized depending on informant's perceived causes of health concern. The idiom kusononeka was consistently used to describe extreme sadness across causal categories and clustered with at least two typical features of major depression. This suggested existence of a construct with similarities to biomedical criteria for depression. "Thinking too much" emerged as a distinctive expression associated with prolonged sadness. Distinctive expressions of social functioning impairments were identified that can inform depression severity assessments. In conclusion, contextual inquiry into experiences of psychological distress showed distinct local idioms that clustered in patterns similar to symptoms of biomedical depressive episodes. Further studies to assess the utility of local idioms of distress and distress related functional impairment in depression assessment tools are warranted.
Oberg, Katarina; Sjögren Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin
To explore the associations between women's distressing sexual dysfunctions and different aspects of life satisfaction together with women's concomitant socio-psychological characteristics. Thus, this descriptive article does not discuss causalities. A nationally representative sample of sexually active Swedish women aged 18-65 years in a heterosexual steady partner relationship participated in 1996 in a combined structured interview/questionnaire investigation. Personal sexual distress caused by low sexual interest, insufficient lubrication, orgasm dysfunction, dyspareunia, and vaginism was classified as manifest and mild. Concomitant conditions explored were perceived health, stability of domestic situation, perception of male partner's sexual functions/dysfunctions per se, and some socio-demographic factors. Satisfaction with life as a whole and with 10 different domains of life were reported by using the LiSat-11 checklist. Main results were that a multitude of the independent variables were univariately associated with manifest and, to a lesser extent, mild distressing sexual dysfunctions. This was particularly true for satisfaction with partner relationship and for male's sexual dysfunctions. By performing multiple logistic regressions, the numbers were markedly reduced. The resulting statistical models still contained sexual partner's sexual dysfunctions and satisfaction with partner relationship as dominant covariants of most distressing sexual dysfunctions. Reported low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and male sexual dysfunctions per se are likely to co-occur with manifest but, to a lesser extent, mild distressing sexual dysfunctions in Swedish women aged 18-65 years.
Fu, Rong; Noguchi, Harkuo; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Aiba, Miyuki; Nakamine, Shin; Kawamura, Akira; Takahashi, Hideto; Tamiya, Nanako
It is widely documented that psychological distress is negatively associated with social networks involvement. However, despite the theoretical postulations that social networks are crucial for alleviating psychological distress, no study has yet empirically confirmed the causality of this relationship. Thus, we used the random-effects generalized least squares method to investigate the effect of one- and two-year lagged values for involvement in social networks on psychological distress. Nine years of longitudinal data were extracted from a nationally representative survey in Japan ("The Longitudinal Survey of Middle-aged and Older Persons"). We utilized the Kessler 6 (K6) score to measure psychological distress among 15,242 respondents aged 50-59 years in the baseline year (2005), and stratified participants into three layers of social networks: inner (well-established friendship ties and participating in hobby activates), intermediary (neighborly ties), and outer (involvement in community activities). We found highly significant and negative associations between all three layers and K6 scores, with the strongest association being for the inner layer. We further observed that one-year lagged involvement in the inner and intermediary layers led to significantly lower K6 scores. However, the protective influences of social networks generally diminished over time. In addition, the protective influences of social network involvement on psychological distress were stronger for women than for men. Furthermore, involvement in social networks was especially important for improving mental health among people with psychological distress. These findings would be important for policymaking to prevent mental health deterioration among middle-aged adults in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne
Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.
Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. Results In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9. Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22. Conclusions Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be
Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond
The impact of leadership practices on employee health may be especially evident after extreme events that have physical, psychological, or material consequences for the members of an organization. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the association between leadership behavior and psychological distress in employees who had experienced a workplace terror attack. Ten and 22 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeting their workplace, ministerial employees (n = 2272) responded to a questionnaire assessing fair, empowering, supportive, and laissez-faire leadership, as well as psychological distress. Cross-sectional and time-lagged associations between the constructs were tested using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of supportive leadership were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Longitudinally, negative relationships were found between psychological distress and subsequent ratings of fair and empowering leadership. Supportive leadership was associated with employees' psychological health after trauma, but seems not to have long-term effects on subsequent psychological distress. Rather, psychological distress may lead the employees to perceive their leaders as more negative across time.
Cizmeli, Ceylan; Lobel, Marci; Franasiak, Jason; Pastore, Lisa M
To measure the level of distress and its relationship with other psychologic factors in women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) who participated in a fragile X genetics study. Longitudinal data analyzed with structural equation modeling. Four U.S. private and academic fertility centers. Sixty-two infertile patients with DOR. None. Fertility Problem Inventory, Coping Scale for Infertile Couples, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Health Orientation Scale. Nineteen percent had low fertility distress, 56% had average fertility distress, and 24% had high fertility distress. Thirty-six percent self-reported a "favorable" or "very favorable" emotional response to potentially being a fragile X carrier (termed "emotions"), 53% were "ambivalent," and 11% had an unfavorable reaction. Three months after learning that they were not a carrier, these percentages were 91%, 9%, and 0%, respectively. Emotions at this second time point were significantly more positive than at pretesting. At baseline, higher self-esteem was a significant predictor of reduced fertility distress both directly and indirectly through emotions. Fertility distress was not associated with coping. Self-esteem, fertility distress, pretesting emotions, and coping were unrelated to posttesting emotions. The potential of having an explanation for one's DOR condition may have a beneficial impact on women's psychologic states during the process of genetic testing, and this appeared to be especially true for women with higher self-esteem. Psychologic interventions targeted to women with low self-esteem may reduce distress and improve reactions to genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda
To investigate the impact of objective and subjective social isolation from extended family members and friends on depressive symptoms and psychological distress among a national sample of older adults. Data for older adults (55 years and above) from the National Survey of American Life ( N = 1,439) were used to assess level of objective social isolation and subjective social isolation and to test regression models examining their impact on depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) and psychological distress (Kessler 6 [K6] Scale). The majority of respondents were not socially isolated from family or friends; 5% were objectively isolated from family and friends, and less than 1% were subjectively isolated from family and friends. Regression analyses using both social isolation measures indicated that objective social isolation was unrelated to depressive symptoms and psychological distress. However, subjective social isolation from both family and friends and from friends only was associated with more depressive symptoms, and subjective social isolation from friends only was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Assessments of social isolation among older populations should account for both subjective and objective dimensions, as well as both family and friend social networks. Social isolation from friends is an important, but understudied, issue that has significant consequences for older adult mental health.
Amaro, Hortensia; And Others
Examined contributions of job- and gender-related variables to Hispanic women professionals' mental health. Income, Hispanic group, discrimination, job stress, and peer support related to mental health. Spouse support and spouse ethnicity were associated with stress in balancing roles and psychological distress. Married women reported greater…
Shimazu, Akihito; Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W
The aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC), respectively. Structural equation modeling showed that, as expected, home demands were partially related to psychological distress, both directly and indirectly through FWC. In contrast, job demands were only directly related to psychological distress. The differences between the roles of FWC and WFC are discussed using identity theory.
Edwards, Katie M; Dardis, Christina M; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Gidycz, Christine A
This researchers assessed informal (e.g., friends, family) social reactions to college women's (N = 139) disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) within their current romantic relationships and associated psychological (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and global psychological distress symptoms) and relational (i.e., intentions to leave the abusive relationship) variables. Women completed confidential surveys, which assessed current partner abuse, psychological and relational variables, and three types of social reactions from informal supports to disclosure of IPV: positive (e.g., believing, validating the victim), negative (e.g., disbelieving, blaming the victim), and leaving (i.e., being told to end the relationship) reactions. At the bivariate level, negative social reactions to women's disclosure were related to increases in global psychological distress, PTSS, and leaving intentions; positive social reactions to disclosure related only to increases in PTSS; and being told to leave the relationship related to increases in PTSS and leaving intentions. In the regression analyses, after controlling for abuse severity, negative social reactions were significantly related to global psychological distress and PTSS, and being told to leave significantly related to leaving intentions and PTSS. Mechanisms for these relationships and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Can Nakkas,1 Hubert Annen,1 Serge Brand2,3 1Department of Military Psychology Studies, Military Academy at ETH Zurich, Zurich, 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods: A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility, and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results: Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion: Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for
Habteyes Hailu Tola
Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330 diagnosed with all types of TB who had been on treatment for 1–2 months were enrolled consecutively from 15 randomly selected health centers and one TB specialized hospital. Data on sociodemographic variables and economic status were collected using a structured questionnaire. The presence of psychological distress was assessed at baseline (within 1–2 months after treatment initiation and end point (6 months after treatment initiation using the 10-item Kessler (K-10 scale. Alcohol use and tobacco smoking history were assessed using WHO Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Australian Smoking Assessment Checklist, respectively. The current WHO TB treatment outcome definition was used to differentiate the end result of each patient at completion of the treatment. Results: The overall psychological distress was 67.6% at 1–2 months and 48.5% at 6 months after treatment initiation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that past TB treatment history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.76; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.67–8.45], being on anti-TB and anti-HIV treatments (AOR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.83–15.65, being unmarried (AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.45–7.53, having alcohol use disorder (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.25–6.99, and having low economic status (AOR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.44–7.97 were significantly associated with psychological distress at baseline. However, at 6 months after treatment initiation, only being a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patient (AOR: 3
Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja
To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.
Full Text Available Objective: In the last decades, increasing attention has been paid to examining psychological resources that might contribute to our understanding of suicide risk. Although Emotional Intelligence (EI is one dimension that has been linked with decreased suicidal ideation and behaviors, we detected several gaps in the literature in this area regarding the research designs and samples involved. In this research, we aimed to test a mediator model considering self-report EI, psychological distress and suicide risk across samples adopting both cross-sectional and prospective designs in two independent studies.Method: In Study 1, our purpose was to examine the potential role of psychological distress as a mediator in the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk in a community sample comprised of 438 adults (270 women; mean age: 33.21 years. In Study 2, we sought to examine the proposed mediator model considering a 2-month prospective design in a sample of college students (n = 330 in T1; n = 311 in T2; 264 women; mean age: 22.22 years.Results: In Study 1, we found that psychological distress partially mediated the effect of self-report EI on suicide risk. More interestingly, findings from Study 2 showed that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk at Time 2.Conclusion: These results point out the role of psychological distress as a mediator in the association between self-report EI and suicide risk. These findings suggest an underlying process by which self-report EI may act as a protective factor against suicidal ideation and behaviors. In line with the limitations of our work, plausible avenues for future research and interventions are discussed.
Costa, Eleonora C V; Castanheira, Eva; Moreira, Litícia; Correia, Paulo; Ribeiro, Duarte; Graça Pereira, M
Assessment and treatment of emotional distress during pregnancy show that worries during pregnancy and interpersonal relationships with partners are the important factors determining psychological health. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of worries during pregnancy, relationship intimacy, and marital satisfaction on anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in pregnant women, as well as to analyse the mediating effect of relationship intimacy between marital satisfaction and emotional distress. During their second and third trimester of pregnancy, 200 Portuguese women were recruited during childbirth preparation consultations and completed the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships Scale (PAIR), the Marital Life Areas Satisfaction Evaluation Scale (MLASES), and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that being unemployed or on sick leave, being younger, having a history of miscarriage, having more worries during pregnancy, and declaring low-relationship intimacy were the main predictors of emotional distress. Relationship intimacy mediated the relation of marital satisfaction to anxiety and depression symptoms. This study highlights the importance of the worries during pregnancy and relationship intimacy in shaping pregnant women's emotional distress, and identifies both as targets of intervention.
Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231
Goodwin, Robin; Kaniasty, Krzysztof; Sun, Shaojing; Ben-Ezra, Menachem
Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims. Prevalence of serious mental illness (K6 score > 18) was higher after November 2015 attacks (7.0% after the first attack, 10.2% the second, χ2 (1) = 5.67, p < 0.02), as were probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (11.9% vs. 14.1%; χ2 (1) = 4.15, p < 0.04). In structural equation analyses, sex, age, geographic proximity, media use and religiosity were associated with distress, as was the interaction between event and religiosity. Distress was then associated with racism symbolism and willingness to interact with Muslims. Implications are considered for managing psychological trauma across populations, and protecting inter-group harmony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turney, Kristin; Lee, Hedwig; Comfort, Megan
Though theoretical perspectives suggest experiences of stigma and discrimination after release may be one pathway through which incarceration leads to poor mental health, little research considers the relationship between discrimination and mental health among former inmates. In this article, data from a sample of men recently released from prison to Oakland or San Francisco, California (N = 172), are used to consider how criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are independently and cumulatively associated with psychological distress. Results indicate that (a) the frequency of criminal record discrimination and racial/ethnic discrimination are similar; (b) both forms of discrimination are independently, negatively associated with psychological distress; and (c) the level of racial/ethnic discrimination does not alter the association between criminal record discrimination and psychological distress. The results highlight that criminal record discrimination is an important social stressor with negative implications for the mental health of previously incarcerated individuals.
Hani Ramli Zafirah
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Medical education is a laborious program which may give negative consequences on the physical and psychological health of medical students. The aims of this study were to evaluate psychological distress among Malay medical students and to assess its relationship with their lifestyle.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 221 Malay medical students. Psychological distress and lifestyle were assessed using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLPII respectively.Results: About 30.8% of Malay medical students had mild to extremely severe depressive symptoms, 62.9 % showed mild to extremely severe anxiety symptoms, and 34.9% of them had mild to extremely severe stress. The depressive subscale was significantly higher among female than male students (Z=-2.613, P=0.009. There was a significant negative correlation between total psychological distress and spiritual growth (r=-0.217, P=0.001. Depression was found not only negatively correlated with spiritual growth (r =-0.328, P=0.000 but also interpersonal relationship (r=-0.161, P=0.016. Stress was inversely correlated with physical activity (r =-0.172, P=0.011. Preclinical students had significantly better scores in health responsibility (Z=-2.301, P=0.021, interpersonal relationship (Z=-2.840, P=0.005, stress management (Z=-2.339, P=0.019, spiritual growth (Z=-2.483, P=0.013 and nutrition and diet (Z =-2.456, P=0.014 than clinical students.Conclusions: Malay medical students had significant symptoms that indicate psychological distress that related to their lifestyle. This warrants further psychiatric evaluation and management for them to be good and safe future doctors. Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Lifestyle, Medical Students
Doss, Brian D; Mitchell, Alexandra; Georgia, Emily J; Biesen, Judith N; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson
Empirically based couple therapy results in significant improvements in relationship satisfaction for the average couple; however, further research is needed to identify mediators that lead to change and to ensure that improvements in mediators predict subsequent-not just concurrent-relationship satisfaction. In addition, given that much of the current literature on couple therapy examines outcomes in a research environment, it is important to examine mediators in a treatment-as-usual setting. To address these questions, 161 heterosexual couples (322 individuals) received treatment-as-usual couple therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers (M = 5.0 and 13.0 sessions at the two sites) and were assessed before every session. The majority of couples were married (85%) and had been together for a median of 7.8 years (SD = 13). Participants were primarily White, non-Hispanic (69%), African American (21%), and White, Hispanic/Latino (8%). Individuals' own self-reported improvements in communication, emotional closeness, and psychological distress (but not frequency of behaviors targeted in treatment) mediated the effect of treatment on their subsequent relationship satisfaction. When all significant mediators were examined simultaneously, improvements in men's and women's emotional closeness and men's psychological distress independently mediated subsequent relationship satisfaction. In contrast, improvements in earlier relationship satisfaction mediated the effect of treatment only on subsequent psychological distress. This study identifies unique mediators of treatment effects and shows that gains in mechanisms predict subsequent relationship satisfaction. Future investigations should focus on the role of emotional closeness and psychological distress-constructs that have often been neglected-in couple therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kroft, Ilse; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of psychological distress and factors contributing to distress in patients with morphea or eosinophilic fasciitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Of 120 patients with morphea or
Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B
Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.
Ana Alice Vilas Boas
Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can
BOAS,ANA ALICE VILAS; MORIN,ESTELLE M.
Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental he...
Marchand, Alain; Drapeau, Aline; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic
This study investigated variations in psychological distress in a large sample of the Canadian population according to employment status, occupation, work organization conditions, reasons for non-employment, stress and support outside the work environment, family situation and individual characteristics. Data came from cycle 4 (2000-1) of the Canadian National Population Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for the family situation, the level of support from the social network and the individual characteristics, were carried out on a sample of 7258 individuals aged from 18 to 65 years. Occupation, social support at work, age, self-esteem, presence of children aged five and under and social support outside of the workplace were associated with lower levels of psychological distress, while permanent and temporary disability, psychological demands in the workplace, job insecurity, female gender, and stressful financial, marital and parental situations were related to higher levels of psychological distress. Findings from this study suggest that, in terms of psychological distress, having a job is not always better than non-employment, and that specific non-employment situations associate differently with psychological distress.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. Methods This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4, mostly were males (53%, married (66% and had secondary school education (50%. Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake
Montazeri, Ali; Baradaran, Hamid; Omidvari, Sepideh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Ebadi, Mehdi; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Shariati, Mohammad
An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4), mostly were males (53%), married (66%) and had secondary school education (50%). Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake adequate psychological counseling is needed for those who
Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan
Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students.
Li, Lingyan; Li, Shichen; Wang, Yuping; Yi, Jinyao; Yang, Yanjie; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao
The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer who completed questionnaires assessing their coping strategies and psychological distress. "Adaptive coper," reporting most use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies, behaviors of acceptance and shifting attention, and least use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, had the best psychological adjustment. "Negative coper," characterized by most use of maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, least use of adaptive cognitive coping strategies except "putting in perspective," and median levels of medical coping behaviors, had the worst psychological adjustment. "Inconsistent coper," with great use of all cognitive coping strategies, and most behaviors of fighting against the disease, and fewest behaviors of attention shift, had relatively high levels of psychological distress. Younger age, less education, shorter time since diagnosis, widowed, living in rural areas, and undergoing chemotherapy are possible markers for patients with less adaptive coping patterns. Interventions should be developed according to the different coping profiles of patients, and the key group to target is "negative copers," who may benefit from cognitive behavioral approaches that combine emotion, cognition and behavior, which could help them more effectively appraise and cope with stressful events.
Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Estrem, Hayley; Pados, Britt F; Knafl, George J; Brandon, Debra
To examine the change in psychological distress of mothers of preterm infants and its association with maternal feeding behaviors as the infant transitions to full oral feeding. This descriptive exploratory study used a subset of data from a study of the effects of a coregulated feeding intervention for 34 mothers and hospitalized preterm infants in a Level-III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal psychological distress was measured by maternal worry (Child Health Worry Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiology-Depression Scale), and role stress (Parental Stress Scale: NICU-Role Alteration) at three time points: within 1 week prior to the first oral feeding (T1), and at achievement of half (T2) and full oral feeding (T3). Feedings were videotaped at T2 and T3. An observational coding system measured maternal feeding behaviors. Linear mixed modeling evaluated the change in maternal psychological distress and its association with mothers' feeding behaviors as the infant transitioned to full oral feeding. Maternal depressive symptoms were highest at T1 and declined over time. Maternal worry and role stress were also highest at T1 but remained stable from T2 to T3. Increased maternal psychological distress, particularly depressive symptoms and role stress, were associated with less use of developmentally supportive feeding behaviors, that is, minimizing tactile stimulation, providing steady touch to contain or stabilize the infant, and regulating milk flow. Supporting maternal psychological well-being while infants are learning to feed orally may be an appropriate target for interventions to support mother-infant early feeding interactions.
Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
This study investigates factors associated with psychological distress among military police (n = 1,120) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article describes their social, economic, and demographic characteristics, quality of life, mental health, and work conditions. Measurement of psychological distress used the Self-Reported Questionnaire. Analysis of associations used logistic regression, considering factors associated with psychological distress. The results indicate an association between psychological distress and factors such as ability to react to difficult situations, dissatisfaction with life, health problems (especially digestive, nervous, and musculoskeletal symptoms), and adverse work conditions such as excessive workload, constant stress, and victimization. The article concludes by highlighting the need for health promotion interventions for the military police, focusing especially on their mental health.
Corwin, Diana; Wall, Kathleen; Koopman, Cheryl
Women with breast cancer frequently report psychological distress throughout the treatment process. Patients have several empirically supported options for group psychotherapy while undergoing breast cancer treatment. However, few interventions have been developed that incorporate spirituality into psychotherapy, despite indications that patients…
Avitsland, Tone Lise; Faugli, Anne; Pripp, Are Hugo; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Bjørnland, Kristin; Emblem, Ragnhild
The aim of the study was to evaluate stress in mothers of children with feeding problems before and after gastrostomy placement, and to identify changes in child health and variables affecting maternal stress. Psychological distress and parenting stress in 34 mothers of children referred for gastrostomy were assessed using general health questionnaire (GHQ) (overall psychological distress), impact of event scale (IES) (intrusive stress related to child's feeding problems), and parenting stress index (PSI) (stress related to parenting) before, 6, and 18 months after placement of a gastrostomy. Information of child health and long-term gastrostomy complications were recorded. A semistructured interview constructed for the present study explored maternal preoperative expectations and child's quality of life. Insertion of a gastrostomy did not significantly influence vomiting or the number of children with a low weight-for-height percentile. All of the children experienced peristomal complications. Despite this, mothers' overall psychological distress was significantly reduced after 6 and 18 months, and the majority of mothers (85%) reported that their preoperative expectations were fulfilled and that the child's quality of life was improved after gastrostomy placement. Maternal concerns for the child's feeding problems, measured as intrusive stress, had effect on maternal overall psychological distress. Despite frequent stomal complications the gastrostomy significantly reduced the mothers' psychological distress and improved the child's quality of life as reported by the mother.
Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality
Coutu, Marie-France; Corbière, Marc; Durand, Marie-José; Nastasia, Iuliana; Labrecque, Marie-Elise; Berbiche, Djamal; Albert, Valérie
To test a model of presenteeism on the basis of established and emerging theories separated into organizational and individual factors that could be mediated by psychological distress. This was a Web survey of 2371 employees (response rate of 48%) of a provincial government agency. We assessed theories with validated measures for organizational and individual factors. Psychological distress was negatively associated to presenteeism, when controlling for sex, short-term work absence in the last year, and social desirability. Both individual and organizational factors were related to psychological distress. The most important factors included the presence of stress events in the preceding 6 months, extrinsic efforts (interruptions, work requirements), self-esteem as a worker, and internal amotivation. By identifying modifiable factors, our results suggest that the implementation of a work organization structure that promotes stimulation and accomplishment would reduce psychological distress and further presenteeism.
Ridd, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Peters, Tim J; Salisbury, Chris
Psychological distress in patients who attend their GP is thought to be under-recognised. However, it is likely that both disclosure and detection are influenced by how well the patient and doctor know each another. To examine whether patient-doctor depth of relationship is associated with identification of psychological distress. Cross-sectional study in general practices in and around Bristol, England. Patients (aged ≥16 years) were asked to complete a questionnaire and consent to their electronic medical records being reviewed. Study GPs independently assessed patient psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression was used to look for associations between patient-doctor depth of relationship and GP detection of patient psychological distress (defined according to the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12). There were 643 eligible appointments with 31 GPs. In total, 541 (84.1%) patients returned questionnaires and 490 (76.2%) consented to their records being reviewed. Patient-doctor depth of relationship was not associated with GP detection of mild to severe patient psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.02) but, in secondary analyses, it was associated with the identification of moderate to severe distress (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.26). GPs reported more patient psychological distress in patients who reported a greater depth of relationship but this did not relate to patients' GHQ-12 scores. Evidence to support an association between patient-doctor depth of relationship and improved GP detection of patients with psychological distress was weak, except in those patients who GPs thought were more distressed. GPs may overestimate emotional distress in patients who report deeper patient-doctor relationships.
Full Text Available The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self.
Chen, Wenhong; Lee, Kye-Hyoung
Studies on the mental health implications of social media have generated mixed results. Drawing on a survey of college students (N=513), this research uses structural equation modeling to assess the relationship between Facebook interaction and psychological distress and two underlying mechanisms: communication overload and self-esteem. It is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines how communication overload mediates the mental health implications of social media. Frequent Facebook interaction is associated with greater distress directly and indirectly via a two-step pathway that increases communication overload and reduces self-esteem. The research sheds light on new directions for understanding psychological well-being in an increasingly mediated social world as users share, like, and comment more and more.
Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Tzu-I
Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (-1.62, 95%CI = -2.26-(-)0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level education (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82). These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.
Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee
Public stigma is a major source of stress for cancer survivors. However, factors that buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of public stigma on psychological distress have not been elucidated. This study examined how perceived public stigma affects psychological distress as mediated by cancer disclosure, internalized reactions to stigma, and social support availability. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in South Korea. The study sample was 223 adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 19 and currently between 15 and 39 years old. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Structural equation modeling was used with 1000 bootstrap samples. The goodness of model fit was acceptable. Public stigma perceived by cancer survivors influenced psychological distress via cancer disclosure, internalized shame, and social support availability. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted higher levels of internalized shame and self-blame and lower levels of social support availability, which subsequently increased psychological distress. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted lower levels of disclosure about cancer history and experiences. Cancer disclosure indirectly ameliorated psychological distress by reducing internalized shame. This study offers evidence that cognitive and social factors play important roles in mediating the effects of perceived public stigma on psychological distress in Korean cancer survivors. A greater understanding of factors that influence psychological distress may help psychosocial oncology service providers to identify childhood cancer survivors in need of psychosocial services and provide them with appropriate resources and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BOAS, ANA ALICE VILAS; MORIN, ESTELLE M.
Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domai...
Jackman, Kasey B; Dolezal, Curtis; Bockting, Walter O
This study examined internalized transnegativity and psychological distress in two age groups of transgender individuals who identified their gender identity on the feminine spectrum (rather than congruent with their male sex assigned at birth). Due to greater visibility and acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, we hypothesized that internalized transnegativity would be lower in the younger compared with the older group, and that the younger generation would, therefore, report lower levels of psychological distress than the older generation. The study sample consisted of trans-feminine individuals (N = 440) who completed a online survey of the U.S. transgender population and comprised a younger group aged 18-24 years (n = 133) and an older group aged 40 years and older (n = 307). Internalized transnegativity was assessed using the Transgender Identity Survey, and psychological distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18. We used regression and mediation analysis to examine differences between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the older group reported significantly lower levels of both internalized transnegativity and psychological distress compared with the younger group. Internalized transnegativity partially mediated the relationship between age group and psychological distress. Despite greater visibility of transgender people and increasing acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, the younger trans-feminine individuals reported more psychological distress than the older transfeminine individuals, which was, in part, related to internalized transnegativity. Trans-feminine individuals may benefit from culturally sensitive and clinically competent mental health services to alleviate internalized transnegativity and psychological distress.
Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients
Ogeil, Rowan P; Phillips, James G
Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used stimulants that enhance alertness and mood. Discontinuation of both stimulants is associated with withdrawal symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, which may differ in males and females. The present study examines changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and psychological distress associated with use and dependence on caffeine and nicotine. An online survey comprising validated tools to assess sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological distress was completed by 166 participants (74 males, 96 females) with a mean age of 28 years. Participants completed the study in their own time, and were not offered any inducements to participate. Sleep quality was poorer in those dependent upon caffeine or nicotine, and there were also significant interaction effects with gender whereby females reported poorer sleep despite males reporting higher use of both stimulants. Caffeine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality, increased daytime dysfunction, and increased levels of night time disturbance, while nicotine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality and increased use of sleep medication and sleep disturbances. There were strong links between poor sleep and diminished affect, with psychological distress found to co-occur in the context of disturbed sleep. Stimulants are widely used to promote vigilance and mood; however, dependence on commonly used drugs including caffeine and nicotine is associated with decrements in sleep quality and increased psychological distress, which may be compounded in female dependent users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Papp, Lauren M; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark
To elucidate the processes that underlie the established association between psychopathology and marital functioning, researchers have given attention to how symptomatic individuals manage their interpersonal contexts, particularly during the handling of disagreements. In the current study, the authors evaluate the role of marital conflict strategies in relation to wives' and husbands' psychological distress levels. A sample of 100 community-based couples completed assessments of psychological distress and diaries describing marital conflict that occurred at home during a 15-day reporting period. Findings from multilevel modeling of dyadic data revealed associations between both spouses' psychological distress and multiple behavioral and emotional conflict expressions in the home. Psychological symptoms uniquely predicted the occurrence of certain conflict expressions, even when accounting for global negative marital sentiments. The findings encourage subsequent consideration of marital conflict expressions and resolution strategies when studying processes involved in the marriage-psychological adjustment link. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Ridd, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Peters, Tim J; Salisbury, Chris
Background Psychological distress in patients who attend their GP is thought to be under-recognised. However, it is likely that both disclosure and detection are influenced by how well the patient and doctor know each another. Aim To examine whether patient–doctor depth of relationship is associated with identification of psychological distress. Design and setting Cross-sectional study in general practices in and around Bristol, England. Method Patients (aged ≥16 years) were asked to complete a questionnaire and consent to their electronic medical records being reviewed. Study GPs independently assessed patient psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression was used to look for associations between patient–doctor depth of relationship and GP detection of patient psychological distress (defined according to the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12). Results There were 643 eligible appointments with 31 GPs. In total, 541 (84.1%) patients returned questionnaires and 490 (76.2%) consented to their records being reviewed. Patient–doctor depth of relationship was not associated with GP detection of mild to severe patient psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.02) but, in secondary analyses, it was associated with the identification of moderate to severe distress (adjusted OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.26). GPs reported more patient psychological distress in patients who reported a greater depth of relationship but this did not relate to patients' GHQ-12 scores. Conclusion Evidence to support an association between patient–doctor depth of relationship and improved GP detection of patients with psychological distress was weak, except in those patients who GPs thought were more distressed. GPs may overestimate emotional distress in patients who report deeper patient–doctor relationships. PMID:22429433
Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Szabo, Edina; Kocsel, Natalia; Edes, Andrea; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Magyar, Mate; Kovacs, David; Zsombok, Terezia; Elliott, Rebecca; Anderson, Ian Muir; William Deakin, John Francis; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Juhasz, Gabriella
Objective: The relationship between migraine and psychological distress has been consistently reported in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. We hypothesised that a stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as rumination would mediate the relationship between migraine and psychological distress. Design and Main Outcomes Measures: Self-report questionnaires measuring depressive rumination, current psychological distress and migraine symptoms in two independent European population cohorts, recruited from Budapest (N = 1139) and Manchester (N = 2004), were used. Structural regression analysis within structural equation modelling was applied to test the mediational role of brooding and reflection, the components of rumination, between migraine and psychological distress. Sex, age and lifetime depression were controlled for in the analysis. Results: Migraine predicted higher brooding and reflection scores, and brooding proved to be a mediator between migraine and psychological distress in both samples, while reflection mediated the relationship significantly only in the Budapest sample. Conclusions: Elevated psychological distress in migraine is partially attributed to ruminative response style. Further studies are needed to expand our findings to clinical samples and to examine how rumination links to the adjustment to migraine. PMID:27616579
Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Okunoren, Oladoyin; LoParo, Devon; Hunter, Carla D
The current study used the Health Belief Model to develop a measure that assessed the emotional benefits and barriers of professional psychological services in an African American women sample. Data from 251 African American women recruited from online organizations from across the United States (n = 164) and a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 87) were used for exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 2-factor structure of the Emotional Benefits and Barriers of Psychological Services (EBBPS) Scale: Life Enhancement and Concerns about Distress, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed with data from 208 African American women who were recruited from a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 81), Mturk (n = 104), and online organizations across the United States (n = 23). Results confirmed the EFA 2-factor model and demonstrated superior fit compared with a unidimensional model as well as a 3 factor model. Both factors exhibited excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was supported given that EBBPS factors were correlated with theoretically related constructs, like psychological help-seeking attitudes, intentions to seek counseling, and cultural identity, as well as uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated constructs, like psychological distress. These findings support the utility and cultural relevance of the EBBPS with African American women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ali S Radeef
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between medical and science undergraduate students and to assess the sources of stressors that are attributing to it. Methods: A sample of 697 undergraduate students participated in this study, in which 501 were medical students and the remaining 196 were Science students. Psychological distress was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The students were given a list of possible sources of stress which were chosen depending on previous studies. Results: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 32.6%. Science students showed a significantly higher rate and mean score of psychological distress than medical students, and the mean score was significantly higher during the clinical phase rather than the pre-clinical phase in medical students. Overall, female students had a significantly higher mean score than males, however although the mean score was higher in females it was only significant in the pre-clinical phase. In addition to academic and psychological stressors, factors such as reduced holidays, lack of time for relaxation, and limitation of leisure/entertainment time were among the top ten stressors reported by the students. Conclusions: Psychological distress is common among university students, and it is higher among science students than medical students. Academic and psychological factors can be considered as sources of stressors which may precipitate psychological distress among college students.
Jens E. Jansen
Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes.Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress.Method: Within a cross-sectional design, 101 caregivers of 38 persons with first-episode psychosis in a clinical epidemiological sample completed a series of self-report measures.Results: A linear mixed model analysis found that, after controlling for caregiver socio-demographic factors, service user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress.Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within a broad range of emotional disorders. There may be important clinical implications in terms of facilitating the process of acceptance through interventions from the ‘third-wave’ or contextual cognitive behavioral therapies.
Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Crawford, Sybil; Tran, Chau; Goldberg, Robert; Rosenthal, Lawrence; Ockene, Ira
Psychological distress is common in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and has been associated with a worse prognosis. The authors examined whether spiritual wellbeing is associated with reduced psychological distress in patients with ICDs. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Wellbeing (FACIT-SWB) questionnare and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to measure spiritual wellbeing and overall psychological distress. Mu...
Purpose: patients undergoing radiotherapy have physical and psychological symptoms related to the underlying disease and the treatment. In order to give the best possible support to the patients, more knowledge about the amount and the changing of distress in the course of radiotherapy is of essentially importance. Methods: The distress was measured in a consecutive sample of cancer patients (n=82) undergoing radiotherapy. Each patient was given the EORTC-QLQ-C30, the HADS and a special questionnaire which ascertain radiotherapy-specific items before starting the radiotherapy, at the onset of radiotherapy, in the third week of radiotherapy and 3 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: within the first week of treatment the psychological distress of the patients is increasing; 98.8 % of the patients are 'moderate distressed', 46 % 'severe distressed'. General physical symptoms seem not to be affected by the radiotherapy, there is no changing. The distress caused by the organization of the radiotherapy is decreasing, while therapy-related symptoms are increasing in the course of radiotherapy. Even after the end of the therapy these symptoms keep on causing distress, sometimes in a higher amount than before. A correlation between sex, sort of cancer and curative or palliative treatment and the amount of distress was found. Conclusion: the results stress the importance of adequate emotional support for patients undergoing radiotherapy especially in the first week of treatment and after the treatment. There is a need for the development of a valid radiotherapy - questionnaire in order to be able to measure the distress of these patients. (author)
MacKinnon, Anna L; Yang, Lisa; Feeley, Nancy; Gold, Ian; Hayton, Barbara; Zelkowitz, Phyllis
although psychosocial risk factors have been identified for postpartum depression (PPD) and perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the role of labour- and birth-related factors remains unclear. The present investigation explored the impact of birth setting, subjective childbirth experience, and their interplay, on PPD and postpartum PTSD. in this prospective longitudinal cohort study, three groups of women who had vaginal births at a tertiary care hospital, a birthing center, and those transferred from the birthing centre to the tertiary care hospital were compared. Participants were followed twice during pregnancy (12-14 and 32-34 weeks gestation) and twice after childbirth (1-3 and 7-9 weeks postpartum). symptoms of PPD and PTSD did not significantly differ between birth groups; however, measures of subjective childbirth experience and obstetric factors did. Moderation analyses indicated a significant interaction between pain and birth group, such that higher ratings of pain among women who were transferred was associated with greater symptoms of postpartum PTSD. women who are transferred appear to have a unique experience that may put them at greater risk for postpartum psychological distress. It may be beneficial for care providers to help prepare women for pain management and potential unexpected complications, particularly if it is their first childbirth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Warren, Christie D; Fowler, Ken; Speed, David; Walsh, Anna
Individuals with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) are at higher risk for experiencing high levels of psychological distress and low levels of social support. The primary objectives of this study were to examine perceived social support and psychological distress among Canadian adults with self-reported BD-I or BD-II as diagnosed by a health professional and explore the relationship between types of social support and psychological distress within this sample. Using a cross-sectional, national datafile, 563 Canadian male and female adults (20-64 years) who reported being diagnosed with BD-I or BD-II were investigated using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). It was observed that while the BD-I or BD-II sample had significantly lower SPS scores and significantly higher K10 scores than the overall Canadian sample, age and support in the form of reassurance of worth and social integration were associated with decreased psychological distress. Further, a diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II was found to moderate the effect of social support on psychological distress. Despite the limitations, which include self-reported diagnosis of BD-I and BD-II and potential exclusion of those who are not diagnosed but have BD-I or BD-II, these findings suggest that reassurance of worth and social integration may act as protective factors for psychological distress among individuals with BD-I or BD-II.
Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul; Hilton, Michael; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey
Psychological distress is growing in prevalence in Australia. Comorbid psychological distress and/or depressive symptoms are often associated with poorer health, higher healthcare utilisation and decreased adherence to medical treatments. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study cross-sectional screening dataset was used to explore the association between psychological distress and a range of health conditions in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The study uses the World Health Organization Health and Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ), to identify self-reported health status. Within the HPQ is the Kessler 6 (K6), a six-item scale of psychological distress which strongly discriminates between those with and without a mental disorder. Potential confounders of age, sex, marital status, number of children, education level and annual income were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Psychological distress was significantly associated with all investigated health conditions in both crude and adjusted estimates. The conditions with the strongest adjusted association were, in order from highest: drug and alcohol problems, fatigue, migraine, CVD, COPD, injury and obesity. Psychological distress is strongly associated with all 14 health conditions or risk factors investigated in this study. Comorbid psychological distress is a growing public health issue affecting Australian workers.
Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A
The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.
Hilton Michael F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.
Andersen, Janice; Nordin, Karin; Sandberg, Sverre
Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) requires long-term treatment and follow-up, although many patients experience life-long remission. The aim of this cross-sectional postal survey was to describe and investigate the association between illness perception, health complaints, self-reported symptoms and distress in persons with PCT. The participants perceived PCT as a chronic condition with high levels of personal and treatment control. Persons who reported active symptoms scored higher on perceived illness threat, total health complaints and psychological distress compared with those in remission or latent phases. However, a higher perception of illness threat and the total burden of health complaints were more closely associated with psychological distress than were perceived PCT symptoms activity. This has implications for clinical consultation; dermatologists should be attentive to symptoms activity, but also recognize that patients in remission with a high perceived illness threat and multiple health complaints might be especially vulnerable to psychological distress with regards to PCT.
Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael
In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…
Stenbæk, D. S.; Toftager, M.; Hjordt, L. V.
STUDY QUESTION: Do mental distress and mood fluctuations in women undergoing GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology (ART) differ depending on protocol and the personality trait, neuroticism? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART treatment did not induce elevated levels...... of mental distress in either GnRH antagonist or agonist protocols but neuroticism was positively associated with increased mental distress, independent of protocols. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ART treatment may increase mental distress by mechanisms linked to sex hormone fluctuations. General psychological...... characteristics, such as personality traits indexing negative emotionality, e.g. neuroticism, are likely to affect mental distress during ART treatment. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 83 women undergoing their first ART cycle were consecutively randomized 1:1 to GnRH antagonist (n = 42) or GnRH agonist...
Full Text Available Tsukasa Kato Department of Social Psychology, Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hospital nurses frequently experience relationships with patients as stressors in the workplace. Nurses’ coping behavior is one potential buffering factor that can reduce the effects of job stress on their psychological functioning and well-being. In this study, the association between nurses' strategies for coping with interpersonal stress from patients and their psychological distress was examined. Participants included 204 hospital nurses and 142 salespeople, who were used as a comparison group. Participants completed measures of coping with interpersonal stress and psychological distress. Hospital nurses reported more psychological distress than did salespeople. Moreover, distancing coping was correlated with high psychological distress in both nurses and salespeople, and reassessing coping was correlated with low psychological distress in nurses. For nurses only, constructive coping appeared to be an effective strategy for reducing psychological distress. It is important for nurses to understand the role of constructive coping in nurse–patient communication and interaction. Keywords: nurse, relationships with patients, interpersonal stress, coping behavior, job stress
Castelli, Lorys; Tesio, Valentina; Colonna, Fabrizio; Molinaro, Stefania; Leombruni, Paolo; Bruzzone, Maria; Fusaro, Enrico; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Torta, Riccardo
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain associated with other symptoms like fatigue, stiffness, non-restorative sleep and psychological distress that strongly affects the quality of life in FM patients. While the psychological distress has been widely explored in FM, only a few studies investigated alexithymia, an emotional dysregulation trait. Evaluate the prevalence of alexithymia and psychological distress and their impact on patients quality of life. A battery of tests assessing alexithymia, depression, anxiety, emotional distress symptoms and the health related quality of life (HRQoL) was filled out by 55 female FM patients. After having analysed their prevalence, two regression analyses were performed in order to evaluate the role that alexithymia, depression, anxiety, emotional distress and pain characteristics have on quality of life of FM patients. Results showed that a clinically relevant level of psychological distress was present in more than half of our sample, whereas alexithymic traits were present in 20% of the patients. Regression analyses showed that pain intensity, depression and current pain were the variables that best contribute to explain the physical component of the HRQoL while anxiety, depression and pain intensity were the variables that mainly contributed to explain the mental component of quality of life. These results underline the high prevalence of alexithymia in FM patients and the great impact of psychological symptoms on FM patients HRQoL. Wholistic care of FM patients which addresses both physical and psychological symptoms is needed.
Yabe, Hirooki; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohira, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Maeda, Masaharu; Abe, Masafumi
Abstract Objective To assess relationships between the perception of radiation risks and psychological distress among evacuees from the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from a survey of evacuees conducted in 2012. Psychological distress was classified as present or absent based on the K6 scale. Respondents recorded their views about the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation, including immediate, delayed and genetic (inherited) health effects, on a four-point Likert scale. We examined associations between psychological distress and risk perception in logistic regression models. Age, gender, educational attainment, history of mental illness and the consequences of the disaster for employment and living conditions were potential confounders. Findings Out of the 180 604 people who received the questionnaire, we included 59 807 responses in our sample. There were 8717 respondents reporting psychological distress. Respondents who believed that radiation exposure was very likely to cause health effects were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed than other respondents: odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (99.9% confidence interval, CI: 1.42–1.89) for immediate effects; OR: 1.48 (99.9% CI: 1.32–1.67) for delayed effects and OR: 2.17 (99.9% CI: 1.94–2.42) for genetic (inherited) effects. Similar results were obtained after controlling for individual characteristics and disaster-related stressors. Conclusion Among evacuees of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, concern about radiation risks was associated with psychological distress. PMID:26478623
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.
Geirdal, Amy Østertun; Dheyauldeen, Sinan; Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Heimdal, Ketil
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies measured by Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Scale (COPE) and psychological distress measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Becks Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in individuals living with Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and to examine if coping strategies might have a mediating role between experienced illness and psychological distress. HHT is mainly caused by mutations in the ENG- or ALK1-genes and associated with a shorter life span. 90% of patients have recurrent nosebleeds. 66 individuals affected of HHT participated in this cross-sectional study, completing questions due to demographic variables, Experience of illness, COPE, BHS and HADS. X(2) test, bivariate correlations with Pearson r and hierarchical multiple regression were used using PASW 18. Experience of illness made the highest variance in anxiety, depression and hopelessness and the coping strategy "behavioral disengagement" seems to have a mediating role between nose bleedings, being afraid of complications, satisfied with life and psychological distress. Experience of illness is of big importance in psychological distress in individuals affected of HHT, and behavioral disengagement explained the actual relationship between experience of illness and psychological distress.
Bannai, Akira; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Tamakoshi, Akiko
Long working hours have the possibility to influence human health. In Japan, it is well known that teachers have long working hours, and the number of leaves of absence due to mental disorders among public school teachers increased from 2,687 in 2002 to 4,960 in 2012. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between long working hours and psychological distress among school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted from mid-July to September in 2013 in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,245 teachers in public junior high schools. Information about basic characteristics, including working hours, and responses to the General Health Questionnaire-28 were collected anonymously. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between long working hours and psychological distress by gender. Of the 1,245 teachers contacted, 558 (44.8%) responded. After excluding responses with missing data, the final sample included 522 teachers (337 males and 185 females). Psychological distress was identified in 47.8% of males and 57.8% of females. Our results showed a significantly increased risk only in males working >60 hours per week (adjusted OR=4.71 [95% CI 2.04-11.56]) compared with those working ≤40 hours per week. There were no significant associations between long working hours and psychological distress for females. There is a significant association between long working hours and psychological distress in male teachers. However, the causal relationship remains unclear. Further studies such as cohort studies with large sample sizes are needed.
Strine, Tara W; Edwards, Valerie J; Dube, Shanta R; Wagenfeld, Morton; Dhingra, Satvinder; Prehn, Angela Witt; Rasmussen, Sandra; McKnight-Eily, Lela; Croft, Janet B
Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult smoking. Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.
Full Text Available Yumi Nakano,1 Tatsuo Akechi,2 Toshiaki A Furukawa,3 Mayumi Sugiura-Ogasawara4 1Department of Psychology, School of Human Sciences, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Nisshin, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan Objective: To examine the reduction of psychiatric symptoms using individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for women who suffer from recurrent miscarriage (RM and depression and/or anxiety. Methods: Patients with RM and a score of five or higher for K6, a self-report screening scale for depression/anxiety, were interviewed to find information about stressful situations, thoughts, and consequent behaviors that are common and potential causes of psychological distress among RM patients. We then performed individual CBT on 14 patients with RM and depression/anxiety, referring to a list from the interviews, and examined the effects of CBT by a paired t-test. Results: Fourteen women received CBT. The mean number of intervention times was 8.9 sessions (standard deviation [SD], 4.6 sessions. The average Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory–state anxiety scores, self-report screening scales for depression/anxiety, decreased from 13.6 (SD, 8.2 and 49.0 (SD, 7.1 at baseline to 5.2 (SD, 4.4 and 38.0 (SD, 10.2 posttherapy, respectively. These changes were statistically significant. Conclusion: The current preliminary open study confirmed that individual CBT was potentially useful for women with RM and depression and/or anxiety. This finding is the first step towards creating a comprehensive psychological support system for women with RM
van der Wal, Raymond A B; Bucx, Martin J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Prins, Judith B
The practice of anaesthesia comes with stress. If the demands of a stressful job exceed the resources of an individual, that person may develop burnout. Burnout poses a threat to the mental and physical health of the anaesthesiologist and therefore also to patient safety. Individual differences in stress appraisal (perceived demands) are an important factor in the risk of developing burnout. To explore this possible relationship, we assessed the prevalence of psychological distress and burnout in the Dutch anaesthesiologist population and investigated the influence of personality traits. Survey study. Data were collected in the Netherlands from July 2012 until December 2012. We sent electronic surveys to all 1955 practising resident and consultant members of the Dutch Anaesthesia Society. Of these, 655 (33.5%) were returned and could be used for analysis. Psychological distress, burnout and general personality traits were assessed using validated Dutch versions of the General Health Questionnaire (cut-off point ≥2), the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Big Five Inventory. Sociodemographic variables and personality traits were entered into regression models as predictors for burnout and psychological distress. Respectively, psychological distress and burnout were prevalent in 39.4 and 18% of all respondents. The prevalence of burnout was significantly different in resident and consultant anaesthesiologists: 11.3% vs. 19.8% (χ 5.4; P personality trait influencing psychological distress and burnout was neuroticism: adjusted odds ratio 6.22 (95% confidence interval 4.35 to 8.90) and 6.40 (95% confidence interval 3.98 to 10.3), respectively. The results of this study show that psychological distress and burnout have a high prevalence in residents and consultant anaesthesiologists and that both are strongly related to personality traits, especially the trait of neuroticism. This suggests that strategies to address the problem of burnout would do well to focus on
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin
Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type. Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations. In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities. The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries. Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane
Background. Women with breast cancer experience different symptoms related to surgical or adjuvant therapy. Previous findings and theoretical models of mind-body interactions suggest that psychological wellbeing, i.e. levels of distress, influence the subjective evaluation of symptoms, which...... influences or determines functioning. The eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program significantly reduced anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients in a randomized controlled trial (NCT00990977). In this study we tested the effect of MBSR on the burden of breast cancer related...... somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing and evaluated possible effect modification by adjuvant therapy and baseline levels of, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing. Material and methods. A population-based sample of 336 women Danish women operated for breast cancer stages...
Full Text Available Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N=33, within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9 in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N=33 reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n=25 reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed.
Sidheek, K P Fasli; Satyanarayana, Veena A; Sowmya, H R; Chandra, Prabha S
A widely used and accepted scale for assessing resilience is the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The aim of the present study was to establish the psychometric properties of the Kannada version of the scale and assess the relationship between resilience and psychological distress in a sample of adolescent girls living in low-income settings. Data was obtained from a sample of 606 adolescent girls studying in a college meant for women from a socio-economically disadvantaged setting. The CD- RISC (25 item) was used to assess resilience and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was used to assess psychological distress. Exploratory factor analysis yielded four stable factors instead of the original five factors. Similar results have been obtained in other factor-analytic studies. A significant negative correlation was found between psychological distress and resilience. Our study shows that the CD-RISC is a valuable measure to assess resilience among adolescents in low-income settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McGowan, Joseph C; Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Morin, Ruth T; Graber, Liat S
In this study, the authors explore how the association between religiousness and psychological distress varies by religious affiliation. Prior work has shown that the association between religious belief and psychological distress is stronger for Christians than Jews, while religious activity is associated with lower psychological distress for both groups. Interviews were conducted using a community sample of 143 Christian and Jewish older adults, ages 65 and over. Quantitative measures were used to assess levels of organizational and intrinsic religiosity, as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. Christians who are highly involved in the organizational aspects of their religion report fewer depressive symptoms than Jews who have high levels of organizational religiosity, and the opposite is the case at lower levels of organizational religiosity. No significant group differences were found in the relationship between religiousness and anxiety. The results of this study indicate a difference between Jews and Christians in the reasons that they turn to their respective religious services, particularly in late life.
Yamada, Yukari; Klugar, Miloslav; Ivanova, Katerina; Oborna, Ivana
Psychological distress among medical students is commonly observed during medical education and is generally related to poor academic self-perception. We evaluated the role of peer social support at medical schools in the association between psychological distress and academic self-perception. An online survey was conducted in a medical degree program for 138 international students educated in English in the Czech Republic. The Medical Student Well-Being Index was used to define the students' psychological distress. Perceived peer social support was investigated with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Poor academic self-perception was defined as the lowest 30% of a subscale score of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. Analyses evaluated the presence of additive interactions between psychological distress and peer social support on poor academic self-perception, adjusted for possible confounders. Both psychological distress and low peer social support were negatively associated with poor academic self-perception, adjusted for local language proficiency and social support from family. Students with psychological distress and low peer social support had an odds ratio of 11.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-56.6) for poor academic self-perception as compared with those without distress who had high peer social support. The presence of an additive interaction was confirmed in that the joint association was four times as large as what would have been expected to be on summing the individual risks of psychological distress and low peer social support (synergy index = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3-14.9). Psychological distress and low peer social support may synergistically increase the probability of poor academic self-perception among international medical students. Promoting peer social relationships at medical school may interrupt the vicious cycle of psychological distress and poor academic performance.
Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede
In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....
Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kristy N. Carlisle
Conclusion: The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity.
Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...
Feb 7, 2018 ... (MBSRQ), Zung Depression Rating Scale, and Zung Anxiety Rating Scale were applied to ... psychological distress, and subjective quality of life among obese and ... kg/m2, not receiving any medication, no special training .... Emotional role ..... Questionnaire (MBSRQ) showed positive improvement.
Wassersug, Richard J; Oliffe, John L
Gynecomastia (breast development in males) is a side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Medical interventions to prevent or treat gynecomastia carry risk of additional detrimental side effects. However, untreated gynecomastia can be physically uncomfortable and psychologically distressing. Shame from gynecomastia can lead patients to stop otherwise beneficial exercise. Our first aim is to explore the social context for gynecomastia and how it is interpreted by men with the condition, as well as by others, both male and female. Subsequently, we use our understanding of why gynecomastia is psychologically distressing to propose psychosocial interventions that could help men accept this side effect of ADT. We draw on academic literature, media accounts, and web-based testimonials from men with gynecomastia, to understand how gynecomastia is perceived by both patients and the medical community. We examine these resources in light of gynecomastia's impact on sex roles, sexuality, and gender identity issues. By exploring what breasts in a male mean to the individual, we produce an understanding of the social context for distress from gynecomastia. From this understanding, we derive hypotheses about who might be most distressed from gynecomastia and strategies for alleviating this distress. The shame and stigma of gynecomastia is linked to the objectification of women. We suggest that men fear that their breasts will marginalize and subordinate them within gender hierarchies. There is little evidence that breasts on a male erotically attract either men or women. Novel options for living with gynecomastia are contrasted with medicalized strategies including mastectomy. Assessment instruments need to be developed to identify patients most likely to experience distress from gynecomastia and seek out medical interventions. Surgical, radiological, or pharmacological interventions may not be universally necessary if greater acceptance of
Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping
Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Longitudinal relations between past suicidality and subsequent changes in psychological distress at follow-up were examined among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths, as were psychosocial factors (e.g., self-esteem, social support, negative social relationships) that might mediate or moderate this relation. Past suicide attempters were found to have higher levels of depressive symptoms, anxious symptoms, and conduct problems at a later time than youths who neither attempted nor ideated. Psychosocial factors failed to mediate this relation. The interaction among past suicidality, social support, and negative relationships was associated with subsequent changes in all three psychological distress indicators six months later. Specifically, high levels of support (either from family or friends) or negative relationships were found to predict increased psychological distress among those with a history of suicide attempts, but not among youths without a history of suicidality. The findings suggest that GLB youths who attempt suicide continue to have elevated levels of psychological distress long after their attempt and they highlight the importance of social relationships in the youths’ psychological distress at follow-up. PMID:22162620
Mota, Natalie P; Medved, Maria; Whitney, Debbie; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Sareen, Jitender
Although military interest in promoting psychological resilience is growing, resources protective against psychopathology have been understudied in female service members. Using a representative sample of Canadian Forces personnel, we investigated whether religious attendance, spirituality, coping, and social support were related to mental disorders and psychological distress in female service members, and whether sex differences occurred in these associations. Religious attendance and spirituality were self-reported. Coping items were taken from 3 scales and produced 3 factors (active, avoidance, and self-medication). Social support was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Past-year mental disorders were diagnosed with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale assessed distress. Multivariate regression models investigated links between correlates and psychological outcomes within each sex. For associations that were statistically significant in only one sex, sex by correlate interactions were computed. In female service members, inverse relations were found between social support and MDD, any MDD or anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, and distress. No associations were found between religious attendance and outcomes, and spirituality was associated with an increased likelihood of some outcomes. Active coping was related to less psychological distress, while avoidance coping and self-medication were linked to a higher likelihood of most outcomes. Although several statistically significant associations were found in only one sex, only one sex by correlate interaction was statistically significant. Social support was found to be inversely related to several negative mental health outcomes in female service members. Few differences between men and women reached statistical significance. Future research should identify additional helpful resources for female service members.
Oltean, Horea-Radu; David, Daniel Ovidiu
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model of psychological health assumes that rational beliefs cause functional emotions and adaptive behavior, but the presumed role of rational beliefs as protective factor against psychological distress/disorders is still in debate. An important step in validating an evidence-based therapy is to investigate the underling theoretical assumptions. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the direction and magnitude of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress. Our search identified 26 studies that met our criteria. We evaluated the effect size using the random-effects model and we tested the moderator role of several variables. The overall results revealed a medium negative association between rational beliefs and psychological distress, r = -0.31. The strongest association was found for unconditional acceptance beliefs (r = -0.41). The results add empirical evidence for the underling theory of REBT and revealed that the strength of the association between rational beliefs and distress is robust for a wide range of emotional problems. Therefore, rational beliefs could be a trans-diagnostic protective factor against distress. Moreover, results emphasized that rational beliefs type is an important factor, suggesting an increased focus in therapy on the developing of unconditional acceptance and self-acceptance beliefs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Akyüz, Aygül; Şahiner, Gönül; Seven, Memnun; Bakır, Bilal
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS) for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW) for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level. PMID:24696770
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level.
Martins, Lilian Cristina X; Lopes, Claudia S
Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); "high effort and low reward" was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = -0.198; CI 95% -0.384; -0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = -0.184; CI 95% -0.321; -0.046). The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity.
Wade, Dorothy M; Hankins, Matthew; Smyth, Deborah A; Rhone, Elijah E; Mythen, Michael G; Howell, David C J; Weinman, John A
The psychological impact of critical illness on a patient can be severe, and frequently results in acute distress as well as psychological morbidity after leaving hospital. A UK guideline states that patients should be assessed in critical care units, both for acute distress and risk of future psychological morbidity; but no suitable method for carrying out this assessment exists. The Intensive care psychological assessment tool (IPAT) was developed as a simple, quick screening tool to be used routinely to detect acute distress, and the risk of future psychological morbidity, in critical care units. A validation study of IPAT was conducted in the critical care unit of a London hospital. Once un-sedated, orientated and alert, critical care patients were assessed with the IPAT and validated tools for distress, to determine the IPAT's concurrent validity. Fifty six patients took IPAT again to establish test-retest reliability. Finally, patients completed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety questionnaires at three months, to determine predictive validity of the IPAT. One hundred and sixty six patients completed the IPAT, and 106 completed follow-up questionnaires at 3 months. Scale analysis showed IPAT was a reliable 10-item measure of critical care-related psychological distress. Test-retest reliability was good (r =0.8). There was good concurrent validity with measures of anxiety and depression (r =0.7, P psychological morbidity was good (r =0.4, P psychological morbidity (AUC =0.7). The IPAT was found to have good reliability and validity. Sensitivity and specificity analysis suggest the IPAT could provide a way of allowing staff to assess psychological distress among critical care patients after further replication and validation. Further work is also needed to determine its utility in predicting future psychological morbidity.
Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong
This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P farmers (β = 0.30, P farmers (β = 0.20, P farmers had a comparable prevalence of psychological distress when compared with non-farmers in rural China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Tsuji, Ichiro
The association between social isolation and psychological distress among disaster survivors is inconclusive. In addition, because these previous studies were cross-sectional in design, the longitudinal association between time-varying social isolation and psychological distress was not clear. The present study examined the longitudinal association between social isolation and psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We analyzed longitudinal data for 959 adults who had responded to the self-report questionnaires about Lubben Social Network Scale-6 (LSNS-6) and K6 in both a community-based baseline survey (2011) and a follow-up survey (2014) after the disaster. Participants were categorized into four groups according to changes in the presence of social isolation (socially isolated", "became not socially isolated", "remained not socially isolated", and "became socially isolated". We defined a K6 score of ≥ 10/24 as indicating the presence of psychological distress. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to indicate how the change in social isolation was related to changes in psychological distress over 3 years. Among the participants who had not shown psychological distress at the baseline, the rates of deterioration of psychological distress were significantly lower in participants who "became not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.08-0.70) and "remained not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.91), compared with participants who "remained socially isolated". Among the participants who had psychological distress at the baseline, the rate of improvement of psychological distress was significantly higher in participants who "remained not socially isolated" (multivariate OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.08-6.44). The present findings suggest that prevention of social isolation may be an effective public health strategy for
Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant
Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth
This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.
Strine Tara W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.
Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is one of the most common psychological symptoms in elderly cancer patients. However, many of these patients do not receive any treatment for distress management. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of a communication program on the psychological distress of elderly cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This two-group clinical trial with a before and after design was conducted in Al-Zahra and Seyed-Al-Shohada hospitals affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A total of 64 elderly patients were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental and control groups. A 3-week intervention (communicational program consisting of distributing educational booklets, practices, and phone follow-ups was performed for the intervention group. All sessions were held during the 3-week period with sessions held twice per week both in the form of personal attendance and phone tracking, and the patients were encouraged to do the tasks assigned to them. The control group received routine care, and at the end of the study, the content of the sessions was explained to them. The demographic and clinical data of the participants were recorded, and all participants completed Kessler's Psychological Distress inventory at baseline and at the end of the 3-week intervention. Results: We found a significant difference in the psychological distress scores between the two groups before and after the intervention (P < 0.001, independent t-test. Moreover, the mean psychological distress scores decreased significantly in the experimental group after the intervention (P < 0.001, paired t-test. Conclusions: Our communicational program had a positive effect on psychological distress in elderly patients with cancer. Therefore, this program could be used as an easy, cheap, and practical approach for reducing psychological distress in these patients.
Tol, Wietse A; Greene, M Claire; Likindikoki, Samuel; Misinzo, Lusia; Ventevogel, Peter; Bonz, Ann G; Bass, Judith K; Mbwambo, Jessie K K
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health and human rights concern globally, including for refugee women in low-resource settings. Little is known about effective interventions for this population. IPV and psychological distress have a bi-directional relationship, indicating the potential benefit of a structured psychological component as part of efforts to reduce IPV for women currently in violent relationships. This protocol describes a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating an 8-session integrated psychological and advocacy intervention (Nguvu) with female adult survivors of past-year IPV displaying moderate to severe psychological distress. Outcomes are reductions in: recurrence of IPV; symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress (primary); and functional impairment (secondary). Hypothesized mediators of the intervention are improvements in social support, coping skills and support seeking. We will recruit 400 participants from existing women's support groups operating within villages in Nyarugusu refugee camp, Tanzania. Women's groups will be randomized to receive the intervention (Nguvu and usual care) or usual care alone. All eligible women will complete a baseline assessment (week 0) followed by a post-treatment (week 9) and a 3-month post-treatment assessment (week 20). The efficacy of the intervention will be determined by between-group differences in the longitudinal trajectories of primary outcomes evaluated using mixed-effects models. Study procedures have been approved by Institutional Review Boards in the United States and Tanzania. This trial will provide evidence on the efficacy of a novel integrated group intervention aimed at secondary prevention of IPV that includes a structured psychological component to address psychological distress. The psychological and advocacy components of the proposed intervention have been shown to be efficacious for their respective outcomes when delivered in
Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Peeters, M.C.W.
The aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family conflict
A. Shimazu (Akihito); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva); M.C.W. Peeters (Maria)
textabstractThe aim of the present study was to examine how job and home demands are related to psychological distress in a sample of Japanese working parents with preschool children (n=196). We expected that job and home demands are partially related to psychological distress through work-to-family
Verma, Gauri; Araya, Ricardo
This study aimed to ascertain whether there is an association between meditation and psychological distress. Within a cohort of meditating Monks and Nuns who have accomplished varying levels of skill in the art of meditation, we studied whether there are varying degrees of psychological distress, and if so, whether this correlates to how advanced the meditators are. In this cross-sectional study, Monks and Nuns were recruited from monasteries, nunneries, and volunteer centres throughout Dharamshala, Northern India. A total of 331 Monks and Nuns participated. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-12, and the expertise on meditation was assessed through the number of years practising meditation and the maximum length of time held in concentration in one sitting. A dose response association was found with more years meditating associated with increasingly lower GHQ scores. There was 0.21 points drop in GHQ scores for every year meditating (p = 0.001). This study shows that Monks and Nuns who are more advanced in practicing meditation show fewer signs of psychological distress than Monks and Nuns who are less advanced in the art of meditation. The practice of meditation may have therapeutic value in the management of psychological distress, and could be offered as a non-pharmacological treatment alternative in patients with anxiety and depression. This is a preliminary study with limitations. More robust evidence is needed before we can confidently establish a causal link between meditation and psychological wellbeing. Our findings should, however, encourage further research in this area to generate better evidence for the health benefits of what is a long established practice in Buddhist communities.
Full Text Available Background: Past research suggests that medical students experience high levels of psychological distress. Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships among engagement in self-care behaviours, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological distress. Methods: The sample consisted of 139 female and 68 male Australian medical students (N=207 aged 17–41 years (M=21.82, SD=3.62 across the 5 years of the Monash University medical course. Participants completed an online survey comprising a demographics questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. Results: Results revealed significant and interpretable multivariate correlations between distress and both mindfulness and self-care. Furthermore, the dispositional mindfulness observation subscale was found to be a significant moderator of the relationship between several dimensions of self-care and psychological distress. Conclusions: The present study points to the potential of self-care and mindfulness to decrease medical student distress and enhance well-being.
Mackenzie, Corey S; Wiprzycka, Ursula J; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David
Family caregivers of older adults experience high levels of chronic stress and psychological distress, which are known to impair cognition. Very little research, however, has assessed the impact of caregiving on key cognitive outcomes such as learning and memory. This study compared 16 spouse caregivers with 16 matched controls using standardized neuropsychological measures of learning, episodic memory, and working memory. Analyses compared groups on these cognitive outcomes and examined whether psychological distress mediated group differences in cognition. Results indicated that caregivers were significantly more distressed than non-caregivers and exhibited deficits in learning, recall of episodic information after short and long delays, and working memory. Furthermore, the majority of group differences in cognitive outcomes were mediated by psychological distress. This study adds to a small body of literature demonstrating impaired cognitive functioning among family caregivers. It also suggests that distress is one of a number of possible underlying mechanisms leading to disruptions in learning and memory in this population.
Full Text Available Aims: Many studies have shown that natural disasters affect mental health; however, longitudinal data on post-disaster mental health problems are scarce. The aims of our study were to investigate the trend in psychological distress and alcoholism after The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in north eastern Japan, in March 2011. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted using annual health check data for the general population, in the city of Higashi-Matsushima, which was affected by the high impact of tsunami. In 2012 and 2013, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the CAGE questionnaire (for screening for alcoholism were used to assess psychological distress and prevalence of alcoholism. Results: Of 11,855 total eligible residents, 2192 received the annual check in 2012 and 2013. The prevalence of mental illness and the mean score of alcoholism tendency increased during the follow-up period. The majority of respondents (43.8% with baseline serious mental illness (SMI continued to have SMI at follow-up; only 16.7% reported recovering. Older age, female sex, and severity of home damage predicted higher psychological distress, while male sex was a risk factor for alcoholism at follow-up. Conclusions: Psychological distress deteriorated 2 years after the huge natural disaster, compared with 1 year after the disaster. Long-term mental health care is needed for those affected by natural disasters, particularly those who have suffered loss. Keywords: Natural disaster, Psychological distress, Alcoholism, Longitudinal study
van Dooren, S; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Bannink, M; Tan, M B M; Oldenmenger, W H; Seynaeve, C; van der Rijt, C C D
The Distress Thermometer (DT) is a promising instrument to get insight into distress experienced by cancer patients. At our Family Cancer Clinic the DT, including an adapted problem list, was completed by 100 women at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer (mean age 45.2 years; SD: 10.5). Additionally, the women filled in either the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as psychological component (n=48) or the somatic subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 as somatic component (n=50) to identify associations with the DT-score. Further, the women filled in an evaluation form. The median score on the DT was 2 (range: 0-9). With regression analysis adjusted for age, the contribution of mood and somatic complaints, respectively, was investigated. The standardized regression coefficient for anxiety was 0.32 (ns), for depression 0.14 (ns) and for the somatic subscale 0.49 (pdepression was 16%, and for somatic complaints 24%. The differences between the coefficients were not significant. Evaluation forms were returned by 73 women. In 50% of the cases, the physician had discussed the DT/problem list, which was appreciated by the majority of these women (80%). Sixty-two percent of the women would recommend the use of the DT for other patients. The use of the DT/problem list seems promising for the current population, and was appreciated by the majority of the women. As mood and somatic complaints did not differ significantly in explaining the experienced distress, other candidate factors need to be examined.
Tonsing, Kareen N; Tse, Samson; Tonsing, Jenny C
Although migration itself may not compromise the mental health of immigrants, the acculturative process can involve highly stressful factors that are specific to immigrant and minority status. Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relations between acculturation orientations, perceived discrimination, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among 229 Pakistani and 218 Nepalese migrants living in Hong Kong. Although the initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model with good fit indices showed that acculturation orientation mediated the relationships of perceived discrimination and acculturative stress with psychological distress. Of all the factors in the model, acculturative stress had the strongest association with psychological distress. © The Author(s) 2015.
Masuda, Akihiko; Wendell, Johanna W
The present study investigated whether mindfulness mediates the relation between disordered eating-related cognitions and negative psychological outcomes within a non-clinical college sample. Disordered eating-related cognitions were positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress in interpersonal contexts and inversely related to mindfulness. Mindfulness, which was also inversely related to general psychological ill-health and emotional distress, was found to partially mediate the relations between disordered eating-related cognitions and the two predicted variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boyes, Mark E; Hasking, Penelope A; Martin, Graham
The current study tested whether emotion regulation and rumination moderated and/or mediated the relationship between accumulated adverse life experience and psychological distress in adolescence. In class, Australian high school students (n = 2637, 12-18 years, 68% female) from 41 schools completed well-validated measures of adverse life experience, emotion regulation, rumination and psychological distress, and were followed up 1 year later (n = 1973, 75% retention rate). Adjusting for age, gender and baseline psychological distress, adverse life experience predicted psychological distress 1 year later. Expressive suppression and rumination were positively associated with psychological distress. Cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with psychological distress and moderated the relationship between adverse life experience and psychological distress. This relationship was also partially mediated by cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression and rumination. Promoting cognitive reappraisal and minimizing expressive suppression and rumination may be useful strategies to improve mental health for adolescents who have experienced adverse life events. Future research should examine whether adolescents who have experienced adverse life events can be trained in effective emotion regulation strategies and whether this training can prevent development of psychological maladjustment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Uchiyama, Ayako; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ayako; Hirohata, Kayoko; Kosugi, Shotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi
Nursing is a highly stressful occupation. Because nursing work involves interaction with patients and colleagues, competence in social skills may be a key issue in stress management among nurses. However, there are very few studies among nurses focused on social skills together with social support, both of which are important aspects of job stress. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between social skills and social support with job stressors, problem-solving coping, and psychological distress among Japanese nurses. Data from a self-administered questionnaire of 1,197 female nurses who worked for 5 general hospitals in Japan were analyzed. Covariance structure analysis with structural equation modeling techniques showed that social skills and social support were positively related to each other, while they were negatively associated with psychological distress and job stressors, and positively associated with problem-solving coping. Furthermore, the direct association between social skills and psychological distress was stronger than the association between social support and psychological distress. These findings suggested that improving not only social support at work but also individual social skills is important for nurses' mental health.
Features of residency training and psychological distress among residents in a Nigerian teaching hospital. O Esan, A Adeoye, P Onakoya, O Opeodu, K Owonikoko, D Olulana, M Bello, A Adeyemo, L Onigbogi, O Idowu, T Akute ...
Baker, Martyn; Nash, Jen
The great majority of the UK clinical psychology workforce are women, and this fact prompted an examination of the various ways clinical psychology might be seen as attractive to women--a neglected research topic. Female clinical psychology trainees from a variety of training programmes Q-sorted statements of potential job attractors. The process of analysis is outlined before most of the article is devoted to explicating the five narratives of attraction generated: making a difference, waiting for what I want, idealising challenge, identifying with distress and acknowledging power and privilege. Two super-ordinate 'stories' spanning the narratives are suggested--an over-riding attraction to the profession and a rebuttal of the suggestion that this attraction may be based on any overtly gendered grounds. In the absence of previous empirical data of women's attraction to clinical psychology, the small but significant contribution to understanding the profession made by the analysis is acknowledged--as is the need for further research to confirm and develop the findings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Divaris, Kimon; Mafla, Ana Cristina; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sánchez-Molina, Marisol; Gallego-Gómez, Clara Liliana; Vélez-Jaramillo, Luis Fernando; Tamayo-Cardona, Julián Andrés; Pérez-Cepeda, David; Vergara-Mercado, Martha Ligia; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Ángel; Polychronopoulou, Argy
Links between the demanding nature of studies in the health sciences, students' personality traits and psychological distress have been well-established. While considerable amount of work has been done in medicine, evidence from the dental education arena is sparse and data from Latin America are lacking. The authors conducted a large-scale investigation of psychological distress among dental students in Colombia and sought to determine its curriculum and student-level correlates. The Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to all students officially registered and attending classes or clinics in 17 dental schools in 4 geographic districts of Colombia between January and April 2012. Additional information was collected on participants' socio-demographic information and first career choice, as well as school's characteristics such as class size. The Global Severity Index (GSI) score, a measure of overall psychological distress, served as the primary analytical endpoint. Analyses relied on multilevel mixed-effects linear and log-binomial regression, accounting for study design and sample characteristics. A total of 5700 dental students completed the survey, a response rate of 67%. Pronounced gradients were noted in the association between socio-economic status and psychological distress, with students in higher strata reporting fewer problems. After adjustment for all important covariates, there was an evident pattern of increasing psychological distress corresponding to the transition from the didactic, to the preclinical and clinical phases of training, with few differences between male and female students. Independent of other factors, reliance on own funds for education and having dentistry as the first career choice were associated with lower psychological distress. Levels of psychological distress correlated with students' socio-economic and study-level characteristics. Above and beyond the influence of person
Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fang
To determine the prevalence of psychological distress, and to explore the combined protective roles of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction against psychological distress. Few studies have explored the combined protective effect of self-esteem, perceived social support and job satisfaction on nurses' mental health in the same theoretical framework. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, a self-developed Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale were used to survey 581 nurses. The hypothesized model of the relationships among self-esteem, perceived social support, job satisfaction and psychological distress was tested with structural equation modelling. The prevalence of psychological distress was 92.3%. Job satisfaction exerted the strongest direct protective effect against psychological distress, with perceived social support and self-esteem exerting the second and third strongest direct protective effects, respectively. Additionally, self-esteem had an indirect protective effect. Chinese nurses showed a surprisingly high prevalence of psychological distress. Job satisfaction, self-esteem and perceived social support were identified, in this order of importance, as protective factors against psychological distress. Nurse administrators should take measures to improve nurses' job satisfaction and social support, and hire individuals with high self-esteem as nurses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fischer, Ann R.; Holz, Kenna Bolton
In the spirit of counseling psychology's social justice mission (e.g., L. A. Goodman, B. Liang, J. E. Helms, R. E. Latta, E. Sparks, & S. R. Weintraub, 2004), the authors examined perceptions of discrimination against women as related to women's views of the group women, their views of themselves as individuals, and their psychological…
Mutambudzi, M; Javed, Z; Kaul, S; Prochaska, J; Peek, M K
Work-family conflict (WFC) and job insecurity are important determinants of workers' mental health. To examine the relationship between WFC and psychological distress, and the co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress in US working adults. This study used cross-sectional data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults aged 18-64 years. The 2010 NHIS included occupational data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) sponsored Occupational Health Supplement. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent and co-occurring effects of WFC and job insecurity on distress. The study group consisted of 12059 participants. In the model fully adjusted for relevant occupational, behavioural, sociodemographic and health covariates, WFC and job insecurity were independently significantly associated with increased odds of psychological distress. Relative to participants reporting WFC only, participants reporting no WFC and no job insecurity had lower odds of moderate and severe distress. Co-occurring WFC and job insecurity was associated with significantly higher odds of both moderate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.9] and severe (OR = 3.57; 95% CI 2.66-4.79) distress. Rates of WFC and job insecurity were influenced by differing factors in working adults; however, both significantly increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes, particularly when experienced jointly. Future studies should explore the temporal association between co-occurring WFC and job insecurity and psychological distress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hayashi, Toshio; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi
This study assessed the risk of low organizational justice (OJ) on psychological distress as well as on low willingness to work, and also investigated the underlying factors between OJ and these outcomes. Cross-sectional questionnaire data of 1804 employees (93.6% of subjects) of a Japanese company were collected. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the objectives. Subjects with low overall OJ had a higher risk of psychological distress compared with their counterparts (odds ratio: 4.93; 95% confidence interval: 3.17 to 7.68). The corresponding odds ratio for low willingness to work was 2.87 (95% confidence interval: 2.06 to 4.00). Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior play a role of mediation between OJ and these outcomes. Low OJ was a notable risk factor for psychological distress as well as for low willingness to work. High OJ might prevent psychological distress and promote willingness to work.
Keyes, Katherine M.; Nicholson, Ryan; Kinley, Jolene; Raposo, Sarah; Stein, Murray B.; Goldner, Elliot M.; Sareen, Jitender
Although treatment utilization for depression and anxiety symptoms has increased substantially in the United States and elsewhere, it remains unclear whether the underlying population distribution of psychological distress is changing over time. We estimated age, period, and cohort effects using data from 2 countries over more than 20 years, including National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2010 (n = 447,058) and Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2007 (n = 125,306). Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. By period, both countries showed the highest levels of psychological distress in 2001 and the lowest levels in 2007. By age, psychological distress was highest in adolescence and during the late 40s and early 50s. By cohort, Canadian Community Health Survey results indicated a decreasing cohort effect among those born in 1922–1925 through 1935–1939 (β = −0.36, 95% confidence interval: −0.45, −0.27) and then a continuously increasing cohort effect during the remainder of the 20th century through 1989–1992 (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.61). The National Health Interview Survey data captured earlier-born cohorts and indicated an increased cohort effect for the earliest born (for 1912–1914, β = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.61). In sum, individuals in the oldest and more recently born birth cohorts have higher mean psychological distress symptoms compared with those born in midcentury, underscoring the importance of a broad, population-level lens for conceptualizing mental health. PMID:24692432
McShane, Connar Jo; Quirk, Frances
This study investigated whether work-home (WHI) or home-work interference (HWI) explained or affected the strength of the relationship between farmers' stresses and reported psychological distress. Distribution of questionnaire package; included Work-Home Conflict Scale, Farm Stress Survey, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Participants recruited via advertising in newsletters and newspapers, and distribution through businesses and meetings. The majority of farmers (N = 51, male = 45, female = 5) were recruited from the one district. Farmers were individuals who identified their occupation as a farm owner, farm manager, or farm hand. It was predicted farmers would report higher levels of WHI than HWI; time, a determinant of interference, would mediate the relationship between farmers' stresses and psychological distress; WHI and HWI would moderate farmers' stresses and their psychological distress; overall reported level of psychological distress would be in normal to mild range because of positive general economic conditions. Farmers reported significantly higher levels of WHI than HWI (M = 3.21, M = 2.76, P stresses and psychological distress, particularly anxiety. WHI, time and strain, determinants of WHI mediated personal finances and subcomponents of psychological distress (stress, anxiety, depression). Time-based HWI mediated personal finances and stress. No moderating effects were found for WHI (r = -0.02, P = 0.882) or HWI (r = 0.15, P = 0.306). Farmers of this specific sample presented a unique work-home interface. Limitations include the small sample size, recruitment methods, and culturally irrelevant measures as well as only assessing work-related stresses. Future research should aim to develop measures appropriate for farmers of Australia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns that pre-operative psychological distress might be associated with reduced patient satisfaction after total hip replacement (THR. Methods We investigated this in a multi-centre prospective study between January 1999 and January 2002. We dichotomised the patients into the mentally distressed (MHS ≤ 56 and the not mentally distressed (MHS > 56 groups based on their pre-operative Mental Health Score (MHS of SF36. Results 448 patients (340 not distressed and 108 distressed completed the patient satisfaction survey. Patient satisfaction rate at five year was 96.66% (415/448. There was no difference in patient satisfaction or willingness to have the surgery between the two groups. None of pre-operative variables predicted five year patient satisfaction in logistic regression. Conclusions Patient satisfaction after surgery may not be adversely affected by pre-operative psychological distress.
Rahtz, Emmylou; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Hutchison, Iain; Korszun, Ania
Facial injuries are widely assumed to lead to stigma and significant psychosocial burden. Experimental studies of face perception support this idea, but there is very little empirical evidence to guide treatment. This study sought to address the gap. Data were collected from 193 patients admitted to hospital following facial or other trauma. Ninety (90) participants were successfully followed up 8 months later. Participants completed measures of appearance concern and psychological distress (post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms). Participants were classified by site of injury (facial or non-facial injury). The overall levels of appearance concern were comparable to those of the general population, and there was no evidence of more appearance concern among people with facial injuries. Women and younger people were significantly more likely to experience appearance concern at baseline. Baseline and 8-month psychological distress, although common in the sample, did not differ according to the site of injury. Changes in appearance concern were, however, strongly associated with psychological distress at follow-up. We conclude that although appearance concern is severe among some people with facial injury, it is not especially different to those with non-facial injuries or the general public; changes in appearance concern, however, appear to correlate with psychological distress. We therefore suggest that interventions might focus on those with heightened appearance concern and should target cognitive bias and psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsuda, Yoko; Tsukahara, Teruomi; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Kawakami, Norito; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
To investigate the association of workplace occupational mental health (OMH) and related activities with psychological distress of workers in Japan. A total of 121 workplaces and their 3540 workers were surveyed using questionnaires assessing selected workplace OMH activities, demographic characteristics, psychological distress, and psychosocial work environment of the workers. A multilevel analysis was conducted. Promotion of communication correlated significantly and negatively with psychological distress among workers after adjusting for the covariates (P health activities correlated marginally significantly and negatively with psychological distress (P = 0.06). Their moderating effect for the worker-level association between psychosocial work environment and psychological distress was not significant. The findings suggest that promotion of communication in the workplace is associated with reduced psychological distress among workers. In addition, OMH activities may also be useful in reducing psychological distress.
Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali
The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…
Full Text Available Jan H Rosenvinge,1 Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen,2 Gunn Pettersen,3 Marianne Martinsen,4 Annett Victoria Stornæs,2 Anne Marte Pensgaard5 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Department of Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Physical Education, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Hamar, Norway; 5Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sports Science, Oslo, Norway Introduction: Psychological distress is increasing among adolescents and clusters with other mental health problems such as eating problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychological distress among young elite athletes and age-matched controls and whether prevalence figures may be attributed to perfectionism and eating problems. Methods: First-year athletes from all Norwegian elite sport high schools (n=711 and 500 students from randomly selected ordinary high schools were eligible for this cross-sectional study. In total, 611 athletes and 355 student controls provided self-report data about psychological distress, perfectionism, and eating problems (ie, body dissatisfaction and a drive for thinness, as well as their physical training/activity. Results: A significantly higher proportion of controls scored above the cutoff point for marked psychological distress. Physical activity above the recommended levels for this age group predicted psychological distress among the controls, while the opposite was found in the student elite athlete sample. In both samples, perfectionistic concerns, ie, concern over mistakes, predicted overall psychological distress. However, among elite athletes, perfectionistic concerns were particularly associated with clinically significant
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Students who returned signed consent forms from their parents filled out a self-administered questionnaire that included validated scales on addiction to video games, general health, and lifestyle. Results: The proportion between the sexes and the schools were roughly equal. Around 32% were overweight or obese, 75% had screen timeâ¥2h/day, and 20% slept<5h/night. Sixteen per cent (16% were addicted to video games and 54% had psychological distress. Addiction to video games was strongly associated with psychological distress (OR=4.1, 95% CI=1.80, 9.47. Other significant correlates were female gender, higher screen time, and shorter sleep hours. Conclusions: The proportion of students with psychological distress was high. Future studies should investigate other potential correlates of distress such personal traits, family relations, and academic performance. Keywords: Video games, Addiction, Adolescent, Psychological distress, Screen time, Saudi Arabia
Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.
Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney
Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…
Full Text Available Background Although previous evidence has shown that physical activity and physical fitness lower the level of psychological distress, little is known of simultaneous associations between of physical activity and physical fitness and with psychological distress, especially in young adults. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to explore both separate and simultaneous association between physical activity and physical fitness with psychological distress. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study were 2,100 university students (1,041 men and 1,059 women chosen from eight faculties in the city of Zagreb. Physical activity, physical fitness and psychological distress were assessed using structured questionnaires. The associations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, material status, binge drinking, chronic disease/s and sleep quality, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.92–3.52] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.94; 95% CI [1.25–3.01] and tertile 1; OR = 2.59; 95% CI [1.65–4.08] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. When physical activity and physical fitness were entered simultaneously into the model, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.35; 95% CI [1.72–3.21] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.24–2.77] and tertile 1; OR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.26–3.20] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that both “insufficient” physical activity and “lower” levels of physical fitness are associated with “high” psychological distress, even after adjusting for numerous covariates. Therefore, special policies aiming to increase the levels of physical activity and fitness are warranted.
Potter, Michael Q; Wylie, James D; Greis, Patrick E; Burks, Robert T; Tashjian, Robert Z
In many areas of orthopaedics, patients with greater levels of psychological distress report inferior self-assessments of pain and function. This effect can lead to lower-than-expected baseline scores on common patient-reported outcome scales, even those not traditionally considered to have a psychological component. This study attempts to answer the following questions: (1) Are higher levels of psychological distress associated with clinically important differences in baseline scores on the VAS for pain, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair? (2) Does psychological distress remain a negative predictor of baseline shoulder scores when other clinical variables are controlled? Eighty-five patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were prospectively enrolled. Psychological distress was quantified using the Distress Risk Assessment Method questionnaire. Patients completed baseline self-assessments including the VAS for pain, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, tear size, and tear retraction were recorded for each patient. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression models were used to assess the effect of psychological distress on patient self-assessment of shoulder pain and function. Distressed patients reported higher baseline VAS scores (6.7 [95% CI, 4.4-9.0] versus 2.9 [95% CI, 2.3-3.6], p = 0.001) and lower baseline Simple Shoulder Test (3.7 [95% CI, 2.9-4.5] versus 5.7 [95% CI 5.0-6.4], p = 0.001) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (39 [95% CI, 34-45] versus 58 [95% CI, 53-63], p psychological distress are associated with inferior baseline patient self-assessment of shoulder pain and function using the VAS, the Simple Shoulder Test, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. Longitudinal followup is
Grubbs, Joshua B; Stauner, Nicholas; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Lindberg, Matthew J
In the United States, Internet pornography use is a common behavior that has risen in popularity in recent years. The present study sought to examine potential relationships between pornography use and well-being, with a particular focus on individual perceptions of pornography use and feelings of addiction. Using a large cross-sectional sample of adults (N = 713), perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted psychological distress above and beyond pornography use itself and other relevant variables (e.g., socially desirable responding, neuroticism). This model was replicated using a large cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (N = 1,215). Furthermore, a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up with a subset of this sample (N = 106) revealed a relationship between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress over time, even when controlling for baseline psychological distress and pornography use. Collectively, these findings suggest that perceived addiction to Internet pornography, but not pornography use itself, is uniquely related to the experience of psychological distress. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Chang, Miya; Moon, Ailee
Psychological distress occurs frequently in older minority immigrants because many have limited social resources and undergo a difficult process related to immigration and acculturation. Despite a rapid increase in the number of Asian immigrants, relatively little research has focused on subgroup mental health comparisons. This study examines the prevalence of psychological distress, and relationship with socio-demographic factors, and health care utilization among older Asian immigrants. Weighted data from Asian immigrants 65 and older from 5 countries (n = 1,028) who participated in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed descriptively and in multiple linear regressions. The prevalence of psychological distress varied significantly across the 5 ethnic groups, from Filipinos (4.83%) to Chinese (1.64%). General health status, cognitive and physical impairment, and health care utilization are all associated (p culturally effective mental health services and outreach programs.
Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed
Previous studies that assessed the mediating role of social support in the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress based their inferences on very small, selective samples, which makes it impossible to generalise the findings to general population. The aim of this paper was to assess the mediating role of quantity and quality of social support in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood. The study has a three-wave design; the present analysis used longitudinal data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Quantity and quality of social support were measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect of childhood adversity (via quantity and quality of social support) on psychological distress in adulthood. Childhood adversity was associated with deficits in quantity and quality of social support in adulthood (p < 0.05). Childhood adversity and deficits in quantity and quality of social support were associated with psychological distress in adulthood (p < 0.05). Quantity and quality of social support significantly (p < 0.05) mediated the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood. Childhood adversity was assessed retrospectively and social support was measured with two items. Interventions aimed at reducing social isolation may alleviate the burden carried by survivors of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Skogli, Hans-Ragnar; Geoffroy, Dominique; Weiler, Hope A; Tell, Grethe S; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Egeland, Grace M
Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated. To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress. A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6). Biomarkers included n-3 fatty acids and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The K6 screens for psychological distress over the last 30 days with six items scored on a 4-point scale. A total score of 13 or more indicates serious psychological distress (SPD). Logistic regression models were used to investigate any associations between SPD and biomarkers while controlling for age, gender, marital status, days spent out on the land, feeling of being alone, income and smoking. The 30-day SPD prevalence was 11.2%, with women below 30 years having the highest and men 50 years and more having the lowest SPD prevalence at 16.1% and 2.6%, respectively. SPD was associated with being female, younger age, not being married or with a common-law partner, spending few days out on the land, feelings of being alone, smoking and low income. Low levels of both 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds for SPD in both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. In this cross-sectional analysis, low levels of 25(OH)D and long-chain n-3 FAs were associated with higher odds ratios for SPD, which highlights the potential impact of traditional foods on mental health and wellbeing. Cultural practices are also important for mental health and it may be that the biomarkers serve as proxies for cultural activities related to food collection, sharing and consumption that increase both biomarker levels and psychological well-being. n-3 FAs: omega-3
Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives: The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods: In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys. We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results: Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans.
Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao
Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
L. Ringoir (Lianne); S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); J.W. Widdershoven (Jos); V.J.M. Pop (Victor)
textabstractBackground Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused
Wong, Y. Joel; Owen, Jesse; Shea, Munyi
How are specific dimensions of masculinity related to psychological distress in specific groups of men? To address this question, the authors used latent class regression to assess the optimal number of latent classes that explained differential relationships between conformity to masculine norms and psychological distress in a racially diverse…
Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are
Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas
Research on the impact of social interactions on psychological distress tends to be limited to particular forms of support, cross-sectional designs and by the spectre of omitted variables bias. A baseline sample with 3.4±0.95 years follow-up time was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Change in the risk of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) was assessed using fixed effects logistic regressions in relation to the number of times in the past week a participant: i) spent time with friends or family they did not live with; ii) talked to friends, relatives or others on the telephone; iii) attended meetings at social clubs or religious groups; and the count of people outside their home, but within one hour travel-time, participants felt close to. Separate models were fitted for men and women, adjusting for age, income, economic and couple status. An increase in the number of social interactions was associated with a reduction in the risk of psychological distress, with some gender differences. Interactions with friends or family were important for women (adjusted OR 0.85, 95%CI 0.74, 0.98, p=0.024), whereas telephone calls were effective among men (adjusted OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.72, 0.96, p=0.011). Strong effects for the number of people that can be relied on were observed for men and women, but attendance at clubs and groups was not. No age-specific effects were observed. No indicator of positive mental health. Policies targeting greater social interactions in middle-to-older age may help protect mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik
OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using...... a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...
DePrince, Anne P.; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela
Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were…
Gupta, R.; Roy, S.; Nayak, Madhabika B.; Khoursheed, M.
The aim of this study was to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of women presenting for imaging of breast following a clinical referral. Emotional distress in the women was also assessed in relation to demographic factors, reason for referral, presence for breast symptoms, type of imaging procedure performed and self-reported pain and discomfort during imaging. The study comprised 167 patients. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and a discomfort rating scale were used to assess emotional distress and discomfort or pain experienced during the imaging. While less than 10% of all subjects scored above psychiatric cut-off points for anxiety and depression, 25% and 20% reported significant distress associated with anxiety and depression symptoms respectively. Education alone was associated with higher anxiety scores, while the presence of breast symptoms significantly increased depression scores and reports of specific nonsomatic symptoms of depression. Higher anxiety and depression scores were also associated with pain experienced during the imaging procedure. Emotional distress may negatively impact women's experience of breast imaging. Screening for emotional distress is important within the context of breast imaging. (author)
Ringoir, E.J.M.; Pedersen, S.S.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Pop, V.J.M.
Background Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention advocate the importance of psychological risk factors, as they contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. However, most previous research on psychological distress and cardiovascular factors has focused on selected
Oshio, Takashi; Inagaki, Seiichi
In the current study, we investigated how initial job status at graduation from school is associated with midlife psychological distress, using microdata from a nationwide Internet survey of 3,117 men and 2,818 women aged 30-60 yr. We measured psychological distress using the Kessler 6 (K6) score (range: 0-24) and the binary variable of K6 score ≥5. We found that unstable initial job status substantially raised midlife K6 scores and the probability of a K6 score ≥5 for both men and women. Furthermore, our mediation analysis showed that for men, slightly less than 60% of the effect was mediated by current job status, household income, and marital status. For women, the effect of initial job status was somewhat lesser than that for men, and only 20-30% of it was mediated. Despite these gender asymmetries, the results indicated that initial job status was a key predictor of midlife mental health. The association between job status and mental health should be further investigated with special reference to the institutional attributes of the labor market and their socio-economic/demographic outcomes.
Xu, Ying; Hackett, Maree L; Glozier, Nick; Nikpour, Armin; Bleasel, Andrew; Somerville, Ernest; Lawson, John; Jan, Stephen; Hyde, Lorne; Todd, Lisa; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Ireland, Carol; Anderson, Craig S
The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and predictors of psychological distress after a diagnosis of epilepsy. The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC) was a prospective, multicenter, community-based study of people of all ages with newly diagnosed epilepsy in Sydney, Australia. Analyses involved multivariate logistic regression and multinomial logit regression to identify predictors of psychological distress, assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), as part of structured interviews. Psychological distress occurred in 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 26 to 40%) and 24% (95% CI 18 to 31%) of 180 adults at baseline and 12months, respectively, and 23% (95% CI 14 to 33%) of 77 children at both time points. Thirty adults and 7 children had distress at baseline who recovered at 12months, while 15 adults and 7 children had new onset of distress during this period. History of psychiatric or behavioral disorder (for adults, odds ratio [OR] 6.82, 95% CI 3.08 to 15.10; for children, OR 28.85, 95% CI 2.88 to 288.60) and higher psychosocial disability (adults, OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.27) or lower family functioning (children, OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.02) were associated with psychological distress (C statistics 0.80 and 0.78). Psychological distress is common and fluctuates in frequency after a diagnosis of epilepsy. Those with premorbid psychological, psychosocial, and family problems are at high risk of this adverse outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud; Palgi, Yuval
In light of mixed evidence regarding the associations between age, emotional complexity, and psychological distress, this study examined emotional complexity and its effect on psychological distress as a function of age and subjective distance-to-death. A sample of 188 participants (age range = 29-100) rated their subjective distance-to-death and psychological distress, and reported their emotions across 14 days. Emotional complexity was unrelated to age, but negatively related to feeling closer to death. Moreover, emotional complexity was negatively related to psychological distress among those feeling closer to death. Results suggest that when death is perceived to be nearer, emotional complexity is hampered, yet becomes relevant in buffering psychological distress.
Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report poor psychological well-being. Positive reappraisal coping (PRC) is a coping strategy which offers a protective effect from anxiety and depression. However, the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD has yet to be established. This study examines the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. In this descriptive correlational study, 104 parents of children with ASD completed measures of psychological distress and PRC. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents after controlling the influence of parental age and gender. The PRC was associated with the psychological distress in parents above and beyond the variance accounted for by parental age and gender. After controlling for parental age and gender, PRC had significant negative correlation with the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression in parents (Anxiety: β=-0.36, p<0.001; Stress: β=-0.21, p=0.03; Depression: β=- 0.37, p<0.001). Using positive reappraisal coping strategy may help to reduce psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Facchin, F; Barbara, G; Dridi, D; Alberico, D; Buggio, L; Somigliana, E; Saita, E; Vercellini, P
What factors affect the mental health of women with endometriosis? Not only pelvic pain, but also individual characteristics (i.e. self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy), time from diagnosis and intimate relationship status influence the psychological health of endometriosis patients. The negative impact of endometriosis on mental health has been widely demonstrated by the research literature, along with the fact that presence and severity of pelvic pain are associated with anxiety and depression. However, endometriosis is a complex multidimensional disease and factors other than pelvic pain, including individual differences, may contribute to explain the variability in women's mental health. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2015 and 2017 at an Italian academic department of obstetrics and gynaecology. A total of 210 consecutive endometriosis patients (age: 36.7 ± 7.0 years) were included. Demographic and endometriosis-related information was collected. Individual differences were assessed using validated measures evaluating self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) were used to evaluate mental health. Based on the extant literature, we identified three categories of putative predictors (demographic variables, endometriosis-related factors and individual differences i.e. 'self'), whose psychological impact was examined using a hierarchical multiple regression approach. Being in a stable relationship (coded 1 ['yes'] or 0 ['no']) was associated with decreased rumination (RRS: β = -0.187; P = 0.002). A shorter time from diagnosis was associated with greater anxiety (HADS-A: β = -0.177; P = 0.015). Pelvic pain severity and 'self' were associated with all mental health variables (Ps mental health of women with endometriosis, and the role of individual differences requires further investigation. Targeted multidisciplinary interventions
Cwikel, J; Gidron, Y; Sheiner, E
Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the importance of the mind-body connection and fertility, the psychosocial aspects of infertility have not been adequately addressed. Fertility treatments, ranging from medical monitoring, to hormonal remedies and in vitro fertilization (IVF), are both a physical and emotional burden on women and their partners. Psychological factors such as depression, state-anxiety, and stress-induced changes in heart rate and cortisol are predictive of a decreased probability of achieving a viable pregnancy. A couple that is trying to conceive will undoubtedly experience feelings of frustration and disappointment if a pregnancy is not easily achieved. However, if the difficulties progress and the man and or woman are labelled as having fertility problems, then this may result in a severe insult to self-esteem, body image, and self-assessed masculinity or femininity. Three types of relationships have been hypothesized between psychological factors and infertility. These include: (1) psychological factors are risk factors of subsequent infertility; (2) the experience of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility causes subsequent psychological distress; (3) a reciprocal relationship exists between psychological factors and infertility. The evidence for these three relationships is reviewed and an alternative approach to the treatment of infertility including stress evaluation that precedes or is concurrent to fertility treatment is suggested.
Tsuyoshi Shiga, MD
Full Text Available Despite the effectiveness of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD, its implantation and concomitant therapies, including shocks, can induce psychological distress in patients. Depression has been observed in approximately 30% of ICD patients, and shocks may contribute to the persistence of depression. Anxiety is common, with reports of 24–87% of ICD patients experiencing symptoms of anxiety after implantation, and type D personality and ICD-related concerns may play important roles in the level of anxiety in ICD patients. However, the association between ICD shocks and anxiety is controversial. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in ICD patients is approximately 20%, and type D personality, comorbidities, and frequent shocks may contribute to PTSD. It is also important to pay attention to the psychological distress in the partners of ICD patients.
Gebhardt, Claudia; Gorba, Claudia; Oechsle, Karin; Vehling, Sigrun; Koch, Uwe; Mehnert, Anja
Objectives Breaking bad news can be a very distressing situation for both patients and physicians. Physician communication behavior should therefore match patients' communication preferences. The aim of this study was to characterize the content of bad news from the patients' perspective. Patients' preferences for communication of bad news as well as the fit to communication behavior displayed by physicians were also investigated. Finally, consequences of a mismatch between patients' preferences and physician communication were investigated in relation to psychological distress in patients. Methods The sample consisted of N=270 cancer patients (mean age=56.8 years, 48% female) with various cancer entities and different stages of disease (n=115 patients with early stage of cancer, n=155 patients with advanced cancer). The content of bad news was assessed with a specifically developed list of questions. The Measure of Patients' Preferences Scale (MPP) was used to assess patients' preferences for communication of bad news. Patients further completed the NCCN Distress Thermometer (cancer specific distress), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS- anxiety and depression) and the Demoralization Scale (DS-Scale) to gain information about psychological distress. Results Patients with early stage breast cancer received bad news M=1.6 times (SD=1.1, range: 1-5), patients with advanced cancers M=2.1 times (SD=1.6, range: 1-12). For 77% of early stage cancer patients and 70% of advanced cancer patients, the subjectively worst consultation was receiving the diagnosis and discussing treatment options. Patients' most important communication preferences were physicians' clinical competence and patient-centered communication, clear and direct communication and asking about patients information preferences. Patients in advanced stages report significantly more (29%) unmet communication needs than patients' in early stages (20%; pbad news without considering patients
Ganda Mall, John-Peter; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Lindqvist, Carl Mårten; Algilani, Samal; Rasoal, Dara; Repsilber, Dirk; Brummer, Robert J; V Keita, Åsa; Schoultz, Ida
Despite the substantial number of older adults suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms little is known regarding the character of these complaints and whether they are associated with an altered intestinal barrier function and psychological distress. Our aim was to explore the relationship between self-reported gut health, intestinal permeability and psychological distress among older adults. Three study populations were included: 1) older adults with GI symptoms (n = 24), 2) a group of older adults representing the general elderly population in Sweden (n = 22) and 3) senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy ageing (n = 27). Questionnaire data on gut-health, psychological distress and level of physical activity were collected. Intestinal permeability was measured by quantifying zonulin in plasma. The level of systemic and local inflammation was monitored by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), hydrogen peroxide in plasma and calprotectin in stool samples. The relationship between biomarkers and questionnaire data in the different study populations was illustrated using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Older adults with GI symptoms displayed significantly higher levels of both zonulin and psychological distress than both general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. The PCA analysis revealed a separation between senior orienteering athletes and older adults with GI symptoms and showed an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and zonulin. Older adults with GI symptoms express increased plasma levels of zonulin, which might reflect an augmented intestinal permeability. In addition, this group suffer from higher psychological distress compared to general older adults and senior orienteering athletes. This relationship was further confirmed by a PCA plot, which illustrated an association between GI symptoms, psychological distress and intestinal permeability.
Women who have an abnormal cervical cytology test may be referred for a colposcopy. Accumulating evidence suggests some women may experience distress after colposcopy. This exploratory study examined women\\'s differing experiences of post-colposcopy distress with the aim of identifying factors that are predictive of, or protective against, distress.
Bailey, Christopher M; Samples, Hillary L; Broshek, Donna K; Freeman, Jason R; Barth, Jeffrey T
This study examined the effect of psychological distress on neurocognitive performance measured during baseline concussion testing. Archival data were utilized to examine correlations between personality testing and computerized baseline concussion testing. Significantly correlated personality measures were entered into linear regression analyses, predicting baseline concussion testing performance. Suicidal ideation was examined categorically. Athletes underwent testing and screening at a university athletic training facility. Participants included 47 collegiate football players 17 to 19 years old, the majority of whom were in their first year of college. Participants were administered the Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), an internet-based neurocognitive test designed to monitor and manage both at-risk and concussed athletes. Participants took the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), a self-administered inventory designed to measure clinical syndromes, treatment considerations, and interpersonal style. Scales and subscales from the PAI were utilized to determine the influence psychological distress had on the CRI indices: simple reaction time, complex reaction time, and processing speed. Analyses revealed several significant correlations among aspects of somatic concern, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation and CRI performance, each with at least a moderate effect. When entered into a linear regression, the block of combined psychological symptoms accounted for a significant amount of baseline CRI performance, with moderate to large effects (r = 0.23-0.30). When examined categorically, participants with suicidal ideation showed significantly slower simple reaction time and complex reaction time, with a similar trend on processing speed. Given the possibility of obscured concussion deficits after injury, implications for premature return to play, and the need to target psychological distress outright, these findings heighten the clinical
Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen; Matthiesen, Stig Berge
This study investigates the prevalence of psychological distress and stressors in the work environment as prospective predictors of distress, among employees in the offshore petroleum industry. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were employed to examine longitudinal relationships between stressors and distress in a randomly drawn sample of 741 employees from the Norwegian petroleum offshore industry. Time lag between baseline and follow-up was 6 months. Work environment stressors included safety factors, leadership, and job characteristics. The prevalence of psychological distress was 9 % at baseline and 8 % at follow-up. All investigated work environment factors correlated with subsequent distress. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, caseness of distress was predicted by baseline distress, near miss accidents, risk perception, poor safety climate, tyrannical leadership, laissez-faire leadership, job demands, and workplace bullying. After adjustment for baseline distress, control variables, and other predictors, laissez-faire leadership (OR = 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.12-2.54) and exposure to bullying (OR = 1.49; 95 % CI: 1.07-2.10) emerged as the most robust predictors of subsequent distress. The findings show that the prevalence of psychological distress is lower among offshore employees than in the general population. Although offshore workers operate in a physically challenging context, their mental health is mainly influenced by stressors in the psychosocial work environment. This highlights the importance of developing and implementing psychosocial safety interventions within the offshore industry.
Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Colaneri, Anthony S.
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from over 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (1) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (2) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment that occurs at school and that occurs in college students’ workplaces and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings. PMID:26983588
Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Colaneri, Anthony S
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from more than 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (a) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (b) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment which occurs at school and which occurs in college students' workplaces, and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings.
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Vincent, Heather K; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Vincent, Kevin R; Brisbane, Sonya T; Sadasivan, Kalia K
Orthopedic trauma is an unforeseen life-changing event. Serious injuries include multiple fractures and amputation. Physical rehabilitation has traditionally focused on addressing functional deficits after traumatic injury, but important psychological factors also can dramatically affect acute and long-term recovery. This review presents the effects of orthopedic trauma on psychological distress, potential interventions for distress reduction after trauma, and implications for participation in rehabilitation. Survivors commonly experience post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety, all of which interfere with functional gains and quality of life. More than 50% of survivors have psychological distress that can last decades after the physical injury has been treated. Early identification of patients with distress can help care teams provide the resources and support to offset the distress. Several options that help trauma patients navigate their short-term recovery include holistic approaches, pastoral care, coping skills, mindfulness, peer visitation, and educational resources. The long-term physical and mental health of the trauma survivor can be enhanced by strategies that connect the survivor to a network of people with similar experiences or injuries, facilitate support groups, and social support networking (The Trauma Survivors Network). Rehabilitation specialists can help optimize patient outcomes and quality of life by participating in and advocating these strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skov-Ettrup, Lise S.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Petersen, Christina B.
variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. Results: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress....... For instance among participants smoking 30 cigarettes/day or more, the odds ratio (OR) for stress was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-1.89) compared to never-smokers. Corresponding ORs for fatigue and hopelessness were 2.18 (95% CI 1.92-2.47) and 3.08 (95% CI 2.62-3.62). Among current smokers...
Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul
Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…
Jalaludin, Bin B; Garden, Frances L
Mental health can be influenced by a number of neighbourhood physical and social environmental characteristics. We aimed to determine whether urban sprawl (based on population density) in Sydney, Australia, is associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. We used a cross-sectional multilevel study design. Individual level data on self-rated health and psychological distress were obtained from the 2006 and 2007 NSW Population Health Survey. We did not find significant associations between urban sprawl and self-rated health and psychological distress after controlling for individual and area level covariates. However, positive neighbourhood factors were generally associated with better self-rated health and lower psychological distress but few of these associations were statistically significant.
Seldenrijk, A.; Hamer, M.; Lahiri, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Steptoe, A.
Objectives: Poor mental health has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). One hypothesized underlying mechanism is hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction. We examined the associations between psychological distress, cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress and
Suh, Hanna; van Nuenen, Marieke; Rice, Kenneth G
Detecting psychological distress among international students can be challenging given diverse languages, cultural backgrounds, and lack of refined measurement properties of measures tailored to international students. Despite the challenges, ensuring that a psychological distress measure works effectively has considerable potential value for assessment purposes. The current study evaluates the measurement properties of a short 10-item version of Radloff's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Grounded in long-standing evidence on gender differences in depressive symptoms, specific attention was given to examining measurement invariance of the CES-D Short-form across women and men. Based on a large, two-cohort sample of international students ( N = 468), and through multiple analyses evaluating factor structure and measurement invariance, we derived an even briefer, seven-item single-factor form of the CES-D (CES-D Short-form International) that can be used with international students.
Stevens Garry J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.
Hellstadius, Ylva; Lagergren, Jesper; Zylstra, Janine; Gossage, James; Davies, Andrew; Hultman, Christina M; Lagergren, Pernilla; Wikman, Anna
Psychological distress is common among patients with oesophageal cancer. However, little is known about the course and predictors of psychological distress among patients treated with curative intent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, course and predictors of anxiety and depression in patients operated for oesophageal cancer, from prior to surgery to 12 months post-operatively. A prospective cohort of patients with oesophageal cancer (n = 218) were recruited from one high-volume specialist oesophago-gastric treatment centre (St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK). Anxiety and depression were assessed prior to surgery, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Mixed-effects modelling was performed to investigate changes over time and to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic predictor variables and anxiety and depression symptoms. The proportion of patients with anxiety was 33% prior to surgery, 28% at 6 months, and 37% at 12 months. Prior to surgery, 20% reported depression, 27% at 6 months, and 32% at 12-month follow-up. Anxiety symptoms remained stable over time whereas depression symptoms appeared to increase from pre-surgery to 6 months, levelling off between 6 and 12 months. Younger age, female sex, living alone and more severe self-reported dysphagia (i.e., difficulty swallowing) predicted higher anxiety symptoms. In-hospital complications, greater limitations in activity status and more severe self-reported dysphagia were predictive of higher depression. Many patients report psychological distress during the first year following oesophageal cancer surgery. Whether improving the experience of swallowing difficulties may also reduce distress among these patients warrants further study.
Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Li, Wang On
The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more vulnerable to becoming reliant on the Internet when they seek such needs satisfaction from online activities, and tests a model in which basic needs predict problematic Internet use, fully mediated by psychological distress. Problematic Internet use, psychological distress, and basic needs satisfaction were psychometrically measured in a sample of 229 Hong Kong University students and structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. All indices showed the model has a good fit. Further, statistical testing supported a mediation effect for psychological distress between needs satisfaction and problematic Internet use. The results extend our understanding of the development and prevention of problematic Internet use based on the framework of self-determination theory. Psychological distress could be used as an early predictor, while preventing and treating problematic Internet use should emphasize the fulfillment of unmet needs.
Staneva, Aleksandra A; Bogossian, Fiona; Morawska, Alina; Wittkowski, Anja
Advances in perinatal mental health research have provided valuable insights around risk factors for the overall development of maternal distress. However, there is still a limited understanding of the experience of women struggling emotionally during pregnancy. We explored how women view, experience, and interpret psychological distress antenatally. Eighteen Australian women participated in in-depth interviews that were analyzed thematically within a critical realist theoretical framework. We present and situate the current findings within the dominant discourse of the good mother, which arguably promotes guilt and stigma and results in women self-labeling as bad mothers.
Chan, Alexandre; Poon, Eileen; Goh, Wei Lin; Gan, Yanxiang; Tan, Chia Jie; Yeo, Kelvin; Chua, Annabelle; Chee, Magdalene; Law, Yi Chye; Somasundaram, Nagavalli; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Ng, Quan Sing; Tham, Chee Kian; Toh, Chee Keong; Lim, Soon Thye; Tao, Miriam; Tang, Tiffany; Quek, Richard; Farid, Mohamad
Since few studies have investigated whether the Distress Thermometer (DT) in Asian adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (between 15 and 39 years), we investigated the appropriateness of the DT as a screening tool for psychological symptom burden in these AYA patients and to evaluate AYA patients' distress across a trajectory of three time points longitudinally over a 6-month period. This was a prospective, longitudinal study. Recruited Asian AYA patients were diagnosed with lymphomas, sarcomas, primary brain malignancies, or germ cell tumors. Patients completed the DT, PedsQL Generic Core Scales, and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Data were analyzed using STATA version 15. Approximately half of the patients experienced clinically significant DT distress (distress score ≥ 4) early in their cancer journey with 43.1% patients presenting with distress at time of diagnosis and 47.7% patients 1 month after diagnosis. Among AYA patients > 24 years old, worry (68.3%), insurance/financial issues (61%), treatment decisions (43.9%), work/school issues (41.5%), nervousness (41.5%), and sadness (41.5%) were the top five identified problems. On the other hand, the top five identified problems among AYA ≤ 24 years were worry (54.2%), nervousness (41.7%), bathing/dressing problems (37.5%), work/school issues (33.3%), and fatigue (33.3%). DT scores were significantly associated with certain psychological symptom burden items such as worry (p psychological distress in AYA cancer patients with clinically significant distress being identified in the early phases of the cancer journey.
Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Wemm, Stephanie; Wulfert, Edelgard
Research has shown that measures of reactivity to distress-including distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress-are dysregulated in women who misuse alcohol. These variables may interact and create a risk profile for young adult women, reflecting patterns of stress reactivity that confer a risk for alcohol misuse. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the independent and interactive associations of subjective distress tolerance, behavioral distress tolerance, and physiological stress reactivity with women's alcohol misuse. The study was conducted with a sample of 91 college women recruited on a large northeastern university campus. Results showed that subjective levels of distress tolerance and physiological reactivity to stress (skin conductance reactivity, SCR), but not behavioral distress tolerance, were independently associated with alcohol misuse. In addition, subjective distress tolerance moderated the relationship between SCR and negative alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, women with low physiological reactivity (SCR) to a stressful task and greater urge to quickly rid themselves of distress (low subjective distress tolerance) endorsed a significantly greater number of adverse consequences from their alcohol use. These results extend prior findings by showing that, even among a nonclinical sample of women, lower stress reactivity in combination with low subjective distress tolerance is associated with increased risk for various drinking-related negative consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.
Barrera, M; Atenafu, E; Doyle, J; Berlin-Romalis, D; Hancock, K
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally psychological distress and its correlates in mothers and fathers of children who undergo SCT, up to 2 years post SCT. A total of 111 parents of patients diagnosed mainly with leukemia completed standardized measures of depression and anxiety symptoms as indicators of psychological distress, 85 at 1 year pre-SCT and 81 at 2 years post SCT. Parents' age and gender, child's age, diagnosis, radiation history, behavior and physical health were examined as potential related factors. Linear mixed models for repeated measures with appropriate covariance structure were used in the analysis. Depression and anxiety scores significantly decreased by 2 years for mothers and fathers. Mothers reported significantly more depression symptoms than did fathers, but reported comparable symptoms of anxiety. Pre-SCT depression and anxiety scores, mother's age (younger), child's behavior problems, radiation history and diagnosis of neuroblastoma predicted maternal distress 2 years post SCT; pre-SCT depression and anxiety scores, father's age (older) and child's diagnosis predicted father's distress. This study highlights differences and similarities in mothers' and fathers' psychological distress and identifies related risk factors. The results can guide interventions for mothers and fathers whose children undergo SCT based on their pre-SCT psychosocial risk.
Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede
In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness........ In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...
Full Text Available Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001 in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress.
Giorgi, Gabriele; Perminienė, Milda; Montani, Francesco; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio
Emotional intelligence has been linked to various positive outcomes, such as organizational effectiveness, commitment, morale, and health. In addition, longitudinal studies demonstrate that the competencies of emotional intelligence may change and be developed over time. Researchers have argued that work relationships are important for the development of emotional competence, but their usefulness depends on the quality of the relationship. Workplace bullying is considered to be one of the most stressful phenomena in the workplace and an example of a dysfunctional and toxic relationship that has detrimental effects on an individual’s physical and psychological health. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship linking workplace bullying, psychological distress and the self-management competence of emotional intelligence. More specifically, we tested part of the model presented by Cherniss and Goleman (2001) in which researchers argued that individual emotional intelligence is a result of relationships at work. In addition, we extended the model by proposing that the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the competence of self-management is explained by psychological distress. Data analysis of 326 participants from two private sector organizations in Italy demonstrated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between workplace bullying and the emotional intelligence ability of self-management. The present study’s findings point to the idea that, not only may emotional intelligence assist in handling exposure to workplace bullying, but exposure to workplace bullying may impede emotional intelligence via psychological distress. PMID:26913013
Alexander, Adam C; Ward, Kenneth D
This article applies constructs from the Self-Medication Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Theory to explain the development of substance use and psychological distress after a disaster. A conceptual model is proposed, which employs a sequential mediation model, identifying perceived coping self-efficacy, psychological distress, and self-medication as pathways to substance use after a disaster. Disaster exposure decreases perceived coping self-efficacy, which, in turn, increases psychological distress and subsequently increases perceptions of self-medication in vulnerable individuals. These mechanisms lead to an increase in postdisaster substance use. Last, recommendations are offered to encourage disaster researchers to test more complex models in studies on postdisaster psychological distress and substance use.
Zonash, R.; Arouj, K.
Background: The patients with diverse cardiac issues and physical illness experience different levels of social intolerance, depression, anxiety and stress. Objectives: To explore the relationship between social intolerance and psychological distress among cardiac patients and investigate the effect of different type of cardiac illness, its duration and physical symptoms on social intolerance and psychological distress. Study design, settings and duration: Cross-sectional study, conducted at Benazir Bhutto Hospital (BBH), Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology (RIC), Hearts International Hospital (HIH) and Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) from September-December, 2014. Patients and Methods: The sample size of 180 adult cardiac patients was collected. These patients were selected from the cardiac units of 4 hospitals of Rawalpindi using purposive sampling. Social intolerance was assessed using Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), distress was assessed using depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) Results: Out of 180 patients, 53.3 percent were males and 46.7 percent females. Their ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. Results revealed significant discomfort intolerance, (p < 0.01) entitlement (p < 0.05) and emotional intolerance (p < 0.01) in these patients. There was 45 percent variance in depression, while discomfort intolerance (p < 0.01) and achievement frustration (p< 0.01) showed 35 percent variance in anxiety. Conclusion: Cardiac patients suffer from major emotional distress.(author)
Feng, Danjun; Xu, Lingzhong
This study described the prevalence of psychological distress and examined the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among Chinese pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Seven hundred and twenty patients with TB from three cities of Shandong Province in eastern China participated in a cross-sectional survey. Patients were measured with the Kessler 10 (K10), the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a self-developed perceived discrimination questionnaire. A total of 58.6% of patients with TB scored above 16 on the K10, indicating moderate and serious psychological distress. Chi-square test revealed that female patients reported higher psychological distress than male patients. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis among the whole sample indicated that perceived discrimination was significantly related with psychological distress (β = .28, p ≤ .01). The multiple group analysis of SEM showed that perceived discrimination had a significantly substantial (β = .50, p ≤ .001), significantly moderate (β = .15, p ≤ .01), and insignificant effect (β = .05, p ≥ .05) on psychological distress among low self-esteem, moderate self-esteem, and high self-esteem patients with TB, respectively, which verified the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress.
El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M
Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy
Owner/managers of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) are an under-researched population in terms of psychological distress and the associated health and economic consequences. Using baseline data from the evaluation of the Business in Mind program, a mental health promotion intervention amongst SME owner/managers, this study investigated: (i) prevalence of high/very high psychological distress, past-month sickness absenteeism and presenteeism days in SME owner/managers; (ii) associated, self-reported lost productivity; and (iii) associations between work, non-work and business-specific factors and work attendance behaviours. In our sample of 217 SME owner/managers 36.8% reported high/very high psychological distress. Of this group 38.7% reported past-month absenteeism, 82.5% reported past-month presenteeism, and those reporting presenteeism were 50% less productive as than usual. Negative binomial regression was used to demonstrate the independent effects of socio-demographic, work-related wellbeing and health-related factors, as well as various individual and business characteristics on continuous measures of absenteeism and presenteeism days. Health-related factors (self-rated health and treatment) were the strongest correlates of higher presenteeism days (p absenteeism days (p absenteeism days. SME-specific information about the occurrence of psychological distress, work attendance behaviour, and the variables that influence these decisions, are needed for the development of guidelines for managing psychological distress within this sector. PMID:24132134
Solomon H. Tesfaye
Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART. Design: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results: The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19. Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27–20.81, low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85–36.29, number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77–8.99, not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33–20.62, and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45–0.83 and 200–499 cells/mm3 (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62–7.73. Conclusions: This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health
Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Wahid, AbdulWaris; Ahmed, Abdulrahman Akmal; Dhuhayr, Hamad Emad; Zaghloul, Mohamed Saddik; Ewid, Mohammed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman
Few studies have estimated screen time among Arab adolescents, and no studies, to date, have published data on addiction to video games or Internet games among Arab adolescents. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of addiction to video games and its correlation with mental health in a sample of expatriate high school students from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. The survey was conducted in 2016 among 276 students enrolled in ninth through twelfth grades in the International Schools in Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Students who returned signed consent forms from their parents filled out a self-administered questionnaire that included validated scales on addiction to video games, general health, and lifestyle. The proportion between the sexes and the schools were roughly equal. Around 32% were overweight or obese, 75% had screen time ≥ 2 h/day, and 20% slept addicted to video games and 54% had psychological distress. Addiction to video games was strongly associated with psychological distress (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.80, 9.47). Other significant correlates were female gender, higher screen time, and shorter sleep hours. The proportion of students with psychological distress was high. Future studies should investigate other potential correlates of distress such personal traits, family relations, and academic performance.
This study investigates religious predictors of psychological well-being and psychological distress in a five-year national probability sample of Israeli Jews (N = 4,073). Data were taken from the 2006-2010 annual surveys of Israel as a part of the multinational Gallup World Poll. Analyses identified religious predictors of five-item scales of well-being and distress, adjusting for effects of several covariates, including health satisfaction. Additional analyses examined differences in religion, well-being and distress, and their interrelationships by categories of Jewish religious identity and observance (hiloni, masorti, dati, and haredi). Levels of religiousness and of well-being increase as one moves "rightward" across Jewish observance. Self-ratings of importance of religion and religious attendance are significantly associated with well-being, overall, and a religious harmony scale is associated with both wellbeing (positively) and distress (inversely), and with these measures' respective items, overall and across Jewish observance. Religious indicators are significant predictors of both psychological well-being and psychological distress in Israeli Jews, regardless of Jewish religious observance.
Blainey, Sarah H; Rumball, Freya; Mercer, Louise; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Beck, Alison
To investigate the effectiveness of psychological therapy in reducing psychological distress for adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and co-morbid mental health conditions in routine clinical practice. To explore the effect of individual characteristics and service factors on change in general distress. In a specialist psychological therapies service for adults with ASC, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) self-report questionnaire of psychological distress is completed by clients at start and end of therapy. Change over time and reliable and clinical change was assessed for 81 of a total of 122 clients (66.4%). Factors which may influence change over time were explored using available clinical information. Overall, there was a significant reduction in CORE-OM score during therapy with a small effect size. Most clients showed an improvement in psychological distress over therapy (75.4% improved, with 36.9% of these showing reliable changes). Significant and comparable reductions from pre-therapy to post-therapy were seen across the sample, showing that individual differences did not mediate therapy effectiveness. CORE-OM scores mediate the association between age of ASD diagnosis and hours of therapeutic input required, with greater age at diagnosis and higher distress associated with longer therapy duration. Our preliminary findings suggest that psychological therapy may be effective in reducing general distress for clients with ASC and co-morbid mental health conditions and should be routinely offered. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD in adulthood are likely to require a longer course of therapy when their general distress scores are high. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Myklestad, Ingri; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian
The study aimed to investigate potential adolescent and parental psychosocial risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents and, in addition, to examine potential gender and age differences in the effects of risk factors on adolescent psychological distress. Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). The outcome measure was psychological distress (SCL-5). Bivariate regression analysis with generalized estimating equation (GEE) model showed that all parental self-reported variables (mental distress, substance use, social network, economic problems, unemployment and family structure) and adolescents' self-reported variables (leisure activities, social support from friends, school-related problems and substance use) were significantly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Results revealed that in a multiple regression analysis with a GEE model, adolescent psychosocial variables, specifically academic-related problems and being bullied at school, emerged as the strongest predictors of psychological distress among adolescents after controlling for age, gender, and all parental and adolescent variables. The following psychosocial risk factors were significantly more important for girl's psychological distress compared to boys: problems with academic achievement, conduct problems in school, frequency of being drunk, smoking, dissatisfaction in school, living alone and seen parents being drunk. Academic achievement and being bullied at school were the psychosocial factors most strongly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Parental factors had an indirect effect on adolescent psychological distress, through adolescents' psychosocial factors.
Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and children´s long-term psychological distress, and the extent to which this relation is mediated by deteriorating parenting practices (i.e., harsh discipline, affection/support, interparental and intraparental consistency. The second objective was to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 680 Spanish university students (62.4% females selected by random, stratified, and proportional sampling (by faculty and sex. Participants retrospectively reported the physical and psychological violence perpetrated by one of his or her parents against the other, the parenting practices when they were preadolescents, and the psychological distress during the past two weeks. Results revealed that harsh discipline and the level of affection and affection/support partially mediated the association between children´s witnessing interparental violence and their long-term psychological distress. These relationships were not significantly different as a function of participants´ sex. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these findings for the planning and development of intervention programs.
Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.
A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college
Zhang, Pan; Li, Chang-Zai; Zhao, Ya-Ning; Xing, Feng-Mei; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Tian, Xi-Feng; Tang, Qi-Qun
Previous studies have highlighted that negative life events and emotional intelligence are significant predictors of mental health. However, whether emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress among nursing students have not been given adequate attention. To explore the relationship among negative life events, emotional intelligence and psychological distress and to examine the mediating role of emotional intelligence in psychological distress among Chinese nursing students. A cross-sectional survey using convenience sampling. A total of 467 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in mainland of China. A structured questionnaire was administered from September-November in 2013 to participants who consented to participate in the study. Independent variables were personal variables, emotional intelligence and negative life events. Outcome variable was psychological health. The means and standard deviations were computed. Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed, to test the differences among the demographic characteristics on the psychological distress scores. Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Negative life events were positively associated with psychological distress. Emotional intelligence was negatively associated with psychological distress and negative life events. Emotional intelligence mediated the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. The findings support the theory of Salovey and his colleagues, and provide evidence for emotional intelligence as a factor that buffers effects of negative life events on psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muzzatti, Barbara; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta
The main national and international organisms recommend continuous monitoring of psychological distress in cancer patients throughout the disease trajectory. The reasons for this concern are the high prevalence of psychological distress in cancer patients and its association with a worse quality of life, poor adherence to treatment, and stronger assistance needs. Most screening tools for psychological distress were developed in English-speaking countries. To be fit for use in different cultural contexts (like the Italian), they need to undergo accurate translation and specific validation. In the present work we summarized the validation studies for psychological distress screening tools available in Italian that are most widely employed internationally, with the aim of helping clinicians choose the adequate instrument. With knowledge of the properties of the corresponding Italian versions, researchers would be better able to identify the instruments that deserve further investigation. We carried out a systematic review of the literature. Results. Twenty-nine studies of eight different instruments (five relating to psychological distress, three to its depressive component) were identified. Ten of these studies involved cancer patients and 19 referred to the general population or to non-cancer, non-psychiatric subjects. For seven of the eight tools, data on concurrent and discriminant validity were available. For five instruments data on criterion validity were available, for four there were data on construct validity, and for one tool divergent and cross-cultural validity data were provided. For six of the eight tools the literature provided data on reliability (mostly about internal consistency). Since none of the eight instruments for which we found validation studies relative to the Italian context had undergone a complete and organic validation process, their use in the clinical context must be cautious. Italian researchers should be proactive and make a valid
Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Nakanishi, Miharu
The healthcare industry in Japan has experienced many cases of work-related injuries, accidents, and workers’ compensation claims because of mental illness. This study examined the influence of supportive and ethical work environments on work-related accidents, injuries, and serious psychological distress among hospital nurses. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to nurses (n = 1114) from 11 hospitals. Valid responses (n = 822, 93% women, mean age = 38.49 ± 10.09 years) were used for analyses. The questionnaire included items addressing basic attributes, work and organizational characteristics, social capital and ethical climate at the workplace, psychological distress, and experience of work-related accidents or injuries in the last half year. The final model of a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those who work less than 4 h of overtime per week (OR = 0.313), those who work on days off more than once per month (OR = 0.424), and an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.314) were significantly associated with work-related accidents or injuries. Additionally, an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.696) elevated the risk of serious psychological distress. To prevent work-related compensation cases, which are caused by these variables, strengthening hospitals’ occupational health and safety is necessary. PMID:29385044
Hurd, Noelle M; Varner, Fatima A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A
We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for 4 years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The healthcare industry in Japan has experienced many cases of work-related injuries, accidents, and workers’ compensation claims because of mental illness. This study examined the influence of supportive and ethical work environments on work-related accidents, injuries, and serious psychological distress among hospital nurses. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to nurses (n = 1114 from 11 hospitals. Valid responses (n = 822, 93% women, mean age = 38.49 ± 10.09 years were used for analyses. The questionnaire included items addressing basic attributes, work and organizational characteristics, social capital and ethical climate at the workplace, psychological distress, and experience of work-related accidents or injuries in the last half year. The final model of a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those who work less than 4 h of overtime per week (OR = 0.313, those who work on days off more than once per month (OR = 0.424, and an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.314 were significantly associated with work-related accidents or injuries. Additionally, an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.696 elevated the risk of serious psychological distress. To prevent work-related compensation cases, which are caused by these variables, strengthening hospitals’ occupational health and safety is necessary.
Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Nakanishi, Miharu
The healthcare industry in Japan has experienced many cases of work-related injuries, accidents, and workers' compensation claims because of mental illness. This study examined the influence of supportive and ethical work environments on work-related accidents, injuries, and serious psychological distress among hospital nurses. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to nurses ( n = 1114) from 11 hospitals. Valid responses ( n = 822, 93% women, mean age = 38.49 ± 10.09 years) were used for analyses. The questionnaire included items addressing basic attributes, work and organizational characteristics, social capital and ethical climate at the workplace, psychological distress, and experience of work-related accidents or injuries in the last half year. The final model of a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those who work less than 4 h of overtime per week (OR = 0.313), those who work on days off more than once per month (OR = 0.424), and an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.314) were significantly associated with work-related accidents or injuries. Additionally, an exclusive workplace climate (OR = 1.696) elevated the risk of serious psychological distress. To prevent work-related compensation cases, which are caused by these variables, strengthening hospitals' occupational health and safety is necessary.
Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W
Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamal, Rama M; Dijkstra, Boukje A G; de Weert-van Oene, Gerdien H; van Duren, Josja A M; de Jong, Cornelis A J
Understanding the psychiatric state and psychological distress level of patients with gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence is important to develop effective detoxification and relapse management methods. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence among gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent individuals of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological distress levels and their association with the individuals' pattern of misuse and quality of life. There were 98 patients tested with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-plus, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Depression Anxiety Stress scale, and the EuroQoL-5D as a part of the Dutch gamma-hydroxybutyrate detoxification monitor in 7 addiction treatment centers. Participants were selected from those undergoing inpatient gamma-hydroxybutyrate detoxification treatment between March 2011 and September 2012. Males accounted for 68% of the participants and the average age was 28-years-old. A high rate of psychiatric comorbidity (79%) was detected, including anxiety (current 38%, lifetime 40%), mood (13%, 31%), and psychotic disorders (13%, 21%). The level of psychological distress was significantly higher than the standard outpatient reference group, especially in patients with current psychiatric comorbidity (Brief Symptom Inventory Global Severity Index mean 1.61 versus 1.09, p ≤ 0.01). Increased gamma-hydroxybutyrate misuse (higher dose and shorter interval between doses) was associated with the presence of lifetime psychosis, current mood disorders (r pb = 0.23, p = 0.025), and psychoticism as a symptom of psychological distress. Current anxiety, mood disorders and high psychological stress had a negative effect on participants' quality of life. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate dependence is characterized by serious psychiatric comorbidity and psychological distress, both of which are, in turn, associated with increased gamma-hydroxybutyrate use and a lower quality of life. This needs to be considered during
Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Buysse, Daniel; Hale, Lauren; Buman, Matthew; Troxel, Wendy
Pain affects millions of American adults. However, individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged groups experience higher rates of pain, and individuals from racial/ethnic minorities report greater pain severity and pain-related disability. Some studies find an association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and pain. The present study aimed to further understand the association between neighborhood disadvantage and pain, including the role of objective (e.g., crime rates) and subjective neighborhood characteristics (e.g., perceived safety, neighborhood satisfaction), and to examine sleep and psychological distress as potential mediators of these associations. The sample included 820 participants from two predominantly African American socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Trained data collectors interviewed participants on a number of self-report measures, and objective neighborhood characteristics were obtained from city crime data and street segment audits. Subjective characteristics, specifically perceived infrastructure and perceived safety, were associated with pain. Based on bootstrapped regression models, sleep efficiency and psychological distress were tested as mediators of the association between these neighborhood factors and pain. Results of mediation testing indicated that psychological distress served as a significant mediator. Though sleep efficiency was not a mediator, it had a significant independent association with pain. Understanding the contribution of sleep problems and psychological distress to pain among at-risk individuals living in disadvantaged neighborhoods is important to identifying ways that individual- and neighborhood-level interventions may be leveraged to reduce pain-related disparities.
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario
The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perifano, A; Scelles, R
In this paper, we present the results of research conducted on the psychological distress of lysosomal-disease-affected children. Lysosomal diseases are rare genetic diseases most often leading to severe disabilities, both psychological and physiological. As frequently reported by their relatives, affected children experience nervous breakdowns, which are sometimes treated with antidepressant prescriptions. However, mental impairment as well physical disabilities can prevent children from making their pain noticed and identified by their relatives. This raises a new research question: when disabilities are severe, how should the psychological distress of affected children be identified? Recent studies on the care of children with multiple disabilities (San Salavadour 2000; Scelles 2003; Camelio 2006; Pautrel, 2009) have used the children's family and caregivers to access their feelings, considered to be translators of children's feelings because they understand their nonverbal language (Camelio, 2006). Using this methodology, four parents from the French not-for-profit association called "VML" (Vaincre les maladies lysosomales) and four professionals were involved in semi-structured interviews. The goal of these interviews was to identify signs of possible psychological suffering, the context in which those signs were expressed, the meaning and the value attributed to it by the family and caregivers, and the reaction as well as an evaluation of that reaction. Thirteen children were involved, 12 of whom were described as having shown signs of psychological distress. Six lysosomal diseases were represented. Two types of signs were reported: active signs (e.g., agitation, screaming, crying) and passive signs (e.g., no communication, withdrawal, lack of facial expression). Most of the time, passive signs were interpreted by the family and caregivers as evidence of deep psychological distress. The meanings of both types of sign were the following: fear, anxiety
Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito
The possible associations of intragroup and intergroup conflict at work with psychological distress and work engagement were investigated in a cross-sectional study in a manufacturing factory in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all employees, and 255 responses were returned (a response rate of 84%). Data from 247 workers (187 males and 60 females) with no missing values were analyzed. Intragroup and intergroup conflict at work, psychological distress, and work engagement were measured by the NIOSH-GJSQ, K6, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), respectively. An ANCOVA was conducted to compare K6 and UWES-9 scores among the tertiles on intragroup conflict or intergroup conflict scores, adjusting for demographic and occupational variables as well as worksite social support, separately for males and females. Intragroup conflict was associated with greater psychological distress for males (p for trend=0.009). Intergroup conflict was marginally significantly associated with psychological distress for both males and females (p for trend=0.050 and 0.051, respectively). Contrary to expectation, intergroup conflict was significantly associated with greater work engagement for females (p for trend=0.024). For males, intragroup and intergroup conflict at work may increase psychological distress; for females, intergroup conflict may increase both psychological distress and work engagement.
Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad
The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glynn, Tiffany R; Gamarel, Kristi E; Kahler, Christopher W; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru
High prevalence of psychological distress, including greater depression, lower self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, has been documented across numerous samples of transgender women and has been attributed to high rates of discrimination and violence. According to the gender affirmation framework (Sevelius, 2013), access to sources of gender-affirmative support can offset such negative psychological effects of social oppression. However, critical questions remain unanswered in regards to how and which aspects of gender affirmation are related to psychological well-being. The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between three discrete areas of gender affirmation (psychological, medical, and social) and participants' reports of psychological well-being. A community sample of 573 transgender women with a history of sex work completed a one-time self-report survey that assessed demographic characteristics, gender affirmation, and mental health outcomes. In multivariate models, we found that social, psychological, and medical gender affirmation were significant predictors of lower depression and higher self-esteem while no domains of affirmation were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Findings support the need for accessible and affordable transitioning resources for transgender women in order to promote better quality of life among an already vulnerable population. As the gender affirmation framework posits, the personal experience of feeling affirmed as a transgender person results from individuals' subjective perceptions of need along multiple dimensions of gender affirmation. Personalized assessment of gender affirmation may thus be a useful component of counseling and service provision for transgender women.
Skovbjerg, Sine; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert
this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant...... after adjusting for major life events and social support. Conclusions The results suggest that the association between IEI and psychological distress cannot be explained by known risk factors. More studies, including longitudinal studies, are needed to determine the role of psychological distress...
Sørensen, Thea; Giraldi, A; Vinberg, M
Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and The World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Brief. RESULTS: In total, 61 women (age range 19-63, mean 33.7 years) were recruited. Overall, 54% reported sexual distress (n = 33) and 39% were not satisfied with their sexual life (n......BACKGROUND: Information on the association between bipolar disorder (BD), sexual satisfaction, sexual function, sexual distress and quality of life (QoL) is sparse. This study aims, in women with BD, to (i) investigate sexual dysfunction, sexual distress, general sexual satisfaction and QoL; (ii......) explore whether sexual distress was related to affective symptoms and (iii) investigate whether QoL was associated with sexual distress. The study is a questionnaire survey in an outpatient cohort of women with BD using: Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Altman...
Sørensen, Thea; Giraldi, A; Vinberg, M
BACKGROUND: Information on the association between bipolar disorder (BD), sexual satisfaction, sexual function, sexual distress and quality of life (QoL) is sparse. This study aims, in women with BD, to (i) investigate sexual dysfunction, sexual distress, general sexual satisfaction and QoL; (ii......) explore whether sexual distress was related to affective symptoms and (iii) investigate whether QoL was associated with sexual distress. The study is a questionnaire survey in an outpatient cohort of women with BD using: Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Altman...... Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and The World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Brief. RESULTS: In total, 61 women (age range 19-63, mean 33.7 years) were recruited. Overall, 54% reported sexual distress (n = 33) and 39% were not satisfied with their sexual life (n...
Aunola, Kaisa; Viljaranta, Jaana; Tolvanen, Asko
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parental daily distress in terms of negative emotions is associated with the daily variation in parental use of psychological control with their children. Whether parental positive emotions play a role in the use of psychological control was also investigated. The participants were 149…
Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis
Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.
Navrady, L B; Ritchie, S J; Chan, S W Y; Kerr, D M; Adams, M J; Hawkins, E H; Porteous, D; Deary, I J; Gale, C R; Batty, G D; McIntosh, A M
Neuroticism is a risk factor for selected mental and physical illnesses and is inversely associated with intelligence. Intelligence appears to interact with neuroticism and mitigate its detrimental effects on physical health and mortality. However, the inter-relationships of neuroticism and intelligence for major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychological distress has not been well examined. Associations and interactions between neuroticism and general intelligence (g) on MDD, self-reported depression, and psychological distress were examined in two population-based cohorts: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, n=19,200) and UK Biobank (n=90,529). The Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form-Revised measured neuroticism and g was extracted from multiple cognitive ability tests in each cohort. Family structure was adjusted for in GS:SFHS. Neuroticism was strongly associated with increased risk for depression and higher psychological distress in both samples. Although intelligence conferred no consistent independent effects on depression, it did increase the risk for depression across samples once neuroticism was adjusted for. Results suggest that higher intelligence may ameliorate the association between neuroticism and self-reported depression although no significant interaction was found for clinical MDD. Intelligence was inversely associated with psychological distress across cohorts. A small interaction was found across samples such that lower psychological distress associates with higher intelligence and lower neuroticism, although effect sizes were small. From two large cohort studies, our findings suggest intelligence acts a protective factor in mitigating the effects of neuroticism on psychological distress. Intelligence does not confer protection against diagnosis of depression in those high in neuroticism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
Giesbrecht, G.F.; Campbell, T.; Letourneau, N.; Kaplan, B.J.; APrON Study Team, the; Pop, V.J.M.
Background Despite little evidence to suggest that HPA axis responses to psychological provocation are attenuated during pregnancy, it is widely held that dampening of the HPA axis response to psychological distress serves a protective function for the mother and fetus. The current study was
Bardakçı, Ezgi; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak
The study aims to determine the influence of bullying on nurses' psychological distress. A descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 284 nurses of a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey. The Workplace Bullying Behavior Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used. After the study was completed, it was determined that nurses with a master's degree were exposed to bullying more and that nurses exposed to bullying suffered higher levels of psychological distress and preferred to keep silent about it. Perpetrators of bullying were mainly head nurses. Bullying is a common workplace phenomenon, and in most cases, nurses bully each other. Bullied nurses suffer more psychological distress. Managers of health care institutions should always remember that nurses have a higher risk of exposure to bullying and that measures should be taken to support nurses. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2 farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion
Mandemakers, Jornt J; Monden, Christiaan W S
This paper investigates whether education buffers the impact of physical disability on psychological distress. It further investigates what makes education helpful, by examining whether cognitive ability and occupational class can explain the buffering effect of education. Two waves of the 1958 British National Child Development Study are used to test the hypothesis that the onset of a physical disability in early adulthood (age 23 to 33) has a smaller effect on psychological distress among higher educated people. In total 423 respondents (4.6%) experienced the onset of a physical disability between the ages of 23 and 33. We find that a higher educational level cushions the psychology impact of disability. Cognitive ability and occupational class protect against the effect of a disability too. The education buffer arises in part because individuals with a higher level of education have more cognitive abilities, but the better social position of those with higher levels of education appears to be of greater importance. Implications of these findings for the social gradient in health are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.
Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by
Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P
This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =
Inge van Dijk
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called ‘positive mental health’. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Methods Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF, dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors. Results Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89% completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were ‘acting with awareness’ (negative and ‘worrying’ (positive. Strongest predictors of positive mental health were ‘problem avoidance’ (negative and ‘emotional irresponsibility’ (negative. Conclusions The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support
van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M
Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF), dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory) and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables) and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors). Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89%) completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were 'acting with awareness' (negative) and 'worrying' (positive). Strongest predictors of positive mental health were 'problem avoidance' (negative) and 'emotional irresponsibility' (negative). The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support conclusions of previous research that psychological distress and positive mental
Knowlden, Adam P; Burns, Maranda; Harcrow, Andy; Shewmake, Meghan E
Poor sleep quality is a significant public health problem. The role of nutrition in predicting sleep quality is a relatively unexplored area of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of 10 food choice categories, sleep confounding beverages, and psychological distress to predict the sleep quality of college students. A logistic regression model comprising 10 food choice variables (healthy proteins, unhealthy proteins, healthy dairy, unhealthy dairy, healthy grains, unhealthy grains, healthy fruits and vegetables, unhealthy empty calories, healthy beverages, unhealthy beverages), sleep confounding beverages (caffeinated/alcoholic beverages), as well as psychological distress (low, moderate, serious distress) was computed to determine the capacity of the variables to predict sleep quality (good/poor). The odds of poor sleep quality were 32.4% lower for each unit of increased frequency of healthy proteins consumed (pempty calorie food choices consumed (p=0.003; OR=1.131), and 107.3% higher for those classified in the moderate psychological distress (p=0.016; OR=2.073). Collectively, healthy proteins, healthy dairy, unhealthy empty calories, and moderate psychological distress were moderately predictive of sleep quality in the sample (Nagelkerke R2=23.8%). Results of the study suggested higher frequency of consumption of healthy protein and healthy dairy food choices reduced the odds of poor sleep quality, while higher consumption of empty calories and moderate psychological distress increased the odds of poor sleep quality.
Torres, Lucas; Driscoll, Mark W; Voell, Maria
Prior research has found that perceived discrimination is associated with adverse mental health outcomes among Latinos. However, the process by which this relationship occurs remains an understudied area. The present study investigated the role of acculturative stress in underlying the relationship between perceived discrimination and Latino psychological distress. Also examined was the ability of acculturation to serve as a moderator between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress. Among a sample of Latino adults (N = 669), moderated mediational analyses revealed that acculturative stress mediated the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship, and that the link between perceived discrimination and acculturative stress was moderated by Anglo behavioral orientation but not Latino behavioral orientation. The findings are discussed within a stress and coping perspective that identifies the psychological consequences associated with perceived discrimination and acculturative stress.
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line
Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints....
Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy
The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ryan, Dermot A; Benson, Ciarán A; Dooley, Barbara A
Although asylum seeking has become a major political issue in the Western world, research on its psychological impact is still in its infancy. This study examined levels and predictors of distress among a community sample of persons who have sought asylum in Ireland. A key aim was to provide a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between legal status security and psychological distress. Distress was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised at Time 1 (N = 162) and its shorter version (the Brief Symptom Inventory) at Time 2 (N = 70). Levels of severe distress were high at both baseline (46%) and follow-up (36%). The only persons to show a decrease in distress were those who had obtained a secure legal status (e.g., refugee status or residency) between the study phases. Distress risk factors included female gender, an insecure legal status, separation from children, discrimination, and postmigration stress. Protective factors were social support (Time 1) and the presence of a partner. The findings suggest that asylum seekers are a high-risk group for distress. This risk can be reduced by appropriate policy changes and interventions to increase social resources.
Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi
We examined the interaction effect of job insecurity (JI) and role ambiguity (RA) on psychological distress in Japanese employees. Overall, 2184 male and 805 female employees from two factories of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales measuring JI (Job Content Questionnaire), RA (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire), psychological distress (K6 scale), and potential confounders (i.e., age, education, family size, occupational class, and work shift). Taking psychological distress as a dependent variable, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted by gender and employment status (i.e., permanent and non-permanent employees). An interaction term of JI × RA was included in the model. After adjusting for potential confounders, the main effects of JI and RA on psychological distress were significant regardless of gender or employment status. Furthermore, the significant interaction effect of JI × RA on psychological distress was observed among permanent male employees (β = 0.053, p = 0.010). Post hoc simple slope analyses showed that the simple slope of JI was greater at higher levels of RA (i.e., one standard deviation [SD] above the mean) (β = 0.300, p female employees. The present study suggests that higher levels of RA strengthen the association of JI with psychological distress, at least among Japanese permanent male employees.
Weber, Samuel R; Lomax, James W; Pargament, Kenneth I
Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.
Samuel R. Weber
Full Text Available Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian
Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn
The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893
Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A
Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.
Sulaiman, Maha Ah; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Waly, Mostafa I; Saleh, Jumana; Al-Adawi, Samir
Previous studies in Euro-American populations have shown that women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have increased levels of "psychological burden". While PCOS has been reported in Arab countries such as Oman, there is a dearth of studies of the occurrence of psychological burden among PCOS women in the Arab region. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of PCOS women diagnosed with non-PCOS women and prevalence of severity of depression, anxiety and stress and to explore the association between PCOS and indices of psychological disturbances after adjusting for potential confounding factors. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted among women aged 16-49 years. The study included 52 women diagnosed with PCOS (as per Rotterdam 2003 criteria) and 60 control who were PCOS-free. The presence of psychological burden - depression, anxiety and stress - was quantified using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The crude odds ratios (ORs) generated by logistic regression models indicated an increased risk of depression, anxiety and stress among women with PCOS compared to controls. The adjusted OR also indicated an increased risk of depression (OR =1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50, 2.43), anxiety (OR =1.09; 95% CI 0.47, 2.52) and stress (OR =1.45; 95% CI 0.68, 3.12), However, no statistical differences were observed along the three psychological distresses ( p >0.05) between the two study groups. The study indicates that the presence of PCOS is associated with an increased risk of psychological burden. If this study will withstand further scrutiny, meeting psychological needs of such population would need to be contemplated.
Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy
Owner/managers of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) are an under-researched population in terms of psychological distress and the associated health and economic consequences. Using baseline data from the evaluation of the Business in Mind program, a mental health promotion intervention amongst SME owner/managers, this study investigated: (i) prevalence of high/very high psychological distress, past-month sickness absenteeism and presenteeism days in SME owner/managers; (ii) associated, self-reported lost productivity; and (iii) associations between work, non-work and business-specific factors and work attendance behaviours. In our sample of 217 SME owner/managers 36.8% reported high/very high psychological distress. Of this group 38.7% reported past-month absenteeism, 82.5% reported past-month presenteeism, and those reporting presenteeism were 50% less productive as than usual. Negative binomial regression was used to demonstrate the independent effects of socio-demographic, work-related wellbeing and health-related factors, as well as various individual and business characteristics on continuous measures of absenteeism and presenteeism days. Health-related factors (self-rated health and treatment) were the strongest correlates of higher presenteeism days (p < 0.05). Work-related wellbeing factors (job tension and job satisfaction) were the strongest correlates of higher absenteeism days (p < 0.05). Higher educational attainment, treatment and neuroticism were also correlated with more absenteeism days. SME-specific information about the occurrence of psychological distress, work attendance behaviour, and the variables that influence these decisions, are needed for the development of guidelines for managing psychological distress within this sector.
Thomas, Hannah J; Chan, Gary C K; Scott, James G; Connor, Jason P; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne
The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Owner/managers of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs are an under-researched population in terms of psychological distress and the associated health and economic consequences. Using baseline data from the evaluation of the Business in Mind program, a mental health promotion intervention amongst SME owner/managers, this study investigated: (i prevalence of high/very high psychological distress, past-month sickness absenteeism and presenteeism days in SME owner/managers; (ii associated, self-reported lost productivity; and (iii associations between work, non-work and business-specific factors and work attendance behaviours. In our sample of 217 SME owner/managers 36.8% reported high/very high psychological distress. Of this group 38.7% reported past-month absenteeism, 82.5% reported past-month presenteeism, and those reporting presenteeism were 50% less productive as than usual. Negative binomial regression was used to demonstrate the independent effects of socio-demographic, work-related wellbeing and health-related factors, as well as various individual and business characteristics on continuous measures of absenteeism and presenteeism days. Health-related factors (self-rated health and treatment were the strongest correlates of higher presenteeism days (p < 0.05. Work-related wellbeing factors (job tension and job satisfaction were the strongest correlates of higher absenteeism days (p < 0.05. Higher educational attainment, treatment and neuroticism were also correlated with more absenteeism days. SME-specific information about the occurrence of psychological distress, work attendance behaviour, and the variables that influence these decisions, are needed for the development of guidelines for managing psychological distress within this sector.
Manne, Sharon; Badr, Hoda; Zaider, Talia; Nelson, Christian; Kissane, David
The present study evaluated intimacy as a mechanism for the effects of relationship-enhancing (self-disclosure, mutual constructive communication) and relationship-compromising communication (holding back, mutual avoidance, and demand-withdraw communication) on couples' psychological distress. Seventy-five men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in the past year and their partners completed surveys about communication, intimacy, and distress. Multi-level models with the couple as unit of analyses indicated that the association between mutual constructive communication, mutual avoidance, and patient demand-partner withdraw and distress could be accounted for by their influence on relationship intimacy. Intimacy did not mediate associations between self-disclosure, holding back, and partner demand-patient withdraw communication and distress. These findings indicate that the way in which couples talk about cancer-related concerns as well as the degree to which one or both partners avoid talking about cancer-related concerns can either facilitate or reduce relationship intimacy, and that it is largely by this mechanism that these three communication strategies impact psychological distress. Relationship intimacy and how patients and partners communicate to achieve this intimacy is important for the psychological adjustment of early stage prostate cancer survivors and their partners.
Jaramillo-Vélez, Diva E; Ospina-Muñoz, Doris E; Cabarcas-Iglesias, Germán; Humphreys, Janice
Determining the relationship of resilience and spirituality in battered women to distress, the frequency and intensity of mistreatment and the severity of injury. A sample was taken of 199 women who consulted Comisarías de Familia de Medellín, Colombia (family police/counselling stations). Resilience scales (RS), spiritual perspective (SPS), SCL-90R and conflict tactics (CTS) were used. Internal consistency, correlation and main exploratory components were measured. The scales revealed internal consistency. Resilience was positively correlated to spirituality (r = 0.22; p = 0.0015) and negatively correlated to total positive distress symptoms (PST) (r = -0.39; p spirituality, a lower number of positive distress symptoms and less distress.
Bargiota, Alexandra; Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Mouzas, Odysseas; Melekos, Michael; Tzortzis, Vassilios; Koukoulis, Georgios
Psychosomatic and social issues have been found to be determinants of sexual distress in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. However, the role of parental bonding as a determinant for sexual distress has not been studied in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1). To study the role of parental care and overprotection, in the pathogenesis of sexual distress in women with DM-1. Seventy-seven women with uncomplicated DM-1 and 77 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), the General Health Questionnaire-28, and the Parental Bonding Instrument were used to evaluate sexual distress, general health and bonding with parents, respectively. To assess the role of parental bonding as risk factor for sexual distress, in women with DM-1. Women with DM-1 had significantly higher FSDS scores compared with controls. Furthermore, women with DM-1 had significantly higher maternal and paternal care, and lower maternal overprotection in comparison with the healthy ones. Paternal overprotection and general health were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). Sexual distress was more frequent in women with DM-1 (31.43% vs. 8.57% of controls, P overprotection and lower paternal overprotection compared to diabetics without sexual distress (P 0.05). Moreover, sexually distressed DM-1 women had worse general health parameters in comparison with the non-sexually distressed diabetics (P overprotec